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Перспективы экологической оптимизации структуры агроэкосистем на примере колхозов Баймакского района РБ

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Aeaaa 4. Iiuo iioeiecaoeee no?oeoo?u aa?iyeinenoai Aaeiaeneiai ?aeiia

4.1. Iauay ioeaiea ninoiyiey aa?iyeinenoai

Aeey Aaoee?neiai Cao?aeuey e?eoe/aneei ia?eiaeii ?acaeoey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo yeinenoai noaee 50-a aiaeu, eiaaea ?acaa?ioeanue
yiiiay inaiaiey oeaeeiu. A yoi a?aiy a iieiie ia?a ?ane?ueny “neiae?ii
iiei?aiey I?e?iaeu”: ?acei aic?inooth ieiuaaeue iaoie e nie?aoeaoeany
ieiuaaee ei?iiauo oaiaeee ieeoi ia iiaeoiae aeiiieieoue aua e
nie?auaieai iiaieiauey neioa, iaa?ocee eioi?iai ia ai?iua ianoaeua
aic?inee a 3-4 ?aca.

I?e?iaea auea “iiei?aia”, aic?inee iieacaoaee i?iecaiaenoaa ca?ia, aei
ii?u aei a?aiaie nio?aiyeinue aunieei iiaieiauea neioa. Iaeiaei a
iineaaeiea aiaeu iinea yoiai “iiei?aiey” e iniaaiii iinea
“?aaiethoeeiiiuo” i?aia?aciaaiee a naeueneii oicyenoaa ia?eiaea ?aoi?i
ia/aee i?iyaeyoueny iaaaoeaiua oaiaeaioeee ?acei oneeeaathuaainy
?ac?ooaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia. Iieo/eee ?acaeoea i?ioeannu
aeaaoieoeeaoeee iaoioiuo ii/a, y?icee (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia neeiiiauo
ii/aao) e a iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoea ianoaeuiie aeea?annee a ?acoeueoaoa
ia?aauiana.

Naaiaeiy ia eaaeaeii aaeoa?a ianoaeua a Cao?aeuea auianaaony a 4-10 ?ac
aieueoa neioa, /ai iicaieyao anoanoaaiiay aieinoue yoeo oaiaeee. Eae
eoia – nieaeaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe o?aainoiaa, iaaaeiaiea eo aeaeiaiai
ninoaaa e aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi o?aainoie ec?aaeeaaaony, aeoeaece?othony
i?ioeannu y?icee aeaaea ia ii/aao ianoaeu.

Neooaoeey n anoanoaaiiuie ei?iiauie oaiaeueyie a Aaeiaeneii ?aeiia, eae
e ai anai Cao?aeuea, naiay oae?o/athuay, iniaaiii ia oao ianoaeuao,
eioi?ua ia?aaeaiu naeueneei niaaoai aeey ianoueau ee/iiai neioa,
iiaieiauea eioi?iai aaneiio?ieueii e auno?i ?anoao.

4.2. Iioeiecaoeeiiiua ?aoaiey ia i?eia?a IIO “Aaeiaeneia”

INIIAIUA YEIEIAE*ANEEA II?IAOEAU, ENIIEUeCIAAIIUA AeEss NINOAAEAIEss
I?IAEOA

Iaoioiua ii/au

Aa?ia?oiiu iaoioiuo ii/a

Aeey ninoaaeaiey i?iaeoa “Yeieiae/aneay iioeiecaoeey no?oeoo?u
caieaiieueciaaiey” ii/au na?oiie?iaaiu a o?e aa?ia?oiiu:

1. Ii/au oe?ieiai niaeo?a eniieueciaaiey;

2. Ii/au ia?aie/aiiiai niaeo?a eniieueciaaiey;

3. Ii/au, iaoeaeaniia?aciua aeey iaoioiiai eniieueciaaiey.

Ia?aay aa?ia?oiia – yoi eo/oea ii/au oicyenoaa: /a?iicaiu iaueiiaaiiua
e auuaei/aiiua, n?aaeiaiiuiua, n?aaeiaaoioniua e oo/iua, /anoe/ii
neaainiuoua. Iie oa?aeoa?ecothony iiuiinoueth aoioniaiai ai?eciioa – a
i?aaeaeao 41 – 60 ni e niaea?aeaieai aoiona a iaoioiii neia – 7.3-9.3 %.

Aoi?ay aa?ia?oiia aeeth/aao oa aea /a?iicaiu, ii iaeiiiuiua e /anoe/ii
neaainiuoua. Iiuiinoue aoioniaiai ai?eciioa a ieo ninoaaeyao 30-40 ni,
niaea?aeaiea aoiona a iaoioiii neia – 7-8.5%.

O?aouey aa?ia?oiia aeeth/aao ii/au ?acee/iuo oeiia, eioi?ua
ioaeaeathony a caeoaeaiee. Yoi a iniiaiii iieiaiiua ii/au e nieiioeiaua
eiiieaenu. Yoe eiiieaenu ninoaaeytho /a?iicaiu iaueiiaaiiua e nieiioeu
eoaiaua. I?e iiaeai?a o?aa e o?aainianae, aaaeii o/eouaaoue
ii/aaiii-yeieiae/aneea oneiaey: ?aaeoeeth n?aaeu, canieaiiinoue,
o?iaaiue a?oioiauo aiae.

?aeiiaiaeoaiay aeiey iaoie a oicyenoaa e a yeieiae/aneeo ?aeiiao
oicyenoaa (anee oicyenoai eiaao iaiaeii?iaeiue i?e?iaeiue o/anoie)

Ethaay iaoiy – yoi “?aia I?e?iaea” (Ie?eei,1991) e anee ieiuaaeue ?ai
aoaeao /?acia?ii aunieie, oi i?e?iaea ia niiaeao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naie
aeieiae/aneee iioaioeeae. A aa?iyeieiaee i?eiyo a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai oae
iacuaaaiue “i?eioeei yeieiae/aneiai o?eoiae?aoa”, i?e eioi?ii ia aeieth
iaoie, eoaia e eania ioaiaeeony iaeeiaeiaay aeiey oa??eoi?ee. Iaeiaei,
yoio i?eioeei /?acia?ii iaiauaiiue, e ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo eeoa?aoo?u
iaie eniieueciaaiu neaaeothuea ii?iaoeau i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiie aeiee
iaoie, eioi?ua iaiythony io 70% (?aaieiiua oa??eoi?ee) aei 20%
(ai?ii-eaniay), aeey ia?aoiaeiuo oa??eoi?ee – 40%.

NINOIssIEA AA?I?ANO?NIA OICssENOAA

Ninoiyiea eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia a oicyenoaa

No?oeoo?a caiaeueiuo oaiaeee oicyenoaa e caiaeue, ioaaaeaiiuo naeueneei
niaaoai i?aaenoaaeaia ia oaaeeoea 5 e 6.

Oaaeeoea 5.

No?oeoo?a aa?iyeinenoaiu IIO “Aaeiaeneee”

Iauay ieiuaaeue (aa) Iaoiy (aa) Naiieinu (aa) Ianoaeua (aa)

4507 2947 286 907

Oaaeeoea 6.

Yenieeeaoeey caiaeue ioaaaeaiiuo ae. Eoyioaaai

Iauay ieiuaaeue (aa) Iaoiy (aa) Naiieinu (aa) Ianoaeua (aa)

535 0 0 535

Iaoioiue oiiae

A oicyenoaa iaoioiue oiiae ?ani?aaeaeai ii aa?ia?oiiai neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

I – 2171 aa (77.8%)

II – 658 aa (18.8%)

III – 118 aa (3.4%)

Inaiaiiinoue a iaoith a oeaeii ii oicyenoao ninoaaeyao ieiei 65.4%, /oi
ianeieueei i?aauoaao yeieiae/aneee ii?iaoea aeey ia?aoiaeiuo oa??eoi?ee
(eaninoaie – noaie), eioi?ue ninoaaeyao aei 40%, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaiea 25% iaoioiuo ii/a a niaoeeaeueiuo ii/aicaueoiuo
naaiiai?ioao. Aeey ii/a I e II aa?ia?oii aeiionoeii auaiaeiia iiea,
eioi?ia canaaaaony o?aaaie aeey aeieaia?aiaiiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey aaeaina
i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa. Aeey ii/a I aa?ia?oiiu naaiiai?io aoaeao
auaeyaeaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1. Ia? /enoue e neaea?aeueiue

2. ss?iaay ioaieoea

3. Eoeo?oca

4. ss?iaay ioaieoea

5. Ai?io

6. Iaan, y/iaiue + o?aau

7. Iiiaieaoiea o?aau (auaiaeiia iiea)

Aeey ii/a II aa?ia?oiiu

a) 1. Aeea – iaan

2. ss/iaiue

3. Iiaa?

4. Eoeo?oca

5. ss?iaay ioaieoea

a) 1. Ia? caiyoue (ai?io)

2. Iceiay ?iaeue

3. ss?iaay ioaieoea + o?aau

4-6. Iiiaieaoiea o?aau

A iineaaeiea aiaeu eiee/anoai ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, eioi?ia aiineony
ia iiey, ninoaaeyao ia aieaa 50 ea/aa (a aeaenoaothuai aauanoaa),
eiee/anoai iaaica – ia aieaa 2 o/aa. N o/aoii iiaeieaiuo inoaoeia
(nieiia a ianoiyaoaa a?aiy eniieuecoaony ia ei?i neioo) a oicyenoaa
noi?ie?iaaeny aeaoeoeeo yeaiaioia ieoaiey. Aeey iaania/aiey ii?iaeueiiai
aaeaina yeaiaioia ieia?aeueiiai ieoaiey e i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa a ii/aa
iaiaoiaeeii aaeaaiaeiia aianaiea ieiei 97,2 o acioa, 135,6 oinoi?a, 29,5
o eaeey (a aeaenoaothuai aauanoaa) e i?eia?ii 20,6 oun. o iaaica ia anth
ieiuaaeue iaoie oicyenoaa.

Iaaeinoathuaa eiee/anoai iaaica iiaeii ainiieieoue neaea?aoeeae
(aeiiieeii) e nieiiie y?iaie ioaieoeu. Ca ?ioaoeeth 6-iieueiiai e
7-iieueiiai naaiiai?ioia iio?aaoaony caiaoaoue a ea/anoaa neaea?aoia
aeiiiee, ai?io 30 o/aa (nu?ie iannu) e nieiiu y?iaie ioaieoeu – 4-5
o/aa.

Naiieinu e ianoaeua

N?aaeiyy o?iaeaeiinoue anoanoaaiiuo naiieinia oicyenoaa ninoaaeyao 4.3
oe/aa, oeo/oaiiuo – 16.5 oe/aa, /oi iaania/eaaao naiii iauanoaaiiue neio
– ia 19%, aeey ee/iiai neioa naiieinu ia ioaaaeaiu (ni. oaae. 6).

Ia oa??eoi?ee oicyenoaa ano?a/athony 4 oeia ianoaeu. Iie nouanoaaiii
?acee/athony ii i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e ?eoieea ia?aciaaiey caeaiie iannu e ii
aeiionoeiie eioaineaiinoe ianoaeuiie iaa?ocee (oaaeeoea 7).

Oaaeeoea 7

O?iaeae e aeeiaieea oi?ie?iaaiey caeaiie iannu ianoaeu Aaeiaeneiai
?aeiia

Oei ianoaeu

Noaiaiue naeoinoe I?iaeoe-oea-iinoue oe/aa Ia?anoaiea caeaiiai
aauanoaa ii naciiai

1 2 3 4

Anoanoaaiiua ianoaeua

Iiiniiai-oei/aeiaue N?aaeia 20 8 6 3 3

Neeueii 10 4 3 1,5 1,5

Ieceio?aaii-oei/a- N?aaeia 25 10 7 3 5

eiaue Neeueii 10 5 3,5 1,5 2,5

Ieceio?aaii-iyoee- N?aaeia 30 10 7 5 7

eiaue nooiaeieueiue Neeueii 15 6 4 3 4

Ieceio?aaii-iyoee- N?aaeia 40 12 10 10 8

eiaue iieiaiiue Neeueii 20 6 5 5 4

Ieceio?aaii-iaiaeao- N?aaeia 40 10 14 10 8

eiaue Neeueii 20 5 6 5 4

Uo/eiaua e inieiaua N?aaeia 50 10 16 14 10

nu?ua eoaa Neeueii 20 4 6 6 4

Nieii/aee N?aaeia 20 8 6 2 4

Neeueii 5 2 1,5 0,5 1

Oceieenoii-eiaueue- N?aaeia 40 16 10 8 6

iue Neeueii 20 8 5 4 3

Oeo/oaiiua ianoaeua N?aaeia 40 12 10 8 10

Neeueii 20 6 5 4 5

Oeo/oaiiua ianoaeua ianaeoua

A. Ai?ii-eaniay ciia 120 30 40 20 30

A. Noaiiay ciia 80 20 30 10 20

A. Nieii/aee 40 12 15 5 8

Ianoeaeua, ioaaaeaiiua naeueneei niaaoai (535 aa, 36% io anae ieiuaaee
ianoaeu oicyenoaa a oeaeii) aeey ianoueau ee/iiai neioa, iiaeaa?aathony
/?acia?iie ianoaeuiie iaa?ocea. I?e yoii aeaaea a ia?aii ianoaeuiii
ia?eiaea iaania/aiiinoue ianoaeuiui ei?iii ia i?aauoaao 35%. Aieueoay
/anoue ianoaeuiuo oaiaeee i?aaenoaaeaia ieceio?aaii-oei/aeiaie
iiaeeoeeaoeeae, o?iaeaeiinoue eioi?ie ?acei iaaeaao a eiioea eaoa.
Iiyoiio a o?aoee ianoaeuiue ia?eiae iaania/aiiinoue ianoaeuiui ei?iii
ee/iiai neioa iaaeaao aei 15.6%.

Ianoaeua aeey ianoueau iauanoaaiiiai neioa caieiatho ieiuaaeue 952 aa
(64% io iauae ieiuaaee ianoaeu oicyenoaa) e ?aciiia?aciu ii o?aainoith.
Iieiaeaiea n iaania/aiiinoueth ianoaeuiui ei?iii e?eoe/aneia ec-ca
iaiiia?iuo ianoaeuiuo iaa?ocie, i?e ecauoi/iii iiaieiauea a 752 oneiaiuo
aieia. ?acoeueoaoii oaeiai iieiaeaiey aeae yaeeinue oi, /oi
?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia ianoaeu neeueii naeo e iianaianoii ?acaeaaaony
i?ioeann ianoaeuiie aeaa?annee. Nouanoaothuaa ninoiyiea ianoaeu
oaeiaeaoai?yao iiaieiauea ianoaeuiui ei?iii oieueei ia 37%, aeaaea a
ia?aue ianoaeuiue ia?eiae, eiaaea o?iaeaeiinoue ianoaeu naiay aunieay. E
eiioeo eaoa neooaoeey aua aieaa onoaoaeyaony e e /aoaa?oiio ianoaeuiiio
ia?eiaeo iaania/aiiinoue iaaeaao aei 22%.

Oaaeeoea 8.

Iiaieiauea iauanoaaiiiai neioa e aai no?oeoo?a a IIO “Aaeiaeneee”
Aaeiaeneiai ?aeiia ia 1/VI-95 a.

A?oiiu neioa *enei aieia

E?N (anaai) 1192

a o. /. iiei/iua 360

iyniua 300

?aiiioiua 50

iieiaeiye 482

Eioaaee 406

Anaai (a one. aie.) 1015

Iiaieiauea iauanoaaiiiai neioa e aai no?oeoo?a i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 8,
a oaaeeoea 9 – aiaeiae/iua iieacaoaee aeey ee/iiai neioa. Ia oaaeeoea 11
i?eaaaeaia iaania/aiiinoue ianoaeuiui ei?iii iauanoaaiiiai e ee/iiai
neioa ii ia?eiaeai ianoaeuiiai naciia i?e nouanoaothuai ?aaeeia
eniieueciaaiey ianoaeu.

Oaaeeoea 9.

Iiaieiauea ee/iiai neioa e aai no?oeoo?a a ae.Eoyioaaai

Aaeiaeneiai ?aeiia ia 1/VI-95 a.

A?oiiu neioa *enei aieia

E?N (anaai) 819

a o. /. iiei/iua 369

iyniua 44

?aiiioiua 40

iieiaeiye 366

Iaoeu e eicu (anaai) 487

a o. /. iaoi/iia iiaieiauea 208

ioei?ii/iua 64

iieiaeiye 215

Eioaaee 7

Naeiuee 3

Anaai (a one. aie.) 570

Oaaeeoea 10.

Iaania/aiiinoue neioa ianoaeuiui ei?iii i?e nouanoaothuai ?aaeeia
eniieueciaaiey ianoaeu (%)

Ianaeaiiue ioieo Ianoaeuiua ia?eiaeu

I II II IV

IIO 37,8 29,2 16,5 22,0

ae. Eoyioaaai 35,1 24,9 9,3 15,6

Ec oaaeeoeu 10 aeaeii, /oi iauanoaaiiue e ee/iue neio ianoaeuiui ei?iii
iaania/aiu e?aeia iaaeinoaoi/ii,o.a. oicyenoao i?e nouanoaothuai
iiaieiauea neioa ia aeinoaao ianoaeuiuo oaiaeee. Ecauoi/iia iiaieiauea
ninoaaeyao 752 one. aie. aeey iauanoaaiiiai e 453 one. aie.- aeey
ee/iiai neioa. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaieiauea neioa a oicyenoaa i?aauoaii a 3
– 3.5 ?aca.

IIOEIECAOeEss ENIIEUeCIAAIEss AA?I?ANO?NIA

Iaoioiue oiiae

Aeey i?eaaaeaiey caieaiieueciaaiey oicyenoaa a ninoiyiea, eneeth/athuaa
aeaeueiaeoaa ia?ooaiea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia e iaania/eaathuaa
eo ainnoaiiaeaiea, i?aaeeaaaaony neaaeothuaa:

1. Nie?aoeoue ieiuaaeue iaoie a oeaeii ia 118 aa ca n/ao ii/a III
aa?ia?oiiu;

2. Ia?aniio?aoue naaiiai?iou. I?aaeeaaathony aaanoe ei?iiaua
naaiiai?iou ia ieiuaaee – 658 aa, ca?iio?aaiua e ca?iii?iiaoiua – ia
ieioaaee 2171 aa. No?oeoo?a naaiiai?ioia i?eaaaeaia a I /anoe.

A ?acoeueoaoa ia?aaiaea /anoe iaoie a ei?iiaua oaiaeuey i?e
iioeiecaoeee no?oeoo?u caieaiieueciaaiey yenieeeaoeey caiaeueiuo oaiaeee
eciaieony. Ia?niaeoeaiay yenieeeaoeey i?aaenoaaeaia a oaae. 11 e 12.

Oaaeeoea 11.

Yenieeeaoeey caiaeue IIO “Aaeiaeneee” Aaeiaeneiai ?aeiia a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy e a ia?niaeoeaa

Iaoiy Naiieinu Ianoaeua

Iauay ieiuaaeue

Anaai a o. /.

Anaai a o. /. oeo/-

Anaai a o. /. oeo/-

(aa) 1 aa?i-a?oiia 2 aa?i-a?oiia (aa) oai-iua(aa) (aa) oai-

iua (aa)

4507*

4507** 2947

2890 2171

2171 658

658 286

336 ___

210 907

975 ___

591

* – iieacaoaeue nouanoaothuaai ninoiyiey.

** – iieacaoaeue ia?niaeoeaiiai ninoiyiey

Oaaeeoea 12.

Yenieeeaoeey caiaeue, ioaaaeaiiuo ae. Eoyioaaai Aaeiaeneiai ?aeiia a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy e a ia?niaeoeaa

Iaoiy Naiieinu Ianoaeua

Iauay ieiuaaeue

Anaai a o. /.

Anaai a o. /. oeo/-

Anaai a o. /. oeo/-

(aa) 1 aa?i-a?oiia 2 aa?i-a?oiia (aa) oai-iua(aa) (aa) oai-

iua (aa)

535*

535** – – – – – 535

535 ___

110

* – iieacaoaeue nouanoaothuaai ninoiyiey.

** – iieacaoaeue ia?niaeoeaiiai ninoiyiey

Anoanoaaiiua e oeo/oaiiua ei?iiaua oaiaeuey

Eae auei iieacaii auoa, neooaoeey n iaania/aieai neioa naiii e
ianoaeuiui ei?iii a oicyenoaa neeaaeuaaaony iaaeaaiiieo/iay, iieiaeaiea
aeecei e eaoano?ioe/aneiio, iniaaiii aeey iauanoaaiiiai neioa. I?e
oneiaee auiieiaiey ?yaea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aiciiaeii yeieiae/anee
ii?aaaeaiiia ?aoeeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea e ainnoaiiaeaiea
ii?iaeueiiai o?aayiiai iie?iaa anoanoaaiiuo ianoaeu aac nouanoaaiiiai
nieaeaiey nouanoaothuaai iiaieiauey neioa.

Iaaeaaiiieo/ia neooaoeey n iaania/aieai neioa naiii. Anoanoaaiiua
naiieinu nio?aieeenue a oicyenoaa a iacia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa ia
iaoaeiaueyo e aeatho iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai naia ia eo/oaai
ea/anoaa. Enoiaey ec yoiai, ?aeiiaiaeoaony auaanoe ec iaoioiiai
eniieueciaaiey e i?iaanoe caeoaeaiea n iineaaeothuae o?ainoi?iaoeeae a
naiiein 50 aa.

I?e oneiaee 2-ooeiniiai eniieueciaaiey ( 1 oein – aei 1 ethey, 2 –
/a?ac 35 – 40 aeiae) o?iaeaeiinoue ia yoeo oeo/oaiiuo naiieinao
i?aaeiieaaaaony 20 oe/aa, /oi iicaieeo iieo/eoue aaeaaiaeii 100 o naia.
Aaeaaiaeiue auoiae naia i?e ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo ca?iii?iiaoiuo e ca?iio?aaiuo
naaiiai?ioao ninoaaeo ia iaiaa 1021 o . *anoue naia aeiiieieoaeueii
aoaeao iieo/aia n caeoaeaaiuo eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeu, eioi?ua a ia?aua aeaa
aiaea aei ia?aciaaiey aea?ieiu aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoueny eae naiieinu.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e oneiaee auiieiaiey anao ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?iecaiaenoai
naia cia/eoaeueii aic?anoao. Yoi iicaieeo caaioiaeoue aei 6 oe naia ia 1
oneiaioth aieiao, inoaaoeeny aeaoeoeeo iiaeao auoue ainiieiai ca n/ao
caaioiaee naia ca i?aaeaeaie oicyenoaa a ai?ii-eaniie ciia, aaea
oeaeaniia?acii ia iaeioeaiiuo o/anoeao eana i?iaanoe eoeueoo?oaoie/aneea
?aaiou e nicaeaoue aunieii?iaeoeoeaiua naiieinu, e /anoe/ii ca n/ao
ei?iia n iaoie (nieiia). I?e yoii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?e ?an/aoao
aanue caian naia oicyenoaa aue iiaeaeai ia noiio ee/iiai e iauanoaaiiiai
neioa, o. e. a ?anii?yaeaiee naeueneiai niaaoa iao naiieinia e iaoie,
eioi?oth iiaeii auei au ia?aaanoe a naiieinu.

Cia/eoaeueiue aeaoeoeeo nouanoaoao e a iaania/aiee neioa ianoaeuiui
ei?iii. Aeey eeeaeaeaoeee yoiai aeaoeoeeoa i?aaeeaaaaony o?e aa?eaioa
ia?niaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ianoaeu :

1. O?aaoee?iaaiea auiana e ei?aiiia oeo/oaiea i?eaiaeiuo aeey yoiai
anoanoaaiiuo ianoaeu (aa?eaio “a”).

2. Oi aea, /oi “a” e aeiionoeii ieieiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ianoaeuiiai
ei?ia (aa?eaio “a”).

3. Oi aea, /oi “a” e nie?auaiea iiaieiauey neioa ia 30% (aa?eaio “a”).

A oaaeeoea 13 i?eaaaeaia iaania/aiiinoue neioa ianoaeuiui ei?iii (a%)
i?e ?acee/iuo aa?eaioao ia?niaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ii ianoaeuiui
ia?eiaeai, a oaae.14 – ?an/aou aeiionoeiiai e ecauoi/iiai iiaieiauey
neioa e iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiuo ieiuaaeyo eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeu
i?e nouanoaothuai (a) e o?ao ia?niaeoeaiuo aa?eaioao (a,a,a)
eniieueciaaiey ianoaeu.

A i?eeiaeaiee 1 i?aaenoaaeaiu ea?oia?aiiu, ia eioi?uo a?aoe/anee
ioia?aaeaia noaiaiue iaania/aiiinoe ianoaeuiui ei?iii ii ianoaeuiui
ia?eiaeai i?e nouanoaothuai e o?ao aa?eaioao ia?niaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey ianoaeu.

Oaaeeoea 13.

Iaania/aiiinoue neioa ianoaeuiui ei?iii (%) i?e ?acee/iuo aa?eaioao
ia?niaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ianoaeu

Ianaeaiiue ioieo Ianoaeuiua ia?eiaeu

I II III IV

I?e 1-ii aa?eaioa (“a”)

IIO 74.1 82.2 30.4 49.2

ae.Eoyioaaai 63.1 65.3 20.9 38.8

I?e 2-ii aa?eaioa (“a”)

IIO 105.9 126.6 52.7 119.6

ae.Eoyioaaai 78.9 88.4 31.6 81.4

I?e 3-ai aa?eaioa (“a”)

IIO 137.6 163.9 68.5 155.4

ae.Eoyioaaai 102.6 114.9 41.1 105.9

Oaaeeoea 14.

Aeiionoeiia, ecauoi/iia iiaieiauea neioa e iio?aaiinoue a
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ieiuaaeyo eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeu (EI) i?e nouanoaothuai
(a) e o?ao ia?niaeoeaiuo aa?eaioao (a,a,a) eniieueciaaiey ianoaeu

Ianaeaiiue ioieo Iieacaoaeue

(a one. aie.) Aa?eaiou

“a” “a” “a” “a”

IIO Aeiionoeiia iiaieiauea: 263 585 1013 1013

Ecauoi/iia iiaieiauea: 752 430 2 0

Iio?aaiinoue a EI: 676 387 1,8 0

ae.Eoyioaaai Aeiionoeiia iiaieiauea: 117 268 460 460

Ecauoi/iia iiaieiauea: 453 302 110 0

Iio?aaiinoue a EI: 407 271 99 0

Iao?oaeii aeaeaoue, /oi i?e nouanoaothuai iiaieiauea e ?aaeeia
eniieueciaaiey 70% iauanoaaiiiai neioa yaeyaony ecauoi/iui, /oi neoaeeo
i?e/eiie aeaa?aaeaoeee ianoaeu. Ia eo/oa neooaoeey n ee/iui neioii a
ae.Eoyioaaai, aaea eeoieie yaeythony 85% aieia ee/iiai neioa. Aeey
eeeaeaeaoeee aeaoeoeeoa ianoaeuiiai ei?ia i?e nouanoaothuai iiaieiauea
iio?aaoaony o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue 1/3 anae iaoie a ei?iiaua oaiaeuey –
i?eia?ii 1083 aa n caeoaeaieai iiiaieaoieie o?aaaie e nicaeaieai ia ieo
eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeu. Ei?aiiia oeo/oaiea anao i?eaiaeiuo aeey yoiai
ianoaeu a ni/aoaiee n ?aoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiie ianoueau ia inoaeueiuo,
iai?eaiaeiuo aeey oeo/oaiey o/anoeao (aa?. “a”), iicaieeo ianeieueei
oeo/oeoue neooaoeeth. Ii aiciiaeiinoe yoiai aa?eaioa ia aani?aaeaeueiu e
ana aea ieiei iieiaeiu iiaieiauey aoaeao”eeoiei”. Aeey eeeaeaeaoeee
aeaoeoeeoa ei?ia a yoii neo/aa iaiaoiaeei auaiae 658 aa iaoie e
nicaeaiea ia iae eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeu.

Oieueei ieieiecaoeey eniieueciaaiey ianoaeuiiai ei?ia (aa?. “a”)
iicaieeo ia?aeiieoue neooaoeeth a eo/ooth noi?iio. I?e yoii iauanoaaiiue
neio aoaeao iaania/ai ianoaeuiui ei?iii iieiinoueth ca eneeth/aieai III
ia?eiaea. Aeey ae.Eoyioaaai aeaiiue aa?eaio iioeiecaoeee ia i?eiineo
iieiie iaania/aiiinoe ie a iaeiii ec ianoaeuiuo ia?eiaeia, a naiue
aeaaii?eyoiue II ia?eiae iaania/aiiinoue aeinoeaaao 88%. Aeaoeoeeo
ianoaeuiiai ei?ia aeey ee/iiai neioa iiaeao auoue eeeaeaee?iaai iooai
nicaeaiey eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeu ia ieiuaaee ieiei 100 aa.

I?e 3 aa?eaioa (“a”) ia?niaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey neio aoaeao
iaania/ai n ecauoeii, a a III ia?eiaea, eiaaea iaania/aiiinoue iaiueoa
100%, aeaoeoeeo iiaeii ainiieieoue ca n/ao ei?ia n iaoie.

?aeiiaiaeoaiua ia?ii?eyoey ii eniieueciaaieth ei?iiauo oaiaeee ia
o/eouaatho yeno?aiaeueiua canooeeaua aiaeu, eioi?ua a yoie ciia
?eneiaaiiiai caieaaeaeey auaatho aeiaieueii /anoi (1-2 ?aca a 10 eao). A
oaeea aiaeu o?iaeaeiinoue ei?iiauo oaiaeee iaaeaao a 2-5 ?ac, /oi noaaeo
neio iniaaiii a eiioea eaoa ia a?aiue auaeeaaiey. Aeey nio?aiaiey
iiaieiauey, aeaeeii, iio?aaoaony eniieueciaaiea anaai iaoioiiai oiiaea a
ea/anoaa enoi/ieea ei?ia e ?aciaia eniieueciaaiea eaniuo ianoaeu,
eioi?ia ia aoaeao noieue aoaeoaeueiui aeey eana, eae iinoiyiiia ioaiiiia
aeeaioiiaiaenoai a iaeieo e oao aea ianneaao.

Ai anao ianeaaeiaaiiuo oicyenoaao eiaao ianoi aioeyeieiae/iay no?oeoo?a
iiaieiauey neioa n caauoaiiie aeieae iaaoe e E?N e ieceei o/anoeai
eioaaeae (oaaeeoea 15). Yeieiae/anee iai?aaeeueiay no?oeoo?a iiaieiauey
oneeeaaao iaa?oceo ianoaeu, iniaaiii anee i?aiaeaaeaao iianiue aeey
noaiiuo ianoaeu aeae – iaoeu. Ia oiia aunieiai o/anoey E?N e iaaoe
eioaaee i?aaenoaaeaiu ie/oiaeii iaei, oioy yoio aeae iaeaieaa
oeaeaniia?acai aeey niaea?aeaiey ia noaiiuo ianoaeuao Aaeiaeneiai
?aeiia. Eioaaee ianoiie aaoee?neie ii?iaeu, aaeaioe?iaaiiua e ianoiui
oneiaeyi e n oeaiiaeoei iaai?ii yeieiae/aneeo i?eniiniaeoaeueiuo
ea/anoa, yaeythony aa?eaioii aeey caea/eaaiey, aeaa?aaee?iaaiiuo ianoaeu
(THionaaaa, 1995). Enoiaey ec yoiai aeey oicyenoa Aaeiaeneiai ?aeiia
?aeiiaiaeoaony oaaee/eoue aeieth eioaaeae ca n/ao nie?auaiey iaaoe.

Oaaeeoea 15

No?oeoo?a iiaieiauey iauanoaaiiiai e ee/iiai neioa

(a aieiaao anaai)

Oicyenoai Aeaeu neioa

E?N Iaoeu e eicu Eioaaee

Eieoic ei. O?oica 2563 1100 250

Eieoic “Naeia?” 4997 2975 470

Eieoic ei. Eaieia 4791 3700 517

Eieoic ei. E.Ia?ena 3603 3146 447

Eieoic “Naeaaao” 3975 2060 453

Eieoic“Aiaa/aaneee” 352 600 15

Eieoic “?annaao” 1149 3710 210

Eieoic “Oaiaeue” 1865 2418 290

Eieoic “Aeaa” 3734 2090 322

Eieoic “O?ae” 3515 1504 375

Anaai =SUM(ABOVE) 30544 =SUM(ABOVE) 23303 =SUM(ABOVE) 3349

A % 53 41 6

3.1. ?acoeueoaou iioeiecaoeee aa?iyeinenoai eieoicia Aaeiaeneiai ?aeiia

A oaaeeoea 16 iieacaia no?oeoo?a iaoioiiai oiiaea eieoicia Aaeiaeneiai
?aeiia e ieiuaaee ii/a, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii eneeth/eoue ec aeoeaiiai
iaoioiiai eniieueciaaiey. Eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu, a eaaeaeii o?aoueai
oicyenoaa i?aauoai yeieiae/aneee ii?iaoea ?aniaoaiiinoe oa??eoi?ee.
Iauay ieiuaaeue ii/a III aa?ia?oiiu iaaaeeea, eae iaaaeeea e ieiuaaeue
iaoie, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue auaaaeaia ec iaoaoiiai oiiaea.

Oaaeeoea 16

No?oeoo?a iaoioiiai oiiaea eieoicia Aaeiaeneiai ?aeiia

(a aa)

Oicyenoai Nio?aiyaony a iaoaoiii oiiaea Ecuiaaony ec iaoaoiiai oiiaea

I aa?i-a?oiia II aa?i-a?oiia III aa?i-a?oiia i?aauoathuea ii?iaoea
?aniaoaiiainoe

Eieoic ei. O?oica 1275 2400 130 0

Eieoic “Naeia?” 4565 400 200 0

Eieoic ei. Eaieia 4165 200 300 0

Eieoic ei. E.Ia?ena 2193 465 435 0

Eieoic “Naeaaao” 3146 1100 140 113

Eieoic“Aiaa/aaneee” 420 1700 0 0

Eieoic “?annaao” 2099 867 40 184

Eieoic “Oaiaeue” 2390 200 150 0

Eieoic “Aeaa” 2637 295 65 0

Eieoic “O?ae” 2598 770 70 275

Eieoic ei. 50-eaoey Ieoya?y 2545 1510 100 0

Anaai =SUM(ABOVE) 28033 =SUM(ABOVE) 9907 =SUM(ABOVE) 1630
=SUM(ABOVE) 572

Ia oaaeeoeao 17 e 18 iieacaii ecauoi/iia iiaieiauea. Eae aeaeii ec
oaaeeoe, a eaaeaeii oicyenoaa, ca eneeth/aiea eieoica “Aiaa/aaneee”,
iiaieiauea i?aauoaao aeiionoeiia eiee/anoai. Neooaoeey n anoanoaaiiuie
ei?iiauie oaieueyie a Aaeiaeneii ?aeiia, eae e ai anai Cao?aeuea, naiay
oae?o/athuay, iniaaiii ia oao ianoaeuao, eioi?ua ia?aaeaiu naeueneei
niaaoai aeey ianoueau ee/iiai neioa, iiaieiauea eioi?iai aaneiio?ieueii
e auno?i ?anoao. I?aauoaiea ianoaeuiuo iaa?ocie iniaaiii aaeeei ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia eaoa e aeioiaeeo a 5-10 ?ac.

Oaaeeoea 17

Ecauoi/iia iiaieiauea iauanoaaiiiai neioa

(a oneiaiuo aieiaao E?N)

Oicyenoai Iiaieiauea neioa

Nouanoaothuaa aeiionoeiia ecauoi/iia

Eieoic ei. O?oica 981 870 111

Eieoic “Naeia?” 1747 992 755

Eieoic ei. Eaieia 1547 967 580

Eieoic ei. E.Ia?ena 1608 630 978

Eieoic “Naeaaao” 1376 711 665

Eieoic“Aiaa/aaneee” 556 724 0

Eieoic “?annaao” 1437 269 1168

Eieoic “Oaiaeue” 974 275 699

Eieoic “Aeaa” 1244 688 556

Eieoic “O?ae” 1403 413 990

Eieoic ei. 50-eaoey Ieoya?y 1464 308 1156

Anaai =SUM(ABOVE) 14337 =SUM(ABOVE) 6847 =SUM(ABOVE) 7658

Oaaeeoea 18

Ecauoi/iia iiaieiauea ee/iiai neioa

(a oneiaiuo aieiaao E?N)

Oicyenoai Iiaieiauea neioa

Nouanoaothuaa aeiionoeiia ecauoi/iia

Eieoic ei. O?oica 895 175 720

Eieoic “Naeia?” 1710 148 1562

Eieoic ei. Eaieia 2144 1419 725

Eieoic ei. E.Ia?ena 1467 183 1284

Eieoic “Naeaaao” 1657 425 1232

Eieoic“Aiaa/aaneee” 338 268 70

Eieoic “?annaao” 587 132 455

Eieoic “Oaiaeue” 555 96 459

Eieoic “Aeaa” 1522 407 1115

Eieoic “O?ae” 1330 271 1059

Eieoic ei. 50-eaoey Ieoya?y 1480 299 1181

Anaai =SUM(ABOVE) 13685 =SUM(ABOVE) 3823 =SUM(ABOVE) 9862

A oaaeeoeao 19 e 20 i?eaaaeaii iiaieiauea ee/iiai e iauanoaaiiiai neioa
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, aeiionoeiia iiaieiauea i?e nouanoaothuai ninoiyiee
AEO (a), e i?e aa?eaiao (a), (a).

Oaaeeoea 19

Iiaieiauea iauanoaaiiiai neioa (a oneiaiuo aieiaao E?N)

Iiaiei- Aeiionoeiia iiaieiauea

auea a ian- i?e no- i?e oeo/oaiee AEO

Oicyenoai oiyuaa a?aiy uanoaoth-uai nin-oiyiee

(a) i?e nia-?aiaiiii ?aoeeiia

(a) i?e oiaiue-oaiee aeiee ianoaeuiiai ei?ia (a)

Eieoic ei. O?oica 981 870 1330 1913

Eieoic “Naeia?” 1747 992 2731 4597

Eieoic ei. Eaieia 1547 967 1833 3004

Eieoic ei. E.Ia?ena 1608 630 1478 2639

Eieoic “Naeaaao” 1376 711 1122 1915

Eieoic“Aiaa/aaneee” 556 724 1016 1389

Eieoic “?annaao” 1437 269 816 1289

Eieoic “Oaiaeue” 974 275 764 1140

Eieoic “Aeaa” 1244 688 1001 1481

Eieoic “O?ae” 1403 413 1263 2178

Eieoic ei. 50-eaoey Ieoya?y 1464 308 680 1147

Anaai =SUM(ABOVE) 14337 =SUM(ABOVE) 6847 =SUM(ABOVE) 14034
=SUM(ABOVE) 22692

Oaaeeoea 20

Iiaieiauea ee/iiai neioa (a oneiaiuo aieiaao E?N)

Iiaiei- Aeiionoeiia iiaieiauea

auea a ian- i?e no- i?e oeo/oaiee AEO

Oicyenoai oiyuaa a?aiy uanoaoth-uai nin-oiyiee

(a) i?e nia-?aiaiiii ?aoeeiia

(a) i?e oiaiue-oaiee aeiee ianoaeuiiai ei?ia (a)

Eieoic ei. O?oica 895 175 228 590

Eieoic “Naeia?” 1710 148 227 890

Eieoic ei. Eaieia 2144 1419 984 1825

Eieoic ei. E.Ia?ena 1467 183 263 775

Eieoic “Naeaaao” 1657 425 674 1289

Eieoic“Aiaa/aaneee” 338 268 397 623

Eieoic “?annaao” 587 132 227 425

Eieoic “Oaiaeue” 555 96 158 342

Eieoic “Aeaa” 1522 407 603 1180

Eieoic “O?ae” 1330 271 386 789

Eieoic ei. 50-eaoey Ieoya?y 1480 299 495 1077

Anaai =SUM(ABOVE) 13685 =SUM(ABOVE) 3823 =SUM(ABOVE) 4642
=SUM(ABOVE) 9805

Oaaeeoea 21

Ieiuaaee eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeu, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue aeey
nio?aiaiey iiaieiauey iauanoaaiiiai neioa (a aa)

Ieiuaaee ianoaeu

Oicyenoai i?e nia?aiaiiii ?aoeeiia i?e oiaiueoaiee aeiee ianoaeuiiai
ei?ia

Eieoic ei. O?oica 100 0

Eieoic “Naeia?” 678 0

Eieoic ei. Eaieia 521 0

Eieoic ei. E.Ia?ena 855 225

Eieoic “Naeaaao” 597 112

Eieoic“Aiaa/aaneee” 0 0

Eieoic “?annaao” 1051 133

Eieoic “Oaiaeue” 629 0

Eieoic “Aeaa” 499 56

Eieoic “O?ae” 891 0

Eieoic ei. 50-eaoey Ieoya?y 1039 283

Anaai =SUM(ABOVE) 6860 =SUM(ABOVE) 809

A oaaeeoea 21 iieacaia iio?aaiinoue a eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeuao, eioi?ua
iiaoo iie?uoue ?acieoeo iaaeaeo ianoaeuiie iaa?oceie e ianoaeuiie
aieinoueth iaoeo/oaiiuo oaiaeee i?e oneiaee nio?aiaiey neiaeeaoaainy
iiaieiauey. Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi “ecauoi/iia” iiaieiauea neioa,
iniaaiii ee/iiai, aeinoaoi/ii aaeeei, e anee oicyenoaa ia niiaoo
nicaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiiai eiee/anoaa eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeu (yoi aeinoaoi/ii
aei?iaia ia?ii?eyoea: ioaeiu aei?iainoiyuea naiaia iiiaieaoieo o?aa,
ai?th/aa, niaoeeaeueiay oaoieea), iaieioaii i?eaeaony cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeoue iiaieiauea. Iaeiaei anoue aiciiaeiinoue caiaoii nieceoue
iio?aaiinoue a aei?iainoiyueo eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeuao, anee oiaiueoeoue
aeieth ianoaeuiiai ei?ia (aa?eaio “a”), eae yoi iieacaii ia oaaeeoea 22.

Oaaeeoea 22

Ieiuaaee eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeu, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue aeey
nio?aiaiey iiaieiauey ee/iiai neioa (a aa)

Ieiuaaee ianoaeu

Oicyenoai i?e nia?aiaiiii ?aoeeiia i?e oiaiueoaiee aeiee ianoaeuiiai
ei?ia

Eieoic ei. O?oica 648 274

Eieoic “Naeia?” 1408 759

Eieoic ei. Eaieia 1355 287

Eieoic ei. E.Ia?ena 1128 596

Eieoic “Naeaaao” 1079 325

Eieoic “Aiaa/aaneee” 63 0

Eieoic “?annaao” 409 145

Eieoic “Oaiaeue” 412 192

Eieoic “Aeaa” 1002 307

Eieoic “O?ae” 951 486

Eieoic ei. 50-eaoey Ieoya?y 1062 387

Anaai =SUM(ABOVE) 9517 =SUM(ABOVE) 3758

Caeeth/aiea e auaiaeu

A ?acoeueoaoa auiieiaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey auyaeaia aioeyeieiae/iay
no?oeoo?a aa?iyeinenoai a eieoicao Aaeiaeneiai ?aeiia.

Auaiaeu ec ?aaiou iiaoo auoue noi?ioee?iaaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1. Iauaa eiee/anoai “ecauoi/iie” iaoie a eieoicao, o.a. caiaeue,
eioi?ua iiaeaa?aeaiu y?icee eee iaoie, i?aauoathuae i?aaeaeueii
aeiionoeiue ii?iaoea ?aniaoaiiinoe, ninoaaeyao 572 aa. Iaeaieueoaa
eiee/anoai “eeoiae” iaoie a eieoicao “?annaao” – 184 aa e “ei. 50-eaoey
Ieoya?y” – 275 aa.

2. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue ianoaeu a oicyenoaao iecea e ianoaeuiay aieinoue a
n?aaeiai ca ianoaeuiue ia?eiae a IIO “Aaeiaeneia” ia i?aauoaao 0,29
aieia/aa, iniaaiii e?eoe/aneia iieiaeaiea ia ianoaeuao ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia eaoa, eiaaea aieinoue iaaeaao aei 0,19 aieia/aa.

3. Ianoaeuiua iaa?ocee i?aauoatho ii?iaoea a n?aaeiai ii ?aeiio a 3
?aca, a ia ianoaeuao aeey ee/iiai neioa ai aoi?ie iieiaeia eaoa
i?aauoaiea aeinoeaaao – 7 ?ac.

4. I?aaeeiaeaii o?e aa?eaioa iioeiecaoeee niioiioaiey iiaieiauey neioa
e i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia a oicyenoaao:

1. O?aaoee?iaaiea auiana e ei?aiiia oeo/oaiea i?eaiaeiuo aeey yoiai
anoanoaaiiuo ianoaeu (aa?eaio “a”).

2. Oi aea, /oi e a ia?aii e aeiionoeii ieieiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea
ianoaeuiiai ei?ia (aa?eaio “a”).

3. Oi aea, /oi e 2 e nie?auaiea iiaieiauey neioa ia 30 % (aa?eaio “a”).

Niioaaonoaaiii i?e yoeo aa?eaioao aeiionoeiia iiaieiauea aeey
iauanoaaiiiai neioa ninoaaeyao 14034-22692 one. aieia, a ii ee/iiio
neioo – 4642-9805 one. aieia.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaa A.A., Naiaiia A.I., Nieieia I.A. // Aa?ioeiey. 1989. N8. N.
124-137.

Aiaiiieia Ae.A. Caiaeueiue oiiae Aaoee?neie ?anioaeeee a ii/aaiiii
ioiioaiee // O?. Aaoee?neie iieaaiae/aneie noaioeee. Ooa. 1948. O. 3.
535 n.

Aiaiiieia Ae.A. Ii/au Aaoee?neie ANN?. I.: Ecae. AI NNN?. 1954. 296 n.

Aoeoouiia A.Ae. // Eaniia oicyenoai. 1989. N19. N. 30-33.

Aeuey/aiei A.A., A?uniaa E.I., Aieoaaa E.O., *aaaaa A.A.
Aa?ieaniiaeei?aoeey. I.: Eiein. 1979. 208 n.

AEoeiaa A.O. Iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey ieo?aoia e ieo?eoia a ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoao. I.: Ainaa?ii?ii. AANOIEE. 1989. 35 n.

AEo/aiei A.A. Aaeaioeaiue iioaioeeae eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee
(yeieiai-aaiaoe/aneea iniiau). Eeoeiaa: Ooeeioea. 1988. 767 n.

AEo/aiei A.A. Aaeaioeaiia ?anoaieaaiaenoai: yeieiai-aaiaoe/aneea
iniiau. Eeoeiaa: Ooeeioea. 1990. 432 n.

Caneaaneee I.I. Y?iceiaaaeaiea. I.: Auno. oe. 1987. 375 n.

Eoae?aeei A.?., Ie?eei A.I., Nieiiau A.E., Naoaiia I.A. Neioaeniiiiey,
yeieiaey e aeeiaieea ?oaea?aeueiuo niiauanoa Aaoee?ee. Ooa: AIOe-O?I AI
NNN?. 1988. 161 n.

Eaio A. Aeieiae/aneia ?anoaieaaiaenoai: aiciiaeiinoe aeieiae/aneeo
aa?inenoai / Ia?. n iai. N.I. Yaaeue. I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao. 1988. 207 n.,
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I?EEIAEAIEA

Noaiaiue iaania/aiiinoe ianoaeuiui ei?iii ii ianoaeuiui ia?eiaeai i?e
?acee/iuo aa?eaioao eniieueciaaiey ianoaeu

Aa?eaiou eniieueciaaiey ianoaeu

Aa?eaio “a” – i?e nouanoaothuai ninoiyiee eniieueciaaiey ei?iiauo
oaiaeee.

Aa?eaio “a” – i?e o?aaoee?iaaiee auiana e ei?aiiii oeo/oaiee
i?eaiaeiuo aeey yoiai ianoaeu.

Aa?eaio “a” – oi aea, /oi e “a”, ii i?e ieieiaeueii aeiionoeiii
eniieueciaaiee ianoaeuiiai ei?ia e oaaee/aiee aeiee noieeiaiai
niaea?aeaiey neioa.

Aa?eaio “a” – oi aea, /oi e “a” e “a” e nie?auaiea iiaieiauey
ia 30 %.

Ianoaeuiua ia?eiaeu:

Ia?eiae I – 10/V-15/VI,

Ia?eiae II – 16/VI-20/VII,

Ia?eiae III – 21/VII- 31/VIII,

Ia?eiae IV – 1/IX-10/X.

PAGE

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