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Проблемы использования мирового океана

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Iineianeee einoeooo

aeaeiaiai aaeieieno?e?iaaiey

?aoa?ao

ia oaio

“I?iaeaiu eniieueciaaiey ie?iaiai ieaaia”

Nooaeaioa

11 a?oiiu

Aaneiaa Aeaenaiae?a

Iineaa 1997

Ieai.

TOC \o “1-4” Aaaaeaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386202 PAGEREF
_Toc407386202 3

Eeaaeiaua aeaaeaiee Iaiooia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386203 PAGEREF
_Toc407386203 4

Iaooue e aac. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386204 PAGEREF _Toc407386204 5

Oaa?aeua iieaciua eneiiaaiua. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386205 PAGEREF
_Toc407386205 8

I?ea?aaeii-ii?neea ?innuie. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386206 PAGEREF
_Toc407386206 8

Ei?aiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386207 PAGEREF
_Toc407386207 8

Aeoaieiaiaeiua oaa?aeua iieaciua eneiiaaiua. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386208
PAGEREF _Toc407386208 9

“AEeaay ?oaea”. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386209 PAGEREF _Toc407386209 10

Eniieueciaaiea aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386210
PAGEREF _Toc407386210 12

Caa?yciaiea ii?neeo aiae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386211 PAGEREF
_Toc407386211 13

Iaooyiia caa?yciaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386212 PAGEREF
_Toc407386212 13

Iaooyiuie ieaieaie ioaa/aiu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386213 PAGEREF
_Toc407386213 14

Iiaen/eoaii. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386214 PAGEREF _Toc407386214 14

Caa?yciaiea Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386215 PAGEREF
_Toc407386215 15

Naie “aeeaae” aiinyo oaeaea: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386216 PAGEREF
_Toc407386216 15

?aaeeiaeoeaiia caa?yciaiea aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc407386217 PAGEREF _Toc407386217 17

Iooe iiiaaeaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo inaaeeia: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386218
PAGEREF _Toc407386218 17

Iianiinoue caeeth/aaony a: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386219 PAGEREF
_Toc407386219 17

E /eneo neeueiicaa?yciaiiuo aeaaoi?ee Ie?iaiai ieaaia ioiinyony:
GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386220 PAGEREF _Toc407386220 18

Ai?ueaa n caa?yciaieai aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386221
PAGEREF _Toc407386221 19

Iaoiaeu i/enoee aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386222
PAGEREF _Toc407386222 19

Eae ai?thony ca /enoioo ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ae?oaea no?aiu. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc407386223 PAGEREF _Toc407386223 19

NOA: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386224 PAGEREF _Toc407386224 19

O?aioeey: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386225 PAGEREF _Toc407386225 20

Oaaoeey: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386226 PAGEREF _Toc407386226 20

O?A: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386227 PAGEREF _Toc407386227 20

Aaeeeia?eoaiey: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386228 PAGEREF _Toc407386228 20

ssiiiey: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386229 PAGEREF _Toc407386229 20

Ia naiii aeaea: GOTOBUTTON _Toc407386230 PAGEREF _Toc407386230 21

Aaaaeaiea.

A yoii ?aoa?aoa naeaeaia iiiuoea inaaoeoue ?ieue Ie?iaiai ieaaia a
aeecie nia?aiaiiiai e aoaeouaai iieieaiee ethaeae. ?anniao?eaathony
aii?inu inaiaiey ieia?aeueiuo, yia?aaoe/aneeo, aeieiae/aneeo aiaaonoa
Ie?iaiai ieaaia, iieo/aiea i?aniie aiaeu ec ii?neie. Inaauaaony
iiei?aiea ii?neeo aeoaei /aeiaaeii e ?ieue Ie?iaiai ieaaia eae
aaaeiaeoae o?ainii?oiie a?oa?ee, a oaeaea i?iaeaia ai?ueau n
caa?yciaieai aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

Aeaiiue ?aoa?ao ia i?aoaiaeoao ia ananoi?iiiaa inaauaiea ?aciiia?aciuo
noi?ii eniieueciaaiey Ie?iaiai ieaaia /aeiaaeii. A neeo ia?aie/aiiiai
iauaia a iai ia inaauathony aii?inu ?ae?aaoeeiiiiai eniieueciaaiey
ieaaia, ?ieue ieaaia a oi?ie?iaaiee eeeiaoa Caiee, i?aaiaua e
th?eaee/aneea aniaeou, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai Ie?iaiai ieaaia
?aciuie no?aiaie, e ?yae ae?oaeo aii?inia.

Eeaaeiaua aeaaeaiee Iaiooia.

Caeanue iieaeao ?a/ue i ii?neeo nie?iaeuao iiaeaiaeiuo eeaaeiauo –
aiaaoaeoeo caiania ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

Ii?neia iaeeiaiaeuea eae enoi/iee ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey n ae?aaiaeoeo
a?aiai i?eaeaeaei aieiaiea /aeiaaea. Aua caaeieai aei iaoae y?u ia
iiaa?aaeueyo ii?ae e ieaaiia aeiauaaeanue ieuaaay nieue, iiiaea aaea
neaaeeny yioa?ue n ieyaeae I?eaaeoeee, aieaa 100 eao oiio iacaae auea
i?aaei?eiyoa ia?aay iiiuoea i?aaieciaaoue aeiau/o iaooe ni aeia
i?ea?aaeiiai iaeeiaiaeuey Eaniey.

Iaeiaei eeoue a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey a nayce n iauei ?acaeoeai iaoee
e oaoieee noaee auyaeyoueny na?ueaciua ia?niaeoeau iaoe?iiai
eniieueciaaiey ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaauo aiaaonoa ii?ae e ieaaiia.

Eioa?an e iieaciui eneiiaaiui ii?ae e ieaaiia a iaoe aeie ia neo/aai:

iiiaea ianoi?iaeaeaiey nooe enoiuathony,

auno?ue ?ino ianaeaiey caiiiai oa?a, a aianoa n iei e iio?aaiinoae a
i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey canoaaeyao
eneaoue iiaua enoi/ieee ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey,

aeaaioneee nea/ie a ?acaeoee iaoee e oaoieee a iineaaeiea aiaeu aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aeia?aoueny aei iaaeinooiiuo i?aaeaea aiaaonoa ii?ae e
ieaaiia e ?ac?aaaouaaoue eo,

aeiau/a iaeioi?uo aeaeia iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, caeaaathueo ia ii?neii
aeia, yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiaa, /ai ia nooa. Yoa auaiaea iaania/eaaaony
?aaeii i?aeiouanoa oaeiai ?iaea ?ac?aaioie.

Iai?eia?, i?e ?ac?aaioea iiaeaiaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee ia ioaeiu
iiaeuacaeiua iooe, iiiaea ec oaeeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee ia ioaeaeathony a
iai?oaeiaaiee ioaaeia e ?acee/iiai ?iaea o?aieeeu. I?e ii?neie aeiau/a
oaa?aeuo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo ia ioaeii i?iecaiaeeoue aieueoeo
o?oaeiaieeo e aei?iainoiyueo ac?uaiuo ?aaio, o?aoeoue n?aaenoaa ia
i?eia?aoaiea ac?ua/aouo aauanoa, neiaeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey aeiau/e
?oaeu e o.ae.

Iaooue e aac.

Iineieueeo iaooue e aac ninoaaeytho ii noieiinoe aieaa 90 % anao
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, aeiauaaaiuo n ii?neiai aeia, e iioaioeeaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe eo aeiau/e a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai iaeaieaa auniee,
inoaiiaeiny i?aaeaea anaai ia ninoiyiee e ia?niaeoeaao ii?neie aeiau/e
iaooe e aaca.

A iaoe aeie aieueoeinoai no?ai, eiathueo auoiae e ii?th, i?iyaeyao
eneeth/eoaeueiue eioa?an e iieneai e aeiau/a iaooe ni aeia ii?ae e
ieaaiia. Anee a ia/aea 50-o aa. OO a. Oieueei o?e – /aou?a no?aiu e
iyoue /anoiuo eiiiaiee caieiaeenue ?acaaaeeie e aeiau/ae iaooe a ii?a,
oi e eiioeo 1981 a. Aieaa 100 no?ai e aieaa 120 ainoaea?noaaiiuo e
/anoiuo eiiiaiee aaee ?acaaaeeo e ?ac?aaioeo ii?neeo iaooyiuo e aaciauo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee a i?aaeaeao oaeueoia Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

Oaea e 1979 a. iaooue e aac auee iaia?oaeaiu ia oaeueoao aieaa 60 no?ai,
a aeiauaaeenue a 39 no?aiao. Aua 40 no?ai ie?a aaee ?aaiou ii iieneo
iaooe e aaca a i?aaeaeao naieo aeaaoi?ee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ieiei 24 % anae ie?iaie aeiau/e iaooe i?eoiaeeony ia
ii?neea ianoi?iaeaeaiey. Ii?neay aeiau/a aaca ianeieueei iaiueoa, ii
oaeaea aeinoaoi/ii auniea e ninoaaeyao ieiei 20 % io iauaie?iaie. A 1980
a. aeiau/a iaooe ia aeaaoi?eyo anaai ie?a ninoaaeyea ieiei 665 iei. o, a
aaca ieiei 309 iei. i3. Iauaa eiee/anoai ecaanoiuo ii?neeo iaooaaaciauo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee nauoa 1000, a eiee/anoai i?iao?aiiuo ii?neeo neaaaeei
i?aauoaao 30 000.

N?aaee e?oiiaeoeo ii?neeo iaooaaaciauo ?aeiiia ie?a iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea
anaai ioiaoeoue Ia?neaeneee caeea, Aaianoyeo e Naaa?iia ii?a, a eioi?uo
nin?aaeioi/aii ieiei 75 % anae ii?neie ie?iaie iaooaaeiau/e e ieiei 80 %
?acaaaeaiiuo caiania iaooe e aaca oaeueoiauo cii Ie?iaiai ieaaia. A 1980
a. a Ia?neaeneii caeeaa auei aeiauoi 273 iei. o iaooe, a i?aaeaeao
Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa – 60 iei. o, a Naaa?iii ii?a – 112 iei. o e a
Aaianoyea – ieiei 75 iei. o. Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue oi, /oi anee aeey
Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa oa?aeoa?iu a iniiaiii iaaieueoea ii aaee/eia
aeiau/e e caiania iaooyiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey, eioi?uo caeanue
ian/eouaaaony aieaa 320 (ec ieo eeoue /aou?a iiaoo auoue ioianaiu e
eaoaai?ee e?oiiuo), oi a Ia?neaeneii caeeaa, iaiai?io, ii/oe any aeiau/a
nin?aaeioi/aia a 55 ianoi?iaeaeaieyo, aieueoeinoai ec eioi?uo ioiineony
e e?oiiui, a oanoue ec ieo e oae iacuaaaiui ianoi?iaeaeaieyi-aeaaioai n
aaeaaiaeiie aeiau/ae nauoa 10 iei. o e caianaie nauoa 1 ie?ae. o1.
Caeanue aea ?aniieiaeaii e e?oiiaeoaa a ie?a ii?neia ianoi?iaeaeaiea
Naoaiey-Oaoaeaee n caianaie 4,3 ie?ae. o. Iii a ninoiyiee aeaaaoue 300
iei. o iaooe a aiae. E anee ia nooa aieueoeinoai ianoi?iaeaeaiee oaea
ioe?uoi, oi a ii?yo iniiaiua oaeea ioe?uoey aia?aaee.

A Aaianoyea aieueoay /anoue anae aeiau/e iaooe nin?aaeioi/aii a eaaoia
Ia?aeaeai, aaea ?aniieiaeaii iaeii ec noa?aeoeo aeaaioneeo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee – Aieeaa?, ioe?uoia aua a 1917 a. Ii neiieaieth caiania
iaooe ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee aeaaoi?ey eaaoiu ia eiaao naaa ?aaiuo.
I?aeoe/anee a i?aaeaeao eaaoiu e niaaeiie /anoe aa?aaa ?aniieiaeaii
iaeii aeaaioneia iaooyiia ianoi?iaeaeaiea, thai-caiaaeiay a?aieoea
eioi?iai aei neo ii? ia onoaiiaeaia.

Oaeueo Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeaieaa oi?ioi
eco/aiioth aeaaoi?eth n oi/ee c?aiey ia?niaeoea aaciiiniinoe. Ia?aay
ii?neay neaaaeeia caeanue auea i?iao?aia n ieaao/ae aa?aee aua a 1933
a., a a 1979 a. caeanue ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 20 oun. Neaaaeei. O aa?aaia
ooaoa Eoeceaia i?iao?aia naiay aeoaieay ii?neay neaaaeeia (aeoaeia 6952
i).

Iaeiaei naiay oaeeaeoaeueiay iaooaaaciiiniay aeaaoi?ey – Naaa?iia ii?a.
Caeanue eeoue a 1965 a. auei iaia?oaeaii ia?aia aaciaia ianoi?iaeaeaiea,
a a 1969 a. – ia?aia iaooyiia ianoi?iaeaeaiea. A 1973 a. auea aeiauoa
ia?aay oiiia ii?neie ec e?oiiiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey Yeioene, a oaea e 1976
a. auei ioe?uoi 101 iaooyiia e aaciaia ianoi?iaeaeaiey. E eiioeo 1979 a.
a aeaaoi?ee Naaa?iiai ii?y auei aeiauoi oaea ca yoe aiaeu aieaa 260 iei.
o iaooe. Oaeeo auno?uo oaiiia inaiaiey iaooaaaciiiniuo ?aeiiia ia
iaaethaeaeinue ieeiaaea aeaaea ia nooa. Yoi aua ?ac aeieacuaaao, /oi
/anoi inaiaiea aeaaoi?ee cia/eoaeueii i?iua e eaa/a inaiaiey
o?oaeiiaeinooiiuo iaooaaaciiiniuo ?aeiiia nooe. Any aeaaoi?ey Naaa?iiai
ii?y ?acaeoa ia naiue naeoi?ia: aiaeeeneee, aieeaiaeneee, ii?aaaeneee,
aeaoneee, o?aioeocneee, aaeueaeeneee e naeoi? O?A. Iaeaieaa aiaaou ii
ioe?uoui ianoi?iaeaeaieyi iaooe e aaca – ia?aua /aou?a.

A ii?aaaeneii naeoi?a aeaa ianoi?iaeaeaiey-aeaaioa – Yeioene e
Noaooei?ae, a a aiaeeeneii e /eneo e?oiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee ioiinyony
Oi?oec, Aoe e A?aio. E 1980 a. aieaa iieiaeiu anao iio?aaiinoae
Aaeeeia?eoaiee a iaooe e aieaa 95% a aaca oaeiaeaoai?yeinue ca n/ao
ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaooe Naaa?iiai ii?y. Iniaaiii aunieea oaiiu ?inoa
aeiau/e iaooe e aaca a Aaeeeia?eoaiee noeioee?otho i ?yae iiauo
oaoiieiae/aneeo iaoiaeia aeiau/e oaeaaiaei?iaeia. Oae, ii iaeiiio ec
i?iaeoia e ianoi?iaeaeaieyi iaooe e aaca i?aaeiieaaaaony i?ieiaeeoue
aeaa iiaeaiaeiuo oiiiaey. Ii iaeiiio ec ieo aoaeoo i?ioiaeeoue
nei?inoiay ?aeueniaay eeiey aeey ia?aaicee ethaeae e a?ocia, a oaeaea
aicaeooiaiaeu e neeiaua eaaaey, a ii aoi?iio – aaci- e iaooai?iaiaeu.

Ii?aaaey ia oieueei iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?yao naie iio?aaiinoe a iaooe,
ii e yenii?oe?oao cia/eoaeueiia aa eiee/anoai ia ie?iaie ?uiie.
I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi a aeeaeaeoea ianeieueei eao ca n/ao ianoi?iaeaeaiee
Naaa?iiai ii?y O?aioeey, O?A, Ieaea?eaiaeu e Aeaiey aoaeoo
oaeiaeaoai?youe naie iio?aaiinoe a yoii nu?uea aieaa /ai ia 30 %. Oaeei
ia?acii, yia?aaoeea no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, aua eao aeaaaeoeaoue iacaae,
ii/oe iieiinoueth caaenyuay io no?ai Aeeaeiaai e N?aaeiaai Ainoiea,
i?i/ii noaiiaeoueny ia nianoaaiioth iniiao.

N?aaee ae?oaeo ?aeiiia e?oiiie ii?neie iaooaaeiau/e iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea
anaai ioiaoeoue no?aiu, ?aniieiaeaiiua ii iiaa?aaeueth Aaeiaeneiai
caeeaa (Ieaa?ey, Aiaiea, Aaaii, Eiiai, Cae?). Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai
iaooe n?aaee anao ao?eeaineeo no?ai aeiauaaaony a Ieaa?ee, aaea ioe?uoi
nauoa 50 ii?neeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. A iineaaeiea ianeieueei eao Ieaa?ey
i?aa?aoeeanue a e?oiiiai yenii?oa?a iaooe. Ioe?uou ii?neea
ianoi?iaeaeaiey e ia oaeueoao ae?oaeo ao?eeaineeo no?ai (Aaieia, Aaiu,
Eaia?oia).

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iaia?oaeaiu ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe e aaca a no?aiao
N?aaeecaiiiii?uey (aaeece aa?aaia Eniaiee, A?aoeee, ia oaeueoao Ooiena,
Eeaee, o aa?aaia Aaeioa, Eoaeee).

A Naaa?iie Aia?eea, iiieii NOA e Iaeneee, ii?neea ianoi?iaeaeaiey aaca
ioe?uou o aa?aaia Eaiaaeu (aaeece iieoino?iaa Eaa?aaei? e e thao io
ino?iaa Iuethoaoiaeeaiae). A Eaoeineie Aia?eea aaeieue caiaaeiiai
iiaa?aaeuey Aoeaioeee iaia?oaeaiu 25 ii?neeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaooe e
aaca, i?eo?i/aiiua e iiaa?aaeueth A?aceeee, e ?yae iaaieueoeo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee o iiaa?aaeuey A?aaioeiu. Ia Oeoiieaaineii iiaa?aaeuea
iaooue aeiauaaaony o aa?aaia Ia?o e Yeaaaei?a, a a Naaa?iie Aia?eea – ia
Eaeeoi?ieeneii iiaa?aaeuea.

A ainueieaeanyoua aiaeu ?acei aic?inea ii?neay aeiau/a iaooe a
Eiaeiiacee e Iaeaecee, ia/aee aeiauaaoue iaooue o naieo aa?aaia ssiiiey
e Eiaeey. Ioe?uo ?yae iaooyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee a THaeii-Eeoaeneii ii?a.
Eneeth/eoaeueii aaeeea i?iaeoeoeaiinoue Aano?aeeeneiai oaeueoa.

A NNN? aeiau/a iaooe n 1925 a. i?iecaiaeeony a Eanieeneii ii?a. Ia?aua
iiiuoee iieo/aiey ii?neie iaooe a ?innee ioiinyony e XIX a., eiaaea a
Aeae-Yeaaoneie aoooa (a 80-a a. aoooa Eeuee/a), a ?aeiia Aaeo ia
?annoiyiee 20-30 iao?ia io aa?aaa auee iino?iaiu aeaa eieiaeoea ec
eioi?uo aeinoaaaee ii 4-5 aaaea? iaooe a aeaiue. Iaeiaei anei?a
eieiaeoeu auee ?ac?ooaiu, e ia yoii ia?aua iiuou aeiau/e caeii/eeenue.
Eeoue a 1925 a. a aoooa Eeuee/a auea caeiaeaia ia?aay neaaaeeia. N 1936
a. ii?neay aeiau/a i?iecaiaeeeanue a Aeaaanoaia.

Inaiaiea ao?aiey a Eanieeneii ii?a ia/aeinue a 1946 a., eiaaea auei
iino?iaii ia?aia e?oiiiaei/iia iniiaaiea a ?aeiia ino?iaa A?oai. N 1951
a. ia/ae ?aaioaoue oieeaeueiue i?iiunae Iaooyiua Eaiie, eioi?ue
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ianoiyuee ai?iae ia ynoaeaaeao. I?iiunae
ianeoaeeaaao ianeieueei nio neaaaeei. Naaiaeiy ia Eaniee ?ac?aaaouaaaony
nauoa 20 iaooyiuo e iaooaaaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee.

Ii ?acee/iui aeaiiui ii?neea ?ano?nu iaooe e aaca ninoaaeytho io 50 aei
60 % io iauaie?iauo ?ano?nia. E anee aeiau/a iaooe ia nooa aaaeaony oaea
aieaa 80 eao, a ii?neay iaooaaeiau/a ?acai?a/eaaaony eeoue a iineaaeiea
15-20 eao, oi iiiyoii, /oi iniiaiua iaaeaaeaeu ia iaeniieueciaaiiua
?ano?nu naycuaathony n aeaeueiaeoei ?anoe?aieai ii?neie iaooaaeiau/e.
Iaeiaei n?aaee o?oaeiinoae, ano?a/athueony ia yoii iooe iniiaiay –
neaaay aaieiai-aaioece/aneay eco/aiiinoue aeaaoi?ee Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

Aaeeinoaaiiia noaeii, niaoeeaeueii iai?oaeiaaiiia aeey aeoaieiaiaeiiai
ii?neiai ao?aiey, “Aeiia? *aeeaiaeaea?” (n iaai iiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue
ao?aiea i?e aeoaeia ii?y 6 ei ia aeoaeio aei 1300 i), oioy e i?iao?eei
ca n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeee n?ie, ia/eiay n 1968 a. ieiei 500 neaaaeei,
iaeiaei i?e eieinnaeueiie ieiuaaee yoiai eiee/anoaa neaaaeei e?aeia
iaaeinoaoi/ii. Iniaaiii neaai eco/aiu oeaio?aeueiua aeoaieiaiaeiua /anoe
ieaaiia. I?aaaea, n/eoaaony iaeiaa?iyoiui iaee/ea aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee
aeey ia?aciaaiey cia/eoaeueiuo caeaaeae iaooe e aaca a neaaioieioiaiiuo
ioeiaeaieyo, noi?ie?iaaaoeony a aeoaieiaiaeiuo /anoyo Ie?iaiai ieaaia.
Ii?aaeaeaiii onoaiiaeaii eeoue oi, /oi cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
eiioeiaioaeueiiai neeiia, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aei aeoaeiu 1500-2000 i, a
eiiaaea e ieaea ia?niaeoeaia a iaooaaaciaii ioiioaiee. Yoi naycaii n
oai, /oi aeaaoi?ey nia?aiaiiiai eiioeiaioaeueiiai neeiia ia?aiia/aeueii
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie iaeeiaiaeiua ii?neea aannaeiu n oneiaeyie,
aeaaii?eyoiuie aeey ia?aciaaiey oaeaaiaei?iaeia, e eeoue aiineaaenoaee a
?acoeueoaoa ae?iaeaiey e?ay iaoa?eeia ieacaeanue iia?oaeaiiie a
nia?aiaiiua aeoaeiu.

Anee aea o/anoue, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a iniiaiii inaaeaathony
aeaaoi?ee aeoaeiie aei 100 i, oi eaaei i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, /oi a
aeeaeaeoea aiaeu ioe?uaaaony ia?niaeoeaa (ii ia?a ?acaeoey ii?neie
ao?iaie oaoieee) inaiaiey aiaaoaeoeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaooe e aaca e ia
aieueoeo aeoaeiao, e eiaiii n ii?neeie ianoi?iaeaeaieyie naycaii
aoaeouaa oaaee/aiea aeiau/e iaooe e aaca.

Oaa?aeua iieaciua eneiiaaiua.

Iiieii iaooe e aaca a aiaaoaeoeo eeaaeiauo Iaiooia niaea?aeaony e
oaa?aeua iieaciua eneiiaaiua, eioi?ua a caaeneiinoe io ianoa caeaaaiey
iiaoo auoue iiae?acaeaeaiu ia i?ea?aaeii-ii?neea ?innuie, ei?aiiua
ianoi?iaeaeaiey e eneiiaaiua ii?neiai aeia.

I?ea?aaeii-ii?neea ?innuie.

I?ea?aaeii-ii?neea ?innuie ia?acothony ia a?aieoea nooe e ii?y a
?acoeueoaoa ia?aiauaiey aiaeiuo iann, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e ni?oe?iaea
iaeiii/iiai iaoa?eaea e iaeiieaieth /anoeoe oyaeaeuo ieia?aeia.
Ianoi?iaeaeaiey yoeo ieia?aeia e ia?acotho i?ea?aaeii-ii?neea ?innuie.

Ia aa?aao ii?y aieiu, neaouaaynue n ieyaea, oiinyo n niaie eaaeea e
iaeeea ian/eiee, a aieaa oyaeaeua ian/eiee i?e neeueiii i?eaia
iaeaieeaathony ia ieyaea. E?iia oiai, /anoue oyaeaeuo ianeia
eiioeaio?e?oaony e ia iiaeaiaeiii neeiia oaea a i?aaeaeao oaeueoa, a
oaeaea inaaeaao a onoueaauo caoiieaiiuo /anoyo ?ae, aiaaeathueo a ii?y e
ieaaiu.

I?ea?aaeii-ii?neea ?innuie niaea?aeao i/aiue ?aciiia?aciua e oeaiiua,
i?aeiouanoaaiii ?oaeiua ieia?aeu: eeueiaieo, ?ooee, oee?eii, iiiaoeeo,
iaaiaoeo, o?iieo, eanneoa?eo, cieioi, ieaoeio, aeiacu e iaeioi?ua
ae?oaea.

?ac?aaioee i?ea?aaeii-ii?neea ?innuiae ?anoe?ythony ai anai ie?a, e ana
iiaua no?aiu ia/eiatho iinoaaeyoue ia ie?iaie ?uiie naith i?iaeoeoeeth.
Iniiaiua caeaaee i?ea?aaeii-ii?neea ?innuiae iaoiaeyony a ?aeiiao:
*ieo?aeaeneiai ?innuiiiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey a ii?a Eaioaauo, *aoineie aoau
Ainoi/ii-Neae?neiai ii?y, *oeioneiai e Aa?eiaiaa ii?ae.

I?ea?aaeii-ii?neea ?innuie ?ac?aaaouaathony ii-?aciiio. O iieinu i?eaiy
oyaeaeua ianee aeiauaathony ne?aia?aie, aoeueaeica?aie, yeneaaaoi?aie e
aeae?iiiieai?aie.

Ia aieueoeo aeoaeiao (aei 160 i) i?eiaiythony ae?aae, niaaaeaiiua
iiaeuaiiie eaaaaeeie e /a?iaeii-a?aeoa?ii eee eiaoii ia o?ina. A ii?a
/a?iae iioneaaony ia o?ina eaaaaeee, a?acaaony a a?oio e, caoaaoea
iaoa?eae, iiaeieiaaony iaaa?o. A?aeoa?u oyaeaeiai oeia ca /an ?aaiou
ecaeaeatho aei 1000 o a?oioa. Ae?aae n a?oioiauie ianinaie i?eiaiyony
eae ia iaeuo aeoaeiao, oae e ia aeoaeiao aei 330 i.

Ei?aiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey.

N?aaee ei?aiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee oaa?aeuo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo i?aaeaea
anaai iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue oa aeaeu, eioi?ua aeiauaathony oaooiui
niiniaii. Iiaeaiaeiuie oaooaie, i?ieaeaiiuie n nooe aeiauaathony
eaiaiiue oaieue, aeaeaciay ?oaea, ?oaeu iaaee, ieeaey, ieiaa, ?oooe.
Ecaanoii aieaa 100 iiaeaiaeiuo oaoo, caeiaeaiiuo n aa?aaa. Iaeioi?ua ec
ieo oaeaeaiu io aa?aaa aei 8 ei i?e aeoaeiao ii?y aei 120 i.

Ieeeeiiu oiii eaiaiiiai oaey aeiauaathony aaeaaiaeii ia iiaeaiaeiuo
oaooao a ssiiiee, Eaiaaea, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Oioeaiaeee, Oo?oeee, ia
ino?iaa Oaeaaiue. Aieueoea caianu eaiaiiiai oaey iaia?oaeaiu ia
thai-ainoi/iii oaeueoa Aano?aeee, a EI?, a *eee, Eniaiee. *aua anaai
ii?neea ianoi?iaeaeaiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?iaeieaeaiea ieanoia,
ne?uouo a iaae?ao nooe.

Oi?ioi ?acaeoa aeiau/a ec iiaeaiaeiuo oaoo aeaeaciie ?oaeu, eioi?ay
aaaeaony a ssiiiee ia ino?iaa Ethnth, a Aano?aeee, a Eaiaaea a
Aoaeciiiaii caeeaa e ia ino?iaa Iuethoaoiaeeaiae(caeanue aeey ecaea/aiey
?oaeu nii?oaeai eneonnoaaiiue ino?ia), a oaeaea a Oeieyiaeee, o aoiaea a
Oeineee caeea.

Cia/eoaeueii ?aaea ano?a/athony iiaeaiaeiua oaoou, aaea ?ac?aaaouaathony
?oaeu iaaee e ieeaey, ieiaa e ?oooe. A Eaiaaea, a Aoaeciiiaii caeeaa,
aeec a. *a?/eee, aeiauaaaony iaaeue e ieeaeue, a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, ia
iieoino?iaa Ei?ioiee, – iaaeue, ieeaeue, e ieiai.

A Oo?oeee o iiaa?aaeuey Yaaeneiai ii?y ?ac?aaaouaathony ianoi?iaeaeaiey
?oooiuo ?oae.

A NNN? aeaaii?eyoiu aeey ?acaeoey oaooiie iiaeaiaeiie aeiau/e iaeioi?ua
o/anoee oaeueoia I?eii?uey, Naoaeeia, *oeioee, Eai/aoee, a oaeaea
oaeueoia Aaeiai e caiaaeiie /anoe Ea?neiai ii?y e Acianeia ii?a. O/aiua
i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi aeiau/a ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey n iiiiuueth iiaeaiaeiuo
oaoo a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny a i?aaeaeao oaeueoa aa
aeoaeiao aei 100 i. E i?e oaeaeaiee io aa?aaia aei 40-50 ei. ?ac?aaioee
ia aieueoeo aeoaeiao aoaeoo a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu iaoeaeaniia?aciu.

Aeoaieiaiaeiua oaa?aeua iieaciua eneiiaaiua.

N?aaee aeoaieiaiaeiuo oaa?aeuo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, iaia?oaeaiiuo ia
ii?neii aeia, i?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue aeaeaci-ia?aaioeaaua
eiie?aoeee. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ieia?aeu, ia?acothueany a
?acoeueoaoa inaaeaeaiey aeae?iieeneia ia?aaioea, aeaeaca e ae?oaeo
ieia?aeueiuo nieae ec ii?neie aiaeu. I?e yoii iie iau/ii
eiioeaio?e?othony ieiei eaeiai-ieaoaeue iaaieueoiai yae?a a?iaea iaeiiea
eaiiy eee coaa aeoeu.

Eaeei aea ia?acii iiiaaeatho aeaeaci e ia?aaiaoe a ii?neoth aiaeo? Ii
yoiio iiaiaeo iao aaeeiie oi/ee c?aiey. Iaeia a?oiia o/aiuo n/eoaao, /oi
yoe iaoaeeu iiiaaeatho a ieaai n nooe n ?a/iui noieii; ae?oaay – /oi iie
iiiaaeatho a ii?y e ieaaiu i?e iiaeaiaeiuo ecaa?aeaieyo n aoeeaie/aneeie
aacaie. Ii-aeaeeiiio, eiatho ianoi iaa yoeo enoi/ieea iiiaaeaiey yoeo
iaoaeeia a aiaeu Ie?iaiai ieaaia. ?aeiiu ?ani?ino?aiaiey eiie?aoeee
caieiatho iaoe?iua ieiuaaee a ieeeeiiu eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia,
ieioiinoue eo caeaaaiey ianoieueei auniea, /oi iie ianoaie eaaeao
aieioioth, i?eeaaay ae?oa e ae?oao. AEaeaci-ia?aaioeaaua eiie?aoeee
eiatho i/aiue oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia aeia ii?ae e ieaaiia (iniaaiii
Oeoiai e Aoeaioe/aneiai) ia aeoaeiao io 60 aei 7000 i (/aua anaai
ano?a/athony ana aea ia aeoaeiao nauoa 3000 i). Iau/ii a n?aaeiai
eiie?aoeee niaea?aeao 24 % ia?aaioea, 14 % aeaeaca, 1 % ieeaey, 0,5 %
iaaee e iaiueoa 0,5 % eiaaeueoa. Oae eae a ia?aaioeaaie ?oaea,
aeiauaaaiie ia nooa a n?aaeiai io 35 aei 55 % ia?aaioea, oi eiaiii
iaaeue, ieeaeue e eiaaeueo ieacuaathony iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie n
yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey. Iaeiaei neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi ii
n?aaiaieth n caianaie ia?aaioea ai anao ecaanoiuo ia nooa
ianoi?iaeaeaieyo, caianu yoiai iaoaeea a eiie?aoeeyo a nioie ?ac
aieueoa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaeeiaeaii aeaa iniiaiuo iaoiaea aeiau/e
ia?aaioeaauo eiie?aoeee n ii?neiai aeia. Yoi iaoiae aeae?aaee/aneiai
caieanina n i?eiaiaieai ananuaathuae e iiaeuaiiie neeu iioiea aiaeu a
o?oaa (iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue aa?eaio – y?eeooiue iaoiae) e iaoiae
eiaoiaie ae?aae, iaoaie/anee na?aaathuae eiie?aoeee i?ee?aieaiiie e
eaiaoo eiaoii. Eaaeaeue ec yoeo iaoiaeia eiaao naie neeueiua e neaaua
noi?iiu, e eeoue n ia/aeii i?iiuoeaiiie ?ac?aaioee eiie?aoeee noaiao
ynii, eaeie ec ieo eo/oa ca?aeiiaiaeoao naay a i?ioeanna ?aaiou.

E?iia aeaeaci-ia?aaioeaauo eiie?aoeee ia ii?neii aeia eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeytho e oinoi?eoiaua eiie?aoeee. Iie ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia aeoaeiao
50-2500 i, aeec aa?aaia NOA, *eee, ia?o, ssiiiee, Aano?aeee, Eiaeee,
Ia?ieei, Aaeiae, Aiaieu e ae?oaeo no?ai. Ni?in ia oinoi?eou iaaieueoie,
e iiyoiio ii?neea ianoi?iaeaeaiey iiea ia a ninoiyiee eiieo?e?iaaoue n
ianoi?iaeaeaieyie nooe. E oiio aea a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa oinoi?eou
ii?neeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee ii naiaio ea/anoao cia/eoaeueii onooiatho
?ac?aaaouaaaiui ia nooa. Inaiaiea ii?neeo caeaaeae oinoi?eoia
i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an e aeey ?innee oae eae iniiaiua caieaaeaeue/aneea
?aeiiu eniuouaatho iaaeinoaoie oinoaoiiai nu?uey. E?oiiaeoaa
ianoi?iaeaeaiea aiaoeoiaiai nu?uey – Oeaeineia – oaeaeaii io iniiaiuo
?aeiiia iio?aaeaiey oinoaoia, e caianu aiaoeoiaiai eiioeaio?aoa ii ia?a
aic?anoaiey iio?aaiinoae caiaoii enoiuathony. E?iia oiai, nu?uea aeey
anao caaiaeia ii i?iecaiaenoao noia?oinoaoa caaiceony ii aeaeaciie
aei?iaa n Eieueneiai iieoino?iaa, /oi aeaeaao noieiinoue oaeia?aiee
aeiaieueii aunieie. Caianu oinoaoiiai nu?uey a ii?a ioeaieaathony a
nioie ieeeea?aeia oiii e iiaoo iaania/eoue iio?aaiinoe ia ouny/aeaoey
aia?aae.

Iaeiiaoe, a E?aniii ii?a iaia?oaeaiu aiaaeeiu n oaiia?aoo?ie aiaeu aei
+62(N e n niaea?aeaieai nieae aei 26 (0 (aianoi 3,5 (0 a iau/iie ii?neie
aiaea). I?aeoe/anee oaeay aiaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie “ai?y/ee ?annie”. A
yoeo “?annieao” ano?a/aiu eeu /a?iiai, aaeiai, aeaeoiai, i?aiaeaaiai
oeaaoia n aunieei niaea?aeaieai aeaeaca, ia?aaioea, iaaee e oeeiea n
i?eianueth ae?oaeo iaoaeeia, a oii /enea na?aa?a, cieioa. Oaeeo aiaaeei
a E?aniii ii?a nouanoaoao ieiei o?eiaaeoeaoe.

“AEeaay ?oaea”.

?anneacuaay i aiaaonoaao Ie?iaiai ieaaia iaeuecy ia oiiiyiooue i “aeeaie
?oaea”, eee “oiuae ?oaea”, eae /anoi iacuaatho ii?neoth aiaeo ca oi, /oi
a iae ?anoai?aii ieiei 60 oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia oaaeeoeu Ae. E.
Iaiaeaeaaaa. *aeiaae iiea iao/eeny ecaeaeaoue ec aiaeu eeoue i/aiue
iaaieueoia eiee/anoai yeaiaioia. Ec 35 a. nieae, niaea?aeaueony a 1 e
ii?neie aiaeu, 30,1 a. ninoaaeyao oei?enoue iao?ee, 2,7 a – noeueoaou,
2,1 a – iaaiee, eaeee, eaeueoeee, a ana inoaeueiua aauanoaa- eeoue 0,035
a. Ieiei 99 ( ie?iauo caiania a?iia i?eoiaeeony ia aiaeu Ie?iaiai
ieaaia. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee aeiau/e o?aia
ec ii?neie aiaeu. Nia/aea OO a. ?acee/iuie no?aiaie i?aaei?eieiaeenue
iiiuoee aeiau/e cieioa ec ii?neie aiaeu.

A 1959 a. ai a?aiy iaeiiai ec ?aenia iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai noaeia
“Ieoaee Eiiiiinia” eiiii-iaiaiiua niieu, i?aaenoaaeythuea, ii-nouanoao,
iaeei ec aeaeia ni?aaioa, auee iiiauaiu a oeeueo?othuoth eieiieo,
eioi?ay auea oe?aieaia ieaea aaoa?eeiee e iiaeeeth/aia e aiaeicaai?iiio
eeianoiio. A oa/aiea anaai ?aena /?ac oeeueo?aoeeiiioth eieiieo
i?iioneaeanue ieaaineay aiaea. Anaai aa i?ioei ieiei 60 oun. E. A
?acoeueoaoa eaaeaeue eeeia?aii eiieoia ecaeae ec ii?neie aiaeu 0,15 a
o?aia, 0,125 a na?aa?a; auee iaia?oaeaiu oaeaea cieioi, no?iioeee,
aenioo, oeeie, iaaeue, ia?aaiaoe, aeaeaci, aethieiee, e?aiiee,
eaeueoeee, iaaiee. A oiaea ae?oaiai yenia?eiaioa niaaoneea o/aiua
iieo/eee ec 500 e ii?neie aiaeu e?oieieo cieioa iannie a 1 ia. Iaaeaeo
oai onoaiiaeaii, /oi n?aaeiaa niaea?aeaiea cieioa a aiaea 0,032-0,049 ia
ia 1o, a iauea caianu a ieaaia ii ?acee/iui aeaiiui ioeaieaathony a 8-10
iei. o, /oi ninoaaeyao ii/oe 2,5 ea ia eaaeaeiai aeeoaey ieaiaou.

Aiciiaeii, /oi nei?i eiiiiaiaiiua eieiiee aoaeoo onoaiiaeaiu ia anao
noaeao oi?aiaiai oeioa. A oa/aiea ?aena yoe ono?ienoaa niiaoo
oeeueo?iaaoue aiaeo, e ii aica?auaiee a ii?o niaea?aeeiia eieiiie aoaeao
naeaaaoueny ia ia?aaioeo a oeie/aneea eaai?aoi?ee, a eieiiee caiaiyoueny
iiauie. Aa?iyoii, oaeei niiniaii a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai e aoaeoo
aeiauaaoue ec ieaaia oeaiiua ?aaeeea iaoaeeu. Iiea aea aeiau/a o?aia,
cieioa e ae?oaeo yeaiaioia ec ii?neie aiaeu yeiiiie/anee iaauaiaeia e ia
ii?aaaeuaaao naay. Iaeiaei, o/eouaay aeaaioneea oaiiu ?inoa oaoie/aneeo
aeinoeaeaiee e ana aic?anoathuea iio?aaiinoe a ?yaea oeaiiuo iaoaeeia,
iu ana aieaa i?eaeeaeaainy e oiio iiiaioo, eiaaea ii?neay aiaea caeiao
naia ianoi eae “eiiieaeniay ?oaea iiia? iaeei” e iieiinoueth “ioaeano”
/aeiaaeo ana iaiaoiaeeiua yeaiaiou. Aaconeiaii, ieia?aeueiua aiaaonoaa
Ie?iaiai ieaaia aoaeoo ea?aoue aaaeouoth ?ieue a yeiiiieea aeeaeaeoaai
aoaeouaai iaoae ieaiaou.

Eniieueciaaiea aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

Caa?yciaiea ii?neeo aiae.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii ee Ie?iaie ieaai iaoiaeeony iiae oa?icie? Ia yoio
aii?in, e niaeaeaieth, iaaei ioaaoeoue ooaa?aeeoaeueii, aac anyeeo
eieaaaiee. I?iaeaia, naycaiiay n caa?yciaieai aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia,
iaeia ec naiuo aaaeiuo i?iaeai, noiyueo ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii.

Iaeaieaa iianiu caa?yciaiey:

iaooueth,

iaooai?iaeoeoaie,

?aaeeiaeoeaiuie aauanoaaie,

iooiaeaie, i?iiuoeaiiuie e auoiauie noi/iuie aiaeaie,

aua?inaie oeie/aneeo oaeia?aiee (ianoeoeeaeia).

Caa?yciaiea aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia i?eiyei ca iineaaeiea 10 eao
eaoano?ioe/aneea ?acia?u. Yoiio ai iiiaii niinianoaiaaei oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiia iiaiea i iaia?aie/aiiuo aiciiaeiinoyo aiae Ie?iaiai
ieaaia e naiii/euaieth. Iiiaea yoi iiieiaee oae, /oi ethaua iooiaeu e
ioa?inu a ethaii eiee/anoaa a aiaeao ieaaia iiaeaa?aathony aeieiae/aneie
ia?a?aaioea aac a?aaeiuo iineaaenoaee aeey naieo aiae.

Iacaaeneii io aeaea caa?yciaiey, eaeao ee ?a/ue i caa?yciaiee ii/au,
aoiinoa?u eee aiaeu, ana naiaeeony a eoiaa e caa?yciaieth aiae Ie?iaiai
ieaaia, eoaea a eiioea eiioeia iiiaaeatho ana io?aaeythuea aauanoaa,
i?aa?auay Ie?iaie ieaai a “ie?iaoth iiiieeo”.

Iaooyiia caa?yciaiea.

Ii iiaen/aoai a Ie?iaie ieaai aaeaaiaeii iiiaaeaao 6-15 iei. o iaooe e
iaooai?iaeoeoia. Caeanue i?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue iioa?e,
naycaiiua n aa o?ainii?oe?iaeie oaiea?aie. Iinea ?aca?ocee iaooe, /oiau
i?eaeaoue oaiea?o iaiaoiaeeioth onoie/eainoue, aai oaiee caiieiytho
aaeeanoiie aiaeie, neea aaeeanoiie aiaeu n inoaoeaie iaooe aei
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie inouanoaeyeny /aua anaai a ioe?uoia ii?a. Eeoue
iaiiiaea oaiea?u iaeaaeatho ?aca?aoa?aie, niaoeeaeueii i?aaeiacia/aiiuie
aeey aaeeanoiie aiaeu, eioi?ua ieeiaaea ia caiieiythony iaooueth.

Cia/eoaeueiua eiee/anoaa iaooe iiiaaeatho a ii?a iinea i?iiuaee oeenoa?i
e iaooaiaeeaiuo ninoaeia. Iiaen/eoaii, /oi a ii?a iiiaaeaao ieiei 1 (
iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia io anaai ia?aaiceiiai a?oca. Iai?eia?,
iaooaiaeeaiia noaeii aiaeieciauaieai ieiei 30 000 o na?anuaaao a ii?a
ieiei 300 o iacooa i?e eaaeaeii ?aena. I?e ia?aaicea 500 iei. o iaooe a
aiae, iioa?e iacooa ninoaaeytho ieiei 5 iei. o a aiae, eee 13700 o a
nooee!

Ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iaooai?iaeoeoia iiiaaeaao a Ie?iaie ieaai i?e eo
eniieueciaaiee. Oieueei aeecaeueiua aeaeaaoaee noaeia aua?anuaatho a
ii?a aei 2 iei. o oyaeaeuo iaooai?iaeoeoia (niaci/iua ianea, ianai?aaoaa
oiieeai).

Aaeeee iioa?e i?e ii?neii ao?aiee, nai?a iaooe a ianoiua ?aca?aoa?u e
ia?aea/ea ii iaaeno?aeueiui iaooai?iaiaeai. Caeanue oa?yaony aei 0,25 (
io anaai eiee/anoaa aeiauaaaiie iaooe.

Ii ia?a ?inoa ii?neie aeiau/e iaooe eiee/anoai ia?aaicie aa oaiea?aie
?acei aic?anoaao, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aic?anoaao e eiee/anoai aaa?eeiuo
neo/aaa. A iineaaeiee aiaeu oaaee/eeinue eiee/anoai e?oiiuo oaiea?ia,
ia?aaicyueo iaooue. Ia aeieth noia?oaiea?ia i?eoiaeeony aieaa iieiaeiu
anaai iauaia ia?aaiceiie iaooe. Oaeie aeaaio aeaaea iinea aeeth/aiey
yeno?aiiiai oi?iiaeaiey i?ioiaeeo aieueoa 1 ieee (1852 i) aei iieiie
inoaiiaee. Anoanoaaiii, /oi iianiinoue eaoano?ioe/aneeo noieeiiaaiee o
oaeeo oaiea?ia aic?anoaao a ianeieueei ?ac.

Auiin iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia a ii?a n aiaeaie ?ae. Oaeei iooai a ii?y
iiiaaeaao aei 28 ( io iauaai eiee/anoaa iinooiathuae iaooe.

I?eoie iaooai?iaeoeoia n aoiinoa?iuie inaaeeaie. Eaaeea o?aeoeee iaooe
enia?ythony n iiaa?oiinoe ii?y e iiiaaeatho a aoiinoa?o. Oaeei ia?acii a
Ie?iaie ieaai iinooiaao ieiei 10 ( iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia io iauaai
eiee/anoaa.

Neea iai/euaiiuo aiae n caaiaeia e iaooaaac, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia ii?neeo
iiaa?aaeueyo e a ii?oao. A NOA oaeei iooai a Ie?iaie ieaai iiiaaeaao
aieaa 500 oun. o iaooe a aiae.

Iaooyiuie ieaieaie ioaa/aiu.

Iaooyiuie ieaieaie ioaa/aiu: ia?iiiua aeaaoi?ee Aoeaioe/aneiai e Oeoiai
ieaaiia; iieiinoueth iie?uou THaeii-Eeoaeneia e AEaeoia ii?y, ciia
Iaiaineiai eaiaea, iaoe?iay ciia aaeieue aa?aaia Naaa?iie Aia?eee
(oe?eiie aei 500-600 ei), aeaaoi?ey iaaeaeo Aaaaeneeie ino?iaaie e
Nai-O?aioeenei a naaa?iie /anoe Oeoiai ieaaia e iiiaea ae?oaea ?aeiiu.
Iniaaiii aieueoie a?aae oaeea iaooyiua ieaiee i?eiinyo a iieocaieioouo,
aioo?aiieo e naaa?iuo ii?yo, eoaea iie i?eiinyony nenoaiaie oa/aiee.
Oae, Aieueono?ei e Naaa?i-Aoeaioe/aneia oa/aiey ia?aiinyo oaeaaiaei?iaeu
io aa?aaia Naaa?iie Aia?eee e Aa?iiu a ?aeiiu Ii?aaaeneiai e Aa?aioeaaa
ii?ae. Iniaaiii iianii iiiaaeaiea iaooe a ii?y Naaa?iiai Eaaeiaeoiai
ieaaia e Aioa?eoeee, oae eae ieceea oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa oi?iicyo
i?ioeannu oeie/aneiai e aeieiae/aneiai ieeneaiey iaooe aeaaea a eaoiee
ia?eiae. Oaeei ia?acii, iaooyiia caa?yciaiea iineo aeiaaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Iiaen/eoaii.

Iiaen/eoaii, /oi aeaaea 15 iei. o iaooe aeinoaoi/ii /oiau iie?uoue
iaooyiie ieaieie Aoeaioe/aneee e Naaa?iue Eaaeiaeoue ieaaiu. A aaaeue
niaea?aeaiea 10 a iaooe a 1 i3 aiaeu aoaeoaeueii aeey ee?u ?uau.
Iaooyiay ieaiea (1 o iaooe niiniaia caa?ycieoue 12 ei2 ieiuaaee ii?y)
oiaiueoaao i?iieeiiaaiea nieia/iuo eo/ae, /oi aoaeoaeueii aeeyao ia
i?ioeannu oioineioaca oeoiieaieoiia, iniiaiie ei?iiaie aacu aieueoeinoaa
aeeauo i?aaieciia ii?ae e ieaaiia. Aeinoaoi/ii 1 e iaooe /oiau eeoeoue
eenei?iaea 400 oun. e ii?neie aiaeu.

Iaooyiua ieaiee iiaoo: nouanoaaiii ia?ooeoue iaiai yia?aeae, oaieii,
aeaaie, aacaie iaaeaeo ieaaiii e aoiinoa?ie. A aaaeue ieaai ea?aao
aieueooth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee eeeiaoa, au?aaaouaaao 60-70 ( eenei?iaea,
iaiaoiaeei aeey nouanoaiaaiey aeecie ia Caiea.

I?e enia?aiee iaooe n iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu, i?enoonoaea aa ia?ia a aicaeooa
a?aaeii io?aaeaaony ia caei?iauea ethaeae. Iniaaiii auaeaeythony
aeaaoi?ee: N?aaeecaiiiai, Naaa?iiai, E?eaiaeneiai, ssaaineiai ii?ae;
Iaeneeaineiai, Aeneaeneiai, Oieeeneiai caeeaia.

Oae, ii/oe 3/4 iiaa?aaeuey Eoaeee, iiuaaaiiai aiaeaie Aae?eaoe/aneiai,
Eiie/aneiai, Ie??aineiai, Eeao?eeneiai ii?ae, iauae i?ioyaeaiiinoueth
ieiei 7 500 ei caa?yciythony iooiaeaie iaooaia?a?aaaouaathueo caaiaeia e
ioa?inaie 10 oun. i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ia a iaiueoae noaiaie caa?yciaii iooiaeaie e Naaa?iia ii?a. A aaaeue yoi
– oaeueoiaia ii?a – n?aaeiyy aeoaeia aai 80 i, a a ?aeiia Aeiaaa?-Aaiee
– aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie aiaaoie ?uaii?iiuneiaie aeaaoi?ee – 20 i. I?e
yoii aiaaeathuea a iaai ?aee, iniaaiii iaeaieaa e?oiiua, oaeea eae:
?aei, Yeueaa, Aaca?, Oaica niaaaeatho Naaa?iia ii?a ia /enoie i?aniie
aiaeie, a , iaiai?io, aaea/anii ianoo a Naaa?iia ii?a ouny/e oiii
io?aaeythueo aauanoa.

A Naaa?iii ii?a, aaea ieioiinoue aeaeaeaiey oaiea?ia naiay aunieay a
ie?a, aaeaaiaeii ia?aaiceony ieiei 500 iei. o iaooe, i?ienoiaeeo 50 (
anao noieeiiaaiee.

Caa?yciaiea Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia.

Caa?yciai aeaaea o aa?aaia Ao?eee, iin?aaee ieaaia, a ?aeiia
Aano-Eiaeeeneeo ino?iaia.

Caa?yciaiea noi/iuie iooiaeaie i?iiuoeaiiuo e auoiauo aiae. Iaeei ec
naiuo ianniauo aeaeia caa?yciaiey. A yoii aeaea caa?yciaiey iiaeiiu
i?aeoe/anee ana ?acaeoua a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee no?aiu. Aei
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie aeey iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee ?aee e ii?y yaeyeenue ianoi na?ina io?aaioaiiuo noieia. E
niaeaeaieth i/enoea noieia eeoue a iaiiiaeo no?aiao iiniaaaao ca
yeiiiie/aneei ?acaeoeai e ?inoii ia?iaeiianaeaiey.

Iniaaiii iiaeiiu a neeueiii caa?yciaiee aiae neaaeothuea io?anee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe:

oeie/aneay,

Oe/A,

oaenoeeueiay,

iaoaeeo?ae/aneay.

Neeueii caa?yciytho aiaeiaiu oaooiua aiaeu a nayce n oneeeaoeiny a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy niiniaii aeiau/e oaey – aeae?iaeiau/ae, i?e eioi?ie
aieueoia eiee/anoai iaeeeo /anoeoe oaey auiineony n io?aaioaiiuie
aiaeaie.

A?aaeiia aicaeaenoaea ieacuaatho na?inu Oe/A caaiaeia, eiathueo iau/ii
aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa noeueoeoa, oei?a, ecaanoe e ae?oaeo
i?iaeoeoia, noiee eioi?uo oaeaea neeueii caa?yciytho e io?aaeytho
ii?neea aiaeiaiu. I?aeoe/anee noi/iua iai/euaiiua aiaeu ethaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ianoo oa?ico aiaeai Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

Naie “aeeaae” aiinyo oaeaea:

iooiaeu auoiauo,

noiee ieuaauo i?aaei?eyoee,

auoiaua ia/enoiou,

aeaoa?aaiou,

Cia/eoaeueiue a?aae iaiineo eniieueciaaiea aeaoa?aaioia – neioaoe/aneeo
iithueo n?aaenoa. Ana aeaoa?aaiou iau/ii ia?acotho noieeoth iaio i?e
aianaiee a aiaeo n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoiai eiee/anoaa aauanoaa.
Niiniaiinoue e iaiiia?aciaaieth aeaoa?aaiou ia oa?ytho aeaaea i?e
i?ioiaeaeaiee i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee. Iiyoiio aiaeiaiu, eoaea iiiaaeatho
aeaoa?aaiou auaatho iie?uou eeoaaie iaiu. Aeaoa?aaiou i/aiue oiene/iu,
onoie/eau e i?ioeannai aeieiae/aneiai ?aceiaeaiey, ia inaaeatho e ia
oie/oiaeathony i?e ?acaaaeaiee /enoie aiaeie.

noiee n naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee,

Yoio aeae caa?yciaiey naycai i?aaeaea anaai n i?eiaiaieai ianoeoeeaeia –
oeie/aneeo i?aia?aoia, eniieuecoaiuo aeey oie/oiaeaiey a?aaeiuo
i?aaieciia e ?anoaiee (io eao. pestis – ca?aca, saedo – oaeaaoue),
iai?eia? AeAeO.

Ianoeoeeaeu iiiaaeatho a ii?neoth aiaeo:

ni noi/iuie aiaeaie ec n/o ?aeiiia,

ec aoiinoa?u.

Aei 50 ( ?aniueyaiuo ianoeoeeaeia ieeiaaea ia aeinoeaaao ?anoaiee, a
?aciinyony aao?aie. AeAeO iaia?oaeeaatho a oeaiyo ieiaaeiia e aaeuo
iaaeaaaeae A?eoeee – aeaeaei io iano aai ?aniueaiey. Aiaeec niaaeiiai
iie?iaa Aioa?eoeee iieacae, /oi ia iiaa?oiinoe inaei ieiei 2 300 o
ianoeoeeaeia. Iaeei ec aeaeia AeAeO, i?eiaiyaiue ia iieyo Ao?eee aue
/a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa iaia?oaeai a aiaea Aaiaaeueneiai caeeaa.

Oiene/iinoue ianoeoeeaeia oaaee/eaaaony n oaaee/aieai oaiia?aoo?u
ii?neie aiaeu.

iooiaeu n ieuaauo i?aaei?eyoee, aeeth/ay io?aaioaiiua aiaeu.

I?eiaiaiea oinoaoia e ieo?aoia oaeaea aoaeoaeueii neacuaaaony ia ii?a.
Ia?eoeaoaeueiui noaei iacaaiea ssiiineiai ai?iaea Ieieiaoa. A
?acoeueoaoa na?ina ianuuaiiuo ?oooueth noi/iuo aiae auei io?aaeaii nauoa
600 oun. /aeiaae, 79 ec ieo iiaeaei.

Aaeeea oaeaea noaiaiue caa?yciaiey i?aaeiaoaie ianniaiai iio?aaeaiey
(aaiee, aooueee e o.ae.).

?aaeeiaeoeaiia caa?yciaiea aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

Iooe iiiaaeaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo inaaeeia:

ec aoiinoa?u a ?acoeueoaoa yaea?iuo eniuoaiee,

i?e na?ina ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aiae e aauanoa n i?aaei?eyoee aoiiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e AYN,

a ?acoeueoaoa aaa?ee noaeia, ?aaioathueo ia aoiiiuo aeaeaaoaeyo, a
oaeaea na?ina ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia noaeiauo ?aaeoi?ia,

iinea aaa?ee aoiiiuo iiaeaiaeiuo eiaeie,

Oae, a 1963 a. a Aoeaioe/aneii ieaaia caoiioea aia?eeaineay iiaeaiaeiay
eiaeea, inoaoee eioi?ie auee iaeaeaiu aieaa /ai a 200 ieeyo ainoi/iaa
Ainoiia. A oaea a 1966 a. o aa?aaia E?eaiaeee, i?eia?ii a 2 500 ieeyo io
ianoa eaoano?iou, aueiaeee aeaoaeue eiaeee n iaaeienueth
“?aaeeiaeoeaii”.

na?in ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia n noaeia, ?aaioathueo ia aoiiiuo
?aaeoi?ao.

Oaeeo noaeia a ie?a aieaa 300. Ca iaeei aiae ?aaiou a aoiiiuo
iiaeeiaeeao (a caaeneiinoe io iiuiinoe noaeiaiai ?aaeoi?a) ia?acoaony io
300 aei 500 e caa?yciaiiuo niie, eniieuecoaiuo i?e oeeueo?aoeee aiae.
I?iaeaia eo caoi?iiaiey iiea aua ea?aeeiaeueii ia ?aoaia.

Iianiinoue caeeth/aaony a:

auno?ue ia?aiin ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo /anoeoe aicaeooiuie oa/aieyie ia aieueoea
?annoiyiey. Iinea eniuoaiey o?aioeocneie aoiiiie aiiau a Naoa?a (13
oaa?aey 1960 a.) iiiaaeiaeeinue 2 aeiy /oiau ?aaeeiaeoeaiua /anoeoeu
aeinoeaee iiaa?aaeuey Eiaeee, 3 aeiy – ssiiiee,

?aaeeiaeoeaiua /anoeoeu eneeth/eoaeueii “aeeao/e”, iniaaiii i?e
eniuoaieyo iaae iiaa?oiinoueth caiee. Iiiaaeay a aunieea neie aoiinoa?u,
?aaeeiaeoeaiua /anoeoeu caoai niiniaiu auiaaeaoue a aeaea
“?aaeeiaeoeaiuo” aeiaeaeae /a?ac iiiaea ianyoeu iinea yaea?iuo ac?uaia,
eiiaaea ca ianeieueei ouny/ eeeiiao?ia io ianoa eniuoaiey. Noieeinoue
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa e ?ac?ooaieth e ?aniaaeo niinianoaoao ia?aiino ia
ii?neeie oa/aieyie e ca?aaeaieth ?uau, ieaieoiia e ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo e
?anoeoaeueiuo i?aaieciia ia aieueoeo ?annoiyieyo.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaiiaeaiea aeoaeiiuo aiae ii?ae
i?ienoiaeeo ca ia?eiae ia iaiaa 100 eao, o. a. Ca n?ie a oa/aiea
eioi?iai ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu ia oa?ytho naieo a?aaeiuo naienoa.
Oaeaea, iaoiaeyueany a iiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo, ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aiaeu
i?iieeatho ia aeoaeio a ianeieueei ei.

Iaaeaeo oai, a aieueoeinoaa no?ai iooiaeu AYN na?anuaathony a ?aee e
i?ea?aaeiua aiaeu ii?ae, i?e/ai /aua anaai yoi ia aaeeie/iua na?inu a
iaaieueoeo eiee/anoaao, a aaeaaiaeiua caoi?iiaiey. Aiai?y i caoi?iiaiee
iooiaeia iaiaoiaeeii einiooueny e ae?oaeo aunieioiene/iuo niaaeeiaiee. A
1970 a. NOA caoiieee a 500 ei io iiaa?aaeuey Oei?eaeu noaeii, ia ai?oo
eioi?iai iaoiaeeeinue 68 o ia?aii-ia?aeeoe/aneiai aaca (ca?eia), a 418
aaoiiiuo eiioaeia?ao. Ii ?aii eee iicaeii aaoiiiua eiioaeia?u aeaaeoo
ooa/eo e oiaaea o?oaeii aoaeao i?aaenoaaeoue ana iineaaenoaey.

E /eneo neeueiicaa?yciaiiuo aeaaoi?ee Ie?iaiai ieaaia ioiinyony:

Naaa?iia, E?eaiaeneia, ssiiineia e N?aaeecaiiia ii?y; Iaeneeaineee,
Aeneaeneee, Oieeeneee caeeau e Aoeaioe/aneia iiaa?aaeuea NOA.

Ai?ueaa n caa?yciaieai aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

A ?yaea neo/aaa, ianiio?y ia eieinnaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey nia?aiaiiie
iaoee, eeeaeaee?iaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaeu oeie/aneiai, a oaeaea
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai caa?yciaiee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaiciiaeii.

Iaoiaeu i/enoee aiae Ie?iaiai ieaaia:

eieaeecaoeey o/anoea (n iiiiuueth ieaaathueo ia?aaeaeaiee – aiiiia),

naeeaaiea ia eieaeeciaaiiuo o/anoeao,

oaeaeaiea n iiiiuueth ianea, ia?aaioaiiiai iniaui ninoaaii,

A ?acoeueoaoa /aai iaooue i?eeeiaao e ca?iai ianea e iioneaaony ia aeii.

iiaeiuaiea iaooe nieiiie, iieeeaie, yioeueneyie, aeenia?aaoi?aie, n
iiiiuueth aeina,

i?aia?ao “AeI-75”,

Ca ianeieueei ieioo i/euaao iiaa?oiinoue ii?y io iaooyiuo caa?yciaiee.

?yae aeieiae/aneeo iaoiaeia,

I?eiaiaiea iee?ii?aaieciia, eioi?ua niiniaiu ?aceaaaoue oaeaaiaei?iaeu
aieioue aei oaeaeeneiou e aiaeu.

eniieueciaaiea niaoeeaeueiuo noaeia, iniauaiiuo onoaiiaeaie aeey nai?a
iaooe n iiaa?oiinoe ii?y.

Nicaeaiu niaoeeaeueiua noaea iaeuo ?acia?ia, eioi?ua aeinoaaeythony
naiieaoaie e ianoo aaa?ee oaiea?ia; eaaeaeia oaeia noaeii iiaeao
ananuaaoue aei 1,5 oun. e iaooaaiaeyiie niane, ioaeaeyy nauoa 90 ( iaooe
e caea/eaay aa a niaoeeaeueiua ieaao/ea aieinoe, aoene?oaiua caoai e
aa?aao.

i?aaeoniio?aiu ii?iu aaciianiinoe i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa oaiea?ia, i?e
i?aaiecaoeee nenoai o?ainii?oe?iaee, ia?aaeaeaeaiey a aoooao.

Ii ana iie no?aaeatho iaaeinoaoeii – ?anieua/aoua oi?ioee?iaee
iicaieytho /anoiui eiiiaieyi eo iaoiaeeoue; e?iia aa?aaiaie io?aiu
iaeiio neaaeeoue ca niaethaeaieai yoeo caeiiia.

Eae ai?thony ca /enoioo ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ae?oaea no?aiu.

NOA:

I?eoaaeoea a iaaiaeiinoue ecaeaeey ec ieanoeea ii/oe ia iiaeaeathony
?ac?ooaieth. Aia?eeaineee o/aiue Ea?e Noiioii ?ac?aaioae ieanoee,
ecaeaeey ec eioi?iai naii?ac?ooathony iinea eo eniieueciaaiey. Iiae
i?yiui aicaeaenoaeai nieia/iiai naaoa a yoeo ecaeaeeyo ia/eiaaony
i?ioeann ?ac?ooaiey, eioi?ue caaa?oatho ianaeiiua.

Aua iaeii ioe?uoea aia?eeaineeo o/aiuo – i?aaeeiaeaiea eniieueciaaoue
noi/iua aiaeu eae ieoaoaeueioth n?aaeo aeey aiaei?inee oei?aeeu,
eniieuecoaiie a ei?i neioo. A i?ioeanna ?inoa oei?aeea auaeaeyao
aaeoa?aoeeaeiua aauanoa, eciaiythuea eeneioiinoue noieia oaeei ia?acii,
/oi a aiaea aeaioo aieaciaoai?iua aaeoa?ee e ae?onu, o.a. noiee
iaacca?aaeeaathony.

O?aioeey:

nicaeaiea 6 oa??eoi?eaeueiuo eiieoaoia ii aannaeiai ?ae,

Eioi?ua eiio?iee?otho io?aio e eniieueciaaiea aiae.

oaa?eea ?ac?aoatho caae?aoue aiaeo ec ?aee oieueei ieaea oiai ianoa,
aaea o iaa auaaaeai noie,

nicaeaii noaeii aeey i/enoee ?ae e aeaaoi?ee ii?oia,

Yoi noaeii eiaao niaoeeaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea, eioi?ia cananuaaao ioa?inu
e ioni? (i?eia?ii 4 o a aeaiue).

no?ieoaeuenoai i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee aeey nai?a caa?yciaiiuo aiae
oaiea?ia,

a?oiiu naiieaoia e aa?oieaoia neaaeyo ca oai, /oiau ie iaeei oaiea? ia
neee aaeeanoiua aiaeu eee inoaoee iaooai?iaeoeoia ia iiaeoiaeao e
ii?oai,

eniieueciaaiea oaoiieiaee nooiai oi?iiaaiey aoiaae,

I?e oaeie oaoiieiaee iio?aaiinoue a aiaea aiiaua ioiaaeaao e
ionoonoaotho yaeiaeoua noiee.

eniieueciaaiea iaeiie e oie aea aiaeu ii 5-6 ?ac.

Oaaoeey:

ii?aaeaeaiiie a?oiiie ecioiiia iiia/atho oaiee eaaeaeiai noaeia,

Caoai, n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai i?eai?a ii iyoio aacioeai/ii
ii?aaeaeytho noaeii-ia?ooeoaeue.

iaoeeiiaeueiue iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo io?aiu aiaeu e
aicaeooa ?ac?aaioae ia?u,

Iaaeiiouaiea caa?yciaiey, ainnoaiiaeaiea /enoiou neeueii caa?yciaiiuo
aiaeiaiia.

?ac?aaioaia aoiaae, niaea?aeauae eeoue 10( aiaeu (ii n?aaiaieth n 50 (
?aiueoa).

O?A:

n 1961 a. anooiee a neeo caeii i cai?auaiee i?iecaiaenoaa iithueo
n?aaenoa, niaea?aeaueo aeieiae/anee ia?anuaieyaiua yeaiaiou.

Aaeeeia?eoaiey:

nicaeai Niaao ii aiaeiui ?ano?nai.

Iaaeaeai aieueoeie iieiiii/eyie, aieioue aei i?eaea/aiey e noaeaaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe eeoe, aeiioneathueo na?in a aiaeiaiu caa?yciythueo
aauanoa.

ssiiiey:

nicaeaia neoaeaa iaaethaeaiey ca caa?yciaieai ii?y,

Niaoeeaeueiua eaoa?a ?aaoey?ii iao?oee?otho Oieeeneee caeea e
i?ea?aaeiua aiaeu

nicaeaiu aoe-?iaiou,

auyaeytho noaiaiue e ninoaa caa?yciaiey, a oaeaea aai i?e/eiu.

eniieueciaaiea oaoiieiaee nooiai oi?iiaaiey aoiaae.

I?e oaeie oaoiieiaee iio?aaiinoue a aiaea aiiaua ioiaaeaao e
ionoonoaotho yaeiaeoua noiee.

Ia naiii aeaea:

*anoiua oe?iu e eiiiaiee iaoiaeyo yoe caeiiu, oae eae ia caeioa?aniaaiu
ai aeiaeaiee aeiiieieoaeueiuo eaieoaeia, ca/anooth n/eoay aieaa
auaiaeiui caieaoeoue aeaaea e?oiiue aeaiaaeiue oo?ao, /ai no?ieoue
niaoeeaeueiua i/enoiua nii?oaeaiey ia naieo oaa?eeao.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. TH.A. Oeeoeeee. Ieaai iaaeaaeae. – I.: I?inaauaiea, 1983.

2. Iaoa Ieaiaoa. – I.: 1985.

3. I. Aaann. Eeth/e e yeieiaee. – Eaieia?aae, 1982.

4. ?. Ey??eiaoii. Aeieiaey ii?y. – Eaieia?aae, 1966.

5. A.A. Oiieeei. A ie?a eeoia e aeaeueoeiia. – I.: 1976.

6. O. Eoeee/e. Ieaai: – I.: 1976.

7. AE. Aeii. Aaeeeee /an ieaaiia – Aoeaioe/aneee. – I.: 1978.

8. AE. Aeii. Aaeeeee /an ieaaiia – N?aaeecaiiia ii?a. – I.: 1978.

9. A.I. Noaiaiia. I?e?iaea Ie?iaiai ieaaia. – I.: 1982.

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