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Природные воды

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Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Ai?iue Oieaa?neoao

I?e?iaeiua aiaeu

(Eaoaae?a oeiee)

Auiieiee:
I?aiiaeaaaoaeue:

Oea?aa A.
Eaaaaeaa A. A.

no. a?. NAI? – 1 – A96

Iineaa, 1996 a.

Ieai:

1. Aiaeiay n?aaea.

2.

AIAeIAss N?AAeA.

Aiaeiay n?aaea aeeth/aao iiaa?oiinoiua e iiaecaiiua aiaeu.

Iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu a iniiaiii nin?aaeioi/aiu a ieaaia, niaea?aeaieai 1
ie?ae. 375 iei. eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia–ieiei 98% anae aiaeu ia Caiea.
Iiaa?oiinoue ieaaia (aeaaoi?ey) ninoaaeyao 361 iei. eaaae?aoiuo
eeeiiao?ia. Iia i?eia?ii a 2,4 ?aca aieueoa ieiuaaee nooe oa??eoi?ee,
caieiathuae 149 iei. eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia. Aiaea a ieaaia
nieaiay,i?e/ai aieueoay aa /anoue (aieaa 1 ie?ae. eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia)
nio?aiyao iinoiyiioth nieaiinoue ieiei 3,5% e oaiia?aoo?o,i?eia?ii
?aaioth 3,7oN. Caiaoiua ?acee/ey a nieaiinoe e oaiia?aoo?a
iaaethaeathony ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii a iiaa?oiinoiii neia aiaeu, a
oaeaea a ie?aeiiuo e iniaaiii a n?aaeecaiiuo ii?yo. Niaea?aeaiea
?anoai?aiiiai eenei?iaea a aiaea nouanoaaiii oiaiueoaaony ia aeoaeia
50-60 iao?ia.

Iiaecaiiua aiaeu auaatho nieaiuie, nieaiiaaouie(iaiueoae nieaiinoe) e
i?aniuie; nouanoaothuea aaioa?iaeueiua aiaeu eiatho iiauoaiioth
oaiia?aoo?o(aieaa 30`N). Aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaa/anoaa e aai oicyenoaaiii-auoiauo ioaeae o?aaoaony i?aniay aiaea,
eiee/anoai eioi?ie ninoaaeyao anaai eeoue 2,7% iauaai iaueaia aiaeu ia
Cai ea, i?e/ai i/aiue iaeay aa aeiey (anaai 0,36%) eiaaony a
eaaeiaeinooiiuo aeey aeiau/e ianoao. Aieueoay /anoue i?aniie aiaeu
niaea?aeeony a niaaao e i?aniiaiaeiuo aenaa?aao, iaoiaeyueony a ?aeiiao
a iniiaiii THaeiiai iiey?iiai e?oaa. Aiaeiaie ie?iaie ?a/iie noie
i?aniie aiaeu ninoaaeyao 37,3 oun. eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia. E?iia oiai,
iiaeao eniieueci aaoueny /anoue iiaecaiiuo aiae, ?aaiay 13 oun.
eoae/aneei eeeiiao?ai. E niaeaeaieth, aieueoay /anoue ?a/iiai noiea a
?innee, ninoaaeythuay ieiei 5000 eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia, i?eoiaeeony ia
iaeiieiaei?iaeiua e iaeicanaeaiiua naaa?iua oa??eoioee. I?e ionoonoaee
i?aniie aiaeu eniieuecotho nieaioth iiaa?oiinoioth eee iiaecaiioth
aiaeo, i?iecaiaey aa ii?aniaiea eee ae ia?oeeueo?aoeeth:
i?iioneatho iiae aieueoei ia?aiaaeii aeaaeaiee /a?ac iieeia?iua iaia?aiu
n iee?ineiie/aneeie ioaa?noeyie, caaea?aeeaathueie iieaeoeu niee. Iaa
yoe i?ioeanna aanueia yia?aiaiee, iiyoiio i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an
i?aaeeiaeaiea, ninoiyuaa a eniieueciaaiee a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea i?aniie
aiaeu i?aniiaiaeiuo aenaa?aia (eee eo /anoe), eioi?ua n yoie oeaeueth
aoene?otho ii aiaea e aa?aaai, ia eiathuei i?aniie aiaeu, aaea
i?aaiecotho eo oayiea. Ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui ?an/aoai ?ac?aaio/eeia yoiai
i?aae eiaeaiey, iieo/aiea i?aniie aiaeu aoaeao i?eia?ii aaeaia iaiaa
yia?aiaiee ii n?aaiaieth n ii?aniaieai e aeia?oeeueo?aoeeae. Aaaeiui
ianoiyoaeuenoaii, i?enouei aiaeiie n?aaea, yaeyaony oi, /oi /a?ac iaa a
iniiaiii ia?aaeathony eioaeoeeiiiua caaieaaaiey (i?eia?ii 80% anao
caaieaaaiee). Aii/ai, iaeioi?ua ec ieo, iai?eia? eieetho,
aao?yiea,ooaa?eoeac,ia?aaeathony e /a?ac aicaeooioth n?aaeo. N oeaeueth
ai?ueau n ?ani?ino?aiaieai caaieaaaiee /a?ac aiaeioth n?aaeo Anaie?iay
i?aaiecaoeey cae?aai io?aiaiey (AIC) iaueyaeea oaeouaa aeanyoeeaoea
aeanyoeeaoeai ieoueaaie aiaeu.

Aiaeiue aaeain caiee.

*oiau i?aaenoaaeoue,neieueei aiaeu o/anoaoao a e?oaiai?ioa,
ioa?aeoa?ecoai ?acee/iua /anoe aeae?inoa?u.Aieaa 94% aa ninoaaeyao
Ie?iaie ieaai . Ae?oaay /anoue(4%)-iiaecaiiua aiaeu.I?e yoii neaaeoao
o/anoue ,/oi aieueoay eo /anoue ioiineony e aeoaeiiui ?annieai,a i?aniua
aiaeu ninoaaeytho 1/15 aeieth.Cia/eoaeai oaeaea iaai eueaea iiey?iuo
eaaeieeia:n ia?an/aoii ia aiaeo ii aeinoeaaao 24 iei.ei., eee 1,6%
iauaia aeae?inoa?u. Ica?iie aiaeu a 100 ?ac iaiueoa -230 oun.ei. , a a
?oneao ?ae niaea?aeeony anaai eeoue 1200 ei. aiaeu, eee 0,0001% anae
aeae?inoa?u. Iaeiaei , ianiio?y ia iaeue iauai aiaeu,?aee ea?atho i/aiue
aieueooth ?ieue: iie,eae e iiaecaiiua aiaeu, oaeiaeaoai?ytho
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey , i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
i?ioaaiiai caieaaeaeey. Aiaeu ia Caiea aeiaieueii iiiai . Aeae?inoa?a
ninoaaeyao ieiei 1/4180 /anoe anae iannu iaoae ieaiaou. Iaeiaei ia
aeieth i?aniuo aiae,eneeth/ay aiaeo, neiaaiioth a iiey?iuo eaaeieeao,
i?eoiaeeony iaiiiaei aieaa 2 iei.ei., eee oieueei 0,15% anaai iauaia
aeae?inoa?u.

Aiaea n oi/ee c?aiey oeiee.

Ia?iiiay ?ieue aiaeu a aeecie /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu iineoaeeea i?e/eiie
oiai, /oi iia auea iaeiei ec ia?auo niaaeeiaiee, i?eaeaeoeo aieiaiea
o/?iuo. Oai ia iaiaa eco/aiea aiaeu au? aeaeaei ia caeii/aii.

Iauea naienoaa aiaeu.

Aiaea a neeo iiioey?iinoe a? iieaeoe niinianoaoao ?aceiaeaieth
eiioaeoe?othueo n iae iieaeoe nieae ia eiiu, ii naia aiaea i?iyaeyao
aieueooth onoie/eainoue e a oeie/anee /enoie aiaea niaea?aeeony i/aiue
iaei eiiia

ii H+ e OH-.

Aiaea – eia?oiue ?anoai?eoaeue; oeie/anee ia eciaiyaony iiae aeaenoaeai
aieueoeinoaa oaoie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua iia ?anoai?yao. Yoi i/aiue
aaaeii aeey anao aeeauo i?aaieciia ia iaoae ieaiaoa, iineieueeo
iaiaoiaeeiua eo oeaiyi ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa iinooiatho a aiaeiuo
?anoai?ao a n?aaieoaeueii iaei eciaiaiiii aeaea. A i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo
aiaea anaaaea niaea?aeeo oi eee eiia eiee/anoai i?eianae,
acaeiiaeaenoaey ia oieueei n oaa?aeuie e aeeaeeeie aauanoaaie, ii
?anoai?yy oaeaea e aacu.

Aeaaea ec naaaeaauiaaoae aeiaeaeaaie aiaeu iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei
aeanyoeia ieeeea?aiiia ?acee/iuo ?anoai?aiiuo a iae aauanoa ia eaaeaeue
eeo? iauaia. Aaniethoii /enooth aiaeo ieeiaaea e ieeiio au? ia
oaeaaaeinue iieo/eoue ie a iaeiii ec a? aa?aaaoiuo ninoiyiee; oeie/anee
/enooth aiaeo, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a eeoaiioth ?anoai?aiiuo aauanoa,
i?iecaiaeyo iooai aeeeoaeueiie e e?iiioeeaie i/enoee a eaai?aoi?eyo eee
ia niaoeeaeueiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo onoaiiaeao.

A i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo aiaea ia iiaeao nio?aieoue “oeie/aneoth /enoioo”.
iinoiyiii nii?eeanaynue ni anaaiciiaeiuie aauanoaaie, iia oaeoe/anee
anaaaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?anoai? ?acee/iiai, ca/anooth i/aiue
neiaeiiai naienoaa. A i?aniie aiaea niaea?aeaiea ?anoai?aiiuo aauanoa
iau/ii i?aauoaao 1 a./e. Io ianeieueeeo aaeeieoe aei aeanyoeia a?aiiia
ia eeo? eieaaethony niaea?aeaiea nieae a ii?neie aiaea: iai?eia?, a
Aaeoeeneii ii?a eo anaai 5 a./e., a *??iii – 18, a a E?aniii ii?a –
aeaaea 41 a./e.

Nieaaie ninoaa ii?neie aiaeu a iniiaiii ia 89% neaaaaony ec oei?eaeia
(i?aeiouanoaaiii oei?eaea iao?ey, eaeey e eaeueoeey), 10% i?eoiaeeony ia
noeueoaou (iao?ey, eaeey, iaaiey) e 1% – ia ea?aiiaou (iao?ey,
eaeueoeey) e ae?oaea niee. I?aniua aiaeu niaea?aeao iau/ii aieueoa anaai
– aei 80% ea?aiiaoia (iao?ey e eaeueoeey), ieiei 13% noeueoaoia (iao?ey,
eaeey, iaaiey) e 7% oei?eaeia (iao?ey e eaeueoeey).

Aiaea oi?ioi ?anoai?yao aacu (iniaaiii i?e ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao),
aeaaiui ia?acii eenei?iae, acio, aeeieneae oaea?iaea, na?iaiaei?iae.
Eiee/anoai eenei?iaea eiiaaea aeinoeaaao 6 ia./e. A ieia?aeueiuo aiaeao
oeia ia?cai iauaa niaea?aeaiea aacia iiaeao ninoaaeyoue aei 0,1%. A
i?e?iaeiie aiaea i?enoonoaotho aoioniaua aauanoaa – neiaeiua
i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, ia?acothueany a ?acoeueoaoa iaiieiiai ?aniaaea
inoaoeia ?anoeoaeueiuo e aeeaioiuo oeaiae, a oaeaea niaaeeiaiey oeia
aaeeia, naoa?ia, nie?oia.

Aiaea iaeaaeaao eneeth/eoaeueii aunieie oaieiaieinoueth. Oaieiaieinoue
aiaeu i?eiyoa ca aaeeieoeo. Oaieiaieinoue ianea, iai?eia?, ninoaaeyao
0,2, a aeaeaca – eeoue 0,107 oaieiaieinoe aiaeu. Niiniaiinoue aiaeu
iaeaieeaaoue aieueoea caianu oaieiaie yia?aee iicaieyao naeaaeeaaoue
?aceea oaiia?aoo?iua eieaaaiey ia i?ea?aaeiuo o/anoeao Caiee a ?acee/iua
a?aiaia aiaea e a ?acee/ioth ii?o nooie: aiaea aunooiaao eae au
?aaoeyoi?ii oaiia?aoo?u ia anae iaoae ieaiaoa.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue iniaia naienoai aiaeu – a? aunieia iiaa?oiinoiia
iaoyaeaiea – 72,7 y?a/ni2 (i?e 20i N). A yoii ioiioaiee ec anao aeaeia
aeeaeeinoae aiaea onooiaao oieueei ?oooe. Iiaeiaiia naienoai aiaeu ai
iiiaii iaoneiaeaii aiaei?iaeiuie naycyie iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie iieaeoeaie
H2O. Iniaaiii iaaeyaeii i?iyaeyaony iiaa?oinoiia iaoyaeaiea a i?eeeiaiee
aiaeu ei iiiaei iiaa?oiinoyi – nia/eaaiee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aauanoaa –
aeeia, ianie, noaeei, oeaie, aoiaaa e iiiaea ae?oaea, eaaei nia/eaaaiua
aiaeie, iai?aiaiii eiatho a naiai ninoaaa aoiiu eenei?iaea.oaeie oaeo
ieacaeny eeth/aaui i?e iaueyniaiee i?e?iaeu nia/eaaiey: yia?aeoe/anee ia
o?aaiiaaoaiiua iieaeoeu iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy aiaeu iieo/atho
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aciaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua nayce n “/oaeeie” aoiiaie
eenei?iaea.

Nia/eaaiea e iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea eaaeao a ninoaaa yaeaiey,
iacaaiiiai eaieey?iinoueth: a oceeo eaiaeao aiaea niiniaia iiaeieiaoueny
ia aunioo ai?acaei aieueooth, /ai oa, eioi?oth “ iicaieyao” neea
oyaeanoe aeey noieaeea aeaiiiai na/aiey.

A eaieey?ao aiaea iaeaaeaao ii?aceoaeueiuie naienoaaie. A.A.Aea?yaei
onoaiiaee, /oi a eaieey?ao aiaea, neiiaeaine?iaaaoayny ec aiaeyiiai
ia?a, ia caia?caao i?e 00 e aeaaea i?e nieaeaiee oai?a?aoo?u ia aeanyoee
a?aaeonia.

Iieaeoeu aiaeu ioee/athony aieueoie oa?ie/aneie onoie/eainoueth, i?e
aeano?oeoeee ii noaia: 2H2O ( 2H2 + O2 + 2 ( 245,6 Eaeae.

ia/eiaaony i?e oaiia?aoo?a auoa 10000N, e i?e 20000N ninoaaeyao eeoue
1,8%. I?e 50000N aiaeyiie ia? ni ac?uaii iaoeaei ?aceaaaaony ia
aiaei?iae e eenei?iae.

Aiaea ioiineony e neaaui yeaeo?ieeoai.

H2O ( H+ + OH-

Kaeenn=

= 1,8(10-16

[H+][OH-]

[H2O]

Aiaea aanueia ?aaeoeeiiiiniiniaiia aauanoai: iiaeao i?iyaeyoue eae
ieeneeoaeueiui, oae e ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua naienoaa. Oae, iiae aeaenoaeai
neeueiuo ainnoaiiaeoaeae aiaea i?iyaeyao ieeneeoaeueiua naienoaa: ia
oieiaea ieeneyao uaeiniua e uaei/iicaiaeueiua iaoaeeu, a i?e oaiia?aoo?a
iaeaeeaaiey – aeaeaci, oaea?iae e ae?.

2Na + 2H2O ( 2NaOH + H2(

3Fe + 4H2O ( Fe3O4 + 4H2(

Iiae aeaenoaeai neeueiuo ieeneeoaeae (ooi?, oei?, yeaeo?e/aneee oie)
aiaea i?iyaeyao ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua naienoaa. Oae, ?aaeoeeth
acaeiiaeaenoaey ni ooi?ii iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

2F2+2H2O ( 2H2F2+O2(

Couanoaoao o?e oeia i?eniaaeeiaiey aiaeu e iieaeoeai ae?oaeo aauanoa:
ii eiiiiio, eii?aeeiaoiiio e aaeniaoeeiiiiio oeio.

I?eniaaeeiaiea ii eiiiiio oeio i?ienoiaeeo e ieneaeai uaei/iuo,
uaei/iicaiaeueiuo e ?aaeeicaiaeueiuo iaoaeeia, a oaeaea e eeneioiui
ieneaeai:

CaO + H2O ( Ca (OH)2

P2O5 + 3H2O ( 2H3PO4

Aiaea, i?eniaaeeiyaiay ii eiiiiio oeio, iacuaaaony eiinoeoooeeiiiie.
Iia oaeaeyaony i?e iaa?aaaiee n aieueoei o?oaeii. Oae iouaieaiea io
aaeeiai iao?a ia/eiaaony i?e 1388oN :

2NaOH ( Na2O + H2O

[

]

E eiiai iaoaeeia – eiiieaeniia?aciaaoaeae i?eniaaeeiaiea eae?o ii
eii?aeeiaoiiio oeio :

CaCl2 + CH2O ( Ca(H2O)6 ( Cl2

Iieo/aiiua niaaeeiaiey iacuaathony aeaaeiiieaenaie, a aiaea, aioaaeoay
a eo ninoaa, – e?enoaeeecaoeeiiiie. E?enoaeeecaoeeiiiay aiaea
oaeaeyaony eaa/a,/ai eiinoeoooeeiiiay, iai?eia?, i?e auaao?eaaiee.

?acee/iua aauanoaa aaeni?ae?otho ia naiae iiaa?oiinoe iaeioi?ia
eiee/anoai aiaeu ca n/ao iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee i?eoyaeaiey. Aiaea,
i?eniaaeeiaiiay ii aaeni?aoeeiiiiio oeio, iacuaaaony aea?ineiie/aneie;
iia oaeaeyaony eaa/a, /ai e?enoaeeeecaoeeiiiay.

Eiiiue ninoaa i?e?iaeiuo aiae.

I?ienoiaeyuaa a ii/aao i?ioeannu ieeneaiey i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa
aucuaatho ?anoiae eenei?iaea e auaeaeaiea oaeaeeneiou, iiyoiio a aiaea
i?e oeeueo?aoeee a? /a?ac ii/ao aic?anoaao niaea?aeaiea oaeaeeneiou, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e iaiaauaieth i?e?iaeiuo aiae ea?aiiaoaie eaeueoeey, iaaiey e
aeaeaca, n iia?aciaaieai ?anoai?eiuo a aiaea eeneuo nieae oeia:

CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 ( Ca(HCO3)2

Aeea?aiiaou i?enoonoaotho ii/oe ai anao aiaeao a oao eee eiuo
eiee/anoaao. Aieueooth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee oeie/aneiai ninoaaa aiaeu
ea?atho iiaenoeeathuea ii/ao a?oiou, n eioi?uie aiaea anooiaao a
nii?eeiniiaaiea, oeeueo?oynue e ?anoai?yy iaeioi?ua ieia?aeu. Iniaaiii
eioaineaii iaiaauatho aiaeu inaaei/iua ii?iaeu,oaeea, eae ecaanoiyee,
aeieiieou,ia?aaee, aein, eaiaiiay nieue e ae?. A naith i/a?aaeue ii/aa e
ii?iaeu iaeaaeatho niiniaiinoueth aaeni?ae?iaaoue ec i?e?iaeiie aiaeu
iaeioi?ua eiiu ( iai?eia?, Ca2+ , Mg2+ ), caiauay eo yeaeaaeaioiui
eiee/anoai ae?oaeo eiiia ( Na+ , K+ ).

Iiaeii/aaiiuie aiaeaie eaa/a anaai ?annoai?ythony oei?eaeu e noeueoaou
iao?ey e iaaiey, oei?eae eaeueoeey. Neeeeaoiua e aethiineeeeaoiua
ii?iaeu

( a?aieou, eaa?oeaaua ii?iaeu e o.ae. ) ii/oe ia?annoai?eiu a aiaea e
niaea?aeauae oaeaeeneioo e i?aaie/aneea eeneiou.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiieie a i?e?iaeiuo aiaeao yaeythony neaaeothuea

,Na+ ,Mg2+ ,Ca2+ ,H+.

Eii oei?a i?enoonoaoao ii/oe ai anao i?e?iaeiuo aiaeiaiao, i?e/ai aai
niaea?aeaiea iaiyaony a i/aiue oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao. Noeueoao – eii oaeaea
?ani?ino?aiai iianaianoii. Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii ?anoai?aiiuo a aiaea
noeueoaoia yaeyaony aein. A iiaecaiiuo aiaeao n niaea?aeaieai noeueoao –
eiia iau/ii auoa, /ai a aiaea ?ae e ica?. Ec eiiia uaei/iuo iaoaeeia a
i?e?iaeiuo aiaeiaiao a iaeaieueoeo eiee/anoaao iaoiaeeony eii iao?ey,
eioi?ue yaeyaony oa?aeoa?iui eiiii neeueiiieia?aeeciaaiiuo aiae ii?ae e
ieaaiia.

Eiiu eaeueoeey e iaaiey a iaeiieia?aeeciaaiiuo aiaeao caieiatho ia?aia
ianoi. Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii eiiia eaeueoeey yaeyaony ecaanoiyee, a

iaaiey – aeieiieou (MgCO3 ,CaCO3). Eo/oay ?annoai?eiinoue noeueoaoia e
ea?aiiaoia iaaiey iicaieyao i?enoonoaiaaoue eiiai iaaiey a i?e?iaeiuo
aiaeao a aieueoeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo, /ai eiiia eaeueoeey.

Eiiu aiaei?iaea a i?e?iaeiie aiaea iaoneiaeaiu aeennioeeaoeeae
oaieueiie eeneiou. Aieueoeinoai i?e?iaeiuo aiae eiatho pH a i?aaeaeao
6,5 – 8,5. Aeey iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae a nayce n iaiueoei niaea?aeaieai a
ieo oaeaeeneiou pH iau/ii auoa, /ai aeey iiaecaiiuo.

Niaaeeiaiey acioa a i?e?iaeiie aiaea i?aaenoaaeaiu eiiaie aiiiiey,
ieo?eoiuie, ieo?aoiuie eiiaie ca n/ao ?aceiaeaiey i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa
aeeaioiiai e ?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Eiiu aiiiiey, e?iia oiai,
iiiaaeatho a aiaeiaiu ni noi/iuie i?iiuoeaiiuie aiaeaie.

Niaaeeiaiey aeaeaca i/aiue /anoi ano?a/athony a i?e?iaeiuo aiaeao,
i?e/ai ia?aoiae aeaeaca a ?anoai? iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iiae aeaenoaeai
eenei?iaea eee eeneio ( oaieueiie, i?aaie/aneeo(. Oae iai?eia?, i?e
ieeneaiee aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai a ii?iaeao ie?eoa iieo/aaony
na?iieeneia aeaeaci:

a i?e aeaenoaee oaieueiie eeneiou – ea?aiiao aeaeaca:

FeS2 + 2H2CO3 ( Fe2+ + 2HCO3 + H2S + S.

. *anoue e?aiiey iaoiaeeony a eieeieaeiii ninoiyiee, n /anoeoeaie
ninoaaa HSiO2(H2O , a oaeaea a aeaea iieee?aiiaeaie eeneiou:
X(SiO2(y(H2O. A i?e?iaeiuo aiaeao i?enoonoaotho oaeaea Al3+ ,Mn2+ e
ae?oaea eaoeiiu.

Iiieii aauanoa eiiiiai oaia i?e?iaeiua aiaeu niaea?aeao oaeaea aacu e
i?aaie/aneea e a?oaioeenia?niua acaane. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie a
i?e?iaeiuo aiaeao aacaie yaeythony eenei?iae e oaeaeeneue aac.
Enoi/ieeii eenei?iaea yaeyaony aoiinoa?a, oaeaeeneiou – aeioeie/aneea
i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a aeoaeiiuo neiyo caiiie ei?u, oaeaeeneioa ec
aoiinoa?u.

Ec i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, iiiaaeathueo ecaia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue
aoieiiaua aauanoaa, auiuaaaiua aiaeie ec aoioniauo ii/a (oi?oyiieeia,
nai?iiaeeoia e ae?.). Aieueoay /anoue ec ieo iaoiaeeony a eieeieaeiii
ninoiyiee. A naieo aiaeiaiao i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa iai?a?uaii iinooiatho
a aiaeo a ?acoeueoaoa ioie?aiey ?acee/iuo aiaeiuo i?aaieciia. I?e yoii
/anoue ec ieo inoaaony acaaoaiiie a aiaea, a ae?oaay iioneaaony ia aeii,
aaea i?ienoiaeeo eo ?aniaae.

A?oaiaeenia?niua i?eiane, iaoneaaeeaathuea iooiinoue i?e?iaeiuo aiae,
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aauanoaa ieia?aeueiiai e i?aaie/aneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, niuaaaiua n aa?oiaai iie?iaa caiee aeiaeaeyie eee
oaeuie aiaeaie ai a?aiy aanaiieo iaaiaeeia.

Iiaecaiiua aiaeu.

Niaaoneee o/aiue eaaaaeaa ia iniiaa iiiai/eneaiiuo yenia?eiaioia
?ac?aaioae eeanneoeeaoeeth aeaeia aiaeu a ii/aao e a?oioao.
I?aaenoaaeaiey A.O.Eaaaaeaaa, iieo/eaoea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea a aieaa
iicaeieo enneaaeiaaieyo, iicaieeee auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea aeaeu aiaeu a
ai?iuo ii?iaeao: a oi?ia ia?a, naycaiioth, naiaiaeioth, a oaa?aeii
ninoiyiee.

Ia?iia?aciaaiiay aiaea caieiaao a ii?iaea ii?u, ia caiieiaiiua aeeaeeie
aiaeie, e ia?aiauaaony ca n/ao ?acee/iie aaee/eiu oi?oainoe ia?a eee
iioieii aicaeooa. Eiiaeaine?oynue ia /anoeoeao ii?iaeu, aiaeyiua ia?u
ia?aoiaeyo a ae?oaea aeaeu aeaae.

?acee/atho ianeieueei aeaeia naycaiiie aiaeu. Ni?ae?iaaiiay aiaea
oaea?aeeaaaony /anoeoeaie ii?iaeu iiae aeeyieai nee, aicieeathueo i?e
acaeiiaeaenoaee iieaeoe aiaeu n iiaa?oiinoueth yoeo /anoeoe e n
iaiaiiuie eaoeiiaie. Ni?ae?iaaiioth aiaeo ?acaeaeytho ia
i?i/iinaycaiioth e ?uoeinaycaiioth. Anee aeaaeioth aeeio iiaeaa?aaoue
aeaaeaieth, oi aeaaea iiae aeaaeaieai a ianeieueei ouny/ aoiinoa? /anoue
aiaeu iaaiciiaeii oaeaeeoue ec aeeiu. Yoi i?i/iinaycaiiay aiaea. Iieiia
oaeaeaiea oaeie aiaeu aeinoeaaaony eeoue i?e oaiia?aoo?a 150 – 130iN.

EEOA?AOO?A:

1. “Ninoaa, naienoaa e iaoiaeu i/enoee noi/iuo aiae i?aaei?eyoee ai?iie

i?iiuoeaiiinoe” A.O. Iaieia 1990a.

2) E.O.Eea/ae, TH.A.Ai?iiia “Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu”.

3) I.I.*a?iiaa,A.I.Aueiaa “Yeieiaey”.

4) aeo?iae “CIAIEA”(ia?iaeiue oieaa?neoao anoanoaaiiiiao/iue
oaeoeueoao), “Caiey ethaeae”.

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