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Охрана производственных сточных вод и утилизация осадков

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Ainoaea?noaaiiue Eiieoao ?O ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey oi?aaeaiey

Eaoaae?a oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiaeyie a iaoeiino?iaiee

Aeiiaoiaa caaeaiea ii eo?no ENA

Io?aia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae e ooeeecaoeey inaaeeia

Auiieieea: Aeooaiei Iaoaeuey Iao?iaia

oeiiai 1-3

Iineaa, 1996

1. Aaaaeaiea

Aiaea – oeaiiaeoee i?e?iaeiue ?ano?n. Iia ea?aao eneeth/eoaeueioth
?ieue a i?ioeannao iaiaia aauanoa, ninoaaeythueo iniiao aeecie. Ia?iiiia
cia/aiea aiaea eiaao a i?iiuoeaiiii e naeueneioicyenoaaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iauaecaanoia iaiaoiaeeiinoue aa aeey auoiauo iio?aaiinoae
/aeiaaea, anao ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo. Aeey iiiaeo aeeauo nouanoa iia
neoaeeo n?aaeie iaeoaiey.

?ino ai?iaeia, ao?iia ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioaineoeeaoeey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, cia/eoaeueiia ?anoe?aiea ieiuaaeae i?ioaaiuo
caiaeue, oeo/oaiea eoeueoo?ii-auoiauo oneiaee e ?yae ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia
ana aieueoa oneiaeiyao i?iaeaiu iaania/aiey aiaeie.

Iio?aaiinoe a aiaea ia?iiiu e aaeaaiaeii aic?anoatho. Aaeaaiaeiue
?anoiae aiaeu ia caiiii oa?a ii anai aeaeai aiaeiniaaaeaiey ninoaaeyao
3300-3500 ei3. I?e yoii 70% anaai aiaeiiio?aaeaiey eniieuecoaony a
naeueneii oicyenoaa.

Iiiai aiaeu iio?aaeytho oeie/aneay e oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, /a?iay e oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey. ?acaeoea yia?aaoeee
oaeaea i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio oaaee/aieth iio?aaiinoe a aiaea.
Cia/eoaeueiia eie-ai aiaeu ?anoiaeoaony aeey iio?aaiinoae io?anee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, a oaeaea ia auoiaua iio?aaiinoe ianaeaiey. Aieueoay
/anoue aiaeu iinea aa eniieueciaaiey aeey oicyenoaaiii-auoiauo ioaeae
aica?auaaony a ?aee a aeaea noi/iuo aiae.

Aeaoeoeeo i?aniie aiaeu oaea nae/an noaiiaeony ie?iaie i?iaeaiie. Ana
aieaa aic?anoathuea iio?aaiinoe i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneiai oicyenoaa a
aiaea canoaaeytho ana no?aiu, o/aiuo ie?a eneaoue ?aciiia?aciua
n?aaenoaa aeey ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu.

Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ii?aaeaeythony oaeea iai?aaeaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey aiaeiuo ?ano?nia: aieaa iieiia eniieueciaaiea e
?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai ?ano?nia i?aniuo aiae; ?ac?aaioea iiauo
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, iicaieythueo i?aaeioa?aoeoue caa?yciaiea
aiaeiaiia e naanoe e ieieioio iio?aaeaiea naaaeae aiaeu.

2. Enoi/ieee caa?yciaiey aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiia

Iiae caa?yciaieai aiaeiuo ?ano?nia iiieiatho ethaua eciaiaiey
oece/aneeo, oeie/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo naienoa aiaeu a aiaeiaiao a nayce
ni na?anuaaieai a ieo aeeaeeeo, oaa?aeuo e aaciia?aciuo aauanoa, eioi?ua
i?e/eiytho eee iiaoo nicaeaoue iaoaeianoaa, aeaeay aiaeo aeaiiuo
aiaeiaiia iianiie aeey eniieueciaaiey, iaiiny oua?a ia?iaeiiio
oicyenoao, caei?iaueth e aaciianiinoe ianaeaiey

Caa?yciaiea iiaa?oiinoiuo e iiaecaiiuo aiae iiaeii ?ani?aaeaeeoue ia
oaeea oeiu:

iaoaie/aneia – iiauoaiea niaea?aeaiey iaoaie/aneeo i?eianae,
naienoaaiiia a iniiaiii iiaa?oiinoiui aeaeai caa?yciaiee;

oeie/aneia – iaee/ea a aiaea i?aaie/aneeo e iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa
oiene/aneiai e iaoiene/aneiai aeaenoaey;

aaeoa?eaeueiia e aeieiae/aneia – iaee/ea a aiaea ?aciiia?aciuo
iaoiaaiiuo iee?ii?aaieciia, a?eaia e iaeeeo aiaei?ineae;

?aaeeiaeoeaiia – i?enoonoaea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa a iiaa?oiinoiuo eee
iiaecaiiuo aiaeao;

oaieiaia – auione a aiaeiaiu iiaeia?aouo aiae oaieiauo e aoiiiuo YN.

Iniiaiuie enoi/ieeaie caa?yciaiey e cani?aiey aiaeiaiia yaeyaony
iaaeinoaoi/ii i/euaiiua noi/iua aiaeu i?iiuoeaiiuo e eiiioiaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, e?oiiuo aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo eiiieaenia, iooiaeu
i?iecaiaenoaa i?e ?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo eneiiaaiuo; aiaeu oaoo, ?oaeieeia,
ia?aaioea e nieaaa eaniiaoa?eaeia; na?inu aiaeiiai e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai
o?ainii?oa; iooiaeu ia?ae/iie ia?aaioee eueia, ianoeoeeaeu e o.ae.
Caa?yciythuea aauanoaa, iiiaaeay a i?e?iaeiua aiaeiaiu, i?eaiaeyo e
ea/anoaaiiui eciaiaieyi aiaeu, eioi?ua a iniiaiii i?iyaeythony a
eciaiaiee oece/aneeo naienoa aiaeu, a /anoiinoe, iiyaeaiea iai?eyoiuo
caiaoia, i?eaeonia e o.ae.); a eciaiaiee oeie/aneiai ninoaaa aiaeu, a
/anoiinoe, iiyaeaiea a iae a?aaeiuo aauanoa, a iaee/ee ieaaathueo
aauanoa ia iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu e ioeeaaeuaaiee eo ia aeia aiaeiaiia.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua noi/iua aiaeu caa?yciaiu a iniiaiii iooiaeaie e
aua?inaie i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiee/anoaaiiue e ea/anoaaiiue ninoaa eo
?aciiia?acai e caaeneo io io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aa oaoiieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia; eo aeaeyo ia aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu: niaea?aeauea
iai?aaie/aneea i?eiane, a o./. e oiene/aneea, e niaea?aeauea yaeu.

E ia?aie a?oiia ioiinyony noi/iua aiaeu niaeiauo, noeueoaoiuo,
acioii-ooeiauo caaiaeia, iaiaaoeoaeueiuo oaa?ee naeioeiauo, oeeieiauo,
ieeaeaauo ?oae e o.ae., a eioi?uo niaea?aeaony eeneiou, uaei/e, eiiu
oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia e ae?. Noi/iua aiaeu yoie a?oiiu a iniiaiii eciaiytho
oece/aneea naienoaa aiaeu.

Noi/iua aiaeu aoi?ie a?oiiu na?anuaatho iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuea,
iaooaoeie/aneea caaiaeu, i?aaei?eyoey i?aaie/aneiai neioaca,
eienioeie/aneea e ae?. A noieao niaea?aeaony ?aciua iaooai?iaeoeou,
aiieae, aeueaeaaeaeu, niieu, oaiieu e ae?oaea a?aaeiua aauanoaa.
A?aaeiiiniia aeaenoaea noi/iuo aiae yoie a?oiiu caeeth/aaony aeaaiui
ia?acii a ieeneeoaeueiuo i?ioeannao, aneaaenoaea eioi?uo oiaiueoaaony
niaea?aeaiea a aiaea eenei?iaea, oaaee/eaaaony aeioeie/aneay
iio?aaiinoue a iai, oooaeoathony i?aaiieaioe/aneea iieacaoaee aiaeu.

Iaooue e iaooai?iaeoeou ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia yaeythony iniiaiuie
caa?ycieoaeyie aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiia, aiae e ii?ae, Ie?iaiai ieaaia.
Iiiaaeay a aiaeiaiu, iie nicaeatho ?aciua oi?iu caa?yciaiey: ieaaathuoth
ia aiaea iaooyioth ieaieo, ?anoai?aiiua eee yioeueae?iaaiiua a aiaea.
Iaooai?iaeoeou, inaaoea ia aeii oyaeaeua o?aeoeee e o.ae. I?e yoii
eciaiyaony caiao, aeon, ie?anea, iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea, ayceinoue
aiaeu, oiaiueoaaony eie-ai eenei?iaea, iiyaeythony a?aaeiua
i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa, aiaea i?eia?aoaao oiene/aneea naienoaa e
i?aaenoaaeyao oa?ico ia oieueei aeey /aeiaaea. 12 a iaooe aeaeatho
iai?eaiaeiie aeey oiio?aaeaiey oiiio aiaeu.

Aeiaieueii a?aaeiui caa?ycieoaeai i?iiuoeaiiuo aiae yaeyaony oaiie. Ii
niaea?aeeony a noi/iuo aiaeao iiiaeo iaooaoeie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee. I?e
yoii ?acei nieaeathony aeieiae/aneea i?ioeannu aiaeiaiia, i?ioeann eo
naiii/euaiey, aiaea i?eia?aoaao niaoeeoe/aneee caiao ea?aieee.

Ia aeeciue ianaeaiey aiaeiaiia iaaoaii aeeytho noi/iua aiaeu
oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ieeneaiea ae?aaaniie iannu
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiaeiuaieai cia/eoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa eenei?iaea, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e aeaaee ee?u, iaeueeia e ac?ineuo ?ua. Aieieia e ae?oaea
ia?anoai?eiua aauanoaa cani?ytho aiaeo e oooaeoatho aa oeceei-oeie/aneea
naienoaa. Ia ?uaao e ia eo ei?ia – aaniicaiii/iuo – iaaeaaii?eyoii
io?aaeathony iieaaua nieaau. Ec aiethuae ae?aaaneiu e ei?u auaeaeythony
a aiaeo ?acee/iua aeoaeeueiua aauanoaa. Niiea e ae?oaea yeno?aeoeaiua
i?iaeoeou ?aceaaathony e iiaeiuatho iiiai eenei?iaea, aucuaay aeaaeue
?uau, iniaaiii iieiaee e ee?u. E?iia oiai, iieaaua nieaau neeueii
cani?ytho ?aee, a oiieye ia?aaeei iieiinoueth caaeaaao eo aeii, eeoay
?ua ia?anoeeeu e ei?iiauo iano.

Aoiiiua yeaeo?inoaioeee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie iooiaeaie caa?yciytho ?aee.
?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa eiioeaio?e?othony iaeue/aeoeie ieaieoiiiuie
iee?ii?aaieciaie e ?uaie, caoai ii oeaie ieoaiey ia?aaeathony ae?oaei
aeeaioiui. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue ieaieoiiiuo iaeoaoaeae a
ouny/e ?ac auoa, /ai aiaeu, a eioi?ie iie aeeaoo.

Noi/iua aiaeu, eiathuea iiauoaiioth ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue (100 eth?e ia 1e e
aieaa), iiaeeaaeao caoi?iiaieth a iiaecaiiua aannoi/iua aannaeiu e
niaoeeaeueiua ?aca?aoa?u.

?ino ianaeaiey, ?anoe?aiea noa?uo e aicieeiiaaiea iiauo ai?iaeia
cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eee iinooieaiea auoiauo noieia ai aioo?aiiea
aiaeiaiu. Yoe noiee noaee enoi/ieeii caa?yciaiey ?ae e ica?
aieaciaoai?iuie aaeoa?eyie e aaeueieioaie. A aua aieueoae noaiaie
caa?yciytho aiaeiaiu iithuea neioaoe/aneea n?aaenoaa, oe?iei
eniieuecoaiua a auoo. Iie iaoiaeyo oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea oaeaea a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneii oicyenoaa. Niaea?aeaueany a ieo oeie/aneea
aauanoaa, iinooiay ni noi/iuie aiaeaie a ?aee e ica?a, ieacuaatho
cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia aeieiae/aneee e oece/aneee ?aaeei aiaeiaiia. A
?acoeueoaoa nieaeaaony niiniaiinoue aiae e ianuuaieth eenei?iaeii,
ia?aeecoaony aeayoaeueiinoue aaeoa?ee, ieia?aeecothueo i?aaie/aneea
aauanoaa.

Aucuaaao na?ueaciia aaniieienoai caa?yciaiea aiaeiaiia ianoeoeeaeaie e
ieia?aeueiuie oaeia?aieyie, eioi?ua iiiaaeatho n iieae aianoa ni no?oyie
aeiaeaeaaie e oaeie aiaeu. A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee, iai?eia?,
aeieacaii, /oi einaeoeoeeaeu, niaea?aeaueany a aiaea a aeaea noniaicee
?anoai?ythony a iaooai?iaeoeoao, eioi?uie caa?yciaiu ?aee e ica?a. Yoi
acaeiiaeaenoaea i?eaiaeeo e cia/eoaeueiiio ineaaeaieth ieeneeoaeueiuo
ooieoeee aiaeiuo ?anoaiee. Iiiaaeay a aiaeiaiu, ianoeoeeaeu
iaeaieeaathony a ieaieoiia, aaioina, ?uaa, a ii oeaii/ea ieoaiey
iiiaaeatho a i?aaieci /aeiaaea, aeaenoaoy io?eoeaoaeueii eae ia
ioaeaeueiua i?aaiu, oae e ia i?aaieci a oeaeii.

A nayce n eioaineoeeaoeeae aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ana aieaa aeatho i naaa
ciaoue noiee i?aaei?eyoee aeaiiie io?anee naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Noi/iua aiaeu, niaea?aeauea ?anoeoaeueiua aieieia, aeeaioiua e
?anoeoaeueiua aee?u, oaeaeueioth ianno, inoaoee ieiaeia e iaiuae,
iooiaeu eiaeaaaiiie e oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naoa?iuo e
ieaiaa?aiiuo caaiaeia, i?aaei?eyoee iyni-iiei/iie, eiina?aiie e
eiiaeeoa?neie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, yaeythony i?e/eiie i?aaie/aneeo
caa?yciaiee aiaeiaiia.

A noi/iuo aiaeao iau/ii ieiei 60% aauanoa i?aaie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey,
e yoie aea eaoaai?ee i?aaie/aneeo ioiinyony aeieiae/aneea (aaeoa?ee,
ae?onu, a?eau, aiaei?inee) caa?yciaiey a eiiioiaeueii-auoiauo,
iaaeeei-naieoa?iuo aiaeao e iooiaeao eiaeaaaiiuo e oa?noiiieiuo
i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaa?aoua noi/iua aiaeu oaieiauo YN e ae?. i?iecaiaenoa i?e/eiytho
“oaieiaia caa?yciaiea”, eioi?ia oa?iaeaao aeiaieueii na?ueaciuie
iineaaenoaeyie: a iaa?aoie aiaea iaiueoa eenei?iaea, ?acei eciaiyaony
oa?ie/aneee ?aaeei, /oi io?eoeaoaeueii aeeyao ia oei?o e oaoio
aiaeiaiia, i?e yoii aicieeatho aeaaioai?iua oneiaey aeey ianniaiai
?acaeoey a aiaeio?aieeeuao neia-caeaiuo aiaei?ineae – oae iacuaaaiiai
“oeaaoaiey aiaeu” Caa?yciythony ?aee e ai a?aiy nieaaa, i?e
aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneii no?ieoaeuenoaa, a n ia/aeii iaaeaaoeeiiiiai
ia?eiaea oaaee/eaaaony caa?yciaiea noaeaie ?a/iiai oeioa.

3. Iaoiaeu i/enoee noi/iuo aiae

A ?aeao e ae?oaeo aiaeiaiao i?ienoiaeeo anoanoaaiiue i?ioeann
naiii/euaiey aiaeu. Iaeiaei ii i?ioaeaao iaaeeaiii. Iiea i?iiuoeaiii-
auoiaua na?inu auee iaaaeeee, ?aee naie ni?aaeyeenue n ieie. A iao
eiaeono?eaeueiue aae a nayce n ?aceei oaaee/aieai iooiaeia aiaeiaiu oaea
ia ni?aaeythony ni noieue cia/eoaeueiui caa?yciaieai. Aicieeea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaaca?aaeeaaoue, i/euaoue noi/iua aiaeu e ooeeece?iaaoue
eo.

I/enoea noi/iuo aiae – ia?aaioea noi/iuo aiae n oeaeueth ?ac?ooaiey eee
oaeaeaiey ec ieo a?aaeiuo aauanoa. Inaiaiaeaeaiea noi/iuo aiae io
caa?yciaiey- neiaeiia i?iecaiaenoai. A iai, eae e a ethaii ae?oaii
i?iecaiaenoaa eiaaony nu?uea (noi/iua aiaeu) e aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey
(i/euaiiay aiaea)

Iaoiaeu i/enoee noi/iuo aiae iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia iaoaie/aneea,
oeie/aneea, oeceei-oeie/aneea e aeieiae/aneea, eiaaea aea iie
i?eiaiythony aianoa, oi iaoiae i/enoee e iaaca?aaeeaaiey noi/iuo aiae
iacuaaaony eiiaeie?iaaiiui. I?eiaiaiea oiai eee eiiai iaoiaea a eaaeaeii
eiie?aoiii neo/aa ii?aaeaeyaony oa?aeoa?ii caa?yciaiey e noaiaiueth
a?aaeiinoe i?eianae.

Nouiinoue iaoaie/aneiai iaoiaea ninoieo a oii, /oi ec noi/iuo aiae iooai
ionoaeaaiey e oeeueo?aoeee oaeaeythony iaoaie/aneea i?eiane.
A?oaiaeenia?niua /anoeoeu a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?ia oeaaeeaathony
?aoaoeaie, neoaie, ianeieiaeaie, naioeeaie, iaaicioeiaeoaeyie ?acee/iuo
eiino?oeoeee, a iiaa?oiinoiua caa?yciaiey – iaooaeiaooeaie,
aaiciianeioeiaeoaeyie, ionoieieeaie e ae?. Iaoaie/aneay i/enoea
iicaieyao auaeaeyoue ec auoiauo noi/iuo aiae aei 60-75% ia?anoai?eiuo
i?eianae, a ec i?iiuoeaiiuo aei 95%, iiiaea ec eioi?uo eae oeaiiua
i?eiane, eniieuecothony a i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oeie/aneee iaoiae caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a noi/iua aiaeu aeiaaaeytho
?acee/iua oeie/aneea ?aaaaiou, eioi?ua anooiatho a ?aaeoeeth n
caa?ycieoaeyie e inaaeaeatho eo a aeaea ia?anoai?eiuo inaaeeia.
Oeie/aneie i/enoeie aeinoeaaaony oiaiueoaiea ia?anoai?eiuo i?eianae aei
95% e ?anoai?eiuo aei 25%

I?e oeceei-oeie/aneii iaoiaea ia?aaioee ec noi/iuo aiae oaeaeythony
oiiei aeenia?niua e ?anoai?aiiua iai?aaie/aneea i?eiane e ?ac?ooathony
i?aaie/aneea e ieioi ieeneyaiua aauanoaa, /aua anaai ec
oeceei-oeie/aneeo iaoiaeia i?eiaiyaony eiaaoeyoeey, ieeneaiea, ni?aoeey,
yeno?aeoeey e o.ae. Oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea iaoiaeeo oaeaea yeaeo?ieec. Ii
caeeth/aaony a ?ac?ooaiee i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa a noi/iuo aiaeao e
ecaea/aiee iaoaeeia, eeneio e ae?oaeo iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa.
Yeaeo?ieeoe/aneay i/enoea inouanoaeyaony a iniauo nii?oaeaieyo –
yeaeo?ieeca?ao. I/enoea noi/iuo aiae n iiiiuueth yeaeo?ieeca yooaeoeaia
ia naeioeiauo e iaaeiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, a eaeie?ani/iie e iaeioi?uo
ae?oaeo iaeanoyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Caa?yciaiiua noi/iua aiaeu i/euatho oaeaea n iiiiuueth oeueo?acaoea,
iciia, eiiiiaiaiiuo niie e aunieiai aeaaeaiey, oi?ioi ca?aeiiaiaeiaaea
naay i/enoea iooai oei?e?iaaiey.

N?aaee iaoiaeia i/enoee noi/iuo aiae aieueooth ?ieue aeieaeai nua?aoue
aeieiae/aneee iaoiae, iniiaaiiue ia eniieueciaaiee caeiiiia?iinoae
aeioeie/aneiai e oeceieiae/aneiai naiii/euaiey ?ae e ae?oaeo aiaeiaiia.
Anoue ianeieueei oeiia aeieiae/aneeo ono?ienoa ii i/enoea noi/iuo aiae:
aeioeeueo?u, aeieiae/aneea i?oaeu e ay?ioai0ee.

A aeioeeueo?ao noi/iua aiaeu i?iioneathony /a?ac neie e?oiiica?ienoiai
iaoa?eaea, iie?uoiai oiieie aaeoa?eaeueiie ieaieie. Aeaaiaea?y yoie
ieaiea eioaineaii i?ioaeatho i?ioeannu aeieiae/aneiai ieeneaiey. Eiaiii
iia neoaeeo aeaenoaothuei ia/aeii a aeioeeueo?ao.

A aeieiae/aneeo i?oaeao a i/enoea noi/iuo aiae i?eieiatho o/anoea ana
i?aaieciu, ianaeythuea aiaeiai.

Ay?ioaiee – ia?iiiua ?aca?aoa?u ec aeaeaciaaoiia. Caeanue i/euathuaa
ia/aei – aeoeaiue ee ec aaeoa?ee e iee?ineiie/aneeo aeeaioiuo. Ana yoe
aeeaua nouanoaa ao?ii ?acaeaathony a ay?ioaieao, /aio niinianoaotho
i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa noi/iuo aiae e ecauoie eenei?iaea, iinooiathuaai a
nii?oaeaiea iioieii iiaeaaaaiiai aicaeooa. Aaeoa?ee neeaeaathony a
oeiiuey e auaeaeytho oa?iaiou, ieia?aeecothuea i?aaie/aneea caa?yciaiey.
Ee n oeiiueyie auno?i inaaeaao, ioaeaeyynue io i/euaiiie aiaeu.
Eiooci?ee, aeaooeeiaua, aiaau, eieia?aoee e ae?oaea iaeue/aeoea
aeeaioiua, iiaee?ay aaeoa?ee, ianeeiathueany a oeiiuey, iiieaaeeaatho
aaeoa?eaeueioth ianno eea.

Noi/iua aiaeu ia?aae aeieiae/aneie i/enoeie iiaeaa?aatho iaoaie/aneie, a
iinea iaa aeey oaeaeaiey aieaciaoai?iuo aaeoa?ee e oeie/aneie i/enoea,
oei?e?iaaieth aeeaeeei oei?ii eee oei?iie ecaanoueth. Aeey aeaceioaeoeee
eniieuecotho oaeaea ae?oaea oeceei-oeie/aneea i?eaiu (oeueo?acaoe,
yeaeo?ieec, iciie?iaaiea e ae?.)

Aeieiae/aneee iaoiae aeaao aieueoea ?acoeueoaou i?e i/enoea
eiiioiaeueii-auoiauo noieia. Ii i?eiaiyaony oaeaea e i?e i/enoea
iooiaeia i?aaei?eyoee iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuae, oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?iecaiaenoaa eneonnoaaiiiai aieieia.

4. Auai? oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu i/enoee noi/iuo aiae

Auai? iioeiaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo noai i/enoee aiaeu – aeinoaoi/ii
neiaeiay caaea/a, /oi iaoneiaeaii i?aeiouanoaaiiui iiiaiia?aceai
iaoiaeyueony a aiaea i?eianae e aunieei o?aaiaaieyie, i?aaeuyaeaiiuie e
ea/anoao i/enoee aiaeu. I?e auai?a niiniaa i/enoee i?eianae o/eouaatho
ia oieueei eo ninoaa a noi/iuo aiaeao, ii e o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ui aeieaeiu
oaeiaeaoai?youe i/euaiiua aiaeu: i?e na?ina a aiaeiai – IAeN (
i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua na?inu) e IAeE (i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua
eiioeaio?aoeee aauanoa), a i?e eniieueciaaiee i/euaiiuo noi/iuo aiae a
i?iecaiaenoaa – oa o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey inouanoaeaiey
eiie?aoiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ec noi/iuo aiae oaoie/aneie aiaeu eee iaania/aiey
oneiaee na?ina i/euaiiuo noi/iuo aiae aiaeiaiia aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea niiniaia iiaeaioiaee aiaeu. Yeiiiie/aneia
i?aeiouanoai eiatho, eae i?aaeei, caieiooua nenoaiu aiaeieniieueciaaiey
[1-3]. Iaeiaei i?ioeann caiaiu nia?aiaiiuo i?iecaiaenoa aaciooiaeiuie,
a oii /enea e n iieiinoueth caieiooie nenoaiie aiaeieniieueciaaiey,
aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiue. Iiyoiio /anoue i/euaiiuo noi/iuo aiae
na?anuaatho a aiaeiaiu. A yoeo neo/ayo iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaoue
onoaiiaeaiiua ii?iaoeau aeey ioiineoaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee a?aaeiuo
aauanoa a i/euaiiuo noi/iuo aiaeao.

I?eiaiyaiua noaiu i/enoee aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue iaeneiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea i/euaiiuo aiae a iniiaiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao e
ieieiaeueiue eo na?in a ioe?uoua aiaeiaiu. I?e oe?ieii aiaae?aiee
iai?ioiuo nenoai eiathony aeiiieieoaeueiua ?aca?au ii nie?auaieth
?anoiaea naaaeae aiaeu e oiaiueoaieth na?ina a ioe?uoua aiaeiaiu. I?e
oe?ieii aiaae?aiee iai?ioiuo nenoai eiathony aeiiieieoaeueiua ?aca?au ii
nie?auaieth ?anoiaea naaaeae aiaeu e oiaiueoaieth na?ina noi/iuo aiae a
aiaeiaiu (niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe i/enoee noi/iuo aiae). Noi/iua aiaeu yaeythony /enouie,
anee eo ioaaaeaiea a aiaeiua iauaeou ia i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth ii?i
ea/anoaa aiaeu a eiio?iee?oaiii noai?a eee ioieoa aiaeieniieueciaaiey.

Noaiaiue i/enoee noi/iuo aiae i?e na?ina eo a aiaeiaiu ii?aaeaeyaony
ii?iaoeaaie ea/anoaa aiaeu aiaeiaia a ?an/aoiii noai?a e a aieueoie
noaiaie caaeneo io oiiiauo caa?yciaiee. Aeey nieaeaiey eiioeaio?aoeee
a?aaeiuo i?eianae, i?enoonoaothueo a noi/iuo aiaeao, aei o?aaoaiuo
aaee/ei iaiaoiaeeia aeinoaoi/ii aeoaieay i/enoea. Iiyoiio aaaeiia
cia/aiea eiaao iaaeaaeiue eiio?ieue noaiaie i/enoee noi/iuo aiae, oae
eae n oaeanoi/aieai o?aaiaaiee e ea/anoao i/euaiiuo aiae cia/aiea IAeE
aieueoeinoaa a?aaeiuo aauanoa nieaeaaony e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aic?anoatho
o?oaeiinoe eo ii?aaeaeaiey [4]. E?iia oiai, eiio?ieue oneiaeiyaony i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee eiioeaio?aoeee a?aaeiuo aauanoa a neeueii ?acaaaeaiiuo
noi/iuo aiaeao.

5. Oeceei-oeie/aneea iaoiaeu i/enoee noi/iuo aiae n i?eiaiaieai
eiaaoeyioia

Aeey iaania/aiey aunieie noaiaie i/enoee noi/iuo aiae a ?yaea neo/aaa
iaeiie aeioeie/aneie i/enoee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae
iaaeinoaoi/ii, iiyoiio a iineaaeiea aiaeu ioia/aii aic?anoathuaa
i?eiaiaiea oeceei-oeie/aneeo iaoiaeia. Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee
eiaaoeyoeey e oeioaoeey. ?aaaaioiue niinia i/enoee aeinoaoi/ii
yooaeoeaai e i?ino. Yoio niinia iiaeii i?eiaiyoue i?aeoe/anee i?e
iaia?aie/aiiuo iauaiao noi/iuo aiae.

Niaianoiia eniieueciaaiea eiaaoeyioia e oeieoeyioia iicaieeo aua aieaa
?anoe?eoue eniieueciaaiea yoeo ?aaaaioia aeey i/enoee noi/iuo aiae.
Aieueoea ?aca?au eioaineoeeaoeee iaoiaea eiaaoeyoeee e oeieoeyoeee
naycaiu eae n aieaa aeoaieei enneaaeiaaieai iaoaieciia yaeaiee,
nii?iaiaeaeathueo yoe i?ioeannu, oae e n aieaa yooaeoeaiui
eniieueciaaieai ?acee/iuo oece/aneeo aicaeaenoaee.

Aeaiiua ca?oaaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee iieacuaatho, /oi cia/eoaeueiiai
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaaaioiiai niiniaa iiaeii aeiaeoueny
iioeiecaoeeae oaoiieiaee i/enoee, i?aaeoniao?eaathuae niaoaiea ?aaaaioia
n aiaeie, a oaeaea iiaeai?ii eniieuecoaiuo eiaaoeyioia e oeieoeyioia
[5].

Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaaaioiiai niiniaa i/enoee aiaeu, a /anoiinoe n
eniieueciaaieai eiaaoeyioia, iiaeii iiauneoue, onoaiiaea aeieaa no?iaee
eiio?ieue ca ?anoiaeii ?aaaaioia a caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa
caa?yciaiee, i?enoonoaothueo a noi/iuo aiaeao, e oeceei-oeie/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee yoeo caa?yciaiee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io eo ca?yaea,
oa?aeoa?ecoaiiai x iioaioeeaeii. Aiaae?aiea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai
eiio?iey ca ?anoiaeii ?aaaaioia iicaieeo iiauneoue ia oieueei noaiaiue
i/enoee aiaeu, ii e nieceoue ?anoiae ?aaaaioia.

Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaaaioiiai niiniaa iiaeii oaeaea iiauneoue, i?eiaiyy
oece/aneea aicaeaenoaey ia ia?aaaouaaaioth aiaeo e aiaeiua nenoaiu
(iai?eia?, yeaeo?e/aneea e iaaieoiua iiey, oeueo?acaoe, ?aaeeaoeeth e
ae?oaea niiniau). Iaeiaei aiaae?aiea yoeo iaoiaeia eioaineoeeaoeee
eiaaoeyoeee e oeieoeyoeee oi?iiceony iaaeinoaoi/iie eco/aiiinoueth
i?ioeannia, i?ioaeathueo ia iieaeoey?iii e eiiiii o?iaia.

I/enoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae ?aaaaioiui niiniaii aeeth/aao
ianeieueei noaaeee, iniiaiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony:

1) I?eaioiaeaiea e aeice?iaaiea ?aaaaioia;

2) Niaoaiea ?aaaaioia n aiaeie;

3) Oeiiueaia?aciaaiea;

4) Ioaeaeaiea oeiiueaaeaeiuo i?eianae io aiaeu.

5.1 I?eaioiaeaiea ?aaaaioia

I?aaeeueiay i?aaiecaoeey i?ioeanna i?eaioiaeaiey ?aaaaioia iicaieeo i?e
ieieiaeueiii eo ?anoiaea iieo/eoue iaeneiaeueiue yooaeo i/enoee aiaeu.
Io ea/anoaa i?eaioiaeaiiuo ?anoai?ia caaeneo ia oieueei
yooaeoeaiinoue aicaeaenoaey eiaaoeyioia ia caa?yciaiey, ii e ?aaioa
iai?oaeiaaiey yoiai ocea. Iaeaieueoaa i?eiaiaiey a ea/anoaa eiaaoeyioia
iieo/eee noeueoao aethieiey, aeae?ienioei?eae aethieiey e oei?eae
aeaeaca(III). A ianeieueei iaiueoai ianooaaa eniieuecothony noeueoaou
aeaeaca, niaoaiiua eiaaoeyiou a aeaea nieae aethieiey e aeaeaca. Caiaoii
a iaiueoeo eiee/anoaao eniieuecotho aethiiaiiiieeiua e aethiieaeeaaua
eaanoeu. Aic?anoaao eniieueciaaiea eiaaoeyioia, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
aeaeaca e aethieiey, iieo/aaiuo yeaeo?ioeie/aneei niiniaii. A yoii
neo/aa eo naienoaa eae eiaaoeyioia ?acei oeo/oathony.

?aaaaiou eae a oaa?aeii, oae e a aeaea eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ?anoai?ia,
iaiaoiaeeii aeiaiaeeoue aei ?aai/ae eiioeaio?aoeee (5-15%). A nayce n
yoei neaaeoao i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ?anoai?aiea nieae e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
nieae aethieiey e aeaeaca

Ciay iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe i?ioeanna ?anoai?aiey ?aaaaioia a aiaea,
iiaeii aua?aoue iioeiaeueiue ?aaeei ?anoai?aiey ?aaaaioia a aiaea e
iiaeia?aoue aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeiia iai?oaeiaaiea.

Yooaeoeaiinoue i/enoee noi/iuo aiae n eniieueciaaieai eiaaoeyioia e
oeieoeyioia a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaeneo io oi/iinoe iiaeaea?aeaiey
iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia. iniiaiuie ia?aiao?aie ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeythony ?H
ia?aaioaiiuo noi/iuo aiae, yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue, iooiinoue,
ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiue iioaioeeae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?iei eniieuecothony ?ac?aaioaiiua AIEEAiaeaai
nenoaiu aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey (NA?), i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
oi?aaeaiey ?aaaaioiie i/enoeie noi/iuo aiae. Iiauoaiea o?iaiy
aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ioeannia oeceei-oeie/aneie i/enoee i?iiuoeaiiuo noi/iuo
aiae iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue ?anoiaeu ?aaaaioia.

A i?aeoeea i/enoee aiae, eae i?aaeei, i?eiaiytho
iauaiiii?iii?oeeiiaeueiua aeice?othuea nenoaiu. A iniiaiii ii oaeiio
i?eioeeio iino?iaiu NA? iiaea/e ?anoai?ia eiaaoeyioia e oeieoeyioia.

Aeicaoi?u, eniieuecoaiua a NA? ?aaaaioiie i/enoee noi/iuo aiae, aeieaeiu
iaaeaaeii ?aaioaoue e i?e iiaea/a ?anoai?ia, niaea?aeaueo acaaoaiiua
/anoeoeu, inaaeee, oeaiu, oae eae /anoi a ea/anoaa ?aaaaioia
eniieuecotho iooiaeu ?acee/iuo i?iecaiaenoa.

I?e eniieueciaaiee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii inaaoeaiiuo ?anoai?ia ?aaaaioia
iiaeii i?eiaiyoue ieoiaea?iua ianinu-aeicaoi?u n ?o/iui ?aaoee?iaaieai
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

Aeey ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ocea ?aaaaioiie ia?aaioee n
eniieueciaaieai ieoiaea?iuo ianinia-aeicaoi?ia iaiaoiaeeia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay i/enoea ?anoai?ia ?aaaaioia. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa
ianin-aeicaoi? caaeaaaony acaaoaiiuie /anoeoeaie, a neaaeiaaoaeueii
iaiaoiaeeii aai inoaiaaeeaaoue e i?iiuaaoue.

5.2 Iioeiecaoeey aeicu ?aaaaioia

Aeey oaoiieiaee i/enoee aiaeu e iaaca?aaeeaaiey inaaeeia aieueoia
cia/aiea eiaao ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ?aaaaioia, oae eae aiaeiaie
?anoiae oieueei oeieoeyioia ninoaaeyao nioie oiii. Ii?aaeaeaiea
iioeiaeueiie aeicu ?aaaaioia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aanueia neiaeioth
caaea/o, oae eae a i?aeoeea i/enoee aiaeu aiciiaeii iaeiia?aiaiiia
eciaiaiea ?yaea oaeoi?ia, iai?eia? ninoaaa e eiee/anoaa i?eianae.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?e eiaaoeyoeee i?eianae a iauaia aiaeu e i?e
eiioaeoa n ca?ienoie caa?oceie iioeiaeueiay aeica aoaeao ?acee/iie, oae
eae eeiaoe/aneea oneiaey eiaaoeyoeee ia iiaa?oiinoe oeeueo?othuaai
iaoa?eaea cia/eoaeueii eo/oa, /ai a iauaia aiaeu.

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeannia i/enoee aiaeu a aiia?aoo?a anao oeiia
iaoneiaeaia i?i/iinoueth e ieioiinoueth eiaaoeyoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u.

Aeey oiieiaeenia?niie noniaicee n /anoeoeaie caaeaiiiai ?acia?a iaeiei
ec iniiaiuo e?eoa?eaa auai? a aeicu eiaaoeyioa yaeyaony i?i/iinoue
no?oeoo?u.

Iaeiia?aiaiiiai oaaee/aiey i?i/iinoe e ieioiinoe eiaaoeyoeieiiie
no?oeoo?u iiaeii aeinoe/ue eiiaeie?iaaiiui aicaeaenoaeai ia no?oeoo?o
aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo oneiaee ia?aiaoeaaiey e aeicu eiaaoeyioa. Auai?
iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeia i/enoee aiaeu n eniieueciaaieai ?aaaaioia
aiciiaeai ia iniiaa oeaii/a/ii-y/aenoie iiaeaee eiaaoeyoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?u.

I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie aeicu ?aaaaioa i?e
aeiaaaeaiee aai a aiaeo yeaeo?ioeie/aneei niiniaii. A yoii neo/aa
iaeaieaa eaaei iioeiece?iaaoue i?ioeann eciaiaieai ieioiinoe oiea e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ia?aaioee a caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaaiiiai ninoaaa
noi/iuo aiae.

I?eiaiyy ecaanoiua iaoiaeu iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue iioeiaeueiue ?aaeei yeaeo?ioeie/aneie ia?aaioee.
Nouanoaothuea ono?ienoaa aeey aaoiiaoe/aneiai aeice?iaaiey ?aaaaioia
aeatho aiciiaeiinoue, eae i?aaeei, iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oieueei eo ?anoiae,
onoaiiaeaiiue ia iniiaa i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee. Iiaeaea?aeaiea
iioeiaeueiie aeicu ?aaaaioia aeey niaethaeaiey iniiaiuo ea/anoaaiiuo
ia?aiao?ia i?ioeanna eiaaoeyoeee iiea aua cao?oaeiaii.

5.3 Ia?aiaoeaaiea noi/iuo aiae n ?aaaaioaie.

I?eaioiaeaiiue ?anoai? /a?ac aeice?othuaa ono?ienoai e nianeoaeue
aaiaeyo a aiaeo. Ia?aiaoeaaiea aiaeu n ?aaaaioaie oeaeaniia?acii
inouanoaeyoue a aeaa noaaeee, i?e/ai ia?aoth noaaeeth i?iaiaeeoue a
?aaeeia, i?eaeeaeathuainy e ?aaeeio eaeaaeueiiai niaoaiey, a aoi?oth – a
?aaeeia eaeaaeueiiai auoaniaiey ii aeeaeeie oaca. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai,
/oi ia ia?aie noaaeee aeieaeii auoue iaania/aii ?aaiiia?iia
?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aaaaioa ii anaio iauaio i/euaaiuo noi/iuo aiae, a ia
aoi?ie – nicaeaiea oneiaee, eneeth/athueo ?aniaae ia?aciaaaoeony
aaeiia?aoia /anoeoe caa?yciaiee. Ia?aue ?aaeei iiaeii inouanoaeoue,
iai?eia?, a aiia?aoa n eioaineaii a?auathuaeny iaoaeeie, a aoi?ie – a
neia acaaoaiiiai inaaeea.

Eae iieacuaatho ?acoeueoaou iiiaeo enneaaeiaaiee, i?ioeann ia?aiaoeaaiey
aiaeu n ?aaaaioaie, a /anoiinoe n iai?aaie/aneeie eiaaoeyioaie,
iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue n iaeneiaeueiie nei?inoueth. Iioeiecaoeey
?aaeeia niaoaiey eiaaoeyioa n aiaeie iiaeao i?eaanoe e aieaa
yooaeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo e e nie?auaieth
?anoiaea eiaaoeyioa.

Yooaeoeaiinoue iaiiaaiiiai ia?aiaoeaaiey caeeth/aaony a eciaiaiee
noaiaie aeenia?niinoe i?iaeoeoia aeae?ieeca eiaaoeyioia,
aani?ae?othueony ia iiaa?oiinoe /anoeoe caa?yciaiee. I?e aieaa
eioaineaiii ia?aiaoeaaiee oaaee/eaaaony aa?iyoiinoue ni?aoeee ia
iiaa?oiinoe /anoeoe caa?yciaiee iaeeeo /anoeoe i?iaeoeoia aeae?ieeca
eiaaoeyioia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e yeiiiiee eiaaoeyioa e iaeiia?aiaiiiio
oaaee/aieth i?i/iinoe nayce /anoeoe a iee?ioeiiueyo.

I?e auai?a ?aaeeia niaoaiey eiaaoeyioa iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ninoaa e
oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa noi/iuo aiae, a oaeaea aaiaeeiuo ?aaaaioia.
Aaaeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey iioeiaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia ?aaeeia niaoaiey
iaoneiaeaia oaeaea aieueoie ?ieueth i?oieeiaoe/aneie noaaeee eiaaoeyoeee
a i?ioeannao aa?aaaoeee /anoeoe caa?yciaiee. Aa?iyoiinoue noieeiiaaiee
iaaeaeo eiaaoee?othueie /anoeoeaie aic?anoaao n oaaee/aieai
eioaineaiinoe ia?aiaoeaaiey. Iaeiaei i?e aeinoeaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai
nei?inoiiai a?aaeeaioa ia?acothueany oeiiuey ia/eiatho ?ac?ooaoueny.
Aeey i?eiaiyaiuo eiaaoeyioia cia/aiea nei?inoiiai a?aaeeaioa ninoaaeyao
i?eia?ii 20-70 n-1. A ea/anoaa e?eoa?eaeueiie ioeaiee i?ioeanna niaoaiey
?aaaaioia n aiaeie ia?yaeo ni nei?inoiui a?aaeeaioii i?eiaiytho oaeaea
i?iecaaaeaiea iineaaeiaai ia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue niauaiey, aaaaeaiiia
Eyiiii (e?eoa?ee Eyiia).

A iai?aaeaiee eioaineoeeaoeee ia?aiaoeaaiey aiaeu n ?aaaaioaie
?acaeaaaony e ?ac?aaioea nianeoaeae. ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?e auai?a oeia,
eiino?oeoeee e ?aaeeia aeaenoaey ia?aiaoeaathueo ono?ienoa ia noaaeeyo
auno?iai niaoaiey aiaeu n ?aaaaioaie e iaaeeaiiiai ia?aiaoeaaiey aiaeu a
eaia?ao oeiiueaia?aciaaiey o/eouaaoue caeiiiia?iinoe eiaaoeyoeeiiiiai
no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey, ii?aaeaeythuea ia/aeueiua cia/aiey nei?inoiiai
a?aaeeaioa, iaiaoiaeeiinoue iinoaiaiiiai ia?aiaoeaaiey e eiioeaio?aoeee
oaa?aeie e aeeaeeie oac ia iiaa?oiinoe ?acaeaea.

Auno?ia ia?aiaoeaaiea ?aaaaioia n aiaeie iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi a
nianeoaeyo n inaaaeiiaeeaeaiiie ianaaeeie e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
yeaeo?iia?aaioeie niane.

Yeaeo?iiaaieoiua nianeoaee oeaeaniia?acii i?eiaiyoue i?aaeaea anaai i?e
eiioaeoe?iaaiee aiaeu n ?anoai?aie yeaeo?ieeoia, iai?eia? n ?anoai?aie
eeneio, uaei/ae, nieae. Iaeiaei aiciiaeii ia?aiaoeaaiea
iayeaeo?ii?iaiaeeiuo ?aaaaioia, iai?eia? iieeae?eeaieaea n aiaeie, a
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo nianeoaeyo n inaaaeiiaeeaeaiiie eee iaaieoiiaeeaeaiiie
ianaaeeie.

Iaeaieaa i?inou a aiia?aoo?iii ioi?ieaiee nianeoaee, niaea?aeauea eaia?o
yeaeo?iia?aaioee, a eioi?ie onoaiiaeaiu aeaa eee ianeieueei yeaeo?iaeia.
A ?acoeueoaoa aicaeaenoaey yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey ia ?anoai?u yeaeo?ieeoia
i?ienoiaeeo yooaeoeaiia niaoaiea aiaeu n eiaaoeyioii, /oi iicaieyao
nouanoaaiii nie?aoeoue a?aiy ia?aiaoeaaiey, a oaeaea ?anoiae ?aaaaioia
ia i/enoeo noieia. Yeaeo?ieec i?iaiaeyo, eae i?aaeei, a ?aaeeiao aac
caiaoiiai auaeaeaiey aacia (eenei?iaea e aiaei?iaea)

Ae?oaei i?inoaeoei aa?eaioii yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai ia?aiaoeaaiey yaeyaony
eniieueciaaiea aaia?aoi?ia iaaieoiiai iiey, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo ia o/anoea
o?oau, aaea iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeatho aiaeo e ?anoai? eiaaoeyioa
(yeaeo?ieeoa). Oaeea nianeoaee aanueia i?inou e eo eaaei onoaiiaeoue
i?aeoe/anee ia ethaii o/anoea oaoiieiae/aneie eeiee. E?iia oiai,
nianeoaee n eniieueciaaieai iinoiyiiuo iaaieoia iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu
a iiiauaieyo ethaie eaoaai?ee.

Aunieay eioaineaiinoue i/enoee aeinoeaaaony a yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo
nianeoaeyo n iaaieoiiaeeaeaiiie ianaaeeie, ninoiyuae ec oa??iiaaieoiuo
/anoeoe.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iaaeiionoeii caa?yciaiea i/euaaiie aiaeu i?eianyie
aeaeaca, aianoi nianeoaeae n iaaieoiiaeeaeaiiie ianaaeeie iiaeii
i?eiaieoue yeaeo?iiaaieoiua nianeoaee oeia noaoi?a aneio?iiiiai
aeaeaaoaey n eniieueciaaieai a ea/anoaa ianaaeee iiiaiinaaiai ?ioi?a n
iiaeaeaeiuie yeaiaioaie.

6. Ioaeaeaiea acaaoaiiuo /anoeoe io aiaeu.

I/enoea aiaeu io acaaoaiiuo eiaaoee?iaaiiuo /anoeoe yaeyaony
iiiainoaaeeeiui i?ioeannii, aeeth/athuei, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ia?aciaaiea
aa?aaaoia e ioaeaeaiea eo io aiaeu. I?ioeann ia/eiaaony n ia?aciaaiey
aa?aaaoia /anoeoe, caoai i?ienoiaeeo eo ?aniaae, ia?aoiae aa?aaaoia a
inaaeie, auiaaeaiea aa?aaaoia /anoeoe ec inaaeea niiaa a aeeaeeoth oaco,
auiaaeaiea iiiiaeenia?niuo /anoeoe ec aeeaeeinoe a inaaeie, ieioy
noaaeeth aa?aaaoiia?aciaaiey. I?ioeann ioaeaeaiey aa?aaaoia /anoeoe io
aiaeu iacuaaaony ionoaeaaieai.

Aeey ioaeaeaiey neiaaoee?iaaiiuo /anoeoe i?eianae io aiaeu eniieuecotho
oaeaea oeioaoeeth eee oeeueo?aoeeth. Ionoaeaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
yenoaineaiue i?ioeann, iaeiaei, yaeyynue oieaa?naeueiui iaoiaeii,
iicaieyao i/euaoue noi/iua aiaeu ?acee/iiai ninoaaa. Eioaineoeeaoeey
i?ioeanna ionoaeaaiey naycaia eae n oeo/oaieai naaeeiaioaoeeiiiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee neiaaoee?iaaiiuo /anoeoe i?eianae, oae e n iioeiecaoeeae
eiino?oeoeee ionoieieeia.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy aeey i/enoee noi/iuo aiae ana /aua eniieuecotho
oeioaoeeth. I?aeiouanoai aa – aeinoaoi/ii aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue
ecaea/aiey i?eianae ec aiaeu. i?ioeann oeioaoeee caaeneo eae io naienoa
/anoeoe, oae e io eo ?acia?a, a oaeaea io ?yaea oeceei-oeie/aneeo
naienoa inaaoeyaiuo oieneaeenia?niuo noniaicee, aeeth/ay e noi/iua
aiaeu. ana yoi i?eaiaeeo e ii?aaeaeaiiui o?oaeiinoyi aiaae?aiey
oeioaoeeiiiiai niiniaa i/enoee aiae.

Eniieueciaaiea ?aaaaioia i?e oeioaoeee iicaieyao a ?yaea neo/aaa
aeiaeoueny aunieeo iieacaoaeae i/enoee. A i?aeoeea oeioaoeeiiiiai
?acaeaeaiey noniaicee ecaanoii aeinoaoi/ii iiiai niiniaia ianuuaiey
aeeaeeinoe iocu?ueeaie aacia (aicaeooa). Iaeiaei aeey i/enoee noi/iuo
aiae iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao niinia iaii?iie oeioaoeee n
ia?aciaaieai iocu?ueeia aaca a aeeaeeinoe i?e nieaeaiee aeaaeaiey,
yeaeo?iiiue niinia ay?e?iaaiey noi/iuo aiae, niinia iiaea/e naeaoiai
aicaeooa /a?ac oeeueo?u (iiaaiaoe/aneee), yeaeo?ieeoe/aneee niinia.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu aeey yeaeo?ieeoe/aneie i/enoee aeeaeeinoae i?eiaiytho
yeaeo?ioeioaoi?u e yeaeo?ieiaaoeyoi?u. Aeaenoaea yeaeo?ioeioaoeeiiiuo
aiia?aoia iniiaaii ia i?eioeeia ay?aoeee aeeaeeinoe e iocu?ueeaie aacia,
ia?acothueieny i?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu. Aunieay eioaineaiinoue iaoiaea
yeaeo?ioeioaoeee iaoneiaeaia iieo/aieai oiieiaeenia?niuo iocu?ueeia
yeaeo?ieeciuo aacia e iacia/eoaeueiui ia?aiaoeaaieai a eaia?a
yeaeo?ioeioaoeeiiiai aiia?aoa. Ca ?oaaaeii ecaanoiu aiia?aou aeey
iaeiia?aiaiiiai i?iaaaeaiey yeaeo?ieiaaoeyoeee e yeaeo?ioeioaoeee.
Ecaanoiu aiia?aou a eioi?uo niaiauaiu yeaeo?ioeie/aneay ia?aaioea e
yeaeo?ioeioaoeey, a oaeaea aiia?aou, niaiauathuea yeaeo?ioeie/aneoth
ia?aaioeo e iaii?ioth oeioaoeeth.

7. Yeaeo?ioeioaoeeiiiue aiia?ao aeey inaaoeaiey oiieiaeenia?niuo
noniaicee e i/enoee noi/iuo aiae.

Aeey i/enoee noi/iuo aiae e naouaiey noniaicee n oiieiaeenia?niie oacie
i?aaeeiaeai yeaeo?ioeioaoeeiiiue aiia?ao, niaaaeaiiue eaia?ie niaoaiey,
/oi iicaieyao eioaineoeoee?iaaoue naouaiea noniaicee e nieceoue oiin
/anoeoe oaa?aeie oacu. A eaia?a i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie i/enoee onoaiiaeaiu
yeaeo?iaeu, /enei eioi?uo ia/aoiia. A iineaaeiae naeoeee aiia?aoa
iaoiaeeony eiiiiaiaiiay iaia?aia. (Ni. ?en.1).

I?e aicaeaenoaee yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey e aeae?iaeeiaie/aneii
ia?aiaoeaaiee, iaania/eaathuai inaaaeiiaeeaeaiea neiy aeenia?niie
ianaaeee, a eaia?a niaoaiey i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiue i?ioeann
eiioaeoe?iaaiey oaa?aeie oacu noniaicee n oeie/aneeie ?aaaaioaie,
aaiaeeiuie aeey aaeiia?aoeee oiieiaeenia?niuo /anoeoe. A aiia?aoa oaeie
eiino?oeoeee aeinoeaaaony auno?ia eiioaeoe?iaaiea ?aaaaioia n
noniaiceae, i?e yoii ia?acothony aaeiia?aou /anoeoe noniaicee, e a oiaea
a?aiy ia ?ac?ooathony ia?aciaaaoeany oeieoeu.

Aiia?ao ?aaioaao neaaeothuei ia?acii. Noniaicey /a?ac iao?oaie 11 e
?aaaaio /a?ac iao?oaie 12 iinooiatho a eaia?o niaoaiey 3, aaea
ia?acothony inaaaeiiaeeaeaiiue neie ianaaeee, iaania/eaaaiue ainoiaeyuei
iioieii aeeaeeinoe, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiia ia?aiaoeaaiea
noniaicee n ?aaaaioii. Caoai noniaicey iai?aaeyaony a naeoeee aiia?aoa 5
aeey a?oaie i/enoee e aeaeaa a eaia?o oiieie i/enoee 9, aaea
iieiinoueth inaaoeyaony aeeaeeay oaca noniaicee. A eaia?a 5 ioaeaeyaony
iniiaiay ianna oaa?aeie oacu noniaicee a ?acoeueoaoa oeioaoeee
oiieiaeenia?niuo /anoeoe iocu?ueeaie aacia, auaeaeythueony ia
yeaeo?iaeao 8 e 10. Eioaineoeeaoeey naouaiey noniaicee aeinoeaathony
oaaee/aieai iooe i?ioiaeaeaiey aeeaeeinoe ( onoaiiaeaii ii?aaeaeaiiia
/enei ia?aai?iaeie – 13). A eaia?a 9 acaaoaiiua /anoeoeu aeenia?niie
oacu i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth ioaeaeythony io aeeaeeinoe, oae eae
nicaeathony aeaaii?eyoiua aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea oneiaey aeey anieuaaiey
iocu?ueeia aianoa n /anoeoeaie. Inaaoeaiiay aeeaeeinoue auaiaeeony /a?ac
iao?oaie 6, a i?iaeoeo oaeaeyaony /a?ac iao?oaie 2. Eniieuecoy
eiiiiaiaiioth iaia?aio 7, ?aniieiaeaiioth iaaeaeo yeaeo?iaeaie a eaia?a
oiieie i/enoee, eciaiytho ?I inaaoeaiiie aeeaeeinoe aei o?aaoaiuo
cia/aiee.

I?e eniieueciaaiee yoiai aiia?aoa aeinoeaaaony aieaa aeoaieia inaaoeaiea
noniaicee e oiaiueoathony yia?aicao?aou, iineieueeo ?aaaaiou iiaeathony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a eaia?o niaoaiey. A i?enoonoaee ?aaaaioia
yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue ?acaeaeyaiie noniaicee, a oaeaea noaiaiue
eiaaoeyoeee /anoeoe oaaee/eaathony, /oi niinianoaoao aieaa iieiiio
?acaeaeaieth naouaaiie noniaicee ia aeeaeeoth e oaa?aeoth oacu.

I?ioeann, i?ioaeathuee a yoii aiia?aoa, iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia
o?e noaaeee: ia?aiaoeaaiea ?aaaaioia n noniaiceae; ia?aciaaiea
aaeiia?aoia (eiaaoeyoeey); oeioaoeey eiiieaenia aaeiia?aou /anoeoe –
iocu?ueee aacia.

Iinea ia?aiaoeaaiey noniaicee n ?aaaaioaie a iioeiaeueiii ?aaeeia aa
iai?aaeytho a eaia?o a?oaie yeaeo?ioeioaoeeiiiie i/enoee, aaea
onoaiiaeaiu a ianeieueei ?yaeia yeaeo?iaeu, iiaeeeth/aiiua e enoi/ieeo
iinoiyiiiai oiea. A yoie eaia?a i?iaeieaeaaony oe?oiiaiea /anoeoe
aeenia?noiie oacu i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee n i?iaeoeoaie yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai
?anoai?aiey aiiaea ec aethieiey eee noaee.

Ieii/aoaeueii aeeaeeinoue i/euatho a eaia?a aeii/enoee, aaea
inouanoaeyaony oieueei yeaeo?ioeioaoeeiiiue i?ioeann. Yooaeoeaiinoue
oeioaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna nouanoaaiii caaeneo io ?acia?a iocu?ueeia aaca
e nei?inoe aa?aioaaea.

Eniuoaiey yeaeo?ioeioaoeeiiiiai aiia?aoa i?aaeeaaaaiie eiino?oeoeee ia
?yaea i?iecaiaenoa iieacaee aai aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue i?e i/enoea
noi/iuo aiae. Iaaeinoaoeii yeaeo?ioeioaoeeiiiuo aiia?aoia iiaeiaiie
eiino?oeoeee neaaeoao n/eoaoue oi, /oi eo iaeuecy i?eiaiyoue aeey
inaaoeaiey noniaicee, niaea?aeaueo a?oaiaeenia?niua i?eiane.

8. Iaacaiaeeaaiea e ooeeecaoeey inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae

Aieueoia ?aciiia?acea ninoaaa e naienoa ia?acothueony i?e i/enoea
inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae i?aeoe/anee eneeth/aao nicaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea
eaeeo-eeai oieaa?naeueiuo niiniaia iaacaiaeeaaiey [6-7].

Ia?acothueany i?e i/enoea noi/iuo aiae inaaeee oneiaii eeanneoeoee?otho
ia neaaeothuea iniiaiua eaoaai?ee: ieia?aeueiua, i?aaie/aneea inaaeee e
ecauoi/iue aeoeaiue ee. Iaeaieaa eaaei iaacaiaeeaathony ieia?aeueiua
inaaeee e ai?acaei o?oaeiaa i?aaie/aneea inaaeee e ecauoi/iue aeoeaiue
ee. Oaoiieiae/aneea noaiu ia?aaioee e iineaaeothuaai iaacaiaeeaaiey
i?aaie/aneiai inaaeea e ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea aeeth/atho, eae
i?aaeei, neaaeothuea noaaeee – i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia oieioiaiea,
iaacaiaeeaaiea, oa?ie/aneoth nooeo (naeeaaiea). Ia?aae iaacaiaeeaaieai
i?aaie/aneea inaaeee iiaeii na?aaeeaaoue eee noaaeeece?iaaoue, a oaeaea
eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaoue oa?ii?aaaaioiie ia?aaioeie.

Aeey nieaeaiey aeaaeiinoe inaaeee, a oii /enea e ecauoi/iue aeoeaiue ee,
oieioiytho.

8.1. Iaoiaeu iaacaiaeeaaiey ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea e inaaeeia noi/iuo
aiae.

Ia noaaeee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai oieioiaiey aeoeaiiai eea iaeaieueoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee ionoaeaaiea e oeioaoeey. I?aeiouanoaa
oeioaoeeiiiiai naouaiey noniaicee aeoeaiiai eea:

i?inoioa aiia?aoo?iiai ioi?ieaiey niiniaa;

iacia/eoaeueiay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanna;

oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua iieacaoaee naouaiey noniaicee aeoeaiiai eea
(nooiaiue naouaiey 3,0-5,0);

ia o?aaoaony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay ?aaaaioiay ia?aaioea.

Aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea iaii?iay oeioaoeey aeey
oieioiaiey ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea. Nouiinoue aa caeeth/aaony a
ianuuaiee aiaeu aicaeooii ni cia/eoaeueiui ia?anuuaieai ei, /oi
iaania/eaaaony nicaeaieai ecauoi/iiai aeaaeaiey a oa/aiea iaeioi?iai
a?aiaie. I?e nieaeaiee aeaaeaiey aei aoiinoa?iiai ia/eiatho auaeaeyoueny
iaeue/aeoea iocu?ueee aicaeooa, eioi?ua e oeioe?otho niaea?aeaueany a
aiaea /anoeoeu i?eianae.

I?e eniieueciaaiee oaeiai iaoiaea aeey iaacaiaeeaaiey ecauoi/iiai
aeoeaiiai eea iee?iaioth aeiianno iiaeii naonoeoue a 305 ?ac. Oaeoth
noaiaiue naouaiey neaaeoao n/eoaoue oi?ioae i?e aeinoaoi/ii i?inoii
aiia?aoo?iii ioi?ieaiee i?ioeanna iaii?iie oeioaoeee. Iaeiaei iioa?e
iee?iaiie aeiiannu n inaaoeaiiie eeiaie aiaeie i?e naouaiee aeoeaiiai
eea iaii?iie oeioaoeeae a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo n?aaieoaeueii aieueoea.

Aeey oiaiueoaiey iioa?ue iee?iaiie aeiiannu e iiauoaiey noaiaie naouaiey
a enoiaeioth noniaiceth aeoeaiiai eea ia?aae oeioaoeeae eiiaaea
aeiaaaeytho ?aaaaiou, iai?eia? ?anoai?u yeaeo?ieeoia eee
iieeyeaeo?ieeoia.

Eioaineoeeaoeey i?ioeanna oeioaoeee aeinoeaaaony oaeaea aaaaeaieai IAA a
naouaaioth noniaiceth aeoeaiiai eea.

Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi iaeiei ec yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai oieioiaiey aeoeaiiai eea yaeyaony oaeaea
yeaeo?ioeioaoeey. Noaiaiue naouaiey aeoeaiiai eea yeaeo?ioeioaoeeae
ninoaaeyao 3-5 i?e enoiaeiie eiioeaio?aoeee 0,6-1,0% aaniethoii nooeo
aauanoa, a yia?aicao?aou ninoaaeytho ieiei 1-2 eAo. / ia 1 i3 enoiaeiie
noniaicee. Iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia i?ioeann yeaeo?ioeioaoeee ieacuaaao
ieioiinoue oiea.

Aeey iiauoaiey noaiaie ecaea/aiey aeiiannu aeoeaiiai eea neaaeoao
aaiaeeoue a enoiaeioth noniaiceth ieia?aeueiua eiaaoeyiou eee
neioaoe/aneea oeieoeyiou.

Aunieiyooaeoeaiui iaoiaeii naouaiey inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae e ecauoi/iiai
aeoeaiiai eea yaeyaony oeaio?aooae?iaaiea. I?aeiouanoaa niiniaa –
i?inoioa, yeiiiie/iinoue e ieceay aeaaeiinoue naouaiiiai i?iaeoeoa;
iaaeinoaoie – aieueoie oiin oaa?aeie oacu n inaaoeaiiie aeeaeeinoueth
(ooaaoii), /oi i?eaiaeeo e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiie noaaeee
i/enoee ooaaoa, iai?eia? naia?e?iaaieai.

Aeey iaacaiaeeaaiey inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae e ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiu iai?a?uaiiaeaenoaothuea, inaaeeoaeueiua
ai?eciioaeueiua oeaio?eooae ni oiaeiaie aua?oceie inaaeea. I?aeiouanoai
yoeo oeaio?eooa – aunieay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?e ieceii oaeaeueiii
?anoiaea yia?aee e ianna. Iaaeinoaoee – iaaunieay noaiaiue naouaiey
inaaeea, a oaeaea auno?ue eciin oiaea e ?ioi?a.

Ananoi?iiiea enneaaeiaaiey aac?aaaaioiiai oeaio?eooae?iaaiey inaaeeia
noi/iuo aiae e ecauoi/iiai eea, iieacaee aiciiaeiinoue i?aeoe/aneiai
eniieueciaaiey yoiai niiniaa. Enneaaeiaai iiaue niinia ia?aaioee
ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea, aeeth/athuee oeaio?eooae?iaaiea noniaicee
aeoeaiiai eea, ioae?aaiie ec aoi?e/iuo ionoieieeia

Aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe oeaio?eooae?iaaiey i?eiaiytho ?acee/iua
oeie/aneea ?aaaaiou, a /anoiinoe neioaoe/aneea oeieoeyiou. Ia?aaioea
oeieoeyioaie eaoeiiiiai oeia iicaieyao iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue
caaea?aeaiey nooiai aauanoaa aei 95-99 %.

Eniieueciaaiea oeaio?eooa aeey iaoaie/aneiai iaacaiaeeaaiey inaaeeia
ia?ae/iuo ionoieieeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeei ec ia?niaeoeaiuo
niiniaia, iniaaiii i?e i?eiaiaiee oeieoeyioia.

Aunieay noaiaiue naouaiey oaa?aeie oacu iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooa ia
oa?aeue/aouo naia?aoi?ao.

Ecaanoii, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue naouaiey noniaicee aeoeaiiai eea n
eniieueciaaieai naia?aoi?ia nouanoaaiii caaeneo io i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
oa?ii?aaaaioiie ia?aaioee. Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaeeia oa?ii?aaaaioiie
iiaeaioiaee noniaicee aeoeaiiai eea e naouaieth i?iaa?aia a i?iiuoeaiiuo
oneiaeyo.

Oaoiieiae/aneay noaia iaacaiaeeaaiey aeoeaiiai eea n i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
oa?ii?aaaaioiie ia?aaioeie, oieioiaieai iaii?iie oeioaoeeae e n
iineaaeothuei naouaieai a oeaio?eooaao e naia?aoi?ao i?aaenoaaeyaony
ia?niaeoeaiie e i?aeoe/iie.

Aeey eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiey aeoeaiiai eea e inaaeeia ia?ae/iuo ionoieieeia
e eioaineoeeaoeee i?ioeanna naouaiey iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ia?yaeo n
oaieiaie e ?aaaaioiie ia?aaioeie e ae?oaea niiniau, iai?eia? n
aeiaaaeaieai cieu, a /anoiinoe iieo/aiiie io naeeaaiey inaaeeia noi/iuo
aiae. I?aeoe/aneee e iao/iue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao
oeieoeyoeeiiii-oeaio?iaaaeiue niinia naouaiey noniaicee.

Aeinoaoi/ii i?i/iua oeiiuey ia?acothony a aeinoniaiceyo, a oii /enea e a
noniaicee aeoeaiiai eea, i?e i?iaaaeaiee eiiieaeniie ia?aaioee. Iaeei ec
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo niiniaia oaeie ia?aaioee – ay?iaiay noaaeeecaoeey
noniaicee aeoeaiiai eea n oa?ii?aaaaioiie ia?aaioeie. Neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi oa?ii?aaaaioiay ia?aaioea ia oieueei oneeeaaao
ia?aciaaiea aa?aaaoia /anoeoe eaaceoaa?aeie oacu aeinoniaicee, ii e
i?eaiaeeo e iaaca?aaeeaaieth iieo/aaiiai a aeaeueiaeoai aioiaiai
i?iaeoeoa, /oi aanueia aaaeii i?e eniieueciaaiee aeiiannu
iee?ii?aaieciia a ea/anoaa ei?iiaie aeiaaaee. Eiiaaea aunieee yooaeo
oeieoeyoeee aeinoeaaaony oieueei i?e ay?iaiie noaaeeecaoeee e
oa?iiia?aaioee noniaicee.

Iinea oieioiaiey (naouaiey) aeaeueiaeoaa iaacaiaeeaaiea noniaicee
aeoeaiiai eea aeinoeaaaony auia?eaaieai e nooeie eee iaeiie nooeie. Aeey
nooee ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea e inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae iiaeii
?aeiiaiaeiaaoue ?aniueeoaeueiua nooeeee, iai?a?uaiua nooeeee no?oeiiai
oeia e nooeeee n eia?oiui inaaaeiiaeeaeaiiui iineoaeai.

Iineieueeo eiioeaio?e?iaaiiay eeiaay noniaicey eiaao aunieoth ayceinoue,
ia?aae nooeie aa oeaeaniia?acii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iiaeia?aoue. Anee aea
aeiianna a aeaeueiaeoai aoaeao eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa ei?iiaie
aeiaaaee, oi iaiaoiaeeia oaieiaay ia?aaioea.

8.2 Onoaiiaea aeey nooee eea n eiaaoeyioaie

Aeey iaacaiaeeaaiey eea n eiaaoeyioaie ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaiyoue nooeeeo
ni acaaoaiiui neiai eia?oiuo oae (Ni. ?en. 2).

I?ioeann inouanoaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii.

Iaacaiaeeaaaiue i?iaeoeo nia/aea iinooiaao a aaeooi-oeeueo?, a caoai a
aeaooaaeueiue nianeoaeue 2, aaea ia?aiaoeaaaony n aunooaiiui iaoa?eaeii
ec ?an/aoa 1:1. Aeaaeiinoue niane ninoaaeyao 45-50 %. Aeieaa nianue
iiaeaaony a nooeeeo aeo?aaiai neiy 9, caiieiaiioth eia?oiie ianaaeeie, a
ea/anoaa eioi?ie eniieuecoaony aaeueea eee oeaiaioiue eeeiea? n
/anoeoeaie ?acia?ii 5-6 ii.

Oaieiiineoaeai e inaaaeiiaeeaeathuei aaaioii yaeythony ?acaaaeaiiua
aicaeooii aeuiiaua aacu oaiia?aoo?ie 500 iN. Aaia?aoi?ii aeuiiauo aacia
neoaeeo oiiea 10, a eioi?ie naeeaatho eeai iacoo, eeai i?e?iaeiue aac.

Oaiia?aoo?a inaaaeiiaeeaeaiiiai neiy iiaeaea?aeeaaaony ia o?iaia 100-120
iN . Aeaaeiue iaoa?eae eiioaeoe?oao n eioaineaii aeaeaeoueieny
/anoeoeaie, iaacaiaeeaaaony, eciaeue/aaony e aianoa n iooiaeyueie aacaie
iai?aaeyaony a nenoaio oeeeeiiia. Iinea ia?aie e aoi?ie nooiaiae
i/enoee a i?yiioi/iii oeeeeiia 4 nooie i?iaeoeo iinooiaao a
aeaooaaeueiue nianeoaeue, a inoaeueiay /anoue aianoa n nooeie /anoeoeaie
ec aaoa?aeiiai oeeeeiia 5 iiaeaaony a nai?iee aioiaiai i?iaeoeoa 6.
Aeaaeaiea aeuiiauo aacia iiae aaci?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie ?aoaoeie
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony ieiei 4-5 eIa.

Eiee/anoai caa?oci/iiai oeaia i?eaeeceoaeueii niioaaonoaoao ianna
eia?oiuo /anoeoe. ?aai/ay iaa?ocea i?e nooea iano a aiia?aoa,
niaaaeaiiii iaoaeeie, ninoaaeyao 6-8 ea//; aeaaeiinoue noniaicee
aeoeaiiai eea iinea aunooeaaiey i?eia?ii 3-5 %; iioa?e noniaicee a
nooeeea n inaaaeiiaeeaeaiiui neiai ieiei 4%, a a ?aniueeoaeueiie 9 %.

8.3. Eniieueciaaiea inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae e aeoeaiiai eea

Ooeeecaoeey inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae e ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea /anoi
naycaia n eniieueciaaieai eo a naeueneii oicyenoaa a ea/anoaa
oaeia?aiey, /oi iaoneiaeaii aeinoaoi/ii aieueoei niaea?aeaieai a ieo
aeiaaiiuo yeaiaioia. Aeoeaiue ee iniaaiii aiaao acioii e oinoi?iui
aiaeae?eaeii, oaeeie, eae iaaeue, iieeaaeai, oeeie.

A ea/anoaa oaeia?aiey iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oa inaaeee noi/iuo aiae e
ecauoi/iue aeoeaiue ee, eioi?ua i?aaeaa?eoaeueii auee iiaeaa?aioou
ia?aaioea, aa?aioe?othuae iineaaeothuoth eo iacaaieaaaiinoue, a oaeaea
aeaaeue iaoiaaiiuo iee?ii?aaieciia e yeoe aaeueieioia.

Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui niiniaii iaacaiaeeaaiey iooiaeia, ia?acothueony i?e
i/enoea noi/iuo aiae, yaeyaony oa?ie/aneay nooea. Ia?niaeoeaiua
oaoiieiae/aneea niiniau iaacaiaeeaaiey inaaeeia e ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai
eea, aeeth/athuea eniieueciaaiea aa?aaaiiuo aaeooi-oeeueo?ia,
oeaio?eooa, n iineaaeothuae oa?ie/aneie nooeie e iaeiia?aiaiiie
a?aioeyoeeae iicaieytho iieo/aoue i?iaeoeo a aeaea a?aioe, /oi
iaania/eaaao iieo/aiea iacaaieaathuaai e oaeiaiiai aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee,
o?aiaiey e aianaiey a ii/ao i?aaiiieia?aeueiiai oaeia?aiey,
niaea?aeauaai acio, oinoi?, iee?iyeaiaiou.

Ia?yaeo n aeinoieinoaaie iieo/aaiiai ia iniiaa inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae e
aeoeaiiai eea oaeia?aiey neaaeoao o/eouaaoue e aiciiaeiua
io?eoeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey aai i?eiaiaiey, naycaiiua n iaee/eai a ieo
a?aaeiuo aeey ?anoaiee aauanoa a /anoiinoe yaeia, oeieeaoia, nieae
oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia e o.i. A yoeo neo/ayo iaiaoiaeeiu no?iaee eiio?ieue
niaea?aeaiey a?aaeiuo aauanoa a aioiaii i?iaeoeoa e ii?aaeaeaiea
aiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey aai a ea/anoaa oaeia?aiey aeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?.

Ecaea/aiea eiiia oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia e ae?oaeo a?aaeiuo i?eianae ec
noi/iuo aiae aa?aioe?oao, iai?eia?, iieo/aiea aaca?aaeiie aeiiannu
ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea, eioi?oth iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa
ei?iiaie aeiaaaee eee oaeia?aiey.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ecaanoii aeinoaoi/ii
iiiai yooaeoeaiuo e aeinoaoi/ii i?inouo a aiia?aoo?iii ioi?ieaiee
niiniaia ecaea/aiey yoeo i?eianae ec noi/iuo aiae. A nayce n oe?ieei
eniieueciaaieai inaaeea noi/iuo aiae e ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea a
ea/anoaa oaeia?aiey aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eioaineaiuo
enneaaeiaaieyo aiciiaeiiai aeeyiey i?enoonoaothueo a ieo oiene/iuo
aauanoa ( a /anoiinoe oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia) ia ?ino e iaeiieaiea eo a
?anoaieyo e ii/aa.

I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an i?aeoeea eniieueciaaiey inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae a
O?A. Ii naieoa?iui niia?aaeaieyi a O?A aeiioneaaony eniieueciaaiea a
ea/anoaa oaeia?aiey oieueei iacaaieaathueo, noaaeeece?iaaiiuo inaaeeia
noi/iuo aiae, oa?ie/anee aunooaiiuo, eiiiinoe?iaaiiuo e ianoa?eciaaiiuo.
Ianoa?ecaoeey inaaeeia caeeth/aaony a eo iaa?aaaiee aei 65-70 iN a
oa/aiea 20-30 iei, /oi i?eaiaeeo e oie/oiaeaieth a yeoe aeeueieioia e
iaoiaaiiuo iee?ii?aaieciia. Aieaa aunieee yooaeo ianoa?ecaoeee
aeinoeaaaony i?e iaa?aaaiee inaaeea aei 80-90 iN n iineaaeothuei
auaea?aeeaaieai a oa/aiea 5 iei. A neo/aa ia?aciaaiey aieueoeo iauaiia
inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae, niaea?aeaueo niee oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia, ec-ca /aai
eo iaeuecy eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa oaeia?aiey, ii-aeaeeiiio,
oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue ae?oaea iooe ooeeecaoeee, iai?eia?,
naeeaaiea inaaeeia.

A O?A oaeaea i?aaeeiaeai niinia naeeaaiey aeoeaiiai eea n iieo/aieai
caiaieoaeae iaooe e eaiaiiiai oaey. Iiaen/eoaii, /oi i?e naeeaaiee 350
oun. o aeoeaiiai eea iiaeii iieo/eoue oiieeai, yeaeaaeaioiia 700 oun.
aa??aeae iaooe e 175 oun. o oaey [ 1 aa??aeue – 159 e.]

Iaeiei ec i?aeiouanoa yoiai iaoiaea yaeyaony oi, /oi iieo/aiiia oiieeai
oaeiaii o?aieoue. A neo/aa naeeaaiey aeoeaiiai eea auaeaeyaiay yia?aey
?anoiaeoaony ia i?iecaiaenoai ia?a, eioi?ue iaiaaeeaiii eniieuecoaony, a
i?e ia?a?aaioea eea a iaoai o?aaothony aeiiieieoaeueiua eaieoaeueiua
cao?aou ia aai o?aiaiea.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea oaeaea eiatho iaoiaeu ooeeecaoeee aeoeaiiai eea,
naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai aai a ea/anoaa oeieoeyioa aeey naouaiey
noniaicee, iieo/aiey ec aeoeaiiai oaey aaeni?aaioa a ea/anoaa nu?uey
aeey iieo/aiey no?ie iaoa?eaeia e o.ae.

I?iaaaeaiiua oieneeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee aiciiaeiinoue
ia?a?aaioee nu?uo inaaeeia e ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea a oeaiaioiii
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aaeaaiaeiue i?e?ino aeiiannu aeoeaiiai eea ninoaaeyao ianeieueei
ieeeeiiia oiii. A nayce n yoei aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ?ac?aaioea
oaeeo niiniaia ooeeecaoeee, eioi?ua iicaieytho ?anoe?eoue niaeo?
i?eiaiaiey aeoeaiiai eea.

9. Caeeth/aiea

Caueoa aiaeiuo ?ano?nia io enoiuaiey e caa?yciaiey e eo ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey aeey ioaeae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa – iaeia ec iaeaieaa
aaaeiuo i?iaeai, o?aaothueo aacioeaaaoaeueiiai ?aoaiey. A ?innee oe?iei
inouanoaeythony ia?ii?eyoey ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu, a /anoiinoe
ii i/enoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee ?aaiou ii io?aia aiaeiuo ?ano?nia
yaeyaony aiaae?aiea iiauo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia i?iecaiaenoaa,
ia?aoiae ia caieiooua (aannoi/iua) oeeeeu aiaeiniaaaeaiey, aaea
i/euaiiua noi/iua aiaeu ia na?anuaathony, a iiiaie?aoii eniieuecothony a
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao. Caieiooua oeeeeu i?iiuoeaiiiai
aiaeiniaaaeaiey aeaaeoo aiciiaeiinoue iieiinoueth eeeaeaee?iaaoue
na?anuaaaiua noi/iuo aiae a iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeiaiu, a naaaeoth aiaeo
eniieueciaaoue aeey iiiieiaiey aacaica?aoiuo iioa?ue.

A oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaia/aii aieaa oe?ieia aiaae?aiea
iaeiiooiaeiuo e aaciooiaeiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, aeathueo
iaeaieueoee yeieiae/aneee yooaeo. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe i/enoee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae.

Cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeoue caa?yciaiiinoue aiaeu, na?anuaaaiie
i?aaei?eyoeai, iiaeii iooai auaeaeaiey ec noi/iuo aiae oeaiiuo i?eianae,
neiaeiinoue ?aoaiey yoeo caaea/ ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ninoieo a iiiaiia?acee oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e
iieo/aaiuo i?iaeoeoia. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oaeaea, /oi iniiaiia
eiee/anoai aiaeu a io?anee ?anoiaeoaony ia ioeaaeaeaiea. Ia?aoiae io
aiaeyiiai ioeaaeaeaiey e aicaeooiiio iicaieeo nie?aoeoue ia 70-90 %
?anoiaeu aiaeu a ?aciuo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A yoie nayce e?aeia
aaaeiuie yaeythony ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea iiaaeoaai iai?oaeiaaiey,
eniieuecothuaai ieieiaeueiia eiee/anoai aiaeu aeey ioeaaeaeaiey.

Nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia iiauoaiea aiaeiiai?ioa iiaeao ieacaoue
aiaae?aiea aunieiyooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia i/enoee noi/iuo aiae, a /anoiinoe
oeceei-oeie/aneeo, ec eioi?uo iaeiei ec iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo yaeyaony
i?eiaiaiea ?aaaaioia. Eniieueciaaiea ?aaaaioiiai iaoiaea i/enoee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae ia caaeneo io oiene/iinoe i?enoonoaothueo
i?eianae, /oi ii n?aaiaieth ni niiniaii aeioeie/aneie i/enoee eiaao
nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea. Aieaa oe?ieia aiaae?aiea yoiai iaoiaea eae a
ni/aoaiee n aeioeie/aneie i/enoeie, oae e ioaeaeueii, iiaeao a
ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie ?aoeoue ?yae caaea/, naycaiiuo n i/enoeie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae.

A aeeaeaeoae ia?niaeoeaa iaia/aaony aiaae?aiea iaia?aiiuo iaoiaeia aeey
i/enoee noi/iuo aiae.

Ia ?aaeecaoeeth eiiieaena ia? ii io?aia aiaeiuo ?ano?nia io caa?yciaiey
e enoiuaiey ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao auaeaeythony anneaiiaaiey,
aeinoeaathuea 2-4 % iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea i?eaioe?iai/ii, ia i?eia?a
NOA, ioiineoaeueiua cao?aou ninoaaeytho (a %) : io?aia aoiinoa?u 35,2 %
, io?aia aiaeiaiia – 48,0, eeeaeaeaoeey oaa?aeuo iooiaeia – 15,0,
nieaeaiea ooia -0,7, i?i/ea 1,1. Eae aeaeii ec i?eia?a, aieueoay /anoue
cao?ao – cao?aou ia io?aio aiaeiaiia, ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n iieo/aieai
eiaaoeyioia e oeieoeyioia, /anoe/ii iiaoo auoue nieaeaiu ca n/ao aieaa
oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey aeey yoeo oeaeae iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa
?acee/iuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a oaeaea inaaeeia, ia?acothueony i?e
i/enoea noi/iuo aiae, a iniaaiiinoe ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea, eioi?ue
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa oeieoeyioa, oi/iaa aeioeieoeyioa.

Oaeei ia?acii, io?aia e ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea aiaeiuo ?ano?nia –
yoi iaeii ec caaiueaa eiiieaeniie ie?iaie i?iaeaiu io?aiu i?e?iaeu

I?eeiaeaiea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aeoa?iaa A.A., Ia/aaa A.I. Caieiooua nenoaiu aiaeiiai oicyenoaa
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eiiieaenia e ?aeiiia I.: No?ieecaeao 1987

2. I?iaeaiu ?acaeoey aaciooiaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa A.I. Eanei?ei,
A.A. A?iiia, A.I. Oeuaaieia, A.I. Naiei I.: No?ieecaeao 1985

3. Eaoa?ia A.A. I?eioeeiu nicaeaiey aaciooiaeiuo oeie/aneeo i?iecaiaenoa
I.: Oeiey 1984

4. Aaniaiyoiia A.I.,E?ioia TH.A. I?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua eiioeaio?aoeee
oeie/aneeo aauanoa a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea E.: Oeiey 1987.

5. Aa?aiiae/ N.O. ?aiii?o ss.Ae. Oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey aiaeiniaaaeaiey
ai?iaeia ca ?oaaaeii. Iaci? I.: AIEEEN 1987

6. Oo?ianeee E.N. Ia?aaioea inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae I.: No?ieecaeao 1984

7. AEoeia A.E. Iiiaaeo E.E., ?iaeceeea? E.Ae. Iaoiaeu i/enoee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae I.: No?ieecaeao.

8. Aaeeiae/ A.C. Ooeeecaoeey inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae I.: No?ieecaeao 1989

9. A.A. Aaiieeia , A.E. ?onoaiia, A.A Aaeoeei Io?aia i?e?iaeu I.:
Aa?ii?iiecaeao 1987

10 I.E. Eaieiin, I.A. Iaianaiei Io?aia i?e?iaeu Eeaa: “Auua oeiea” 1991

11. Io?aia ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie N?aaeu Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A.A.
Aeoaaiiaa Eeaa: “Auua oeiea” 1990

12. Eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea e io?aia aiaeiuo ?ano?nia. Iiae
?aaeaeoeeae I.A. THoiaiiaa I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao 1985

13. Iaoiaeu io?aiu aioo?aiieo aiae io caa?yciaiey e enoiuaiey Iiae
?aaeaeoeeae E.E. Aaae/ I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao 1985

14. Io?aia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae e ooeeecaoeey inaaeeia Iiae
?aaeaeoeeae A.I. Nieieiaa I.: No?ieecaeao 1992

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” 1. AAAAeAIEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048250 PAGEREF
_Toc375048250 0

2. Enoi/ieee caa?yciaiey aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiia GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048251
PAGEREF _Toc375048251 1

3. IAOIAeU i/enoee noi/iuo aiae GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048252 PAGEREF
_Toc375048252 3

4. AUAI? oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu i/enoee noi/iuo aiae GOTOBUTTON
_Toc375048253 PAGEREF _Toc375048253 5

5. Oeceei-oeie/aneea iaoiaeu i/enoee noi/iuo aiae n i?eiaiaieai
eiaaoeyioia GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048254 PAGEREF _Toc375048254 6

5.1 I?eaioiaeaiea ?aaaaioia GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048255 PAGEREF
_Toc375048255 6

5.2 Iioeiecaoeey aeicu ?aaaaioia GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048256 PAGEREF
_Toc375048256 7

5.3 Ia?aiaoeaaiea noi/iuo aiae n ?aaaaioaie. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048257
PAGEREF _Toc375048257 8

6. Ioaeaeaiea acaaoaiiuo /anoeoe io aiaeu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048258
PAGEREF _Toc375048258 9

7. Yeaeo?ioeioaoeeiiiue aiia?ao aeey inaaoeaiey OIIEIAeENIA?NIUO
noniaicee e i/enoee noi/iuo aiae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048259 PAGEREF
_Toc375048259 10

8. Iaacaiaeeaaiea e ooeeecaoeey inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae GOTOBUTTON
_Toc375048260 PAGEREF _Toc375048260 11

8.1. Iaoiaeu iaacaiaeeaaiey ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea e inaaeeia noi/iuo
aiae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048261 PAGEREF _Toc375048261 12

8.2 Onoaiiaea aeey nooee eea n eiaaoeyioaie GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048262
PAGEREF _Toc375048262 13

8.3. Eniieueciaaiea inaaeeia noi/iuo aiae e aeoeaiiai eea GOTOBUTTON
_Toc375048263 PAGEREF _Toc375048263 14

9. Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048264 PAGEREF _Toc375048264 15

I?eeiaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048265 PAGEREF _Toc375048265 17

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc375048266 PAGEREF _Toc375048266
19

INDEX \h “—A—” \c “2”

PAGE

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