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Пестициды и удобрения. Их роль

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2

МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ СЛАВЯНСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

?AOA?AO

II YEIEIAEE

OAIA:

IANOEOeEAeU E OAeIA?AIEss. EO ?IEUe.

IINEAA 1997a.

IANOEOeEAeU E OAeIA?AIEss. EO ?IEUe.

IEAI:

I. Aaaaeaiea.

II. Niaea?aeaiea ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a ii/aao.

III. Ianoeoeeaeu.

IV. Oaeia?aiey.

1. Aaaaeaiea

Ieoaiea – yoi iniiaa aeecie ethaiai aeeaiai i?aaiecia, a oii /enea e
?anoaiee. Aia ieoaiey iaeuecy iiiyoue nouiinoue i?ioeannia ?inoa e
?acaeoey.

N oi/ee c?aiey i?aeoe/aneiai ?anoaieaaiaenoaa aaaeiaeoei n?aaenoaii
oeo/oaiey ieoaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? yaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai
i?eiaiaiea i?aaie/aneeo e ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee. ?ino ?anoeoaeueiie
i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony iiiaeanoaii oaeoi?ia, n?aaee eioi?uo aaaeouay
?ieue ana aea i?eiaaeeaaeeo oaeia?aieyi e iniaaiii ieia?aeueiui,
i?iecaiaenoai eioi?uo ia?aueaaao aunieea oaiiu.

Ii/aa yaeyaony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii iaania/aiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo? ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie. Iaeiaei a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
iai?a?uaiie eioaineoeeaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aeey
aaeaaiaeiiai au?aueaaiey aunieeo o?iaeaaa n i?iaeoeoeeae oi?ioaai
ea/anoaa aeiaieueii /anoi ieacuaaaony iaaeinoaoi/iui oi eiee/anoai
ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa, eioi?ia iinooiaao a ?anoaiey ec i?aaie/aneiai
aauanoaa e o?oaeii?anoai?eiuo ieia?aeueiuo niaaeeiaiee ii/au a
?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe iee?ii?aaieciia e ei?iaaie nenoaiu ?anoaiee.
Iniaaiii yoi ioiineony e Ia/a?iicaiiie ciia, aaea aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua
ii/au n ieceei o?iaiai ieoeueoo?aiiinoe caieiatho ieiei 51% ieiuaaee.
Aeey ii/a yoie ciiu oa?aeoa?ii, eae i?aaeei, a?aiaiiia eee aeeeoaeueiia
ecauoi/iia oaeaaeiaiea. I?aiaeaaeathueie iaaeaaii?eyoiuie i?eciaeaie
aea?iiai-iiaecieenouo ii/a yaeythony ieioea oece/anee naienoaa,
iiauoaiiay eeneioiinoue (?I a EN1 iaiueoa 5) e ieceia niaea?aeaiea
i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa – io 1 aei 2,5%. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ia oaeaea
neaaay iaania/aiiinoue yeaiaioaie ieia?aeueiiai ieoaiey aeey ?anoaiee –
aciou, oinoi?a e eaeey, iiiaeo iee?iyeaiaioia; ia?aaeei (a
?aciiaeaeiinoyo eaaeiai iaoaie/aneiai ninoaaa) iaaaeeei niaea?aeaiea
oaeaea iaaiey e eaeueoeey.

Ii/au Ia/a?iicaiiie ciiu, iniaaiii iiaecieenoua, ino?i ioaeaeathony a
ecaanoeiaaiee e nenoaiaoe/aneii aianaiee ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee. A
nayce n yoei aeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa ciiu i?aaeoniio?aii iinoaaeoue
120 iei. O ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee a noaiaea?oiuo ooeao. Oaeei ia?acii,
ia aaeoa? iaoie i?eaeaony 126 ea ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa.

2. Niaea?aeaiea ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a ii/aao.

Caianu ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a ii/aao ai iiiai ?ac i?aauoatho
iio?aaiinoue a ieo ?anoaiee. Iaeiaei aieueoay /anoue ec i?aaenoaaeaia
iaaeinooiiuie aeey ?anoaiee niaaeeiaieyie. Aaeiaia niaea?aeaiea
ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a iaoioiii neia ?acee/iuo ii/a iaiaeeiaeiai.

Niaea?aeaiea acioa (N) eieaaeaony io 0,07% aei 0:5%. Ii/aaiiue acio
iaoiaeeony a iniiaiii a iaaeinooiiie aeey ?anoaiee i?aaie/aneie oi?ia.
Ia aeieth ieia?aeueiiai acioa i?eoiaeeony oieueei 1-2% aai iauaai
eiee/anoaa. Iiae aeeyieai iee?iaeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia i?aaie/aneea
oi?iu acioa ia?aaiaeyony a aeinooiiua aeey ?anoaiee ieia?aeueiua oi?iu.

Niaea?aeaiea oinoi?a (?2I5) ai iiiaeo ii/aao ninoaaeyao 0,03-0,25%.
Ieiei iieiaeiu aai iaoiaeeony a ieia?aeueiie oi?ia, a iieiaeia – a
oi?ia i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee. A neaaiieoeueoo?aiiuo oi?oyiuo ii/aao ia
oinoi? a i?aaie/aneie oi?ia i?eoiaeeony aei 70%. Iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai
aai niaea?aeeony a iiaeiuaiiii ii/aaiiuie eieeieaeaie ninoiyiee.
Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ieia?aeueiuo oi?i oinoi?a a eeneuo iiaecieenouo
ii/aao e e?aniicaiao iaoiaeeony a o?oaeiiaeinooiiuo aeey ?anoaiee
oinoaoao aeaeaca e aethieiey. A iaeo?aeueiuo ii/aao, iai?eia? a
/a?iicaiao, ieia?aeueiue oinoi? i?aaenoaaeai aieaa aeinooiiuie aeey
?anoaiee oinoaoaie eaeueoeey e iaaiey.

Ia aeieth eaeey (E2I) a ii/aa i?eoiaeeony 0,6-3% iannu ii/au. Aieueoa
eaeey niaea?aeeony a aeeienouo e noaeeienouo ii/aao, a a ii/aao eaaeiai
iaoaie/aneiai ninoaaa (ian/aiuo e noian/aiuo) aai cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa.
Eiee/anoai iaiaiiiai eaeey a iaoioiii neia ninoaaeyao, ea/aa: a
iiaecieenouo ii/aao – 150-300, /a?iicaiao – 400-900, na?icaiao –
600-1500. A ioee/ea io acioa e oinoi?a eaeee ia ia?acoao a ?anoaieyo
i?i/iua i?aaie/aneea eiiieaenu. Iiyoiio eiee/anoai aai a i?aaie/aneii
aauanoaa ii/au iacia/eoaeueii.

Eaeueoeey (NaI) a ii/aao ieiei 0,2-2% e aieaa io eo iannu. Ii
i?aaenoaaeai neeeeaoaie, ea?aiiaoaie, aeinii, oinoaoaie e ae?oaeie
niaaeeiaieyie. *anoue eaeueoeey iaoiaeeony a iiaeiuaiiii ninoiyiee.
Iaeaieaa aiaaou iaiaiiui eaeueoeeai /a?iicaiu (ieiei 40 iyea).
Iaeiaiueoaa eiee/anoai aai ano?a/aaony a iiaecieenouo ii/aao (5-8 iyea),
/oi naycaii n eo eeneioiinoueth. Ecaanoeiaaieai ia oieueei niauaaony
?aaeoeey ii/au, ii e oeo/oaaony ieoaiea ?anoaiee eaeueoeeai.

Niaea?aeaiea iaaiey (MgO) ninoaaeyao 0,4-4% e aieaa io iannu ii/au e
caaeneo io ninoaaa iaoa?eineie ii?iaeu. A ii/aao, ia?aciaaaoeony ia
noaeeieao e aeeiao, aieueoa iaaiey, /ai a ii/aao, aicieeoeo ia ianeao.

Ieiei 90-95% iaaiey a ii/aa aoiaeeo a ninoaa ?acee/iuo ieia?aeia,
aeaaiui ia?acii neeeeaoia e aethiineeeeaoia, eioi?ua o?oaeii
?anoai?ythony a aiaea, iiyoiio niaea?aeaueeny a ieo iaaiee ia iiaeao
auoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieueciaai ?anoaieyie. Ieiei 5-10% iaaiey
iaoiaeeony a iiaeiuaiiii (iaiaiiii) ninoiyiee. Iaiaiiue iaaiee. Eae e
iaiaiiue eaeee, ea?aao aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a ieoaiee ?anoaiee, iiiieiyy
eiee/anoai iaaiey a ii/aaiiii ?anoai?a ii ia?a iio?aaeaiey aai
?anoaieyie. Iacia/eoaeueiay /anoue iaaiey a ii/aa ano?a/aaony a oi?ia
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, iinea ?aceiaeaiey eioi?uo ii noaiiaeony aeinooiiui
aeey ?anoaiee.

Iaeaieaa aiaaou iaaieai /a?iicaiu, eaooaiiaua ii/au e na?icaiu. Iaiueoa
iaaiey a ian/aiuo, noian/aiuo e iaeioi?uo oi?oyiuo ii/aao.

Niaea?aeaiea na?u (SO3) eieaaeaony io 0,1 aei 0,5% iannu ii/au. Na?a a
ii/aa i?aaenoaaeaia i?aaie/aneeie niaaeeiaieyie (80-90%), aaea iia
iaoiaeeony a ainnoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia, e ieia?aeueiuie niaaeeiaieyie n
eaeueoeeai, aeaeacii, eaeeai, iao?eai (10-20), yaeythueieny enoi/ieeii
ieoaiey ?anoaiee. I?ioeann ieeneaiey na?u, aoiaeyuae a ninoaa aoiona e
i?aaie/aneeo inoaoeia, i?ienoiaeeo iiae aeeyieai ay?iaiuo aaeoa?ee
(noeueoioeeaoeey).

A aieueoeinoaa ii/a eiee/anoai na?u aeinoaoi/ii aeey ?anoaiee, iaeiaei a
iaeiaoioniuo iiaecieenouo ian/aiuo ii/aao aa iaiiiai, iiyoiio
noeueoaoiua oi?iu oaeia?aiee caeanue aieaa yooaeoeaiu, /ai oei?eaeiua.
Na?o a ii/ao aiinyo oaeaea n i?aaie/aneeie oaeia?aieyie, n i?inoui
noia?oinoaoii.

Niaea?aeaiea aeaeaca (Fe2O3) a ii/aao eieaaeaony io 1-11%. A eaaeeo iiae
iaoaie/aneiio ninoaao ii/aao aai iaiueoa, /ai a oyaeaeuo.

AEaeaci a ii/aa iaoiaeeony a oi?ia oa??iaethiineeeeaoia, ieene e caeene
aeaeaca e eo aeae?aoia. Iaaeinoaoie aeaeaca aeey ?anoaiee /aua anaai
i?iyaeyaony ia ea?aiiaoiuo eee neeueiiecaanoeiaaiiuo ii/aao, aaea iii
iaoiaeeony a o?oaeiiaeinooiiii ninoiyiee.

3. Ianoeoeeaeu.

Ianoeoeeaeu (yaeioeieeaou) – oeie/aneea i?aia?aou aeey caueou
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, ?anoaiee, aeey oie/oiaeaiey ia?aceoia
o aeeaioiuo, aeey ai?ueau n ia?aiin/eeaie iianiuo caaieaaaiee e o.i.
Ianoeoeeaeu a caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa iiae?acaeaeythony ia:

– Aa?aeoeeaeu – aeey oie/oiaeaiey ni?iie ?anoeoaeueiinoe;

– Einaeoeoeeaeu – i?ioea a?aaeiuo ianaeiiuo;

– Ciioeeaeu – aeey ai?ueaa n a?ucoiaie;

– Ooiaeoeeaeu – n aicaoaeeoaeyie a?eaeiauo caaieaaaiee;

– Aeaoieeaiou – aeey oaeaeaiey eenoueaa;

– Aeaoei?aiou – aeey oaeaeaiey oeaaoeia.

Ca iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey /enei ?acee/iuo oeiia ianoeoeeaeia neeueii
aic?inei, oieueei a NOA eo eiee/anoai aeinoeaei 900. Ii aeaiiui A.A.
ssaeieiaa (1988), a iaoae no?aia a 1986a. auei i?eiaiaii ianoeoeeaeia a
n?aaeiai ieiei 2 ea ia 1 aa (i?eia?ii ia 87% iaoie) eee ieiei 1,4 ea ia
aeooo ianaeaiey, a a NOA 1,6 ea ia 1 aa (ia 61% iaoie) eee 1,5 ea ia
aeooo ianaeaiey.

Ianoeoeeaeu ?ani?ino?aiythony ia aieueoea i?ino?ainoaa, aanueia
oaeaeaiiua io iano eo i?eiaiaiey. Iiiaea ec ieo iiaoo nio?aiyoueny a
ii/aao aeinoaoi/ii aeieai (ia?eiae iieo?aniaaea AeAeO a aiaea
ioeaieaaaony a 10 eao, a aeey aeeyeae?eia ii i?aauoaao 20 eao). I?e
eniieueciaaiee aeaaea iaeiaiaa eaoo/eo eiiiiiaioia aieaa 50% aeoeaiuo
aauanoa a iiiaio aicaeaenoaey ia?aoiaeyo i?yii a aoiinoa?o, a aeey oaeeo
ianoeoeeaeia, eae AeAeO e aeeyeae?ei, oa?aeoa?ia aeenoeeeyoeey n ia?aie
aiaeu ia caiiie iiaa?oiinoe. Yoa /anoue ianoeoeeaeia, ia aeinoeaoeo
?anoaiee, iiaeoaaouaaaony aao?ii e inaaeaeaaony a ?aeiiao nooe eee
ieaaia, aanueia oaeaeaiiuo io cii i?eiaiaiey aauanoaa. Iie a eiia/iii
eoiaa iiiaaeatho a ?acee/iua yeinenoaiu, aeeth/ay ieaai, i?aniiaiaeiua
aiaeiaiu, iacaiiua aeiiu e ae?., a cia/eoaeueiuo eiee/anoaao
iaeaieeaathony a ii/aao e oaaee/eaatho naie eiioeaio?aoeee i?e
aeaeaeaiee ii o?ioe/aneei oeaiyi.

Ianoeoeeaeu yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiui caa?ycieoaeai, eioi?ue niciaoaeueii
aiineony /aeiaaeii a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo. Ianoeoeeaeu ii?aaeatho
?acee/iua eiiiiiaiou i?e?iaeiuo yeinenoai: oiaiueoatho aeieiae/aneoth
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue oeoioeaiicia, aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea aeeaioiiai ie?a,
nieaeatho /eneaiiinoue iieaciuo ianaeiiuo e ioeoe, a a eiia/iii eoiaa
i?aaenoaaeytho iianiinoue e aeey naiiai /aeiaaea. Ianoeoeeaeu,
niaea?aeauea oei? (AeAeO, aaenaoei?ai, aeeienei, aeeaaicoo?ai e ae?.),
ioee/athony ia oieueei aunieie oiene/iinoueth, ii e /?acau/aeiie
aeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoueth e niiniaiinoueth iaeaieeaaoueny a ?acee/iuo
caaiueyo ieuaaie oeaie. Aeaaea a ie/oiaeiuo eiioeaio?aoeeyo ianoeoeeaeu
iiaeaaeytho eiioiioth nenoaio i?aaiecia, iiauoay oaeei ia?acii aai
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e eioaeoeeiiiui caaieaaaieyi. A aieaa aunieeo
eiioeaio?aoeeyo yoe i?eiane ieacuaatho iooaaaiiia e eaioea?iaaiiia
aeaenoaea ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea.

Iiyoiio a iaeioi?uo no?aiao (NOA, O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey) ia/eiatho
oiaiueoaoue aeicu i?eiaiaiey ianoeoeeaeia eee iieiinoueth io ieo
ioeacuaaoueny. A iineaaeiea aiaeu a NAA ?ac?aaioaiu aa?aeoeeaeu, ia
i?aaenoaaeythuea yaiie iianiinoe aeey aeeauo i?aaieciaia eee auno?i
?ac?ooathueany a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea aeieiae/aneeo
iaoiaeia caueou ?anoaiee iicaieeo oiaiueoeoue noaiaiue caa?yciaiey
n?aaeu ianoeoeeaeaie.

4. Oaeia?aiey.

Oaeia?aiey – yoi iai?aaie/aneea e i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa, i?eiaiyaiua a
naeueneii oicyenoaa e ?uaieianoaa aeey iiauoaiey o?iaeaeiinoe
eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee e ?uaii?iaeoeoeaiinoe i?oaeia. Iie auaatho:
ieia?aeueiua (eee oeie/aneea), i?aaie/aneea e aaeoa?eaeueiua
(eneonnoaaiiia aianaiea iee?ii?aaieciia n oeaeueth iiauoaiey
ieiaei?iaeey ii/a).

4.1. Ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey, aeiauoua ec iaae? eee i?iiuoeaiii
iieo/aiiua oeie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, niaea?aeao iniiaiua yeaiaiou ieoaiey
(acio, oinoi?, eaeee) e aaaeiua aeey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iee?iyeaiaiou
(iaaeue, ai?, ia?aaiaoe e ae?.).

Ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey iiae?acaeaeytho ia i?inoua (iaeeia?iua,
iaeiinoi?iiiea, iaeiieiiiiiaioiua) e eiiieaeniua. I?inoua ieia?aeueiua
oaeia?aiey niaea?aeao oieueei iaeie ec aeaaiuo yeaiaioia ieoaiey. E iei
ioiinyony acioiua, oinoi?iua, eaeeeiua oaeia?aiey e iee?ioaeia?aiey.
Eiiieaeniua oaeia?aiey niaea?aeao ia iaiaa aeaoo aeaaiuo ieoaoaeueiuo
yeaiaioia. A naith i/a?aaeue, eiiieaeniua ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey aeaeyo
ia neiaeiua, neiaeii-niaoaiiua e niaoaiiua.

Acioiua oaeia?aiey. I?iecaiaenoai acioiuo oaeia?aiee aace?oaony ia
neioaca aiieaea ec iieaeoey?iiai acioa e aiaei?iaea. Acio iieo/atho ec
aicaeooa, a aiaei?iae ec i?e?iaeiiai aaca, iaooyiuo e eieniauo aacia.
Acioiua oaeia?aiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaeue eee aeaeoiaaoue
e?enoaeee/aneee ii?ioie (e?iia oeeaiaieaea eaeey e aeeaeeeo oaeia?aiee),
oi?ioi ?anoai?eiu a aiaea, ia iiaeiuathony eee neaai iiaeiuathony
ii/aie. Iiyoiio acioiua oaeia?aiey eaaei auiuaathony, /oi ia?aie/eaaao
eo i?eiaiaiea inaiueth a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai oaeia?aiey. Aieueoeinoai ec
ieo iaeaaeaao aunieie aea?ineiie/iinoueth e o?aaoao iniaie oiaeiaee e
o?aiaiea. A oaaeeoea ?1 i?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua i ninoaaa ec naienoaao
iniiaiuo acioiuo oaeia?aiee.

Ii auioneo e eniieueciaaieth a naeueneii oicyenoaa aeaaiaeoea ec yoie
a?oiiu – aiiea/iay naeeo?a e ii/aaeia, ninoaaeythuea ieiei 60% anao
acioiuo oaeia?aiee.

Acioiua oaeia?aiey eniieuecotho iiae ana naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
eoeueoo?u.

Oaaeeoea ?1.

Oaeia?aieaOeie/aneee

ninoaaNiaea?aeaiea

acioa, %Oi?ia

acioaAicaeaenoaea

ia ii/aoAea?inei-ie/iinoueIao?eaaay

naeeo?aNaNO3Ia iaiaa 16Ieo?aoiayIiaeuaea/eaaaoNeaaayAiiea/iay

naeeo?aNH4NO334Ieo?aoiay

e aiiiieeiayIiaeeeneyaoI/aiue

neeueiayEaeueoeeaaay

naeeo?aCa(NO3)2Ia iaiaa 17,5Ieo?aoiayIiaeuaea/eaaaoI/aiue

neeueiayAiieae

aeeaeeeeNH382AiiiieeiayIiaeeeneyaoI/aiue

neeueiay

Oinoi?iua oaeia?aiey. Oinoi? – iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo yeaiaioia ieoaiey
?anoaiee, oae eae aoiaeeo a ninoaa aaeeia. Anee acio a ii/aa iiaeao
iiiieiyoueny iooai oeenaoeee aai ec aicaeooa, oi oinoaou – oieueei
aianaieai a ii/ao a aeaea oaeia?aiee. Aeaaiua enoi/ieee oinoi?a –
oinoi?eou, aiaoeou, aeaeaieo e iooiaeu iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe –
oiianoeae, oinoaooeae. Ana oinoi?iua oaeia?aiey – aii?oiua aauanoaa,
aaeiaaoi-na?iai eee aeaeoiaaoiai oeaaoa. Iniiaiua ec ieo – noia?oinoao e
oinoi?eoiay ioea. Oa?aeoa?enoeea oinoi?iuo oaeia?aiee i?eaaaeaia a
oaaeeoea ?2.

Ii noaiaie ?anoai?eiinoe yoe oaeia?aiey iiae?acaeaeytho ia neaaeothuea
a?oiiu:

1) ?anoai?eiua a aiaea, eaaeiaeinooiiua aeey ?anoaiee – noia?oinoaou
i?inoie e aeaieiie, aiiiiece?iaaiiue, iaiaauaiiue;

2) O?oaeii?anoai?yaiua (ia ?anoai?eiu a aiaea e ii/oe ia ?anoai?eiua a
neaauo eeneioao), iie ia iiaoo iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieueciaaoueny
?anoaieyie – yoi oinoi?eoiay e einoiay ioea.

Oinoi?eoiay ioea – oiiei ?aciieioue i?e?iaeiue oinoi?eo, niaaeeiaiey
eioi?iai o?oaeiiaeinooiiu ?anoaieyi. Yoi oaeia?aiea i?eiaiytho ia eeneuo
iiaecieenouo, oi?oyiuo, na?uo eaniuo ii/aao, a oaeaea ia
aeaa?aaee?iaaiiuo e auuaei/aiiuo /a?iicaiao e e?aniicaiao.

Oaaeeoea ?2

Oaeia?aieaOeie/aneee

ninoaaOi?ia

oinoi?iie eeneiouAicaeaenoaea

ia ii/aoNoia?oinoao i?inoie

a?aioee?iaaiiueCa(H2PO4)2+

+2CaSO4+H2OAiaei?anoai?yaiayIiaeeeneyaoNoia?oinoao aeaieiie

a?aioee?iaaiiueCa(H2PO4)2+

+H2OAiaei?anoai?yaiayIiaeeeneyaoI?aoeeieoaoCaHPO4x2H2O?anoai?yaiay a
eeiiiii-eeneii aiiiiee Neaai iaeo?aeecoao eeneioiinoue

Eaeeeiua oaeia?aiey. Eaeee – iaiaoiaeeiue yeaiaio aeey ?anoaiee. A
iniiaiii ii iaoiaeeony a iieiaeuo ?anooueo i?aaiao, eeaoi/iii niea
?anoaiee e niinianoaoao auno?iio iaeiieaieth oaeaaiaeia.

Iiiaea eaeeeiua oaeia?aiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?e?iaeiua eaeeeiua
niee, eniieuecoaiua a naeueneii oicyenoaa a ?aciieioii aeaea. Aieueoea
?ac?aaioee eo iaoiaeyony a Nieeeainea, ia Caiaaeiie Oe?aeia, a
Oo?eiaiee. Ioe?uou caeaaee eaeeeiuo ?oae a Eacaonoaia, Neae?e.

Cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai oei?a ai iiiaeo eaeeeiuo oaeia?aieyo
io?eoeaoaeueii aeeyao ia ?ino e ?acaeoea ?anoaiee, a niaea?aeaiea iao?ey
(a eaeeeiie niee e neeueaeieoa) oooaeoaao oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa
iiiaeo ii/a, iniaaiii /a?iicaiiuo, eaooaiiauo e nieiioeiauo.

Ia aaaeiuo eaeeai eaaeeo ii/aao e oi?oyieeao ana aac eneeth/aiey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua eoeueoo?u ioaeaeathony a eaeeeiuo oaeia?aieyo.
Iaaeinoaoie eaeey a ii/aa ainiieiyaony aeaaiui ia?acii aianaieai iaaica.
Eaeee ia i?eiaiytho ia nieiiiao e nieiioeaaaouo ii/aao, oae eae ii
oooaeoaao eo naienoaa. Eaeee eaaei ?anoai?yaony a aiaea e i?e aianaiee
iiaeiuaaony eieeieaeaie ii/au, iiyoiio ii iaeiiiaeaeaeai, iaeiaei ia
eaaeeo ii/aao eaaei auiuaaaony.

Eaeeeiua oaeia?aiey iiae?acaeaeythony ia o?e a?oiiu:

1) Eiioeaio?e?iaaiiua, yaeythueany i?iaeoeoaie caaiaeneie ia?a?aaioee
eaeeeiuo ?oae – oei?enoue eaeee, na?iieeneue eaeee, eaeeeii-iaaieaaue
eiioeaio?ao, noeueoao eaeey-iaaiey (eaeeiaaiacey);

2) Nu?ua eaeeeiua niee, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie ?aciieioua i?e?iaeiua
eaeeeiua ?oaeu – eaeieo, neeueaeieo;

3) Eaeeeiua niee, iieo/aaiua iooai niaoaiey nu?uo eaeeeiuo nieae n
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuie, iau/ii n oei?enoui eaeeai – 30-oe e 40%-iua
eaeeeiua niee.

Eae eaeeeiua oaeia?aiey eniieuecotho oaeaea ia/ioth cieo e oeaiaioioth
iueue.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eaeeeiua oaeia?aiey e eo naienoaa i?eaaaeaiu a
oaaeeoea ?3.

Oaaeeoea ?3

Oaeia?aieaOeie/aneee

ninoaaAea?ineiie/iinoueAicaeaenoaea

ia ii/aoEaeee oei?enoueKC1 n NaC1Iaeiaea?ineiie/iinoueIiaeeeneyaoEaeee
na?iieeneue

(noeueoao eaeey)E2SO4Iaaea?ineiie/aiIiaeeeneyao

Eiiieaeniua oaeia?aiey. Eo iiae?acaeaeytho ii ninoaao: aeaieiua
(acioii-oinoi?iua, acioii-eaeeeiua, oinoi?ii-eaeeeiua) e o?ieiua
(acioii-oinoi?ii-eaeeeiua); ii niiniao i?iecaiaenoaa: neiaeiua,
neiaeii-niaoaiiua (eiiaeie?iaaiiua) e niaoaiiua oaeia?aiey. E neiaeiui
oaeia?aieyi i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ioiinyo (eaeeaaay naeeo?a,
aiiioin, aeeaiiioin). Eo iieo/atho i?e oeie/aneii acaeiiaeaenoaee
enoiaeiuo eiiiiiaioia, neiaeii-niaoaiiua (ieo?ioin, ieo?ioinea,
ieo?iaiiioin, ieo?iaiiioinea, oinoi?ii-eaeeeiua, aeeaeeea eiiieaeniua e
ae?.) – a aaeeiii oaoiieiae/aneii i?ioeanna ec i?inouo eee neiaeiuo
oaeia?aiee. Niaoaiiua oaeia?aiey iieo/atho iooai niaoeaaiey i?inouo.

Neiaeiua e neiaeii-niaoaiiua oaeia?aiey oa?aeoa?ecothony aunieie
eiioeaio?aoeeae ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa, iiyoiio i?eiaiaiea oaeeo
oaeia?aiee iaania/eaaao cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia oicyenoaa ia
eo o?ainii?oe?iaeo, niaoeaaiea, o?aiaiea e aianaiea.

E /eneo iaaeinoaoeia eiiieaeniuo oaeia?aiee ioiineony oi, /oi i?iii?oeee
a niaea?aeaiee NPK a ieo aa?uee?otho a iaoe?ieeo i?aaeaeao. Iiyoiio i?e
aianaiee, iai?eia?, iaiaoiaeeiiai eiee/anoaa acioa, ae?oaeo ieoaoaeueiuo
yeaiaioia aiineony iaiueoa eee aieueoa, /ai o?aaoaony.

A iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa i?eiaiytho e iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiua oaeia?aiey,
niaea?aeauea, e?iia iniiaiuo ieoaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia, iee?iyeaiaiou e
aeinoeioeyoi?u, ieacuaathuea niaoeeoe/aneia aeeyiea ia ii/ao e ?anoaiey.

4.2. I?aaie/aneea oaeia?aiey – yoi ia?aaiie, oi?o, iaaic, ioe/ee iiiao
(aoaii), ?acee/iua eiiiinou, i?aaie/aneea iooiaeu ai?iaeneiai oicyenoaa
(noi/iua aiaeu, inaaeee noi/iuo aiae, ai?iaeneie ioni?), nai?iiaeue,
caeaiia oaeia?aiea. Iie niaea?aeao aaaeiaeoea yeaiaiou ieoaiey, a
iniiaiii a i?aaie/aneie oi?ia, e aieueoia eiee/anoaa iee?ii?aaieciia.
Aeaenoaea i?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aiee ia o?iaeae eoeueoo? neacuaaaony a
oa/aiea 3-4 eao e aieaa.

Iaaic. Yoi iniiaiia i?aaie/aneia oaeia?aiea ai anao ciiao no?aiu. Ii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianue oaa?aeuo e aeeaeeeo auaeaeaiee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aeeaioiuo n iiaenoeeeie e aac iaa. A iaaica
niaea?aeaony ana ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua ?anoaieyi, e
iiyoiio aai iacuaatho iieiui oaeia?aieai. Ea/anoai iaaica caaeneo io
aeaea aeeaioiuo, ninoaaa ei?iia, eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa iiaenoeeee,
niiniaa iaeiieaiey e oneiaee o?aiaiey.

A caaeneiinoe io niiniaia niaea?aeaiey neioa ?acee/atho iaaic
iiaenoeei/iue (oaa?aeue), iieo/aaiue i?e niaea?aeaiee neioa ia
iiaenoeeea, e aaniiaenoeei/iue (iieoaeeaeeee, aeeaeeee).

Iiaenoeei/iue iaaic niaea?aeeo ieiei 25% nooiai aauanoaa e ieiei 75%
aiaeu. A n?aaeiai a oaeii iaaica 0,5% acioa, 0,25% oinoi?a, 0,6% eaeey e
0,35% eaeueoeey. A aai ninoaa aoiaeyo oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?anoaiee
iee?iyeaiaiou, a /anoiinoe 30-50a ia?aaioea, 3-5a ai?a, 3-4a iaaee,
15-25a oeeiea, 0,3-0,5 iieeaaeaia ia 1oi.

E?iia ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa, iaaic niaea?aeeo aieueoia eiee/anoai
iee?ii?aaieciia (a 1o 10-15ea aeeauo iee?iaiuo eeaoie). I?e aianaiee
iaaica ii/aaiiay iee?ioei?a iaiaauaaony iieaciuie a?oiiaie aaeoa?ee.
I?aaie/aneia aauanoai neoaeeo yia?aaoe/aneei iaoa?eaeii aeey ii/aaiiuo
iee?ii?aaieciia, iiyoiio iinea aianaiey iaaica a ii/aa i?ienoiaeeo
aeoeaecaoeey aciooeene?othueo e ae?oaeo iee?iaeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Iaaic ieacuaaao iiiainoi?iiiaa aeaenoaea eae ia ii/ao, oae e ia
?anoaiea. Ii iiauoaao eiioeaio?aoeeth oaeaeeneiai aaca a ii/aaiiii e
iaaeii/aaiiii aicaeooa, nieaeaao eeneioiinoue ii/au e iiaeaeaeiinoue A1,
iiauoaao ianuuaiiinoue aa iniiaaieyie. I?e nenoaiaoe/aneii aai aianaiee
oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea aoiona e iauaai acioa a ii/aa, oeo/oaaony aa
no?oeoo?a, eo/oa iiaeiuaaony e oaea?aeeaaaony aeaaa.

Aaniiaenoeei/iue (aeeaeeee) iaaic iaeaieeaaaony a aieueoii eiee/anoaa
ia e?oiiuo aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo oa?iao e eiiieaenao i?e aaniiaenoeei/iii
niaea?aeaiee neioa e i?eiaiaiee aeae?aaee/aneie nenoaiu oai?ee
yene?aiaioia. Oaeie iaaic i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaeaeaeioth nianue eaea,
ii/e, inoaoeia ei?ia, aiaeu e aaciia?aciuo aauanoa, ia?acothueony a
ia?eiae o?aiaiey. Ii niaea?aeaieth aeaae aai ?acaeaeytho ia iieoaeeaeeeo

( aei 90%), aeeaeeee (90-93%).

Eiee/anoai e ea/anoai aaniiaenoeei/iiai iaaica caaeneo io aeaea e
aic?anoa aeeaioiuo, oeia ei?ieaiey, niiniaa niaea?aeaiey neioa e
oaoiieiaee iaeiieaiey iaaica.

Aieueoay /anoue ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a yoii oaeia?aiee iaoiaeeony a
eaaeiaeinooiiie aeey ?anoaiee oi?ia (aei 70% acioa a aiiea/iie oi?ia),
/oi iaoneiaeeaaao aieaa neeueiia aai aeaenoaea ii n?aaiaieth n
iiaenoeei/iui iaaicii a aiae aianaiey e neaaia a iineaaeothuea aiaeu.
Oinoi? e eaeee ec iiaenoeei/iiai iaaica onaaeaathony ?anoaieyie oae aea,
eae e ec ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee.

Ioe/ee iiiao. Yoi auno?iaeaenoaothuaa i?aaie/aneia oaeia?aiea.
Ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa a iai oi?ioi onaaeaathony ?anoaieyie. Eo?eiue
iiiao niaea?aeeo 0,7-1,9% acioa, 1,5-2% ?2I5, 0,8-1% E2I e 2,4% NaI.

Ioe/ee iiiao eniieuecotho a ea/anoaa iiaeei?iee ca?iiauo e oaoie/aneeo
eoeueoo?, ?anoai?ytho aai a 8-10 /anoyo aiaeu e aiinyo a ii/ao
eoeueoeaaoi?aie-?anoaieaieoaoaey.

Oi?o. Yoi oaeia?aiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianue iieo?aceiaeeaoeony a
oneiaeyo ecauoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey inoaoeia ?anoaiee, a iniiaiii aieioiuo.
Oi?o iiaeao auoue ieceie noaiaie ?aceiaeaiey (aei 20%), n?aaeiae
(20-40%) e aunieie (aieaa 40%). Oe?iei i?eiaiytho a naeueneii oicyenoaa
eae oaeia?aiea.

?acee/atho o?e oeia oi?oa: aa?oiaie, ieceiiue e ia?aoiaeiue.

Aa?oiaie oi?o ia?acoaony ia aaaeiuo ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie
aicauoaiiuo iaoao ?aeueaoa (noaaiiaua ioe, iooeoeu, oaeooea?ey aieioiay,
iiaeaae, aaaoeueiee, iniea oiiyiay e ae?.). Aa?oiaie oi?o
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiauoaiiui eiee/anoaii i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa, aunieie
eeneioiinoueth, aieueoie iiaeioeoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth e iaeui
niaea?aeaieai ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa. I?eiaiytho oeacaiiue oi?o aeaaiui
ia?acii a ea/anoaa iiaenoeeee e aeey eiiiinoe?iaaiey.

Ieceiiue oi?o ia?acoaony ia aiaaouo ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie
iiieaeaiiuo /anoyo ?aeueaoa (iniee, aeiiiaua ioe, o?inoiee, oaiu,
oaaieaa, naaaeueieee e ae?.). Ieceiiue oi?o niaea?aeeo aieueoa
ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa e iaiueoa i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa, /ai aa?oiaie.
Iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?acii aai eniieueciaaoue aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ?acee/iuo
eiiiinoia.

Ia?aoiaeiie oi?o caieiaao i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo aa?oiaui e
ieceiiui. Ii eiee/anoao cieu (a %) oi?oa iiae?acaeaeytho ia ii?iaeueiua
(aei 12) e aunieicieueiua (aieaa 12).

Oi?oyiua eiiiinou. Oi?o oe?iei i?eiaiytho aeey i?eaioiaeaiey eiiiinoia.
I?e eiiiinoe?iaaiee n iaaicii oi?o auno?aa ?aceaaaaony e iieiaa
eniieuecoaony ?anoaieyie. Oi?ioi eiiiinoe?oaony oi?o (aa?oiaie eee
ia?aoiaeiie) n ecaanoueth. Oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou iieo/atho i?e aeiaaaeaiee
e oi?oo 20 ea oinoi?eoiie ioee ia 1oi. Oi?oioinoi?eoiua eiiiinou
iniaaiii yooaeoeaiu ia noian/aiuo ii/aao, a oi?oiecaanoeiaua – ia
eeneuo.

E?iia yoiai oi?o eniieuecotho ia iieyo i?ioaiey, aaea aai eiiiinoe?otho
n inaaeeii noi/iuo aiae. Oe?iei i?eiaiytho oaeaea oi?oioaeaeueiua
eiiiinou. Yoe eiiiinou n/eoathony neeueiiaeaenoaothueie.

Inaaeee noi/iuo aiae. Eo iieo/atho i?e i/enoea noi/iuo aiae ai?iaeia ia
i/enoiuo nii?oaeaieyo. Aeaaeiinoue naaaeaai inaaeea ninoaaeyao ieiei
97%. Aeey nieaeaiey aeaaeiinoe aei 80% iie i?ioiaeyo yoai anoanoaaiiie
nooee ia eeiauo ieiuaaeeao e iaoaie/aneiai iaacaiaeeaaiey ia
aaeooi-oeeueo?ao n i?eiaiaieai ?aaaaioia (oei?iia aeaeaci e ecaanoue), a
aeey nieaeaiey aeaaeiinoe aei 25-30% – i?ioiaeyo oa?ie/aneoth nooeo a
aa?aaaiiuo ia/ao.

Inaaeee n eeiauo ieiuaaeie iiaeii enieueciaaoue iiae ana eoeueoo?u, ii
iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?acii eo i?eiaiaiea iiae iaiuiua e neeiniua eoeueoo?u,
naoa?ioth naaeeo. Inaaeee iinea oa?ie/aneie nooee, niaea?aeauea aieueoa
ecaanoe e aeaeaca, aeaeaoaeueiaa aiineoue iiae iocua/eaua ia ecaanoue
eoeueoo?u.

Nai?iiaeue(i?aniiaiaeiue ee). Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioeiaeeoothny a
i?aniiaiaeiuo aiaeiaiao nianue caiee n iieo?aceiaeeaoeieny
?anoeoaeueiuie e aeeaioiuie inoaoeaie. Niaea?aeeo i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa
(aei 15-30% e aieaa), acio, oinoi?, eaeee, ecaanoue, iee?iyeaiaiou,
iaeioi?ua aeoaieiu, aioeaeioeee, aeinoeioeyoi?u.

Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa iaaethaeaaony a eea
aiaeiaiia, iaoiaeyueony ieiei ianaeaiiuo ioieoia.

Nai?iiaee i?eiaiytho eae a /enoii aeaea, oae e a aeaea eiiiinoia n
iaaicii,oaeaeeyie e iaaiciie aeeaeae.

Caeaiia oaeia?aiea. Iii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie caeaioth ianno
?anoaiee-neaea?aoia, caiaoeaaaioth a ii/ao a uaeyo iaiaauaiey aa
ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie, aeaaiui ia?acii acioii, oeo/oaiey aiaeiiai,
aicaeooiiai e oaieiaiai ?aaeeiia. Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea caeaiia
oaeia?aiea eiaao ia iaeii?eiaei?iaeiuo aea?iiai-iiaeaieeonouo, ian/aiuo,
noaeeienouo e noian/aiuo ii/aao, a oaeaea ia i?ioaaiuo caieyo e ai
aeaaeiuo ?aeiiao Caeaaeacuey.

Aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe caeaiiai oaeia?aiey – yoi
i?aaeeueii ni/aoaiea aai n ae?oaeie i?aaie/aneeie e ieia?aeueiuie
oaeia?aieyie e oeie/aneie iaeei?aoeeae ii/a. Oaeie niinia oaeia?aiey
oe?iei i?eiaiyaony, oae eae ii aeaoaa (/anoi ia o?aaoao o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa), e ii oeie/aneiio ninoaao caeaiia oaeia?aiea aeecei e iaaico.

4.3. Aaeoa?eaeueiua oaeia?aiey. I?aia?aou, niaea?aeauea iieaciua aeey
?anoaiee aaeoa?ee, ioiinyony e aaeoa?eaeueiui oaeia?aieyi. Iie niiniaiu
oeo/oaoue ieoaiea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? e ia niaea?aeao
ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCOAIIE EEOA?AOO?U.

1. Ooaoai A.E. – “AEeciue ?anoaiee e oaeia?aiee” – Iineaa, 1981a.

2. A?othoei A.I., Aea?aeaaei E.I. – “E?aoeee neiaa?ue ii oaeia?aieyi” –
2-a ecae., Iineaa, 1984a.

3. Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Ieeeyaaa A.N. – “Iniiau caieaaeaeey e
?anoaiaaiaenoaa” – 3-a ecae., Iineaa, 1990a.

4. A?iineee A.A. – “I?eeeaaeiay yeieiaey” – ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1996a.

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