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Io?aia i?e?iaeu.

Aii?in ? 7:O/aiea A.E.Aa?iaaeneiai i aeinoa?a.

O/aiea i aeinoa?a yaeyaony ooiaeaiaioii yeieiaee. Aai aaoi? –

aaeeeee ?onneee e niaaoneee o/aiue A.E.Aa?iaaeneee. A aai iniiaa eaaeeo
i?aaenoaaeaiea i ieaiaoa?iie aaioeie/aneie ?iee aeeaiai aauanoaa, o.a.
anao aeeauo i?aaieciia, nouanoaiaaaoeo e nouanoaothueo ia caiea.
A.E.Aa?iaaeneee ienae: «… ia caiiie iiaa?oiinoe iao oeie/aneie neeu,
aieaa iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuae,

a iioiio aieaa iiaouanoaaiiie, /ai neea aeeauo i?aaieciia».

Aeinoa?a yoi aiaoiyy iaiei/ea iaoae ieaiaou, caiyoay aeeaui aauanoaii,
o.a. niaieoiiinoueth anao aeeauo i?aaieciia. No?oeoo?a e yia?aaoeea
aeinoa?u ai iiiaii iaoneiaeaia eo aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Aaaeiaeoae iniaaiiinoueth aeinoa?u A.E.Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae aa
iicae/iinoue, o.a. ?acii?iaeiinoue. Ec /aai aea ninoieo yoa aeaaioneay
iicaeea? A i?ioeanna yaiethoeee aeinoa?u iaaeaeo aeeauie i?aaieciaie
ia?aciaaeenue ii?aaeaeaiiua nayce. Niaieoiiinoue aeeauo i?aaieciia:
?anoaiee, iee?ii?aaieciia, aeeaioiuo, ianaeythueo ii?aaeaeaiiue, aieaa
eee iaiaa iaeii?iaeiue o/anoie iiaa?oiinoe Caiee, iacuaaaony
aeioeaiicii. Ii aeeaua i?aaieciu anooiaee ai acaeiinayce ia oieueei
iaaeaeo niaie, ii e n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie. Oaeie iauee,
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiue eiiieaen e einiuo eiiiiiaioia, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo
niaie iaiaiii aauanoa e yia?aee, iacuaatho aeiaaioeaiicii. Iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi aeiaaioeaiic – niiauanoai aeeauo i?aaieciia, o.a.
aeioeaiic e iaaeeaay n?aaea eo iaeoaiey. Aeiaaioeaiic eae
oa??eoi?eaeueiia iiiyoea oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeii?iaeiinoueth
?aeueaoa, ii/au, aeae?ieiae/aneiai e oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeiia e ae?oaeo
iniaaiiinoae. A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia aeiaaioeaiicia iiaeii i?eaanoe

eoa, ean, ica?i, aieioi e o.i. A niaaoneie e ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a
oiio?aaeyaony e ae?oaia iiiyoea, ai iiiaii aiaeiae/iia aeiaaioeaiico, –
yeieiae/aneay nenoaia. Aa iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eae ooieoeeiiaeueioth
nenoaio, aeeth/athuoth a naay niiauanoai aeeauo nouanoa e n?aaeo eo
iaeoaiey. Aeiaaioeaiicu i?aaenoaaeytho yeaiaioa?ioth no?oeoo?o aeinoa?u,
a ana aianoa iie e ia?acotho yoo

aeaaioneoth iicaeeo, o.a. aeinoa?o.

Aii?in ? 17: Oiene/iua aauanoaa a io?aaioaaoeo aacao AeAN

e eo aicaeaenoaea ia aeeaua i?aaieciu.

Nicaeaiea AeAN auei aaeeeei iao/iui aeinoeaeaieai. Iie iiaoo auoue
niaaeeiaiu i?aeoe/anee n ethauie iio?aaeoaeyie yia?aee, oi?ioi
i?eniiniaeaiu aeey ?aaiou ia iaonoaiiaeaoeony ?aaeeiao e iaeaaeatho
cia/eoaeueiui oi?iiciui iiiaioii, /oi iniaaiii aaaeii aeey eo
eniieueciaaiey ia o?ainii?oiuo iaoeiao. AeAN aua aeieai aoaeoo aeaaiui
enoi/ieeii yia?aee ai anao aeaeao N/O i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii ana yniaa noaiiayony yeieiae/aneea iaaeinoaoee AeAN – aieueoay
oiene/iinoue io?aaioaaoeo aacia, aunieee o?iaaiue ooia.

Aaoiiiaeeue n AeAN iacuaatho oeie/aneie oaa?eeie ia eieanao – a aai
io?aaioaaoeo aacao niaea?aeeony ieiei 200 oeie/aneeo aauanoa,
aieueoeinoai ec eioi?uo oiene/iu. ( ni. Oaae. 2.1 ).

Aaoio?ainii?o a ?acaeouo no?aiao noae aeaaiui caa?ycieoaeai
aoiinoa?u ( aei 50% ), e iaeiei ec caa?ycieoaeae ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
aiiaua. A NOA aaoiiiaeee auaeaeytho a aoiinoa?o 92% anaai NI, 63%
oaeaaiaei?iaeia, 46% ieeneia acioa. Io?aaioaaoea aacu AeAN ieacuaatho
a?aaeiia aicaeaenoaea ia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea.

(ni. Oaae. 2.2 ).

Oaaeeoea 2.1

Ninoaa io?aaioaaoeo aacia AeAN a i?ioeaioao ii iauaio.

Eiiiiiaiou io?aaioaaoeo aacia EAe Aeecaeue

Acio 74-77 76-78

Eenei?iae 0,3-8 2-18

Aeaoieenue oaea?iaea NI2 5-12 1-10

Ia?u aiaeu 3-5,5 0,5-4

Ieenue oaea?iaea NI 5-10 0,01-0,5

Ieeneu acioa NO 0,06-0,8 0,0002-0,5

Aeaoieenue na?u SO2 0,006 0,01-0,03

Oaeaaiaei?iaeu NI 0,2-0,3 0,09-0,5

Aeueaeaaeaeu 0,004-0,2 0,001-0,009

Naaea 0,4` 0,01-1`

Aaicie?ai 10-20“ aei 10“

0,4` – a a/i3

10“ – a ia/i3

Oaaeeoea 2.2

Oiene/aneia aeaenoaea iaeioi?uo eiiiiiaioia

io?aaioaaoeo aacia.

A?aaeiia naienoai io?aaioaaoeo aacia. Eiiiiiaio io?aaioaaoeo
aacia, iaoa?eaeueiue iineoaeue niioaaonoaothuaai naienoaa.

Oaeooathuaa aeaenoaea Oaeaeeneue aac. ( ia?yaeo n iaaeinoaoeii
eenei?iaea).

Oiene/iinoue. Ieeneu oaea?iaea, ieeneu acioa, ieeneu na?u, aeueaeaaeaeu,
oaeaaiaei?iaeu.

?acae?aaeaiea neecenoie iaiei/ee aeac, iiniaeioee, aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae.
Ai?iiei, oi?iaeueaeaaeae, ieeneu na?u, oaeaaiaei?iaeu.

Eaioea?iaaiiia aeaenoaea. A?iiaoe/aneea oaeaaiaei?iaeu.

Iai?eyoiue caiao. Aeueaeaaeae, oaeaaiaei?iae e ae?.

Aeuiiinoue. Naaea, niieu, ieia?aeueiua ay?iciee, /anoeoeu oiieeaa e
ianea.

Aeaenoaea iaeioi?uo eiiiiiaioia io?aaioaaoeo aacia ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea
i?e ?acee/iuo eiioeaio?aoeeyo a aicaeooa ( a iauaiiuo i?ioeaioao ):

NI – 0,0016 – aaca?aaeii; 0,01 – o?iie/aneia io?aaeaiea i?e aeeeoaeueiii
i?aauaaiee; 0,05 – neaaia io?aaeaiea /a?ac 1 /an;

1 – iioa?y niciaiey iinea ianeieueeeo acaeioia.

NO2 – 0,00001 – aaniethoiue ii?ia aicaeaenoaey; 0,0001-0,0003 – ii?ia
aini?eyoey caiaoa; 0,0013 – ?acae?aaeaiea neecenouo iaiei/ae iina e
aeac; 0,001-0,002 – ia?aciaaiea iaoaaiiaeaaeia; 0,004-0,008 – ioae
eaaeeo.

Naaea ( oaa?aeue oeeueo?ao io?aaioaaoeo aacia ) ninoieo ec /anoeoe
oaeaaiaei?iaea. Naaea, auaeaeyaony n io?aaioaaoeie aacaie, nicaeaao
iai?eyoiia iuouaiea caa?yciaiey aicaeooa. Iiiaaeay ia ?anoeoaeueiinoue,
iia i?aiyonoaoao i?ioeanno iiueaiey.

Iaeiei ec naiuo iianiuo eiiiiiaioia aua?ina AeAN yaeyaony naeiaoe.
Iaeaieeaaynue a i?aaiecia, ii niiniaai na?ueacii iia?aaeeoue ii/ee,
ia/aiue, iica – iniaaiii o aeaoae.

Ia ?annoiyiee 150i io aaoino?aaeu a 1ea nooiai aauanoaa o?aau
iaeaieeaaaony aei 5ia naeioea.

Aii?in ? 27: Caa?yciaiea aiaeu iaooai?iaeoeoaie a i?ioeanna

N/O i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaooue e iaooai?iaeoeou noaee aeaaiui caa?ycieoaeai aiaeiie n?aaeu.
I?e iiiaaeaiee iaooai?iaeoeoia a aiaeo, ia iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu ia?acoaony
ieaiea, eioi?ay i?aiyonoaoao aaciiaiaio iaaeaeo aiaeie e aoiinoa?ie. Iia
i?aiyonoaoao ianuuaieth aiaeu eenei?iaeii e oaeaeeneui aacii.

Caa?yciaiea aiaeiie n?aaeu iaooai?iaeoeoaie a naeueneii oicyenoaa
ai iiiaii yaeyaony iineaaenoaeai eniieueciaaiey nia?aiaiiie N/O oaoieee.
I?e/eia yoiio – iaoa ieceay yeieiae/aneay eoeueoo?a, ionoonoaea
yeieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea e eiino?oe?iaaieth e yenieoaoaoeee nia?aiaiiie
oaoieee. Aieueoia eiee/anoai iaooai?iaeoeoia oa?yaony i?e ianeoaeeaaiee
iaoei.

Iniaaiii aieueoea iioa?e a oicyenoaao n ieioei ninoiyieai
iaooaoicyenoaa, aaea iaeni?aaia cai?aai/iay aiia?aoo?a, aaea iao i?eaiee
io?aaioaiiuo iaooai?iaeoeoia. Enia?aiea iaooai?iaeoeoia oaeaea aaaeao e
caa?yciaieth, o.e. enia?eaoeany iaooai?iaeoeou n inaaeeaie iiiaaeatho a
ii/ao, a neaaeiaaoaeueii a aiaeiaiu. Aaicei, ea?inei e ae?oaea
iaooai?iaeoeou i?ina/eaathony ec aieinoae /a?ac iaeue/aeoea o?aueiu.
I/aiue aaeeee iioa?e e i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiie yenieoaoaoeee N/O iaoei.
I?e oaoie/aneii ianeoaeeaaiee /anoi a ii/ao, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e a
aiaeiai iiiaaeatho iaooai?iaeoeou.

30-55% iauaai ?anoiaea ianae i?eoiaeeony ia ?anoiae eo aeae?inenoaiie.
Iniiaiua i?e/eiu iiauoaiiiai ?anoiaea – ooa/ee e ?aceeau, naycaiiua n
iaaeinoaoi/iie iaaeaaeiinoueth oeaiaia, ?aceiiauo oieioieoaeae, ianinia.
N?aaeiyy aaee/eia iioa?ue ianea i?e ?ac?uaao oeaiaia ninoaaeyao aeey
o?aeoi?ia: AeO-75 – 20%;

IOC-80 – 19% io iauaai ?anoiaea ianea a aeae?inenoaiao. A iauae aeiea
iaeni?aaiinoae ?ac?uau oeaiaia ninoaaeytho 70-80%. Oaeaea iaooai?iaeoeou
iiiaaeatho a aiaeo i?e iieea N/O oaoieee, anee iao i/enoeoaeueiuo
nii?oaeaiee.

Iioa?e iaooai?iaeoeoia i?ienoiaeyo i?e ?acee/iuo ?aaioao:

I?e iaeeaa e neeaa. Yoiio niinianoaoao iaeni?aaiua n?aaenoaa ia?aea/ee.
I?eaeeceoaeueii oa?yaony 0,1-0,4% io neeoiai eiee/anoaa.

I?e o?ainii?oe?iaea. Enoi/ieee iioa?ue: caiieiaiea aaoioeenoa?iu auoa
ioiaoee, ?aca?ucaeaaiea, enia?aiea, ooa/ee.

Oa?yaony i?eaeeceoaeueii 10-12ea ia iaeio iiacaeeo; iaiieiia

cae?uoea ai?eiaeiu oeenoa?iu. Oa?yaony 15-40ea oiieeaa;

ionoonoaea aa?iaoe/iinoe a o?oaao, oaao e a i?iaea ai/ee.

I?e o?aiaiee: iaiieiia caiieiaiea ?aca?aoa?a, aieueoay /anoue

?aca?aoa?a caiieiaia ia?aie, eioi?ua oeaoo/eaathony, iioa?e

0,6-2,8% io caeeoiai eiee/anoaa a aiae. Oaiiay ie?anea.

Iaieioiinoe naa?iiai oaa a ?aca?aoa?a. Oa?yaony 0,5 o/aiae ia 1i

oaa. Ionoonoaea i?iaee ia ai/ea 0,6ea

I?e cai?aaea: cai?aaea ioe?uoie no?oae ( aaae?ii ), ?aceeau,

enia?aiey. Iioa?e 200ea/aiae ia N/O iaoeio. Ia?aiieiaiea

oiieeaiiai aaea, ?aceeau e enia?aiey. Iioa?e 2-3ea/cai?aaeo.

Iaaeinoaoee cai?aai/iuo niaaeeiaiee: Cai?aaee oeaiaii aac

?acaeaoi/iiai e?aia eee n iaeni?aaiui ?acaeaoi/iui e?aiii.

Oa?yaony 1,2o/aiae.

I?e yenieoaoaoeee iaoei: Iiaeoaee o?oaii?iaiaeia, oiieeaiiai

aaea, iaieioiia cae?uoea oiieeaiiai aaea.

Aii?in ? 37: Caa?yciaiea ii/au e aai iineaaenoaey.

Canieaiea e caaiea/eaaiea caiaeue.

*aeiaa/anoai aeinoeaei iaauaaeuo oniaoia a ?acaeoee iaoee e
oaoieee, au?aaeinue ca i?aaeaeu caiiiai oyaioaiey, ii ii-i?aaeiaio aai
nouanoaiaaiea caaeneo io oiieie ieaiee, iie?uaathuae /anoue nooe –
ii/au. Aa oieueia eieaaeaony io 2i aei 1,5-2ni.

Ii/aa – yoi i?e?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea, iaeaaeathuaa ?yaeii naienoa,
i?enoueo aeeaie e iaaeeaie i?e?iaea. Aaaeiaeoaa ec naienoa ii/au – yoi
ieiaei?iaeea, naycaiiia n iaee/eai a iae aoiona e aiaeu.

I/aiue oe?ieea ianooaau i?eiyei caa?yciaiea caiee. Eae /anoi
ano?a/athony o/anoee, iie?uoua inoaoeaie no?ieoaeueiuo aeaoaeae:
iaiaeae, aeieia, ee?ie/ae, caaaeaiiua cieie, oeaeaie. A ?aeiiao iaooaaac
caiee iie?uoa neiai iacooa, iaooe, niaci/iuo iaoa?eaeia.

Ana aieueoa e aieueoa caieiaao ioni? ia oieueei a ai?iaea, ii e a
naeueneeo ?aeiiao. I?e/ai ii iiaeao auoue caa?ycieoaeai ii/au e aiaeu.
Aeaoaee io iaoei, a?ioaiiua ia ii/aa, N/O oaoieea, iaoiaeyuayny iiae
ioe?uoui iaaii, e i?inoi eaaeauay aaea iiiaei – ana yoi iiaeaa?aaaony
ei??icee, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai aeaeaci e ae?oaea iaoaeeu iiiaaeaao a
ii/ao. Oaeei ia?acii, a ii/aa iaeaieeaathony niaaeeiaiey iuoueyea,
?oooe, iaaee e ae?. Na?ienoue aiaeae?eae iiiaaeaao a ii/ao e
cia/eoaeueii iiaeeeneyao aa, /oi auioaeaeaao oa?ia?ia aiineoue aieueoa
ecaanoe. A 70-o aiaeao a O?A aiineee

54ea/aa, a 1982-83aa – 170ea/aa.

Iiaeecinoe io aaoiiiaeeueiuo o?ann a ii/aa iaaethaeaaony iiauoaiiia
niaea?aeaiea naeioea. Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii caa?yciaiea ii/au
iaooai?iaeoeoaie. A ii/ao iiaoo iiianoue ianoeoeeaeu. Iaeiiaoe, aeaaea
ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey iiaoo iaianoe ii/aa oua?a, iniaaiii i?e aianaiee
eo aac o/aoa eiie?aoiuo iniaaiiinoae aeaiiiai iiey. ?anoaiey ia anaaaea
iiaoo eniieueciaaoue ana ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa oaeia?aiee. Ii aeaiiui
aeaaeaieea AANOIEE A.Aeiia?aaeiaa ec anaai aianaiiiai a ii/ao acioa a
ninoaaa ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee 16-20%, a eiiaaea 50% ia onaaeaathony.

Iianiinoue caa?yciaiey ii/au ninoieo ia oieueei a eciaiaiee aa
oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa. Iinoi?iiiea aauanoaa, iiiaaeay a ii/ao,
?ac?ooatho neiaeeaoeany nayce iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie a?oiiaie ii/aaiiiai
aeioeaiica. ?ac?ooathony neiaeeaoeany o?ioe/aneea oeaie. Ana yoi
eiia/iii n/aoa neacuaaaony ia ieiaei?iaeee. Auoiaua e aeeaioiiaiae/aneea
noi/iua aiaeu caa?yciytho ii/ao aieaciaoai?iuie aaeoa?eyie.

Canieaieai iacuaatho i?ioeann iaeiieaiey nieae iao?ey, eaeueoeey,
iaaiey a aa?oiai neia ii/au a eiioeaio?aoeeyo iaaeiionoeiuo aeey
ii?iaeueiiai ?inoa e ?acaeoey ?anoaiee. Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iii
iieo/eei a Aaeioa, E?aea, Eiaeee, Iaeenoaia e a ae?oaeo canooeeauo
no?aiao. Iaeaieueoaa canieaiea ii/a a auaoai NNN? i?ienoiaeeo ia
i?ioaaiuo caieyo N?aaeiae Acee e Caeaaeacuey.

Aeaaea i?e neaaii canieaiee o?iaeaeiinoue oeii/aoieea oiaiueoaaony
ia 20-30%, eoeo?ocu ia 40-50%, a ioaieoeu ia 50-60%.

Aneaaenoaea ia?aoaeaaeiaiey a ?yaea ?aeiiia Ia/a?iicaiiie ciiu, ia
O?aea, a I?eaaeoeea, Aaei?onnee iieo/eei ?ani?ino?aiaiea caaiea/eaaiea
ii/a. Iii iaaethaeaaony e a ae?oaeo ?aeiiao no?aiu aaeece eaiaeia,
aiaeio?aieeeu. Aeey inooaiey caaiei/aiiuo caiaeue aeaeathony uaeaaua
ae?aiu, ia?acaaiua a a?oioa.

Iaeei?aoeey caaiei/aiiuo caiaeue aeieaeia inouanoaeyoueny n o/aoii
caueou i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia io enoiuaiey e iaaeaeaoaeueiuo e
io?eoeaoaeueiuo aicaeaenoaee ia i?e?iaeo Ia/a?iicaiuey.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

A.A.Eaaei; A.A.Iao?ia «Io?aia i?e?iaeu» Iineaa-1985a IEENI.

A.A.Eaaei «eaeoeee ii io?aia i?e?iaeu».

A.A.Aaiieeia; A.E.?onoaiia; A.A.Aaeoeei «Io?aia i?e?iaeu» Iineaa
Aa?ii?iiecaeao 1985a.

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