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II*AIO ?

O/aiua i?aae?aeatho anae Caiea aeiaaeueiia eciaiaiea eeeiaoa.

Eiua – ?innee – “caieth iaaoiaaiioth”.

1. Acaeyae ecioo?e “ai?y/ae” iaeanoe – Neae?e.

“*oi-oi iaeaaeiia oai?eony n iiaiaeie!”. Ia yoii noaea/ao ia neaiaeeao
noa?eee. Ia yoii aea ?annoaeaeatho ia naieo naieia?ao e eiioa?aioeeyo
nieeaeiua o/aiua. Noa?iaeeeu n oaeeaeaieai caia/atho, /oi ia?anoaee
nauaaoueny iiiai/eneaiiua ia?iaeiua i?eiaou oeia: “Anee eaoi auei
oieiaeiui, oi ceia…”. Neiaii, a i?e?iaea i?ienoiaeyo i?ioeannu,
eioi?ua oaea ia aienuaathony a i?aaeiea noaiu e oi?ioeu. Aiiiaeueiua e
aeinoaoi/ii iiuiua iau/iua caieao?ynaiey, a?aiaeeiciua iaaiaeiaiey e
o?aaaiu noaee /anouie ainoyie ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a, eioi?ua ?aiueoa i
oaeeo aaaeao ciaee eeoue iiianeuoea.

Aea, /oi oai aiai?eoue, – eciaiaiey eeeiaoa caiaoiu ethaiio. Eae aiai?yo
iiaeeeua ethaee, a ia/aea 60-uo aiaeia a Oiinea ii?ic a 45 a?aaeonia aue
aeaeii iau/iui. A 70-ua iaaeaiea noieaeea oa?iiiao?a ieaea ioiaoee 30
a?aaeonia ii?ica oaea aucuaae niouaiea a oiao neae?yeia. Iineaaeiaa
aeanyoeeaoea ana ?aaea ioaaao oaeeie oieiaeaie. Oooee e aioeiee oaa?aiii
ooaa?aeeee naay aianoi aaeaiie e oioia. Iniaaiii iieacaoaeueiui noae
“oaieue nacii” 1997a., eioi?ue ia/aeny a ai?aea, a caeii/eeny a ieoya?a.
Caoi ii?iie noaee neeueiaeoea o?aaaiu, eioi?ua ?ac?ooatho e?uoe aeiiia,
eiiatho aea?aauey, ia?uaatho eeiee yeaeo?iia?aaea/. Aua 25 eao iacaae a
Oiineie iaeanoe iiaeiaiua yaeaiey auee aieueoie ?aaeeinoueth!

2. Ie?iaua EEEIAOE*ANEEA “NTH?I?ECU” 1996 e 1997 aiaeia.

Ca iineaaeiea 5 – 7 eao e iniaaiii a ia?eiae 1997a. ai anao
ioa/anoaaiiuo e ie?iauo ioaeeeaoeeyo n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee
i?aaenoaaeaii iiiai ?aciiia?aciuo naaaeaiee i eeeiaoe/aneeo eciaiaieyo e
eaoano?ioe/aneeo i?e?iaeiuo yaeaieyo. Naiaeee iiaiaeu /anoi
nii?iaiaeaeathony iaaeioiaiiuie eiiiaioa?eyie. *anoi ana oaeea
ioaeeeaoeee e niiauaiey iu aini?eieiaai eae – “Eiai-oi o?ynao e niuei,
aaea-oi /oi-oi ?ac?ooeei, oianei, caaaeeei, iiaoaeei…” n ?acee/iuie
iiaeniciaoaeueiuie auaiaeaie. Ii anee ia?aeoe io iau/iuo auoiauo ioeaiie
e ?annoaeaeaiee i iiaiaea e aiaeeco nia?aiiuo iaoeie oaeoia e e aiaeeco
/anoiuo e iaiauathueo ioaeeeaoeee a ?acee/iuo n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee, oi iiaeao i?iyaeoueny iiiai eioa?aniiai e
iaiaeeaeaiii-“caaeoi/eaiai”.

Iao/ii-iauanoaaiiua ioaeeeaoeee “?acaeoiiiai oa?aeoa?a i iiaiaea” n
aieueoei /eneii “aii?ineoaeueiuo ciaeia” iinoiyiii i?iyaeeenue a
n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee a oa/aiee anaai 1997 aiaea. A a ai?aea –
iaa, caoai a ieoya?a-iiya?a 1997a. iiyaeeenue aiaeeoe/aneea iaiauaiey,
iiaeaiaeyuea iaeioi?ua eoiae i aicieeoeo e i?iyaeaoeony eeeiaoe/aneeo
“oieonao” a 1997a. E oaeei noaoueyi, eioi?ua naycuaatho “iiaiaeo a
aeiia” n iiaiaeie ia oeeoea e a iaeanoe, a oaeaea n oeiainiaie,
yeiiiie/aneie, i?iiuoeaiiie e iieeoe/aneie aeiaaeueiuie “iiaiaeaie” ia
Caiea, iiaeii ioianoe noaouee a aacaoao:

“Nia. ?inney” – I?ec?ae ionouie a?iaeeo ii ieaiaoa (?aaeei “?ei”), 29
iay 97a.; “A?aoiaiou e Oaeou” – Iciiiaua aeu?u iaae ?inneae, 25 naio.
97a., +39; “Ciaiy Ie?a” – Ia Aieueono?eia ana niieieii ?, +9(56), 97a.;
“Eiiniiieueneay I?aaaea” – Nae?aiue “Iaeuo” aeano aea?o anae ieaiaoa”,
12 ethey 97a.; Iieueoo iae?ue “aeaayoue aae”, 15 ethey 97a.; Ooiieo ee
“Ieaaeaiaoe” ieaiaoo aneaae ca Aoeaioeaeie a ii/ue iiae ?iaeaeanoai?, 14
ieo. 1997a.; *a?ac 20 eao ian aeaeao auai?: caaeioiooueny eee
caoeaaiooueny”, 5 iiya. 97a.; “E?aniia Ciaiy” – Ia Yeue Ieii iaaeaeny
…, 17 ieo. 97a.; “Eaeaeaeineii IEI”, – Yeue-Ieiuei ceiaauaa “aeeoy”
i?e?iaeu, 12(46), 97.; “Ecaanoey” – Aeaayoue aae Aienay a Oo?ooaineii
e?aa, 30 ai?. 97a.; THaeiay Iieueoa iaeia nieioiay Aaiaoeey, 16 ethey
97a.; Eaoano?ioa ouny/aeaoey, 11 ethey 97a. e a aeo?iaea “Deutschland” –
Iaeii iaaiaeiaiea ia 3 no?aiu; NOEOEss. I IAAIAeIAIEE aai i?e/eiao e
iineaaenoaeyo, +5, ieo. 1997a.

Oa?aeoa? e ianooaau i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia eaaei iiiyoue ec iaiauathueo
iiaeai?ie, i?eaaaeaiiuo a ?yaea noaoae.

“A 1996 aiaeo ia Caiea i?iecioei 600 ?acee/iuo i?e?iaeiuo eaoaeeeciia, a
oii /enea 200 o?aaaiia, 170 iaaiaeiaiee e 50 caieao?ynaiee. Yoi ia 23
aieueoa, /ai a 1995-i. Noeoey oianea 11 ouny/ /aeiaa/aneeo aeeciae,
iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a io iaa ninoaaee 60 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia. Aoaeao ee
iiaeo yoio ia/aeueiue ?aei?ae a iuiaoiai (1997) aiaeo ?” – EI, 5 iiya.
97a. “Iineaaeiea aeaiiua i i?ienoiaeyuai a i?e?iaea (aania 1997a. – ia
7 iay 1997a.):

iaiau/ii ?aiiyy e iaiau/ii aea?eay aania a Neae?e; ianiio?y ia
/?acau/aeiia iaeeea niaaa, ai iiiaeo ?aaeiiao iaaiaeiaiey ia i?iecioei,
iioiio /oi niaa aoeaaeueii enia?eeny; iaaiaeiaiey a Oo?ooaineii ?aeiia
ia Aienaa, a Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe – iaaiaeiaiey a Ieooiaea, a
Eoeauoaaa;

a NOA ec-ca neeueiuo iaaiaeiaiee ianeieueei ooaoia iauyaeaii ciiie
/?acau/aeiiai aaaenoaey (enoi/iee eioi?iaoeee oaeaia?aaea/a “Eaoano?iou
iaaeaee”; aacaoa “Ecaanoey” iaeia ec iaiiiaeo oaeaeeea aieiaiea aeaiiiio
niauoeth, ii, eae o ian aeaaii caaaaeaii, iiianoeea ia yoii
iieoeo?ueaciua niiauaiey, aac aiaeeoeee e nnueee ia /?acau/aeiinoue – ni
+ 16, 18 e 30 ai?aey 1997a.)

eeaiaaia iaaiaeiaiea a Aeaee?a (!!!) (“Ei?aaee ionouie” o/aony ieaaaoue
– OA “Eaoano?iou iaaeaee”, aacaou i?iiie/aee; a iiya?a 1996a. auei
eeaiaaia iaaiaeiaiea a Naoaeianeie A?aaee (“Ecaanoey”, 25 iiya. 1996a.);

iaaiaeiaiey a Oaaeaeeeenoaia e A?ocee (OA, ai?. 1997a.);

iaiau/ii OIEIAeIAss aania a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia; yaeiie a oeaaoo, a oeaaou
… ai eueaeo (niiauaiea a ?acaeaea eo?ueacia a aacaoa “Ecaanoey”, 25
ai?. 1997a.);

ec-ca iaiau/ii oieiaeiie aaniu i?eeaoaaoea a Aa?iio ec Ao?eee aenou
iie?oaeeeenue … e oeaoaee a Ao?eeo (niiauaiea caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo
NIE);

a thaeiii iieooa?ee ia thaa Ao?eee iaiau/ii OIEIAeIAss inaiue (OA); a
300 ei io Eioaiiainao?aa auiae niaa, i /ai ia iiiiyo noa?iaeeeu –
“Ecaanoey”, 9 ethey 96a., yoi aea iiaoi?eeinue e a 1997a.;

canooa a Aiaeee, ?aei?aeiia iaiaeaiea Oaicu (OA “Eaoano?iou iaaeaee”, 6
iay 1997a., “Ecaanoey” ca 29 ai?. 1997a.) “. – “Ciaiy Ie?a”, +9, 1997a.

“… E?oiiaeoaa ca 1000 eao iaaiaeiaiea ia Iaea?a (iaiaeeaeaiii) iae?uei
*aoneoth ?anioaeeeo, Iieueoo e /anoue aa?iaineie oaaea?aeueiie caiee
A?aiaea?ao?a… . … Ethaeneea iioa?e e iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a (/aoia e
iieyeia) auee oaeaniuie. O Aa?iaiee auei a caiana ianeieueei aeiae,
/oiau iiaeaioiaeoueny … e iia yoi a?aiy eniieueciaaea.” –
“Deutschland”, ieo. 1997a.

“… ia/aaoaany a yoii aiaeo iauaie?iaia eciaiaiea eeeiaoa, ianouaa n
niaie iaaiaeiaiey e canooe a ?acee/iuo /anoyo ie?a e iieo/eaoaa iacaaiea
“Yeue Ieiuei” (Iaeuo, Ieaaeaiaoe – I.O.), noaiao iaeiei ec naiuo
na?ueaciuo ca iineaaeiaa noieaoea e ianao oa?ico yeiiiieea iiiaeo
no?ai..” – “E?aniia Ciaiy”, 17.10 97a.

Ia oiia iiaeiaiuo yaeaiee ia ieaiaoa eeeiaoe/aneay neooaoeey a Oiinea,
Iiaineae?nea, aea e a Eaia?iai e aeaeaa?th 1997a. i?iyaeeanue uaae?ui
iiaea?eii i?e?iaeu – Caiaaeiay Neae?ue i?iyaeea naay “?aeneei oaieeii”.
Ii n iniaaiiinoyie e a iiya?a – iiaiaea noaea “iieinaoie” eae caa?a: 1 –
2 aeiy – “Oaaeoea?ey” e iaeeueiua niaaiiaaeu e i?eia?ii oaeia aea a?aiy
– ii?ic, iau/iue aeey iineaaeiaai a?aiaie a Neae?e. N nth?i?ecii a
eiioea iiya?y – oaeeo ii?icia a yoi a?aiy aeaaii oaea ia auei !

3. Eaiaaea-Aeynea, ainoi/iia iiaa?aaeuea Caiee Oeeena a Aioa?eoeaea,
A?aieaiaeey,Oieoeaa?aai,Iiaay Caiey,Caiaaeiay Neae?ue,N?aaeiyy Acey,
THaeiua ?aeiiu Noaeaia – “ai?y/ea iaeanoe” iaoa?eeia ieaiaou.

Ana i?ioeannu e ianoiua, e iauaieaiaoiua yaeythony neaaenoaeyie aieaa
aeoaieeo aeiaaeueiuo i?ioeannia. Iao/iua e nenoaiiua iniiau aeey
iniuneaiey e iauyniaiey yoeo iauaieaiaoa?iuo i?ioeannia auee caeiaeaiu a
60 – 70 – 80 aiaeao iau/iie iao/iie ?aaioie eieeaeoeaia e einoeoooia,
eco/aaoeo aanue niaeo? i?ioeannia e yaeaiee ia Caiea, aioo?e e ai
aiacaiiii i?ino?ainoaa – aaioeceeia, aaieiaia, aaia?aoia, eeeiaoieiaia e
ae?oaeo enneaaeiaaoaeae.

I. Aeaeioin e Oiia I.E. Oeaee a noaouea “Oaiaeaioeee aeiaaeueiiai
iioaieaiey” i?aaenoaaeytho ?acoeueoaou 10 eao iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee ii
eciaiaieth eeeiaoa ia anae iaoae ieaiaoa ca 130 eao n 1860a. ii 1990a.
Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou oaea ia o?iaia 1990 aiaea aucuaatho yooaeo – “Io
iiaiaea, ou aeaaoue !”.

Ia?aia. E?aoei ec ?acoeueoaoia neaaeoao, /oi ca 130 eao iauaie?iaay (ii
Caiea) e n?aaeiaaiaeiaay (ii a?aiaie) oaiia?aoo?a oaaee/eeanue ia 0.5
a?aaeona. A?iaea au – “iaei/ue”. Oieueei iaaei o/anoue, /oi ii ?an/aoai
?aciuo aaoi?ia iiauoaiea yoie oaiia?aoo?u ia 1.5 – 2.5 a?aaeona aucuaaao
en/aciiaaiea “eaaeyiuo oaiie” Caiee e iiauoaiea iauaai o?iaiy ie?iaiai
ieaaia ia 100 – 150 iao?ia (oaeaea ii ioeaieai ?yaea aaoi?ia).
Iineaaenoaey yoiai ecauoea aiaeu iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ii iau/iui
aaia?aoe/aneei ea?oai Aia?eee, Aiaeee, Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, Aieeaiaeee,
ssiiiee, Eiaeiiacee …

Aoi?ia.A?aoee aeeiaieee eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u ca yoio 130 eaoiee
ia?eiae, i?aaenoaaeaiiue ia ?enoiea, eiaao, i?e on?aaeiaiee, aeae
ia?anoathuae ni a?aiaiai e?eaie (oeia yeniiiaiou).

Ia enoiaeiii a?aoeea iiaeii ioiaoeoue: aeeeiiia iaaeeaiiia iiauoaiea
oaiia?aoo?u n 1860a. i?eia?ii aei 1925a. e ia?anoathuee oaii a?
oaaee/aiey a 25 – 45 aiaeao n aeieii iiuiiai iioaieaiey a 38 – 45
aiaeao. Caoai i?aeoe/anee noaaeeecaoeey n?aaeiaai cia/aiey oaiia?aoo?u a
ia?eiae 45 – 77 aiaeia, ii oaeaea n aeieii iiuiiai iioaieaiey a 56 – 63
aiaeao e iiaue – iaeneiaeueiue – oaii ia?anoaiey oaiia?aoo?u n 75 ii 90
aiae. Iioiaea, /oi ?acoeueoaou iniai aeoeaiie aio?iiiaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a XX aaea n iaeeueiui auaeaeaieai yia?aee e i?iaeoeoia
nai?aiey – aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia e ?anoe?aiiua eniuoaiey
aoiiii-aiaei?iaeiiai i?oaeey aei Eoaeineiai e?ecena – i?iyaeeenue ia
a?aoeea Aeaeioina-Oeaee.

Iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a?aoee aeeiaieee Aeaeioina-Oeaee a oi?ia
on?aaeiaiiie yeniiiaiou. Oiaaea, ia aaca yoie yeniiiaiou, ioeaiea oaiia
eciaiaiey n?aaeiaaiaeiaie oaiia?aoo?u Caiee i?aaeneacuaaao: – i/aiue
cia/eoaeueiia ( aei 0.5 a?aaeona) aeaeueiaeoaa eciaiaiea n?aaeiaaiaeiaie
oaiia?aoo?u ca ia?eiae 1990 – 2010aa. (/oi auei aeinoeaiooi ?aiaa
oieueei ca i?aaeuaeouea 130 eao). Oaeia oaaee/aiea neaaeoao ec e?ooeciu
yoiai o/anoea yeniiiaiou a oa/aiee 1990 – 2050 aiaeia. Yeno?aiieyoeey ii
yoie e?eaie iauaai ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u e 2025 aiaeo
i?eaiaeyo e ioeaiea iiauoaiey n?aaeiaaiaeiaie oaiia?aoo?u ii anae Caiea
ia 1.7 – 1.8 a?aaeonia.

Aeaeioin e Oeaee ?anniio?aee oae aea aeeyiey ?acee/iuo aiaoieo e
aioo?aiieo i?e?iaeiuo e oaoiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia ia ?acoeueoaou ?aaeueiiai
eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u. Iie ioeaieee aeeaae aioo?aiieo anoanoaaiiuo
iecei/anoioiuo aicaeaenoaee (eciaiaiea oee?eoeyoeee a aoiinoa?a e
ieaaiao, oaieiaoth eia?oeeiiiinoue ieaaiia) a aeaea 50% aeeaaea io
aaee/eiu iaaethaeaaiiai iauaai iioaieaiey. Ioeaiea “aeeyiey Nieioea –
iaii?aaeaeaiiia, ii, eae i?aaenoaaeyaony” a noaouea, – “iii iaaaeeei”.
Oae aea ioia/aii, /oi ii?aaeaeaiiue auaiae i aeeyiee aoeeaiia o?oaeii
naeaeaoue. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue aiaeec i?eaae aaoi?ia e auaiaeo i
cia/eiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eco/aiey aeeyiey ia eciaiaiea n?aaeiae
oaiia?aoo?u i?e/ei, eioi?ua aeinoaoi/ii eco/aiu, – i?e/ei “ia?ieeiaiai
yooaeoa”. Yoio yooaeo, iaoneiaeaiiue ?inoii eiioeaio?aoeee ia?ieeiauo
aacia, nicaeatho, a iniiaiii, i?iaeieaeathueany oaea aeaa noieaoey
aua?inu IIO?AAEOAEUeNEEO aeuiiauo aacia, caaea?aeeaathueo eceo/aaiia
Caieae oaiei a Einiin.

Aeey auaeaeaiiiai “ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa” aaoi?aie i?iaaaeaii
eiiiuethoa?iia iiaeaee?iaaiea n o/aoii ?aciiai ?iaea iiaeaeae
“ia?ieeiauo yooaeoia”. ?acoeueoaou ?an/aoia oaeaea i?eaaaeaiu ia a?aoeea
130-eaoiaai eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u a aeaea aeaoo (aa?oiae e ieaeiae)
a?aie/iuo aeaaeeeo aic?anoathueo e?eauo. A?aoee ?aaeueiiai eciaiaiey
oaiia?aoo?u ?aniieiaeai iaaeaeo ieie. Nouiinoue ?acoeueoaoia ?an/aoia
aaoi?u auianee a oaeno ia ?enoiea. Ec aeaoaeecaoeee i?iaiica,
iieo/aiiiai ii yoei iiaeaeueiui e?eaui, iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi e 2015a.
oaiia?aoo?a iiauneony ia 1 – 2.2 a?aaeona, a e 2050 ia 2 – 4 a?aaeona.
?acoeueoao: – eaae, eae oaeiaie, – en/aciao, /oi ii n?ieai niaiaaeaao n
?acoeueoaoaie “?eineiai Eeoaa”.

A iauai eoiaa, eae ooaa?aeaeatho aia?eeaineea o/aiua, ei oaeaeinue a
?acoeueoaoa aeieacaoue, /oi ie?iaie eeeiao, oioue e /?acau/aeii
eciai/eaue a ianooaaao ianeieueeeo aeanyoeeaoee, a oeaeii ca iineaaeiea
100 eao noae oaieaa. Oae aea iie ioiaoeee e iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe. Oae
“iaoeeiiiia iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u ca 130 eao auei ia?ooaii
e?aoeia?aiaiiui iioieiaeaieai a 1940 – 1970 aiaeao. Iinea yoiai
iioaieaiea aiciaiiaeeinue, ia iaia?oaeeaay oaea ieeaeiai ionooieaiey”.
Aeaeaa iie ioia/atho iaeioi?ua i?ioeai?a/ey ii ioiioaieth e aeiioaca
ia?ieeiaiai iioaieaiey. “A ia?eiae n 1920 ii 1940 aiae iaoa ieaiaoa
iaa?aaaeanue auno?aa, /ai i?aaeneacuaatho iiaeaee, a a ia?eiae n 1940 ii
1970 aiae i?iecioea noaaeeecaoeey n?aaeiae oaiia?aoo?u, oioy
niaea?aeaiea ia?ieeiauo aacia auno?i ?inei”. ?acoeueoaoii ?ac?aoaiey
“oieonia” iioaieaiey yaeyaony auaiae aaoi?ia: “A ?acoeueoaoa iu iiea ia
a ninoiyiee aeaoue iaeiicia/ioth eioa?i?aoaoeeth i/aaeaeiiio
aeiaaeueiiio iioaieaieth, eioi?ia i?iecioei a yoii aaea”. Oi anoue
ioeaieo aeeaaea a yooaeo iioaieaiey io ?acee/iuo i?e/ei i?e?iaeiiai e
oaoiiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, aeeth/ay “ia?ieeiaue yooaeo”.

Iauay ioeaiea aaoi?ia i ?iee “ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa” eiaao oiaea
aeaienoaaiii-i?ioeaiiieiaeiue oa?aeoa?. “Iaaethaeaaiay aaee/eia
iioaieaiey iaoiaeeony ‘ia ieaeiai eiioea’ aeeaiaciia, i?aaeneacuaaaiiai
iiaeaeyie ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa. Ec /aai neaaeoao, /oi ia?ieeiaue yooaeo
iiaeao auoue iaiueoa, /ai i?aaeneacuaatho iiaeaee. Aiciiaeii e i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia – ia?ieeiaia iioaieaiea neeueiaa, /ai i?aaeneacuaatho
iiaeaeyie, ii /anoe/ii caoooaauaaaony anoanoaaiiuie aa?eaoeeyie eeeiaoa
eee aio?iiiaaiiuie aicaeaenoaeyie.”

Ai?i/ai ecaanoiua iiaeaee eeoue i?eaeeaeaiii iienuaatho nenoaiioth
niaieoiiinoue neiaeiaeoeo oece/aneeo i?ioeannia, aeiaaeueii
i?ienoiaeyueo a aoiinoa?a e ieaaiao Caiee. I?e/eia – ia?aie/aiiinoue
iaoeo ciaiee i iiaeiaiuo i?ioeannao. (E naaaeaieth – a n?aaeiaaaeiaie
Aiaeee ca iiiuoee i?aaeneacaiey iiaiaeu naeeaaee ia eino?ao – “ia eacue
a iiiuneu Aiaa”.) *aeiaa/anoai iao/eeinue, n i?eaieaiie aeey i?aeoeee
oi/iinoueth, i?aaeneacuaaoue iiaiaeo aeey iia?aoeaiuo e oaeoe/aneeo
a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia i?iaiica, ii aeey i?iaiica 10 – 100-eaoieo
eeeiaoe/aneeo eciaiaiee – ciaiee iiea iao. Iiyoiio ia a?aoeea
Aeaeioina-Oeaee iiaaaeaiea e?eauo ?aaeueiiai e “iiaeaeueiiai
ia?ieeiaiai” eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u auiieiytho ?ieue “eioi?iaoeee aeey
iao/ii-iauanoaaiiiai ?aciuoeaiey”.

O?aouea. *oiau iaaeyaeiaa i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue naie ?an/aou, Aeaeioin e
Oeaee iioaeeeiaaee ea?ou caiiuo iieooa?ee, aaea ?aciuie oeaaoaie
ioiaoeee iaeanoe eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u. Aiaeec yoeo noaiaoe/aneeo
ea?o-?enoieia aeey iaieo iieooa?ee iieacuaaao, /oi ia iaoae ieaiaoa
anoue oieueei aeaa iaeuo iaeanoe, aaea n?aaeiaaiaeiaia iiauoaiea
oaiia?aoo?u i?aauneei ia ieo 2.5 a?aaeona Oeaeueney ca oio aea 130
eaoiee ia?eiae. Iaeia iaeanoue a Eaiaaea. Ae?oaay – a Caiaaeiie Neae?e
!! Ia oiia iaoe?iie iaeanoe iauaai caiaaeiineae?neiai iioaieaiey ia 1.5
– 2 a?aaeona !!

Iauay “Neae?neay” iaeanoue ia/eiaaony ia naaa?a A?aieaiaeee, eanaaony
naaa?iuo /anoae Oieoeaa?aaia e Iiaie Caiee, aoiaeeo a onouea Iae e,
?anoe?yynue aeeth/aao Caiaaeioth Neae?ue, N?aaeithth Aceth, Aoaaienoai.
Eaiaaeneia “iyoiuoei” oaeaea aoiaeeo /anoueth a iaoe?ioth iaeanoue
Aeynei-Eaiaaeneiai iioaieaiey. Iaoe?iua iaeanoe iioaieaiey i?iyaeeenue
oaeaea a thaeiie /anoe Eiaeeeneiai e a iaaeo /anoyo Oeoiai ieaaia.
Iaeaiueeay iaeanoue iiaeiaiiai iioaieaiey ?aniieiaeaia ia ainoiea
iiaa?aaeuey Caiee Oeeena a Aioa?eoeaea. Oiaaea eae ai anao oeaio?aeueiuo
?aeiiao Aioa?eoeaeu n?aaeiaaiaeiaay oaiia?aoo?a iiieceeanue !

4. Iaci?-ioeaiea /anoiuo eeeiaoe/aneeo “nth?i?ecia” 1997a.

Ecaanoiue eieaiecaeaoaeueneee “?acaae” auionea iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
eeoa?aoo?u oneiaeiyao aiaeec i?iaeaiu, ii i?ioeannu eeeiaoe/aneeo
eciaiaiee ca 7 eao oae cia/eoaeueii ?ac?ineenue, /oi aeey iaci?iie
ioeaiee ea?oeiu eeeiaoe/aneeo eciaiaieth aeinoaoi/ii oaea e iauae
eioi?iaoeee ec NIE. A oii /enea e oiai i?eaaaeaiiiai auoa iaeaoa
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ue i?iyaeyao e aeiiieiyao iauoth ea?oeio eciaiaiey
eeeiaoa, iieo/aiioth ii ?acoeueoaoai Aeaeioina-Oeaee ia 1990a.

Eaoii e inaiueth 1997 a. ia Aa?aceth ia?ooeeny oeaeue eaneaae
iaaiaeiaiee. Eeoae. Iieueoa, *aoneay ?anioaeeea, THa O?aioeee.
Ioeoeeaeueii cayaeaii, /oi ca 1000-eaoithth ecaanoioth enoi?eth
/aeiaa/anoaa Iaea?, iau/ii niieieii oaeouee ii *aoee e aaeieue a?aieoeu
Iieueoe e Aa?iaiee ia ia?ooeaaeny n oaeie neeie ia yoe caiee . Aiieia
aiciiaeii, /oi aeaiiua eaoaeeeciu naycaiu n ia/aaoeiny oayiueai
A?eoe/aneie “iiey?iie oaiee” ieaiaou e n aiaea/aieai a aeoeaiue iai?io
ia?iiiuo iann aiaeu. E aua oo?eoe e iauae “eaaeyiie” ea?oeia.

Eae ooaa?aeaeatho niaoeeaeenou, Aeoaeneea ai?u e Eaaeac ca iineaaeiea
150 eao oo?aoeee ii/oe 70 i?ioeaioia naiaai eaaeieeiaiai iie?uoey.
Iioaieaiea a ?aeiia Aioa?eoeaeu aucaaei ia?ooaiea eaaeieeia ieiuaaeueth
a ianeieueei ouny/ eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia e iiauoaiea o?iaiy Ie?iaiai
ieaaia. Oi anoue eaeao eioaineaiia, niaeanii ?acoeueoaoai
Aeaeioina-Oeaee, oayiuea “eaaeyiuo oaiie” ieaiaou. Iiiyoii, /oi aoaeoo
caoiieaiu oa??eoi?ee, aaea i?iaeeaatho aeanyoee ieeeeiiia /aeiaae.
Noaia aiciiaeiuo caoiieaiey oa??eoi?ee i?eaaaeaia a EI io 5.11.1997a.

5. *oi aeaiue a?yaeouee aai aioiaeo, Aa?iia e NOA?

?acaeoea eioi?iaoeee 1990 aiaea ii aeiaaeueiui eeeiaoe/aneei i?ioeannai
i?iyaeeinue a 1997 aiaeo a noaouea-aanaaea ni niaoeeaeenoii ii
aeiaaeueiie yeieiaee, aeieoi?ii aaieiai-ieia?aeiae/aneeo iaoe, aeaaiui
iao/iui nio?oaeieeii Iauaaeeiaiiiai einoeoooa aaieiaee,aaioeceee e
ieia?aeiaee NI ?AI A.I.AeIEO?EAAUI – “Ia Aieueono?eia ana niieieii?”. E
a aeaoo noaoueyo a EI io 14 ieo. e 5 iiya. 1997 aiaea e a noaouea a
“Eaeaaeineiia” (N12, 97a.) ioiineoaeueii oa/aiey “Yeue Ieiuei” e
aeiaaeueiiai “ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa”. Yoe /aou?a noaouee e
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, e aeiiieiytho ?acoeueoaou 1990 aiaea. A ana iyoue
ii?aaeaeytho aii?in yoiai ?acaeaea. Ii ana ii ii?yaeeo. Naiia
iaiaeeaeaiiia e eioa?aniia aeey iiiaeo (aeey iieeoeeia,i?iiuoeaiieeia,
yeiiiienoia, oeiainenoia,…) caeeth/aaony a oii,/oi a iaeioi?uo ianoao
Caiee niaoeeaeenou iaeeaeatho… iioieiaeaiey. Ii eiathuaeny
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth ?acaa?iooi i?aaenoaaee a naiae aanaaea
A.Aeieo?eaa, i?aeoe/anee i?ae?aoeei naia nouanoaiaaiea ciaiaieoia oaieia
oa/aiea Aieueono?ei – “a?aeea” Aa?iiu. Yoio i?ioeann i?iyaeyaony eae
neaaenoaea caoeene?iaaiiie Aeaeioinii-Oeaee e 1990a. naaa?iie iaeanoe
aeiaaeueiiai iioaieaiey “A?aieaiaeey – N?aaeiyy Acey”. A yoi cia/eo, /oi
o iiiaeo Aia?eei-Aa?iiaeneeo no?ai iiyayony a aoaeouai i?iaeaiu n
eeeiaoii. N?aaee yoeo aoaeoueo eeeiaoe/aneeo “iaoaea/ieeia”iacuaatho
O?aioeeth, Aiaeeth e NOA.

Ii yoi – oiaea eeoue /anoue eeeiaoe/aneie i?iaeaiu. Ae?oaie /anoueth,
ia iaiaa iaiaeeaeaiiie aeey iiiaeo, yaeyaony yooaeo oeoiieaaineiai
oa/aiey “Yeue Ieiuei” – “Ieaaeaiaoe O?enoin”. Iii n/eoaaony aiiiaeueiui
“eeeiaoe/aneei yaeaieai” – niauoeai aaea, ioe?uoii oieueei eeoue
/aoaa?oue aaea iacaae. I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi i?eia?ii a yoe aea 70 aiaea
auee ioe?uou (oiaea eae niauoea aaea), i?e/ai aia?aua ii ioiioaieth e
oa??eoi?ee anaai ie?a, – a Aioa?eoeaea – iciiiaua aeu?u. Yoe aeu?u
oieueei aiineaaenoaee auee caoeene?iaaiu e a ae?oaeo ianoao ieaiaou, a a
ethia 1996a. “iie oe?iei ii/oeee naiei i?enoonoaeai” oa??eoi?eth
Caiaaeiie Neae?e. N oie ii?u iaa yoe caaaaeee i?e?iaeu i?i/ii
iainiiaaeenue a THaeiii iieooa?ee a aeiiieiaiea e iaiaeeaeaiii iiuiiio
iioieiaeaieth ia aieueoae /anoe Aioa?eoeaeu. Ii e yoi – ia ana. “Ii
aeaiiui aia?eeaineiai Iaoeeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey ii eco/aieth ieaaia e
aoiinoa?u, a oa/aiea ethiy 97a. i?iecioei aani?aoeaiaeaioiia iiauoaiea
oaiia?aoo?u iiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa aiaeu a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Oeoiai
ieaaia – ia oeaeuo 4 a?aaeona

ii Oeaeueneth. … I?e/eia yoiai oaeeaeoaeueiiai e o?aaiaeiiai Oaiiiaia
ia ynia. Inoaaony iaeii iauyniaiea – ciaiaieoia oa/aiea Yeue-Ieiuei,
yaeythuaany ioaaoaeaieai oaieiai Yeaaoi?eaeueiiai oa/aiey.” Yoa caaaaeea
i?e?iaeu – “Yeue-Ieiuei” – aicieeaao o aa?aaia

Ia?o ni no?aiiie 12-eaoiae ia?eiaee/iinoueth e anaaaea a eaioi
?iaeaeanoaa, /oi e aucaaei aai iacaaiea. Aicieeiiaaiea, “i?iaeaeee
Ieaaeaioea” e o?aaeoi?ey aai aeaeaeaiee ii aeaaoi?ee Oeoiai ieaaia iiea
ia iiaoo iieo/eoue iieiiai iao/iiai iauyniaiey ec-ca aiiiaeueiinoe aai
iiaaaeaiey. Niaeanii anao iineaaeieo ioaeeeaoeee NIE ii “Yeue-Ieiuei”
oa/aiea aicieeaao o aa?aaia Ia?o e nii?iaiaeaeaaony oaieuie iannaoaie ia
ainoie (e Eiaeiiacee). E ia/eiathony “i?iaeaeee” ieaaeaioea ia anae
aeaaoi?ee Oeoiai ieaaia, oi?ie?othuea eciaiaiey eeeiaoa e iiaiaeu,
niaianoii n aai caaaaeeaie. Oaieua iannaou ii/aio-oi aae?oa
“cano?aaatho” aaea-oi ia yeaaoi?a. Oa/aiea aea, oaea?aeeaaaiia aao?aie o
Eiaeiiacee, iiai?a/eaaao … a ia?aoioth noi?iio e ia?ooeaaaony ia
THaeioth Aia?eeo. Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, ii/aio – ia ecaanoii. Ii a ?acoeueoaoa
a 1997 aiaeo a Eiaeiiacee e ia ino?iaao Oeoiai Ieaaia aea?a i?aacioea
i?aaeae auiineeainoe noa?iaeeeia “aai?eaaiia”. A a Eaoeineie Aia?eea
iau/ii ia/eiathony o?iie/aneea eeaie, oae ca aeaa ianyoea a 1997a. oai
auiaei inaaeeia aieueoa, /ai ca oeaeue aiae.Caoai, iaea?aaoenue,
“Ieaaeaiaoe” aeaeaeaony a noi?iio NOA e “iaa?aaeaeaao” naaa?i-caiaae
yoie no?aiu iaeeueiuie niaaiiaaeaie, a oaieiethaeauo eaeeoi?ieeoeaa
iioieiaeaieai e iaoeneii

neeueiaeoaai aao?a. Oua?a io “Yeue Ieiuei” 1982 aiaea ninoaaee 13
ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia e aeaaeue 1500 – 2000 /aeiaae. … Enneaaeiaaiea
oaiiiaia Yeue-Ieiuei iieacuaaao, /oi aai iaaoaiia aeeyiea ia
eeeiaoe/aneea i?ioeannu oneeeaaaony ia?ieeiaui yooaeoii.

“Oi?aau” ia “Yeue Ieiuei” – iao. Ciaiee i aai caaaaeeao, nth?i?ecao,
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoe iiaaaeaiey – oiaea iao. Iiea aiciiaeii oieueei
neaaeeoue ca aai aicieeiiaaieai e iuoaoueny i?iaiice?iaaoue aai
iiaaaeaiea. E eae, ieoao I.*eaeeeia, a naiae noaouea ia “Yeue Ieiuei” a
EI io 5.11.97 – “Anee oaeia “Ieaaeaioea” ia aoaeao anei?a ?ane?uoa, oi
aiiiaeueiua eicie Aa?ioaeneiai o?aoaieueieea iieaaeoony aeaoneeie
caaaaaie ii n?aaiaieth n i?iaeaeeaie ainoy, iiyaeythuaainy ia ieaiaoa
ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii.”.

6. Neaaenoaey eciaiaiee eeeiaoa.

*oiau noaee iiiyoiuie iieeoeei-oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneea e yeieiae/aneea
oaeoe/aneea e no?aoaae/aneea iineaaenoaey, auaeaeei ec i?aaeuaeouaai
aeaaiua auaiaeu.

Aiiiaeueii-iaiaueynieiay iaoe?iay iaeanoue Caiaaeii-Neae?neiai
iioaieaiey io A?aieaiaeee aei Iaeenoaia.

Yoa iaeanoue, eae neaaenoaea, i?aa?auaao Aieueono?ei ec “a?aeee” aeey
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e eeeiaoe/aneiai noaaeeecaoi?a aeey Naaa?iie
Aia?eee a “oieiaeeeueiee” aeey y yoeo ?aaeiiia.

Oaieia oa/aiea Aieueono?eia ia naaa? ineaaeyaony e aiciiaeia aai caiaia
ia oieiaeiia oa/aiea n naaa?a.

“Yeue Ieiuei” oi?ie?oao aoi?ie ioeaaeaeathuee eeeiaoe/aneee “oaea?” ii
Eaiaaea e
NOA, oi?ioi i?aaenoaaeaiiue ia ?enoiea (
EI,14.10.97).

E yoei i?ioeannai aeiaaaeyaony i?ioeann aeaeaeaiey iaaieoiuo iiethnia ni
anae niaieoiiinoue Nieia/ii-ieaiaoa?iuo naycae e oaeoi?ia.

Iiaeaee, eioi?ua iiaee au iauynieoue yoe eeeiaoe/aneea i?ioeannu,
ionoonoaotho. Iiaeaee “ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa” ia aeinoaoi/ii aeey
iienaiey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii – aeey i?aaeneacaiey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
yaeaiee.

O/aiua, iieeoeee e o.ae. NOA, Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ae?oaeo 160 no?ai
ana?ueac, iniaaiii iinea “nth?i?ecia” 1997a., icaai/aiu oaeie i?a/iie
ia?niaeoeaie, iuoathony iaeoe aeiiaieeia a?yaeouae eaoano?iou e, anee
aiciiaeii, i?aaeioa?aoeoue aa. Iiiaea niaoeeaeenou nioeenue ia oii, /oi
ai anai aeiiaaoa /aeiaa/aneay oeeaeeecaoeey, caa?yciythuay aoiinoa?o
aua?inaie, iie, yoi e ii?iaeeei “ia?ieeiaue yooaeo”. A iiaeaea?aeeo
oaeiai iiaiey i?eaiaeeony iiiaeanoai oeeo?. Aio iaeia ec ieo. Ca
iineaaeiea aeaanoe eao eiee/anoai oaeaeeneiai aaca a aoiinoa?a au?inei a
iieoi?a ?aca. Aeey ?aoaiey niaeo?a eeeiaoe/aneeo i?iaeai ia ia/aei
aeaeaa?y 1997a. caieaie?iaaia a ai?iaea Eeioi iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
eiioa?aioeey ia aunoai o?iaia, iinayuaiiay yoei aii?inai. Aunoee
enoaaeeoiaio iieeoeeia ec cayaeaiiuo 160 no?ai aoaeao, aa?iyoii,
iniuneeaaoue oaeoeeo e no?aoaaeth iieeoeee e yeiiiieee ia oiia a?yaeoueo
eeeiaoe/aneeo eciaiaiee e aoaeao, niaianoii n o/aiuie ioaeaie, eneaoue
iooe oi?iiaeaiey eeeiaoe/aneeo eciaiaiee, aucaaiiuo “ia?ieeiaui
yooaeoii”. Ai?i/ai, ana yoi – oieueei neiaa. Aei ?aaeueiuo aeae aua
i/aiue aeaeaei. Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, i?aaeuaeouea oi?oiu ie/aai ia aeaee
ec-ca no?aiiie iiceoeee aia?eeaioeaa. Oae ii niiauaieth EI io 5.11. 1997
aiaea -“Iiceoeey aia?eeaioeaa aiiaua ecoieyao. Iaaeaaii ec-ca eo
oii?noaa aac?acoeueoaoii caaa?oeeanue i/a?aaeiay ano?a/a niaoeeaeenoia
ii i?iaeaia “ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa”. I?aaenoaaeoaee 142 no?ai ie?a oae e
ia niiaee ?aoeoue, ianeieueei iaaei nie?auaoue aua?inu a?aaeiuo aacia a
aoiinoa?o. A ana ec-ca oiai, /oi aia?eeaioeaa ia ono?ieee neeoeii
auno?ua oaiiu yoiai nie?auaiey”. A oaeaea – “A NOA i eaeie-oi ai?ueaa ia
oioyo e neuoaoue. Aeaaa ei?ii?aoeee “Oi?ae” Aeaen O?ioiai iiiaauae
iaa?aaeeoue eaaeaeiai, eoi ?acaaao “aeoiue ieo” i oii, /oi iioaieaiea ia
ieaiaoa auciaao oayiea eueaeia a Aioa?eoeaea”. Ia yoii o?iaia iiaeii
iiaeaanoe iaeioi?ua i?iiaaeooi/iua iaiauathuea eoiae. NOA iiiaaeatho
iiae aeaieiia eeeiaoe/aneia aicaeaenoaea – ni noi?iiu Oeoiai e
Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaiia. Aa?iyoii, iiyoiio aia?eeaioeu iaoiaeyo yoo
“neieueceoth oaio” e noa?athony ne?uoue io iauanoaaiiinoe eioi?iaoeeth.

Aoi?ia. Eae eiiiaioe?oao A.Aeieo?eaa a naiae noaouea “Ia Aieueono?eia
ana niieieii ?” – “Nae/an naiua nae?aoiua aeaiiua – i iiaiaea!.. I
ninoiyiee i?e?iaeu, eeeiaoa. I noeoeeiuo aaaenoaeyo. Aaaeue oe?iei
niiauaaony aeaeaei ia iai anao iiaeiaiuo niauoeyo. Anee au aao ciaeiiue
?aaeaeoi? caoae a Iaioaaii, a ioaeae no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey, oi ii
au ociae, /oi aia?eeaioeu aeaaii oaea ia no?iyo no?aoaae/aneeo aac a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoao. Anee au ii caaeyioe a Ainaeai NOA ii
ia?niaeoeaiiio no?ieoaeuenoao, oi ii au iaia?oaeee oai (anee au,
eiia/ii, aio ?ac?aoeee) na?ueaciaeoea i?ia?aiiu, o/eouaathuea iiaua
eeeiaoiia?acothuea oaeoi?u. Yoi, iai?eia?, i?ia?aiiu oe?ieiai
eoeueoeae?iaaiey a caieaaeaeee iecei?ineie ?anoeoaeueiinoe – ca?iiauo,
ieiaeiauo; i?ia?aiiu no?ieoaeuenoaa caeaiee, onoie/eauo aeey iaii?a
aieaa iiuiuo aao?ia e oae aeaeaa.”

O?aouea. Ia aaca ia?aiai e aoi?iai – iiaaaeaiea aia?eeaioeaa iao?oaeii
iauynieoue. Eoi aea aoaeao noaaeoue noaaeo ia no?aio,aeeaaeuaaoue
aeaiueae a eo yeiiiieeo, iieoiaoue eo aaethoo, anee noaiao ecaanoii, /oi
aoaeouaa yoie noia?aea?aeaau aanueia iaii?aaeaeaiii ec-ca aeaaiiai,
aeeciaoi?ie?othuaai aiaoiaai i?e?iaeiiai aicaeaenoaey ec-ca
eeeiaoe/aneiai oaeoi?a.

Caeeth/aiea

Ipiaeaia enoipe/aneeo e niapaiaiiuo eciaiaiee eeeiaoa ieacaeanue
i/aiueneiaeiie e ia iaoiaeeo paoaiey a noaiao iaeiioaeoipiiai
aeaoapieiecia. Iapyaeo n pinoii eiioeaiopaoeee oaeaeeneiai aaca aaaeioth
pieue eapatho eciaiaiey iciiinoapu, naycaiiua n yaiethoeeae
aaiiaaieoiiai iiey. ?acpaaioea e ipiaapea iiauo aeiioac yaeythony
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai iiciaiey caeiiiiapiinoae iauae oeepeoeyoeee
aoiinoapu e aepoaeo aaioece/aneeo ipioeannia, aeeythueo ia aeinoapo.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u :

“A ie?a iaoee”, N10, 1990a.

“Eaeaeaeineii”, 12(46), 1997a

Iao/iua ioaeeeaoeee ec naoe Internet .

IINEIANEEE OECEEI OAOIE*ANEEE EINOEOOO

(AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO)

?aoa?ao

Oaia : Ia?ieeiaue yooaeo

iaienai

nooaeaioii OOEY a?. 755

Iiaeaea?eiui Aeieo?eai.

iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

i?ioanni?, ae.o.i.i . Y. I. O?ooai

Iae 1998 a.

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