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Охрана и использование водных ресурсов

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?aoa?ao

ii aeieiaee

ii oaia:

“Io?aia e eniieueciaaiea aiaeiuo ?ano?nia”

o/aieea 10 eeanna “A”

oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneie oeieu-eaai?aoi?ee ?444

Eaieeia Aeieo?ey

Iineaa 2000 a.

Niaea?aeaiea.

Aiaeiua nenoaiu no?. 3

Oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa caueou aiaeiuo no?. 5

?ano?nia

I?iaeaiu yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe no?.13

aiaeiiieueciaaiey e io?aiu aiaei?iia

ia i?eia?a Aaeeaea

Yeieiaecaoeey aiaeiuo i?iaeai no?.16

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u no?. 21

-2-

Aiaeiua nenoaiu.

Ca iineaaeiea 40 eao aiaeiua nenoaiu iiiaeo no?ai ie?a ieacaeenue
na?ue?cii ?anno?iaiiuie. Ioia/aaony enoiuaiea naiuo oeaiiuo ec
aeinooiiuo iai enoi/ieeia i?aniie aiaeu – iiaecaiiuo aiae.
Aaneiio?ieueiia ecuyoea aiaeu, oie/oiaeaiea aiaeiio?aiiuo eaniuo iiein e
inooaiea aa?oiauo aieio i?eaaee e ianniaie aeaaee iaeuo ?ae. Nie?auaaony
aiaeiiiniinoue e?oiiuo ?ae e i?eoie iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae ai aioo?aiiea
aiaei?iu. Oae, i?aeoe/anee ia?anoaee aiaaeaoue a A?aeueneia ii?a ?aee
Nu?aea?uey e Aioaea?uey, en/acee a ieaeiai oa/aiee oaeea ?aee, eae *o,
Oaeann, Anna, Ca?aaoai; iaiaeaee Aeiai?, Eoaaiue, Eo?a, Ea?aoae e iiiaea
ae?oaea.

Ia naaiaeiy naiie neiaeiie yaeyaony i?iaeaia A?aeueneiai ii?y. Ia aeacao
iaeiiai iieieaiey iiaeaaao ieeeeiiiieaoiaa ii?a e ?ac?anoaaony ciia
yeieiae/aneiai aaaenoaey, ianooaau eioi?iai iiea o?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue.
Ca /aoaa?oue aaea (n 1960 ii 1988 aiae) ii?a oiaiueoeeinue aaeaia ii
n?aaeiae aeoaeia, ia iaeio o?aoue ii ieiuaaee aeaaoi?ee e aieaa, /ai
aaeaia, ii iau?io aiaeu. Nieaeaiea o?iaiy aiaeu aeinoeaei 90 ni a aiae.
Ieiei 30 oun. eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia auaoaai aeia noaee a?aiie
iionouieaaiey. Naaiaeiy n ca?eaea A?aea i?iaeieaeaao enia?youeny ii/oe a
aeaa ?aca aieueoa aeaae, /ai iinooiaao.

*oiau aa?iooueny e a?aieoeai A?aeueneiai ii?y 30-60-o aiaeia e
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue yoio iau?i, aiaeiaia iinooieaiea aiaeu a ii?a aeieaeii
ninoaaeyoue ieiei 50 eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia. ?aoaiea yoie caaea/e ia
naaiaeiy ia?aaeueii. I?eiyoua ii yoiio aii?ino i?aaeeiaeaiey ia
iaania/eaatho noaaeeecaoeeth o?iaiy aiaeu, a yoi cia/eo, /oi oa?ica
?ac?anoaiey eaoano?iou ia nieiaaony.

N iiaa?oiinoe nieii/aeia, eioi?ua caieiatho ia?iiiua ieiuaaee auniooaai
aeia A?aeueneiai ii?y, a aoiinoa?o aaeaaiaeii iiaeieiaaony ieiei 65 iei.
o yaeiaeoie oiieiaeenia?niie niee. ?ani?ino?aiyynue ia caiaae, iia
ia?acoao iueanieaaua iaeaea, aeaeueiinoue ia?aiina eioi?uo
iaia?aie/aiia. A iineaaeiea aiaeu aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca oaaee/aiiia
niaea?aeaiea nieae a aeiaeaeaaie aiaea ioia/aeinue e iiae Oaoeaioii, e a
Aaei?onnee, e a Eeoaa. A iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aea aeecinoe io A?aeueneiai
ii?y – a naiue ?ac! Aeaeaaynue ia thai-ainoie, iueanieaaua iaeaea
niaeaenoaotho onei?aiiiio oayieth eaaeieeia Iaie?a e Oyiue-Oaiy. Ia
aaeoa? iiaa?oiinoe eaaeieeia Iaie?a e Oyiue-Oaiy eiaeeony ieiei 3-4 o
ay?icieae, 100-500 ea ec ieo – ?anoai?eiua niee. Caiaoii nie?auathony
eaaeieee. Oae, Ca?aaoaineee i?aaeaea a aiae oiaiueoaeny ia 1 i, oaia?ue
– noieueei aea a ianyoe. Ca 100 eao iaaethaeaiey ii noae ei?i/a ia 80
ei.

Iiiaiaaeiaay eeiey iaeiiai ec e?oiiaeoeo aeao/a?ia ie?a – eaaeieea
Oaae/aiei – iionoeeanue ia 50 e aieaa i.

Aeinoaoi/ii ae?aiaoe/iua i?ioeannu iaaethaeathony e a ae?oaeo ?aeiiao.
Aaaea ianoeaea Acianeia ii?a. A 30-a aiaeu caeanue aueaaeeaaee aei 80 ea
?uau n aaeoa?a aiaeiie iiaa?oiinoe. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue Acianeiai ii?y a oi
a?aiy auea a 1,5 ?aca aieueoa, /ai Naaa?iiai, a 6 ?ac auoa Eanieeneiai,
a 8 ?ac aieueoa Aaeoeeneiai, ii/oe a 25 ?ac aieueoa *??iiai ii?y. E
eaeay yoi auea ?uaa! Aaeoaa, naa?thaa, in?o?, noaeae, naeueaeue,
iocaiie, noeoaiea, ?uaaoe. Eniieueciaaiea aiaeu ?ae Eoaaie e Aeiia ia
i?ioaiea i?eaaei e nie?auaieth i?eoiea aiaeu a Acianeia ii?a ia 13 ei
eoae/aneeo a aiae. A eiioea 70-o aiaeia i?iecioei ?aceia inieiiaiea
aiaeu, /oi iiaei?aaei noaaea iniiaiuo i?iiuneiauo ?ua. Oeiau oeaiiuo ?ua
nie?aoeeenue n 35 oun. o a 1951-1955 aiaeao aei 2,4 oun. o a 1982 aiaeo.

*oiau nie?iay aiaea ia i?iieeaea ec *??iiai ii?y a Acianeia,
i?aaeeaaaaony ia?aai?iaeeoue ieioeiie Ea?/aineee i?ieea. Ii aaaeue iu ia
ciaai, e /aio yoi i?eaaae?o /a?ac 10,20,50 eao. Iiyoue iiene ?aoaiee ia
iooyo “ia?ae?aeaaiey” i?e?iaeiuo eiiieaenia aianoi ?ac?aaioee e
?aaeecaoeee e??eaaoeeiiiuo nenoai n nouanoaaiii iaiueoei
aiaeiiio?aaeaieai.

Yenieoaoaoeey iino?iaiiiai a iineaaiaiiua aiaeu Naaaii-?acaeaineiai
aeae?inii?oaeaiey i?eaaea e iaaeaieth aiaeu a ica?a Naaai. Ica?i noaei
oeaanoe e caiieiyoueny neia-cae?iuie aiaei?ineyie. *oiau nianoe aai,
ia/aee no?ieoue eaiae A?ia-Naaai. N ia?iiiuie oneeeyie ca 17 eao a ai?ao
aue i?iaeo ooiiaeue, e aiaeu ?aee A?iu iai?aaeeenue a Naaai. Ii, eae
aiai?yo o/?iua, ioaeii iiaeiyoue o?iaaiue aiaeu a ica?a ii e?aeiae ia?a
ia /aou?a-oanoue iao?ia, /oiau Naaai inoaeny Naaaiii. Ec-ca oiai /oi
ii?aaeaee eana iaae ?aeaie, oaeoueie a Ennue-eoeue, ica?i noaei iaeaoue.
Ioia/aaony e i?iieeiiaaiea a ica?i yaeioeieeaoia. Oyae?eia iieiaeaiea
neeaaeuaaaony ia ica?a Aaeoao.

E?aeia oyae?eie yaeyaony i?iaeaia caa?yciaiey iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae e
iiaecaiiuo aiae. Ii/oe iianaianoii oooaeoaaony ea/anoai aiae e iniaaiii
a ?aeao Caiaaeiie Neae?e, Iae e E?ouoa, aaea iaooai?iaeoeou a 20 ?ac
aieueoa aeiionoeiie ii?iu. ?acei oooaeoaaony aiaea a Aieaa, Aeiai?a,
Aeiia, O?aea, Eo?a, Aio?a, Nu?aea?uea, Aioaea?uea e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo
?aeao. Anee ia i?eiyoue iaiaaeeaiii naiuo ?aoeoaeueiuo ia?, oi a
iaeioi?uo ?aaeiiao aannaeiia yoeo ?ae aiaea a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy ieaaeaony
iai?eaiaeiie aeey ieouey e iieeaia.

Oooaeoaaony ea/anoai aiaeu cae?uouo aiaei?iao. Ica?i Aaeeae
caa?yciyaony i?iiuoeaiiuie noieaie Aaeeaeueneiai oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiiai
caaiaea, Naeaiaeineiai oeaeetheicii-ea?oiiiiai eiiaeiaoa e i?aaei?eyoee
Oeai-Oaea. Ca aeaaaeoeaoue eao ?aaiou AOeC nionoee a ica?i ieiei
ieeeeiia, ii ae?oaei iiaen/?oai – aieaa ieeeeiia oiii ieia?aeueiuo
aauanoa, ii naiaio ninoaao /oaea?iaeiuo Aaeeaeo. A noaouea A.?aniooeia
“Aaeeae o ian iaeei” (“Ecaanoey” 16 oaa?aey 1986) iiaeaiaeeony iaeioi?ue
yeieiae/aneee eoia ?aaiou oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiuo eiiaeiaoia ia Aaeeaea:
nioie ouny/ aaeoa?ia oniooeo e onuoathueo eania ia neeiiao
Oaia?-Aeaaaia, eciaiaiea ninoaaa aiaeu ii/oe a iieiaeia aeaaoi?ee ica?a,
oiaiueoaiea – io 2- aei 5- e?aoiiai – aana ?acee/iuo iiioeyoeee
aaeeaeueneiai iioey, ia?anoathuay aeaaeue yieoo?u, iniiaiiai
aeieiae/aneiai naieoa?a aiaeu. E yoi ia aac iiaeaea?aeee ii?aaeae?iiuo
o/?iuo. Aaoi? caeiiii iiaeieiaao a?aaeaeaineee aii?in: “Aaea enoeia,
eiio neoaeeo iaoea e /oi yoi ca iaoea, iooathuay /??iia n aaeui e a?aae
n iieuecie?” (i Aaeeaea ia no?aieoea 16)

Caa?yciythony e ii?y: eiioeaio?aoeey oaiiea a Eaniee i?aauoaao
aeiionoeioth ii?io a aeaayoue ?ac, a Aaeoeeneii ii?a – a /aou?a ?aca.

Anee au caa?ycieoa ?aeo, ii ia ?ac?ooeoa a? aeieiae/aneia ninoiyiea, oi
oaea /a?ac 20 aeiae iinea i?ae?auaiey caa?yciythueo aua?inia /enoioa
aiaeu ainnoaiiaeony. Anee au io?aaeoa iiaecaiiua aiaeu, ainnoaiiaeaiea
/enoiou i?iecieae?o /a?ac 300-400 eao. Iioa?e, naycaiiua n enoiuaieai e
caa?yciaieai iiaecaiiuo aiae, ioeaieoue iu ia iiaeai. Ia iiaeai aei
eiioea ioeaieoue iioa?e e ia ica?a Naaai. Iaiiia?ioth oeaio i?eae?ony
caieaoeoue ca oi, /oiau ainnoaiiaeoue A?aeueneia ii?a, aaeaee iii
i?aa?aoeony a ?yae ic??. Eeoue i?eaeeceoaeueii iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa
oeaio oiai aiaaonoaa, eioi?ia auei iinoaaeaii iiae oa?ico ?acaeoeai
oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia Aaeeaea. Anee enoiaeeoue ec oiai,
/oi i?eae?o a?aiy, eiaaea iu niiaeai aac iioa?e ea/anoaa
o?ainii?oe?iaaoue aaeeaeueneoth aiaeo, oi iia noaiao yeiiiie/aneei
?ano?nii. Eaeiaa oeaia caiana yoiai ?ano?na? Naaiaeiy /enoay ieoueaaay
aiaea ai iiiaeo no?aiao i?iaea?ony a aooueeao oae aea, eae ieia?aeueiay
aiaea, e noieo iaae?oaai (a ssiiiee eeo? iaoo?aeueiie /enoie ieoueaaie
aiaeu e eeo? iieiea eiatho iaeeiaeiaoth oeaio; yenia?ou a Aa?iaiee
iieaaatho, /oi anei?a eeo? iaoo?aeueiie ieoueaaie aiaeu a no?aia aoaeao
noieoue noieueei aea, neieueei eeo? ?aeineiai aeia). Iaeeaeaaony
oi?ie?iaaiea ie?iaiai ?uiea aiaeu. Oae aio, anee “ia?ae?ooeoue” aaee/eio
caiana aaeeaeueneie aiaeu – 23 ei eoae/aneeo – ia oeaio naiie aeao?aie,
oae iacuaaaiie “oeeueo?iaaiiie”, aiaeu, i?iaeaaaaiie a
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo iaaaceiao, oi oeaia caiana aaeeaeueneie aiaeu
ninoaaeo noiio 1,6 o?ei. aeieea?ia.

*oiau iinooaeooi ia ii?aaeaoueny iioa?yiiui aiaaonoaai, iaiaoiaeei
ia?aoiae e oi?aaeaieth a a?aieoeao nenoaiu “i?iecaiaenoai – aiaeiua
?ano?nu”. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa iai?aaeaiey.

Ia?aia iai?aaeaiea – ia?aoiae e aiaeinaa?aaathuae oaoiieiaee e
nie?auaiea ?anoiaea aiaeiuo ?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa.
Caeanue i/aiue aieueoea ?aca?au. Ii aeaiiui Ieiaiaeoica NNN?, a 1985
aiaeo auei iioa?yii 52 ei eoae/aneeo aiaeu – oeaeue aiaeiaie noie
Aeiai?a. *?acia?iua iioa?e aiaeu i?eaaee e iaaaoeaiui iineaaenoaeyi,
ai?ueaa n eioi?uie noieo i/aiue aei?iai, – e iiaeoiieaieth iiiaeo
ai?iaeia no?aiu, e caaiea/eaaieth e canieaieth naeueoicoaiaeee. Ia
ioaeaeu eiiioiaeueiiai e ieoueaaiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey a 1985 aiaeo
caae?aeinue 24,6 ei eoae/aneeo aiaeu, ec ieo iyoay /anoue oa?yeanue.
?anoiae aei?iainoiyuae ieoueaaie aiaeu a 1980 aiaeo ninoaaeye a Ieinea
283 eeo?a a nooee ia iaeiiai aeeoaey, a Oaeeeiia – 428, Eaieia?aaea –
456, Iineaa – 598 (ii iaeioi?ui aeaiiui – 700 eeo?ia), a Oaoeaioa – 811,
a ai?iaeao Aooa?neie iaeanoe – 1108 eeo?ia aiaeu. Iaaaaeaiea
yeaiaioa?iiai ii?yaeea a ?anoiaeiaaiee aiaeiuo ?ano?nia oaea na?ue?cii
i?iaeaeiao aia??ae ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu.

Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea – auai? iao/ii iainiiaaiiie no?aoaaee ?acaeoey
caieaaeaeey. Iu ii o?aaeeoeee, io?aaeathuae aicc?aiey 50 – 60-o aiaeia,
i?iaeieaeaai i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia i?aeiouanoaaiiia ?acaeoea iieeaiiai
caieaaeaeey. Ianooaau aeiaeaiee a aiaeioicyenoaaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai
eieinnaeueiu (n 1971 ii 1985 aiae iie ninoaaeee 79,1 ie?ae.
?oa.).Iaaeaeo oai e ie?iaie, e iao nianoaaiiue iiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
oii, /oi iaeaieaa ?acoeueoaoeaiui yaeyaony ?acaeoea caieaaeaeey a oi?ioi
oaeaaei?iiuo ciiao oia?aiiiai eeeiaoa (naiua aunieea e onoie/eaua
o?iaeae ca?iiauo aeatho oaeea no?aiu Aa?iiu, eae Aieeaiaeey, Aaeueaey,
O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey). Oiiia ca?ia, au?auaiiiai ia iaeei?e?iaaiiuo caieyo,
noieo a o?e ?aca aei?iaea aunieiea/anoaaiiie ioaieoeu; naaanoieiinoue
oiiiu i?eaana e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa, au?auaiiiai ia ei?iao n i?ioaaiuo
caiaeue, iaoiaeeony ao?ia auoa n?aaeiae naaanoieiinoe i?eaana,
iieo/aaiiai ca n/?o ei?iia n aiaa?iuo caiaeue. I?e aeinoaoi/ii
ei??aeoiii n/?oa, n o/?oii anao i?yiuo e einaaiiuo cao?ao, n?ie
ieoiaaiinoe eaieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa a iaeei?e?iaaiiia caieaaeaeea
i?aauoaao 100 eao (ii?iaoeaiue n?ie ieoiaaiinoe eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a
n?aaeiai ii ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao – 8 eao).Eoiaiaay ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue
ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea aiaeiuo
?ano?nia, iaoiaeeo nai? io?aaeaiea a iieacaoaea aiaei?ieinoe eiia/iiai
i?iaeoeoa. A ?yaea no?ai oaea aeinoeaioo ia?aeii – i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea
?anoiaea aiaeiuo ?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa. Iu iiea ia
?aoeee yoo caaea/o – iieacaoaeue aiaei?ieinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea
i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe (ca ia?eiae n 1976 ii 1980 aiae i?e ?inoa
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea ia 22,7% aiaeiiio?aaeaiea oaaee/eeinue ia
47,1%).

Iac?aea caaea/a ?ac?aaioee e oe?ieiai ianoaeaeaiey iauae no?aoaaee
?acaeoey caieaaeaeey n o/?oii iieiuo cao?ao ia aiaeioicyenoaaiiia
iaania/aiea iaeei?e?iaaiiuo caiaeue.

Oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa caueou aiaeiuo ?ano?nia.

Aiaea.

Aiaea – aanoeaaoiay aeeaeeinoue, ia eiathuay ie aeona, ie caiaoa,
aeoeaiue ?anoai?eoaeue, iaeaaeathuee aieueoei iiaa?oiinoiui iaoyaeaieai.
Nia/eaaiea e iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea eaaeao a iniiaa yaeaiey, eioi?ia
iacuaaaony eaieeey?iinoueth. A i?e?iaea eaieeey?iinoue iiaeaea?aeeaaao
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue ?anoaiee, aeaaay ei aiciiaeiinoue “aunanuaaoue”
aiaeiua ?anoai?u ec ii/au. Iaeay oaieii?iaiaeiinoue e aieueoay
oaiei?ieinoue aiaeu iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue a? a ea/anoaa
oaieiiineoaey. Yoi naienoai eniieuecotho naaeiaiaeu ai a?aiy caii?iceia,
ii?uneeaay oeaaou ieiaeiauo aea?aaueaa: caia?cay, aiaea ioaea?o oeaaoai
nai? oaiei e caueuaao eo io iaii?iaeaiey. A i?iiuoeaiiinoe oe?iei
eniieuecotho niiniaiinoue aiaeu caae?aoue oaiei io ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu,
ia yoii iniiaaii aeaenoaea oaieiiaiaiiuo ono?ienoa.

Aiaea aoiaeeo a ninoaa ieia?aeia, niaea?aeeony a eeaoeao ?anoaiee e
aeeaioiuo, aeeyao ia oi?ie?iaaiea eeeiaoa, o/anoaoao a e?oaiai?ioa
aauanoa a i?e?iaea, niinianoaoao ioeiaeaieth inaaei/iuo ii?iae e
ia?aciaaieth ii/au, yaeyaony enoi/ieeii iieo/aiey aeao?aie
yeaeo?iyia?aee: a? eniieuecotho a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneii oicyenoaa e
aeey auoiauo ioaeae.

Aiaea iiiaieeea, iia ano?a/aaony a i?e?iaea a naycaiiii ninoiyiee e a
naiaiaeiii aeaea, a? ieia?aeueiue ninoaa /?acau/aeii ?aciiia?acai.
Naiaiaeiay aiaea iiaeao iaiyoue naie naienoaa a oe?ieii aeeaiaciia: iia
iiaeao auoyaeaaoueny a aeaoo, auoue yeanoe/iie, eae ?aceia, auoue
neieueceie ianoieueei, /oi i?aaeiaou, aeaeaeoueany /a?ac ia?,
oaaee/eaatho naith nei?inoue a 2 ?aca e aieaa, iia iiaeao noaoue nooie,
oeaeaaiie.

?ano?nu i?aniie aiaeu.

Aiaeiua ?ano?nu Caiee neaaathony ec aiae ii?ae e ieaaiia, eaaeieeia,
?ae, ic??, iiaecaiiuo aiae e en/eneythony i?eaeeceoaeueii a 1500
ieeeeiiia eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia. Ia aeieth i?aniie aiaeu i?eoiaeeony
anaai 30 ieeeeiiia eeeiiao?ia eoae/aneeo,94,2% anao aiaeiuo ?ano?nia
ninoaaeytho nie?iua aiaeu ii?ae e ieaaiia.

Ana aiaeu Caiee iai?a?uaii o/anoaotho a e?oaiai?ioa, ia?acoy caieioooth
nenoaio ieaai – aoiinoa?a – nooa. Nei?inoue aiaeiiaiaia eieaaeaony a
oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao. Iaaeeaiiaa anaai aiciaiiaeythony iiaecaiiua aiaeu
(ieiei 5 ouny/ eao),a iaiai ?a/iuo aiae i?ienoiaeeo 32 ?aca a oa/aiea
aiaea.

A iaoae no?aia ?ano?nu i?aniie aiaeu ia?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeaiu ii
oa??eoi?ee ?innee. Nauoa 86% iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae nin?aaeioi/aii a
naaa?iuo e ainoi/iuo ?aeiiao no?aiu.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue, naeueneia oicyenoai, eiiioiaeueii-auoiaia oicyenoai
ai?iaeia yaeythony iio?aaeoaeyie aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aiaeu. A Iineaa n
o/?oii iio?aaiinoae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?anoiae aiaeu ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea
ninoaaeyao 650 eeo?ia a nooee. Ai iiiaeo ianoao caiiiai oa?a i?aniay
aiaea noaiiaeony aeaoeoeeoii.

N eaaeaeui aiaeii an? aieueoaa cia/aiea a aiaeiniaaaeaiee io?aneae
oicyenoaa ia/eiatho i?eia?aoaoue iiaecaiiua aiaeu. Caianu yoeo aiae ia
ieaiaoa ia?iiiu, ii ia ana aiaeu eaaei aeinooiiu /aeiaaeo. Oa iiaecaiiua
aiaeu, eioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeinooiiu aeey eniieueciaaiey,
?acee/athony ii oaiia?aoo?a e oeie/aneiio ninoaao. Anoue ai?y/ea aiaeu n
oaiia?aoo?ie nauoa 100-150 a?aaeonia ii Oeaeueneth e oieiaeiua, n
oaiia?aoo?ie ieaea 20 a?aaeonia ii Oeaeueneth, i?aniua, niaea?aeauea
iaiaa iaeiiai a?aiia nieae ia eeo? aiaeu, ?annieu, niaea?aeauea aieaa
100 a?aii ?anoai??iiuo aauanoa ia eeo? aiaeu e eniieuecoaiua aeey
iieo/aiey oeaiiuo yeaiaioia a?iia, eiaea e ae?. Iiaecaiiua aiaeu neoaeao
enoi/ieeii ieoaiey ?ae, aiaeiniaaaeaiey ai?iaeia e i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, i?ioaiey e iaaiaeiaiey ianoaeu. Oa?iaeueiua aiaeu
iiaecaiiuo enoi/ieeia iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey oaieiniaaaeaiey
ai?iaeia, nicaeaiey ?uaiaiaeiuo i?aaei?eyoee, aaioa?ie/aneeo noaioeee e
oae aeaeaa.

A N?aaeiae Acee e Caiaaeii-Neae?neie ieciaiiinoe iaoiaeyony aieueoea
caianu i?aniuo aiae, eioi?ua oe?iei eniieuecotho.

I?anioth aiaeo iiaeii iieo/aoue ec nie?iie ii?neie aiaeu. Ii?aniaieai
aiaeu /aeiaa/anoai caieiaaony oaea aeaaii. Aieaa 100 eao iacaae
iino?iaia e?oiiaeoay i?iiuoeaiiay ii?anieoaeueiay onoaiiaea a *eee. A
1968 aiaeo onoaiiaie auei aieaa 80,a e 1973 aiaeo oieueei a NOA auei
?ac?aaioaii ieiei 330 i?iiuoeaiiuo onoaiiaie noiia?iie iiuiinoueth
i?eia?ii 20000 eoae/aneeo iao?ia aiaeu a nooee.

A NNN? a 1973 aiaeo auea aaaaeaia a yenieoaoaoeeth aoiiiay
yeaeo?inoaioeey ia iieoino?iaa Iaiauoeae, aieueooth /anoue yia?aee
eioi?ie eniieuecotho aeey ii?aniaiey nie?iie aiaeu.

Aeey oaeaeaiey caiaoia aiaei?ineae aiaeo i?iioneatho /a?ac
aeoeae?iaaiiue oaieue, oeeueo?otho /a?ac oeeueo?u n i?aii?iie e?ioeie
aeey iaiaauaiey ea?aiiaoii eaeueoeey, caoai a? ooi?e?otho e ?acaaaeytho
ieia?aeeciaaiiie aiaeie. Iinea yoeo i?ioeaaeo? aiaea eae?o ia ioaeaeu
ai?iaea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao iiiai niiniaia ii?aniaiey aiaeu:
eneonnoaaiiia auii?aaeeaaiea, aeieiae/aneea iaoiaeu n i?eiaiaieai
iee?iaia, auai?i/ii iiaeiuathueo ?acee/iua niee, e oae aeaeaa. Iniaue
eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao iieo/aiea i?aniie aiaeu n iiiiuueth iaaieoia. I?e
yoii aiaea noaiiaeony ia oieueei i?aniie, ii e i?eia?aoaao iniaua
naienoaa: oaaee/eaaaony nei?inoue oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee, oeo/oaaony
neeiaiea oa??aeuo /anoeoe, e?enoaeeecaoeey ieia?aeueiuo i?eianae
i?ienoiaeeo ianoieueei auno?i, /oi i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth /anoeoe
iaeeiaia?acothueo nieae, /oi iicaieyao i?eiaiyoue aiaeo iiiaie?aoii a
caieioouo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao, oaaee/eaaoue n?ie neoaeau
aiaeia?aeiuo eioeia, oaeaeyoue ec aiaeu o?oaeiiinaaeaeaaiua oiieea
acaane.

Caa?yciaiea i?e?iaeiuo aiae.

Io?aaioaiiua aiaeu i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ianuuaiiua i?eianyie,
aica?auathony a aiaeiua aannaeiu. Yoe i?eiane iiaoo auoue oa??aeuie,
aeeaeeeie, iaoiaeeoueny a ?anoai??iiii, acaaoaiiii e eieeieaeiii
ninoiyiee. Na?in i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa (oaeaaiaei?iaeia) a /?acia?ii
aieueoeo eiee/anoaao i?eaiaeeo e iaaaeiaieth aiaeu eenei?iaeii e
io?aaeaieth a? i?iaeoeoaie ?aceiaeaiey. Iooiaeu iaooaia?a?aaioee
ia?acotho ie?ieo ia iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu, i?aiyonoaothuoth i?iieeiiaaieth a
ia? eenei?iaea aicaeooa. N?aaee i?iaeoeoia ?aniaaea iiae aeaenoaeai
aiay?iaiuo aaeoa?ee eiathony a?aaeiua aauanoaa, niaea?aeauea aieiu,
iaoai, na?o e oinoi?. Niee iaaee, oeeiea, naeioea, ieeaey, oeeaieaeu,
ooi?enoua niaaeeiaiey, niaea?aeauea a io?aaioaiiuo aiaeao oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, /??iie e oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee, aeaenoaotho ia an? aeeaia
a aiaea aiaei?iia. Iie nieaeatho eioaineaiinoue ieeneeoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee,
inoaiaaeeaatho ?acee/iua aeioeie/aneea i?ioeannu, aucuaay ia?ooaiea
eii?aeeiaoeee aeaeaeaiee e oaeoouea aiaeiuo i?aaieciia.

I/aiue iianii caa?yciaiea iithueie neioaoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie, eioi?ua
nieaeatho niiniaiinoue aiae e ianuuaieth eenei?iaeii, ia?aeecotho
aeayoaeueiinoue aaeoa?ee, ?ac?ooathueo i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa.

Aaeaaiaeii a ?aee na?anuaaaony aei 160 eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia
i?iiuoeaiiuo noi/iuo aiae, eioi?ua caa?yciytho aei 2000 eoae/aneeo
eeeiiao?ia i?e?iaeiie aiaeu. A Aiaeee caa?yciaiu ii/oe ana ?aee. A
ssiiiee a ?aeo Aeceoeo auee na?ioaiu noi/iua aiaeu, caa?yci?iiua
eaaeieai. E?anoueyia, ia ciay ia yoii, eniieueciaaee io?aaeaiioth aiaeo
aeey i?ioaiey iieae, e iiyaeeanue no?aiiay aieaciue “aieueii-aieueii”.
Ethaee oie?aee a no?aoiuo io/aieyo, oae eae eaaeiee iaeaaeaao
niiniaiinoueth iaeaieeaaoueny a i?aaiecia e aucuaaoue ?aciya/aiea
einoiuo oeaiae. Aeinoaoi/ii auei caaieaaoaio eaoeyiooue, /eoiooue, /oiau
aucaaoue ia?aeiiu einoae. A naeueneii oicyenoaa NOA aaeaaiaeii
i?eiaiytho ieiei 400 ouny/ eeeia?aiiia ?oooe aeiy ai?ueau n a?aaeeoaeyie
naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Iniaaiii iino?aaeaee io yoiai aeeoaee ai?iaea
Aeaiaai?aei (ooao Iueth-Iaeneei).Noiee io?aaeee ?uao, ianoaeua, e a
?acoeueoaoa ?oooue iiiaea a i?aaieci ethaeae.

Caa?yciaiea i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie aauanoaaie iiaeao auoue a
?acoeueoaoa yaea?iuo (oa?iiyaea?iuo) ac?uaia, ?aaiou yia?aaoe/aneeo
yaea?iuo onoaiiaie, iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee, aaaeoueo enneaaeiaaiey
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa, a oaeaea i?e ?aaioa i?aaei?eyoee, aaea
aeiauaatho, ia?a?aaaouaatho ?aaeeiaeoeaiia aauanoai. Eiee/anoai e ninoaa
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia ?aciiia?acai. Ii aa?aaaoiiio ninoiyieth
?acee/atho aaciia?aciua, aeeaeeea e oa??aeua ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu.
Caa?yciaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie aauanoaaie, eioi?ua niaea?aeaony a oa??aeuo
iooiaeao, aanueia iaeu, e iiaoo auoue eeoue i?e a?oauo ia?ooaieyo
naieoa?iiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, iai?eia? i?e na?inao iooiaeia a ia?aae.
Aaciia?aciua iooiaeu no?iai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu e iaoiaeyony iiae
eiio?ieai, iiyoiio i?aeoe/aneay cia/eiinoue caa?yciaiey iaaaeeea.
Iaeaieueooth iianiinoue i?aaenoaaeytho aeeaeeea ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu.

Iaeiaei a ?acoeueoaoa niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoiieiaee noi/iua aiaeu
iiaeaa?aathony iiiaie?aoiie ia?aaioea, e iie ia i?aaenoaaeytho
na?ue?ciie oa?icu.

Eneonnoaaiiua e anoanoaaiiua ?aaeeiaeoeaiua ecioiiu ano?a/athony a
aoiinoa?a, a ii/aao, a aiaeao ii?ae e ieaaiia, ?ae e ic??, a ?anoaieyo e
a i?aaiecia aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea a ie/oiaeii iaeuo eiee/anoaao.
Iiauoaiea niaea?aeaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo ecioiiia a ioaeaeueiuo /anoyo
aeinoa?u eee eciaiaiea eo ea/anoaaiiiai ninoaaa ieacuaaao
iaaeaaii?eyoiua aicaeaenoaey ia i?ioaeathuea a i?e?iaea aeeciaiiua
i?ioeannu. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue noaiaiue ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe aiaoiae
n?aaeu. ?aoaiea yoie caaea/e naycaii n ii?aaeaeaieai a ?acee/iuo
iauaeoao iaeuo eiioeaio?aoeee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ecaanoiu iaeioi?ua iaoiaeu nai?a i?ia ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
i?iaeoeoia, iiiaaeathueo a ?acee/iua iauaeou aiaoiae n?aaeu.

A ?innee ?an/?o AeE ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa a aiaea iiaa?oiinoiuo
aiaei?iia i?iaiaeyo ii enoiaeiiio cia/aieth i?aaeaea aiaeiaie aeicu,
onoaiiaeaiiie ioa/anoaaiiui naieoa?iui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aeey
ioaeaeueiuo a?oii ianaeaiey. I?e iainiiaaiee AeE o/eouaatho iooe
aicaeaenoaey e eo niaieoiiinoue, ni/aoaiea aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai
iaeo/aiey. Eiio?ieue ca ?aaeeieiae/aneie /enoioie aaaeoo ia noaioeee
ieaie?iaaiey, i?iaeoe?iaaiey e no?ieoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua
iioaioeeaeueii iiaoo auoue enoi/ieeaie caa?yciaiey aiaei?iia
?aaeeiaeoeaiuie aauanoaaie e a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee.

Oaeouee eiio?ieue aeeth/aao ioeaieo caa?yciaiey noi/iuo aiae, ninoiyiea,
iiaa?oiinoe aiaei?ia, aoiinoa?u, naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? ianoiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e oae aeaeaa. Iaoiaeeea eiio?iey caaeneo io oi?ie?iaaiey
aeeaeeeo ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia, i?eiaiyaiuo niiniaia eo
iaaca?aaeeaaiey, iooae oaeaeaiey, ea/anoaaiiie e eiee/anoaaiiie
oa?aeoa?enoeee, iiyoiio a eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii neo/aa eiio?ieue ca
noi/iuie aiaeaie ninoieo a ii?aaeaeaiee oeie/aneiai ninoaaa, eo
eiee/anoaa e ?eoia oaeaeaiey. Nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea i?aaenoaaeyao
auyaeaiea a i?ioeanna eiio?iey ianooaaia aiciiaeiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo caa?yciaiee ii ?aea, ia i?ea?aaeiie oa??eoi?ee.
Aeaenoaaiiue eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai naieoa?iiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
eioi?ia ?aaeaiaioe?oao niaea?aeaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo caa?yciaiee, yaeyaony
iniiaiui niiniaii, iaania/eaathuei aaciianiinoue ianaeaiey e io?aio
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu io caa?yciaiee.

A ?acoeueoaoa iinooieaiey a aiaeo aiaei?iia io?aaioaiiuo iiaeia?aouo
aiae oaieiauo e aoiiiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee iiaeao aicieeiooue yaeaiea
oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey. Iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u i?e?iaeiuo aiae a ?aeiiao
na?ina io?aaioaiiuo o?ieuo aiae aeoeaece?oao aeieiae/aneea i?ioeannu
aiaei?ia,

oaaee/eaaao niaea?aeaiea a i?i i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa ca n/?o aniuoee a
?acaeoee oioi- e ciiieaieoiia. ?aceia iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu a
aiaei?ia iiaeao i?eaanoe aeaaea e aeaaee aiaeiuo i?aaieciia. Iniaaiii
/oanoaeoaeueiu e eciaiaieth oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu o?iie/aneea i?aaieciu,
ee?a e iieiaeue ?ua. I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiaeu ?an/?oa oaieiaiai aaeaina
io?aaioaiiuo aiae, eioi?ua iicaieyo i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee OYN
i?aaeoi?aaeeoue oaieiaia caa?yciaiea aiaei?iia. A ia?niaeoeaa
io?aaioaiiua o?ieua aiaeu yia?aaoe/aneeo onoaiiaie iiaeii oe?iei
eniieueciaaoue aeey eneonnoaaiiiai ?acaaaeaiey ?uau.

A aiaeu Ie?iaiai ieaaia ni noieii ?ae aaeanaeoiaeii aeeaaaony ieiei 1
ieeeeiia eoae/aneeo iao?ia i?aniuo aiae. Noi/iua aiaeu, na?ioaiiua a
?aee, a eiia/iii n/?oa oaeaea iiiaaeatho a aiaeo ii?ae e ieaaiia.

Ieeneeoaeueiua i?ioeannu a ii?neie aiaea i?ioaeatho iaaeeaiiaa, /ai a
i?aniie. I?iaeooee?othuay aeayoaeueiinoue ieaaia ia?aie/eaaaony
iyoeaeanyoeiao?iaui neiai aiaeu, aaea eenei?iae, iio?aaeyaiue i?e
aeuoaiee, eiiiaine?oaony au?aaaouaaaiui caeanue eenei?iaeii a i?ioeanna
oioineioaca. Ieioiinoue ii?neie aiaeu auoa, /ai ieioiinoue noi/iuo aiae,
iiyoiio noi/iua aiaeu ?anoaeathony ii iiaa?oiinoe ii?y e oiieei neiai
?ani?aaeaeythony ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey. Iniaaiii neeueiia caa?yciaiea
noi/iuie aiaeaie iaaethaeaaony a i?ea?aaeiie iieina, aaea i?ioeannu
niiii/euaiey i?ioaeatho i/aiue iaaeeaiii, oae eae
iee?iau-ieia?aeecaoi?u, iiiaaeathuea a ii?a ni noi/iuie aiaeaie,
iiaeaatho, a iaoiaaiiua (aieaciaoai?iua) iee?iau, ano?a/ay aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey, iaiai?io, ?aciiiaeathony.

Iniaaiii iianiu aeey aeieiae/aneeo ?ano?nia ii?ae e ieaaiia iaooue e
iaooai?iaeoeou, ieacuaathuea a?aaeiia aicaeaenoaea ia ii?neea i?aaieciu.
Iaeioi?ua ieaieoiiiua aiaei?inee a aiaea, niaea?aeauae iaooue e
iaooai?iaeoeou, oa?ytho niiniaiinoue e ?aciiiaeaieth e aeaioo. Ec-ca
caa?yciaiey iaooueth aaeaaiaeii aeaiao aieueoia eiee/anoai ioeoe e ?uau.
Ac?ineua ?uau iiaoo ecaaaaoue ianoa neeueiiai caa?yciaiey, ii aeaaea
iinea iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai i?aauaaiey a oaeeo ?aeiiao iie oa?ytho naie
oiaa?iua ea/anoaa e ia iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a ieuo ec-ca
iai?eyoiiai caiaoa e i?eaeona.

Ie?iaie ieaai i?aa?auaaony a aeaaioneoth naaeeo. A naaa?iie /anoe Oeoiai
ieaaia ieaaaao 35 ieeeeiiia ionouo aooueie e ninoaeia ec ieanoiannu. Ni
noi/iuie aiaeaie a ii?y e ieaaiu iiiaaeatho ianoeoeeaeu (oeie/aneea
n?aaenoaa, eniieuecoaiua aeey ai?ueau n a?aaeeoaeyie),io?eoeaoaeueii
aeeythueie ia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue ii?neeo i?aaieciia. Caa?yciaiea aiae
Ie?iaiai ieaaia i?iaeoeoaie ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai ?aniaaea iniaaiii iianii,
oae eae iie eiioeaio?e?othony a ?anoaieyo, oeaiyo ?ua e iieethneia.
Niaea?aeaiea no?iioeey 90 e oeacey 137 a ieo iiaeao auoue a 20-30 ?ac, a
a ?anoaieyo a 1200 ?ac aieueoa, /ai a ie?oaeathuae ii?neie aiaea.
Oiio?aaeaiea a ieuo ca?aae?iiuo ?ua, ?anoaiee e iieethneia i?aaenoaaeyao
aieueooth iianiinoue aeey /aeiaaea.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ii?y e ieaaiu eioaineaii aiaeaeathony a noa?o
ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A nayce n oaei?iaeaieai iaeioi?uo ?ano?nia nooe
?anooo oaiiu inaiaiey ?ano?nia ieaaia. Ieiei 30 no?ai aaaeoo
iaooaaaciaue i?iiunae iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ii?a. ?ano?nu ii?ae e ieaaiia
iaeuecy ioianoe e iaen/a?iaaiui, iniaaiii, anee oieueei a?aoue e
caa?yciyoue. Caa?yciaiea aa?iiaeneeo ii?ae i?iiuoeaiiuie e
eiiioiaeueiuie iooiaeaie a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?eia?aei eaoano?ioe/aneea
ianooaau.

Yoi i?eaaei e en/aciiaaieth a ieo iaeioi?uo aeaeia iieaciie oei?u e
oaoiu.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea noi/iuo aiae.

Noi/iua aiaeu iiae?acaeaeytho ia oicyenoaaiii-auoiaua, eeaiaaua
(aoiinoa?iua) e i?iiuoeaiiua.

Oicyenoaaiii-auoiaua noi/iua aiaeu ia?acothony i?e iuouea iinoaeu,
oai?ea iiiauaiee, i?eaioiaeaiee ieue, noe?ea aaeuey e oae aeaeaa. A ieo
niaea?aeaony i?aaie/aneea e iai?aaie/aneea i?eiane, iaoiaaiiua
i?aaieciu.

Aoiinoa?iua, eee eeaiaaua, aiaeu a iniiaiii caa?yciaiu iueueth, ianeii,
a a aieueoeo ai?iaeao iacooii, aaiceiii e ae?oaeie iaooai?iaeoeoaie.

I?iiuoeaiiua noi/iua aiaeu ia?acothony ia caaiaeao, oaa?eeao i?e
i?iiuaea, ioeaaeaeaiee iai?oaeiaaiey, i?e eniieueciaaiee aiaeu a
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao. I?iiuoeaiiua noi/iua aiaeu iaeioi?uo
i?iecaiaenoa o?aaotho eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie i/enoee, oae eae a ieo iiaoo
niaea?aeaoueny yaeiaeoua aauanoaa, eioi?ua ieacuaatho aoaeoaeueiia
aeaenoaea ia aeoeaiue ee ay?ioaieia e cao?oaeiytho aeieiae/aneoth
i/enoeo.

Noi/iua aiaeu ia iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo iiae?acaeaeythony ia:

a) /enoua aiaeu, eioi?ua iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a iai?ioiuo nenoaiao aac
i/enoee;

a) oeie/anee caa?yci?iiua, eioi?ua o?aaotho niaoeeaeueiie i/enoee a
caaeneiinoe io ninoaaa caa?yciaiee (oyae?eua iaoaeeu, eiioeaio?e?iaaiiua
?anoai?u eeneio, uaei/ae e oae aeaeaa); iiaoi?iia eniieueciaaiea yoeo
noi/iuo aiae aiciiaeii, iai?eia?, aeey iieee oa??eoi?ee, iaoei, i?ioaiey
ne?oaaa?ia i?e iueaoeaaeeaaiee e aeey ae?oaeo oeaeae;

a) noi/iua aiaeu, caa?yci?iiua iaooai?iaeoeoaie e acaaoaiiuie
aauanoaaie; iinea i/enoee eo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a i?iecaiaenoaa
iiaoi?ii.

A noi/iua aiaeu iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo caaiaeia iiiaaeaao aieueoia
eiee/anoai niaci/ii-ioeaaeaeathueo aeeaeeinoae (NIAE),eioi?ua niaea?aeao
ieia?aeueiua ianea, nie?ou, iuea, niaeo e o?aaotho iaycaoaeueioth
oeeeeiaoth i/enoeo ia i?iecaiaenoaa ii neaaeothuae i?eaeeceoaeueiie
noaia: iaoaie/aneea i?eiane ioaeaeythony iaaieoiui niiniaii, naiaiaeiua
ianea – a ionoieieeao. Iinea iaaca?aaeeaaiey oei?enoui eaeueoeeai
aeii/enoeo iiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue ia aeieiae/aneeo nii?oaeaieyo.

Io?aaioaiiua o?aaeeueiua ?anoai?u iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe
caa?yciytho ii/ao, a?oioiaua aiaeu, e?iia oiai, aacaica?aoii oa?yaony
na?iay eeneioa e ae?oaea oeaiiua i?iaeoeou, iiyoiio i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay
i/enoea iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia i?aaei?eyoee iaycaoaeueia.

Ia caaiaea noaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee a ai?iaea Aieaenea iino?iaia
i?iiuoeaiiay onoaiiaea ii iieo/aieth iee?ioaeia?aiee ec o?aaeeueiuo
?anoai?ia. Aeey yoiai oeaee ia?aiaoeaatho n o?aaeeueiuie ?anoai?aie n
oeaeueth ia?aaiaea niaea?aeaueony a ieo eaeueoeey, iaaiey, ieeaey e
ae?oaeo aauanoa a noeueoeaeu. Ianno nooao e iieo/atho iee?ioaeia?aiey,
oi?ioi onaaeaaaiua ?anoaieyie.

Eiio?ieue ca ea/anoaii aiae.

Aiaei?iu eniieuecotho aeey aiaeiniaaaeaiey ianaeaiey, i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, aeey ?acaaaeaiey ?uau, ia?aaica a?ocia aiaeiui
o?ainii?oii, au?aaioee yeaeo?iyia?aee e ioaeuoa. E?iia oiai, aiaei?iu
neoaeao anoanoaaiiuie i?eaiieeaie oicyenoaaiii-auoiauo, i?iiuoeaiiuo e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae.

Ieoueaaay aiaea aeieaeia auoue aaca?aaeia aeey /aeiaaea, eiaoue oi?ioea
i?aaiieaioe/aneea naienoaa, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony eioaineaiinoueth
aeiionoeiiai eciaiaiey caiaoa, aeona e oeaaoa. Eiioeaio?aoeey oeie/aneeo
aauanoa, iiiaaeathueo a enoi/ieee ni noieaie, ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue
aeiionoeiuo ii?i, onoaiiaeaiiuo Ieienoa?noaii cae?aaiio?aiaiey ?O aeey
enoi/ieeia oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey.

Ea/anoai aiaeu an? a?aiy eiio?iee?oaony a ianoao caai?a, ia?aae
iinooieaieai a aiaeii?iaiaeioth naoue, a i?ioeanna ia?aaioee e ia
i/enoiuo nii?oaeaieyo. Aeey ioeaiee ea/anoaa aiaeu i?e eniieueciaaiee a?
a i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaeyo ii?aaeaeytho:

1) nooie inoaoie, oa?aeoa?ecothuee niaea?aeaiea nieae e eieeieaeii
?anoai??iiuo aauanoa;

2) i?ieae?iiue inoaoie ia niaea?aeaiea iaeaoo/eo aauanoa;

3) yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue, oa?aeoa?ecothuoth noaiaiue caa?yci?iiinoe aiaeu
yeaeo?ieeoaie;

4) aeioeie/aneoth iio?aaiinoue eenei?iaea AIE5,oa?aeoa?ecothuoth
iyoeaeiaaiue ?anoiae eenei?iaea, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ?aceiaeaiey e
ieeneaiey niaea?aeaueony a aiaea aauanoa, eee eioaineaiinoue
aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia;

5) aaee/eio aiaei?iaeiiai iieacaoaey pH; aeey iaeo?aeueiie n?aaeu
pH=7,aeey eeneie iaiaa 7, aeey uaei/iie aieaa7; pH a i?aaeaeao ii?iu
?aaai 6,8 – 7,3; ioeeiiaiey io yoeo cia/aiee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
caa?yciaiee aiaeu i?aaie/aneeie niaaeeiaieyie;

6) eiee/anoai a?oaiaeenia?niuo aauanoa (aeeiu, ianea e ae?oaeo ii?iae);

7) iaee/ea e?aiieaaie eeneiou, eioi?ay niinianoaoao ia?aciaaieth
o?oaeiioaeaeyaiie iaeeie, iiyoiio yoio iieacaoaeue aaaeai i?e
eniieueciaaiee aiaeu a oaieiiaiaiiuo ono?ienoaao.

Aiaeeoe/aneee eiio?ieue noi/iuo aiae i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
caeeth/aaony a ioeaiea eo i?aaiieaioe/aneeo naienoa (caiaoa, aeona,
oeaaoa),a ii?aaeaeaiee iooiinoe (eee i?ic?a/iinoe) e eiioeaio?aoeee
acaaoaiiuo aauanoa. E?iia oiai, ii?aaeaeytho iauea iieacaoaee ea/anoaa
aiae (nieaniaea?aeaiea, ae?noeinoue, niaea?aeaiea i?ieae?iiiai inoaoea,
oaiia?aoo?o, pH, eeneioiinoue, u?ei/iinoue, aeo?iiaoioth ieeneyaiinoue
(OIE), ia?iaiaaiaoioth ieeneyaiinoue (AIE),niaea?aeaiea yoe?i?anoai?eiuo
aauanoa),niaea?aeaiea i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa (inoaoi/iiai oei?a, aiiiiey,
iai?aaie/aneeo aieiiia,

eenei?iaea, iaoaeeia, e?aiiaeeneiou),a oaeaea ii?aaeaeytho niaea?aeaiea
iaooai?iaeoeoia, neioaoe/aneeo iiaa?oiinoe aeoeaiuo aauanoa e
iieeae?eeaieaeia.

Aeey i?eai?iiai aiaeeca noi/iuo aiae eniieuecotho niaeo?ioioiiao?
“Naoo?i”, iicaieythuee ii?aaeaeyoue eiioeaio?aoeee oyae?euo iaoaeeia
(Ba,Ca,K,Pb,Co) e eaa?oeaaua niaeo?ioioiiao?u NO-4,NO-44, NO-O6 e NO-18
n aaoiiaoe/aneie caienueth aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eiee/anoaa iaooai?iaeoeoia,
e?aneoaeae, oaiieia. Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/aneee iaoiae aiaeeca i?eiaiytho
oaeaea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ii/aaeiu, niaea?aeauaeny a noi/iuo aiaeao
oeie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Eiee/anoai iooiaeia oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (eeaiei e
eeaiinoeueoiiiaua eeneiou) ii?aaeaeytho n iiiiuueth oeoi?iiao?e/aneiai
iaoiaea. Aacio?iiaoia?aoey iicaieyao ii?aaeaeyoue iauee e i?aaie/aneee
oaea?iae, iaooai?iaeoeou e ianoaoeeaeu. Ca ?oaaaeii ?ac?aaioaiu
aaoiiaoe/aneea noaioeee “Iiieoi?”, eiio?iee?othuea niaea?aeaiea
acaaoaiiuo aauanoa, oei?eaeia, ?anoai??iiiai eenei?iaea e aaee/eio
aiaei?iaeiiai iieacaoaey pH.

I?e aaoiiaoe/aneii eiio?iea, iaania/eaathuai iieo/aiea iinoiyiiie
eioi?iaoeee, iiaeii oi?aaeyoue oaoiieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie. A neo/aa
iaaeinoaoi/iie i/enoee iiaeii i?ae?aoeoue na?in noi/iuo aiae eee iiaea/o
ieoueaaie aiaeu iio?aaeoaeyi.

Iaoiaeu i/enoee noi/iuo aiae.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua noi/iua aiaeu ii naiaio ninoaao ?aciiia?aciu.
I?enoonoaothuea a ieo caa?yciaiey iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny a ?acee/iuo
aa?aaaoiuo ninoiyieyo. Aeey auai?a iaoiaeia i/enoee noi/iuo aiae e
iai?oaeiaaiey i?eiane, niaea?aeaueany a aiaea, iiae?acaeaeytho ia /aou?a
a?oiiu.

1 a?oiia – a?oaiaeenia?niua i?eiane – /anoeoeu ii/au, ianea, aeeiu,
yioeuenee, eioi?ua iiiaaeatho a aiaei?iu n i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, a
oaeaea a ?acoeueoaoa niuaa ii/a. Ia iiaa?oiinoe oaeeo /anoeoe iiaoo
iaoiaeeoueny iaoiaaiiua iee?ii?aaieciu, ae?onu, ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa.

Aeey oaeaeaiey i?eianae yoie a?oiiu eniieuecotho oeceei-oeie/aneea
i?ioeannu, iicaieythuea n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo aauanoa oe?oiiyoue
/anoeoeu n iineaaeothuei eo inaaeaeaieai, i?iaiaeeoue i?ioeann aaeaacee
– i?eeeiaiey i?eianae e iiaa?oiinoe eia?oiuo iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea
eniieueciaaoue iaoiae oeioaoeee, oi anoue auaiaeeoue i?eiane a iaio,
eioi?oth niaoeeaeueii nicaeatho a i/enoiuo nii?oaeaieyo.

2 a?oiia – eieeieaeiua i?eiane, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony a aiaea a aeaea
oiieiaeenia?niuo ia?aciaaiee (cieae eee aunieiiieaeoey?iuo niaaeeiaiee).
Aauanoaa yoie a?oiiu eciaiytho oeaao aiaeu. Aeey oaeaeaiey yoeo i?eianae
i?eiaiytho eiaaoeyiou – aauanoaa, aucuaathuea neeiaiea e oe?oiiaiea
/anoeoe.

3 a?oiia – ?anoai??iiua a aiaea aacu e i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey.
Aauanoaa yoie a?oiiu i?eaeatho ai-aea ?acee/iua caiaoe, i?eaeonu,
ie?aneo. Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua niiniau i/enoee: ay?e?iaaiea – i?iaeoaea
aiaeu aicaeooii, aaaaeaiea ieeneeoaeae, iiae aeaenoaeai eioi?uo
?ac?ooaaony aieueoeinoai i?eianae yoie a?oiiu, e aaeni?aoeey – oaeaeaiea
i?eianae n iiiiuueth aeoeae?iaaiiiai oaey, eioi?ue aieouaaao (ni?ae?oao)
iiiaea i?eiane.

4 a?oiia – i?eiane eiiiie noaiaie aeenia?niinoe. Niee, eeneiou,
iniiaaiey i?e iinooieaiee a aiaeo ?aniaaeathony ia eiiu. I/enoea io
i?eianae yoie a?oiiu naiaeeony e naycuaaieth eiiia; iiaeii i?eiaiyoue
oaeaea auii?aaeeaaiea e ae?oaea iaoiaeu.

Yoa eeanneoeeaoeey iicaieyao iainiiaaiii e oeaeaiai?aaeaiii auae?aoue e
eiiiiiiaaoue i/enoiua nii?oaeaiey, i?eiaiyoue au/eneeoaeueiua iaoeiu
aeey ?aoaiey neiaeiuo caaea/ aiaeiia?aaioee.

Noi/iua aiaeu i/euatho iaoaie/aneei, aeieiae/aneei, iaacca?aaeeaathuei
(aeaceioaeoeeae) e oeceei-oeie/aneei iaoiaeaie.

Aeey iaoaie/aneie i/enoee i?eiaiytho ?ao?oee, ianeieiaee, ionoieieee,
naioeee. I?eioeei oaeaeaiey acaaoaiiuo aauanoa iniiaai ia ?acee/ee
oaeaeueiuo aania i?eianae e aiaeu. Ianeieiaee i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
inaaeaeaiey ianea, iaeeiai a?aaey e ae?oaeo ieia?aeueiuo i?eianae.
Ianeieiaee iaeaa/atho aeaeueiaeooth i/enoeo noi/iuo aiae io i?aaie/aneeo
caa?yciaiee a inoieieeao, iaoaioaieao e ae?oaeo nii?oaeaieyo.

Ionoieieee i?eiaiytho aeey auaeaeaiey ec noi/iuo aiae ia?anoai??iiuo
iaoaie/aneeo i?eianae e /anoe/ii eieeieaeiuo caa?yciaiee ieia?aeueiiai e
i?aaie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Ionoieieee iiaoo i?eiaiyoue aeey
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie i/enoee noi/iuo aiae n iineaaeothuae aeieiae/aneie
i/enoeie, a oaeaea e eae naiinoiyoaeueiua nii?oaeaiey, anee ii
naieoa?iui oneiaeyi aeinoaoi/ii ioaeaeaiea oieueei iaoaie/aneeo
i?eianae.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?aaeeaeueiua ionoieieee,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaaeoaieea ?aca?aoa?u aeeaiao?ii io 18 aei
54 iao?ia.

Naioeeaie iacuaatho nii?oaeaiey, a eioi?uo i?ienoiaeeo inaaoeaiea
(ionoaeaaiea) e aeeeoaeueiia o?aiaiea (io 6 aei 12 ianyoeaa) inaaeea,
auiaaoaai ec noi/iuo aiae, aei iieiiai aai ia?aaieaaiey. Naioeee eiatho
i/aiue aieueoea ?acia?u, aiaea a ieo /anoi caa?yciyaony na?iaiaei?iaeii,
iiyoiio i?eiaiaiea eo aanueia ia?aie/aii.

Aeey aeieiae/aneie i/enoee i?eiaiytho ay?ioaiee, aeieiae/aneea oeeueo?u,
ay?ioeeueo?u, iaoaioaiee. Ay?ioaiee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeoaieea
i?ioi/iua ?aca?aoa?u aeeeiie aei 150 iao?ia n ionoieieeii. A ay?ioaieao
i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiiia oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa,
acioa, aiiiieeiuo nieae, ieo?eoia ca n/?o ?ac?ooaiey eo iee?ii?aaieciaie
– ieia?aeecaoi?aie. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?aauaaiey noi/iie aeeaeeinoe
a ay?ioaiea eieaaeaony io 6 aei 12 /ania e caaeneo io eiee/anoaa
iiaeaaaaiiai aicaeooa, iee?ii?aaieciia, iaoiaeyueony a aeoeaiii eea,
eioi?ue a aeaea oeiiueaa i?iiecuaaao anth oieuo aiaeu, e io noaiaie
caa?yci?iiinoe noi/iie aiaeu.

Aeieiae/aneea oeeueo?u i?aaenoaaeytho niaie nii?oaeaiey (?ieinoe) n
canuieie nuio/eo iaoa?eaeia, /a?ac eioi?ua i?iioneatho aiaeo.
?anoai??iiua e eieeieaeiua aauanoaa noi/iuo aiae aaeni?ae?othony e
?ac?ooathony i?aeiouanoaaiii ay?iaii, oi anoue n iiiiuueth iee?iaia,
eioi?ua iiaoo aeeoue oieueei i?e iaee/ee eenei?iaea. Ia eoneao oeaea,
uaaiy e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeao au?anoaao aeieiae/anee aeoeaiay ie?iea. A
aa?oiai neia aei 10 naioeiao?ia ?acaeaathony eiooci?ee, ee/eiee
ianaeiiuo, aeaooeeiaua, ia iai?ioaaiuo o/anoeao nii?oaeaiey
?ac?anoathony aiaei?inee, ia aeoaeia nauoa 15 naioeiao?ia ciia /a?aae,
eioi?ua i?i?uaatho oiaeu a oeaea, ?ac?uoeytho aeieiae/aneoth ie?ieo,
ia?aaa?eaatho e ?aceaaatho eeao/aoeo, oeoei.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy an? /aua iaoiaeyo i?eiaiaiea ay?ioeeueo?u, eioi?ua
yeiiiie/iaa ay?ioaieia, i?inou a yenieoaoaoeee, ac?uaiaaciianiu, eo
eaaei aaoiiaoece?iaaoue. Iaeiaei ay?ioeeueo?u aini?eei/eau e ninoaao
noi/iuo aiae e o?aaotho aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aicaeooa aeey ay?aoeee.

I/enoeoaeueiua i?oaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaaeoaieea, aei 1 iao?a,
aiaei?iu, iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaaeei?iiua iaaeaeo niaie. Ouny/e
iaeue/aeoeo i?aaieciia ieia?aeecotho i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey,
ca?eaeueiue ea?i e ooee i?aaeio?aiytho i?oaeu io caeaie
(?ynee).I/enoeoaeueiua i?oaeu /oanoaeoaeueiu e oaiia?aoo?a, iiyoiio
?aoeeiiaeueii eo i?eiaiyoue a thaeiuo ?aeiiao.

Ii/aaiiua iaoiaeu i/enoee i?iaiaeyo ia iieyo i?ioaiey. I?e ii/aaiiie
i/enoea iiieii aaeoa?ee a i/enoea o/anoaotho i?inoaeoea aaniicaiii/iua
iee?ii?aaieciu. Aaeoa?ee ieia?aeecotho i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa, i?inoaeoea
i?aaieciu oie/oiaeatho eceeoiaa eiee/anoai aaeoa?ee, aaniicaiii/iua,
aeiaeaeaaua /a?ae, ee/eiee, eeaue ?ac?uoeytho ii/ao e ia?a?aaaouaatho
o?oaeii?anuaieyaiua i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa (oeaeetheico, oeoei).Iinea
ii/aaiiie i/enoee aiaea ia niaea?aeeo yeoe aaeueieioia, iaaaeiaia
aaeoa?eyie, iiyoiio ia iaaei i?iaiaeeoue oeeueo?iaaiea aiaeu /a?ac
ian/aiua oeeueo?u aeey i/enoee io aaeueieioia.

Iaoaioaie – yoi a?iaeeeueiay eaia?a, i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey aiay?iaiie
i/enoee inaaeea noi/iuo aiae, oi anoue n iiiiuueth iee?iaia, eioi?ua
iiaoo aeeoue aac aeinooia aicaeooa. I?ioeannu a?iaeaiey inouanoaeythony
i?e oaiia?aoo?a aei 55 a?aaeonia ii Oeaeueneth a oa/aiea nooie, aucuaay
iieioth aeaaeue yeoe aaeueieioia e iaoiaaiiuo (aieaciaoai?iuo) iee?iaia.
Nii?oaeaiea aa?iaoe/iia, iiyoiio iaoai, ia?acothueeny a i?ioeanna
a?iaeaiey, iiaeii oeaaeeaaoue e eniieueciaaoue eae oiieeai. Iiaeii
oeaaeeaaoue oaeaea oaeaeeneioo, eioi?oth ia?a?aaaouaatho ia nooie e?ae.
Na?iaeaiiue inaaeie niaea?aeeo oinoi?, acio e iiaeao neoaeeoue
i?ae?aniui oaeia?aieai. Anee inaaeie aunooeoue e na?eeaoe?iaaoue, oi
iiaeii iieo/eoue oiieeai. Ia?aiaoeaaiea a iaoaioaiea i?ienoiaeeo a
?acoeueoaoa ia?aea/eaaiey inaaeea ianinii ec ieaeiae /anoe a aa?oithth.
Yaeaeoe?othuea ono?ienoaa ii o?oaii?iaiaeai e yaeaeoi?ai iiaeatho a
iaoaioaie ino?ue ia? eee ai?y/oth aiaeo oaiia?aoo?ie aei 60 a?aaeonia ii
Oeaeueneth aeey iiaeia?aaa inaaeea. Inaaeie ia?aiaoeaatho n iiiiuueth
ianinia, caae?athueo aai ec ieaeiae /anoe eaia?u e iiaeathueo a
aa?oithth /anoue ii o?oaii?iaiaeai auionea na?iaeaiiiai inaaeea.
Iiaeia?aa e ia?aiaoeaaiea inaaeea niinianoaoao onei?aieth i?ioeannia
a?iaeaiey a iaoaioaiea. Inaaeie, iieo/aaiue a iaoaioaieao, ia?eiaee/anee
aua?oaeaaony /a?ac o?oaii?iaiaeu iii?iaeiaiey.

Aeey iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiaeo oeeueo?otho /a?ac ianie, oei?e?otho e
iciie?otho. Icii iaeaaeaao aaeoa?eoeeaeiuie naienoaaie e, e?iia oiai,
i?e iciie?iaaiee aiaeu oeo/oathony i?aaiieaioe/aneea naienoaa. Iaeiaei
iciie?iaaiea naycaii n aieueoeie yia?aaoe/aneeie cao?aoaie. Ae?oaia
neeueiia aaeoa?eoeeaeiia n?aaenoai – na?aa?i.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iieo/eei ?ani?ino?aiaiea iaoaie/aneia iaacaiaeeaaiea
e oa?ie/aneay nooea inaaeeia. Iaoaie/aneia iaacaiaeeaaiea ia
oeaio?eooaao ia o?aaoao ?anoiaea eiaaoeyioia (oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeaia aeey
ieoneiaaiey i?eianae),iineaaeothuay oa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea a eaia?ao n
eio?ae?aniui eceo/aieai iicaieyao i?iaanoe aeaaaeueieioecaoeeth.

Noiee, caa?yci?iiua i?aaie/aneeie e ieia?aeueiuie aauanoaaie,
iiaeaa?aatho iaiaaiio iaaca?aaeeaaieth a oeeeeiiiuo ia/ao
(?aaeoi?ao).Nouiinoue iaoiaea caeeth/aaony a enia?aiee ?aniue?iiuo
noi/iuo aiae i?e aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao a i?iaeoeoao ai?aiey i?aaie/aneiai
oiieeaa, i?e yoii oiene/iua i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa nai?atho, a
ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa oeaaeeaatho e auaiaeyo a aeaea ?anieaaa.

Ia iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo caaiaeao noi/iua aiaeu niaea?aeao niee eeneio,
u?ei/e, oeeaieaeu, o?ii, naeiaoe, iaaeue, aethieiee, ooi?, e?anee,
i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, ieia?aeueiua acaane, ianea. Ia iaeioi?uo
i?aaei?eyoeyo aaaaeaiu ono?ienoaa ii ?aaaia?aoeee (ainnoaiiaeaieth)
aauanoa e iiaoi?iiio eo eniieueciaaieth. I/euaiioth io i?eianae aiaeo
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue iiiaie?aoii.

Aiaeo, eniieuecoaioth aeey iieee, i/euatho a nenoaia ionoieieeia, a
eioi?uo iineaaeiaaoaeueii ioaeaeytho e?oiiua iaoaie/aneea /anoeoeu e
iaooai?iaeoeou. Iaeiieaiiua iaooai?iaeoeou ioea/eaatho a ?ieinoe.
Oeaiiaue ianin ioea/eaaao nu?ie inoaoie a aoiea?, ioeoaea ii ia?a
iaeiieaiey inaaeie auaiceony.

I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an caiaia ianeyiuo yioeuenee aiaeiuie ?anoai?aie,
eneeth/athueie iiiaaeaiea iaooai?iaeoeoia a noi/iua aiaeu. Ana
aeaenoaothuea i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey i?aaeoniao?eaatho nii?oaeaiey ii
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie i/enoea noi/iuo aiae. Iaooaeiaooee, ianeioeiaeoaee,
e?aneioeiaeoaee, iaeo?aeecaoi?u – aio oio iaaieueoie e iaiieiue
ia?a/aiue iaycaoaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee, aac eioi?uo ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue
ia eiaao i?aai ?aaioaoue ie iaeii i?iiuoeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea.

Nio?aiaieth ?ae e aiaei?iia niinianoaoao eniieueciaaiea noi/iuo aiae ia
iieyo i?ioaiey. Aaeanoiua aiaeu n noaeia, eo?ne?othueo ii ?aeai e
aiaei?iai, naeatho ia aa?aaiaua i/enoiua noaioeee, a oaeaea na?anuaatho
a eaiaeecaoeeiiiua nenoaiu. Oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, niinianoaothuea
nieaeaieth a?aaeiuo noieia, iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaotho.

Eneonnoaaiiia aeuoaiea ic??.

I??oaua ic??a aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa na?ina aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
caa?yciythueo (ieoaoaeueiuo) aauanoa n aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo oa?i,
ioeoeaoaa?ee e oae aeaeaa. Aia/aea iiyaeyaony iiiai ieaieoiia, ?ua,
?ac?anoathony aiaei?inee. Ioie?athuea i?aaieciu, iaoiaeyueany a eciaeeee
a aa?oieo neiyo, iioneathony aiec, a oieiaeiue i?eaeiiiue neie, aaea a
ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo ?aceaaathony. I?e iaeeee inaaeathuaai ieaieoiia
eenei?iaea ia/eiaao ia oaaoaoue, e iinoaiaiii aicieeatho aiay?iaiua
oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo ia?acoaony na?iaiaei?iae. Iaae ica?ii ia/eiatho
?ieoueny ianaeiiua, iiyaeythony cae?iua ieaaathuea ie?iee, iai?eyoiua
caiaoe. Oaeia ninoiyiea ica?a iacuaatho yao?iaee/aneei. Ica?i,
aeioaaeoaa aei yao?iaee/aneiai ninoiyiey, naii aic?iaeeoueny ia iiaeao
aeaaea i?e i?ae?auaiee na?ina noi/iuo aiae.

O/?iua anaai ie?a euoo iooe aine?aoaiey i??oauo ic??. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy
oniaoii ?aaioaao aiia?ao “Eeiii”, eioi?ue ?ac?aaioaea oaaaeneay oe?ia
Aoean Eiiei. Aiia?ao i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iiaea/e eenei?iaea a aiaeo ic??.

I??oaia ica?i A?oineaeiai, iaoiaeyuaany a /a?oa ai?iaea Noieaieuei,
ica?i Eoeiaooiaaeia, iaoiaeyuaany thaeiaa ai?iaea Inei, ica?i A?aaai
(Aa?iaiey),ica?i Oieeaaoe, ?aniieiaeaiiia naaa?iaa Iueth-Ei?ea,
iinoaiaiii iaeeaatho aeaaiaea?y ?aaioathuei ia ieo aiia?aoai “Eeiii”.

I?iaeaiu yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe aiaeiiieueciaaiey

e io?aiu aiaei?iia ia i?eia?a Aaeeaea.

Couanoaothuea “I?aaeea io?aiu aiaeiaiia io caa?yciaiey noi/iuie
aiaeaie” i?aaeeaaatho i?iecaiaeeoue ioeaieo ea/anoaa aiaeu ii aaee/eiai
IAeE a ?an/aoiii noai?a aiaeiiai iauaeoa. A caaeneiinoe io o?aaiaaiee e
ea/anoao aiaeu ?uaioicyenoaaiiiai, naieoa?ii-auoiaiai eee
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai aiaeiiieueciaaiey e oa?aeoa?a aiaeiaia (?aea,
ica?i) ?an/aoiue noai? ?aniieaaatho a 500 eee 1000 i io ianoa auionea
noi/iuo aiae. N/eoatho, /oi ia oaeii ?annoiyiee io iaieiaea noi/iay
aiaea aoaeao iieiinoueth ?acaaaeaia e ,oai naiui, iaaca?aaeaia io
a?aaeiuo e oiene/aneeo aauanoa, aieaciaoai?iuo i?aaieciia.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii nouanoaothuei i?aaeeai aiaeiaiu yaeythony ninoaaiie
/anoueth ono?ienoa ii i/enoea noi/iuo aiae auoiauo eee i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, /oi n yeieiae/aneeo iiceoeee niaa?oaiii iaaeiionoeii ii
?yaeo i?e/ei.

A Aaeeaea ieia?aeecaoeey aiaeu a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao 96,5 ia/aei3. A
yoie aiaea noi?ie?iaaeinue ana aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea i?aaieciia, eioi?ua
ianaeytho aiaeioth oieuo e aeii ica?a. A aai aiaea niaea?aeeony ieiei 5
ia/aei3 noeueoaoia, 0,4ia/aei3 – oei?eaeia, 1,5 ia/aei3 – acaaoaiiuo
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, aei 12 ia/aei3 eenei?iaea,4,1 ia/aei3 i?aaie/aneeo
aauanoa (ii OIE) e ae?..

A i?iiuoeaiiuo noieao Aaeeaeueneiai oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiiai eiiaeiaoa
(AOeAE) iinea eo i/enoee ia nouanoaothueo i/enoiuo ono?ienoaao
niaea?aeeony 750-800 ia/aei3 ?acee/iuo nieae, a oii /enea ieiei 520
ia/aei3 noeueoaoia, o.a. ii/oe a 100 ?ac aieueoa; aei 110 ia/aei3
oei?eaeia, o.a. a 275 ?ac aieueoa, /ai a aiaea ica?a; i?aaie/aneeo
aauanoa (OIE) – 70 ia/aei3 – a 17,5 ?aca aieueoa; eenei?iaea – 6 ia/aei3
, eee a aeaa ?aca iaiueoa, /ai a aiaea Aaeeaea. Niaea?aeaiea
iieeoei?e?iaaiiuo aeoaieeia (IOA) a noi/iuo aiaeao AOeAE aeinoeaaao 0,28
iea/aei3, a a aiaea Aaeeaea eo aiiaua ia aeieaeii auoue, oae eae yoi
i?iaeoeo aio?iiiaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Iie ano?a/athony a iaeioi?uo
i?eoieao ica?a (iai?eia?, a ?. A. Aieionoiay) aei 0,02 iea/aei3 ca n/ao
aoiinoa?iiai ia?aiina e auiaaeaiey n inaaeeaie a aannaeia yoie ?aee i?e
naaa?i-caiaaeiuo aao?ao ni noi?iiu eae E?eoonea e Aiaa?nei-*a?aioianeiai
i?iiuoeaiiiai ?aeiia, oae e AOeAE. Aianoa n oai aneaaenoaea aeeoioeyoeee
IOA ii ieua-

aie oeaie aiaeiuo i?aaieciia a aee?a ia?iu eiioeaio?aoeey IOA aeinoeaaao
38 – 64 iea/a, a aeeieneiiaue yeaeaaeaio – 93ia/a, /oi a nioie e ouny/e
?ac i?aauoaao eo niaea?aeaiea a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea.

Eae iiaoo ii?iaeueii nouanoaiaaoue i?aniiaiaeiua i?aaieciu Aaeeaea a
aiaea n iauae ieia?aeecaoeeae a 7 – 8 ?ac aieueoae, /ai a ica?a n
niaea?aeaieai noeueoaoia a 100 ?ac, a oei?eaeia a 275 ?ac aieueoeie, /ai
a oeueo?ai?aniie iaeiieia?aeeciaaiiie aiaea, a eioi?ie yoe aeae?iaeiiou
aicieeee? Ecaanoii, /oi n iiauoaieai eiioeaio?aoeee nieae a n?aaea
iniioe/aneia aeaaeaiea ?anoai?a aic?anoaao, e a aiaea ec i?aaieciia
aoaeao ionanuaaoueny. A yoeo oneiaeyo aiaeiua i?aaieciu iiaeaatho io
iaacaiaeeaaiey, aeaaea anee ?anoai?aiiua niee ia yaeiaeou. A oei?eaeu e
noeueoaou, eae ecaanoii, a?aaeiu aeey iiiaeo i?aniiaiaeiuo i?aaieciia.

Aaeanooi/ii oieueei Aaeeaeueneee oeaeetheiciue eiiaeiao na?anuaaao a
Aaeeae nauoa 200 oun. eoaiiao?ia i?iiuoeaiiuo noieia. I?aaei?eieiaoaee
n/eoatho, /oi yoe noiee i/euaiu e niioaaonoaotho ii ea/anoao eee aeaaea
eo/oa o?aaiaaiee noaiaea?oa ia ieoueaaoth aiaeo. Yenia?eiaiou,
i?iaaaeaiiua ia Aaeeaea, iieacaee, /oi yoe “i/euaiiua” i?iinoiee
niaa?oaiii ia i?eaiaeiu aeey aeecie aaeeaeueneeo i?aaieciia, iie a yoeo
noieao iiaeaatho a oa/aiea ei?ioeiai a?aiaie (io ianeieueeeo /ania aei
ianeieueeeo nooie – ?aciua aeaeu eiatho ?acee/iua n?iee auaeeaaiey).
Aeaaea iyoeaeanyoe- e noie?aoii ?acaaaeaiiua i/euaiiua i?iinoiee AOeAE
aucuaatho o aiaeiuo i?aaieciia iooaaaiiua eciaiaiey e aeaaeue. Oieueei a
10000 ?ac ?acaaaeaiiuo i/euaiiuo i?iinoieao aeae?iaeiiou iiaoo eaeia-oi
a?aiy nouanoaiaaoue. Eae aeieai iie iiaoo a oaeeo oneiaeyo aeeoue,
niiaoo ee ?aciiiaeaoueny e eaeea ioaeaeaiiua iineaaenoaey aicieeioo a
oaeeo ?acaaaeaiiuo noieao, onoaiiaeoue iiea ia i?aaenoaaeyaony
aiciiaeiui .Ieienoa?noai e aaaeiinoaa oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe a i?iaaaeaiee iiaeiaiuo enneaaeiaaiee ia caeioa?aniaaiu,
oae eae iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iiaeaeoo ca niaie oaeanoi/aiea o?aaiaaiee
e i?e?iaeiio?aiiui ia?ii?eyoey. ?inneeneay aeaaeaiey iaoe e aa Neae?neia
ioaeaeaiea n?aaenoa aeey nicaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
iieeaiiia ia eiatho. Iiae aeeyieai na?ina a Aaeeae e aai i?eoiee
iaaeinoaoi/ii i/euaiiuo i?iinoieia AOeAE e ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee a ica?a
i?ienoiaeeo ia?ano?ieea yeinenoaiu. Ia/eiay n 60-o aiaeia no?oeoo?a
ieaieoiiiuo niiauanoa cia/eoaeueii eciaieeanue. A oeoiieaieoiia, aianoi
aeiieie?othuae ?aiaa yiaeaie/iie aiaei?inee Melosira bajcalensis, ia/aea
?acaeaaoueny iaiaa o?aaiaaoaeueiay e /enoie aiaea Nitzshla aclcularis,
eioi?ay auoaniyao iaeice?o. I?iecioea caiaia e?oiiieeaoi/iuo oi?i
aiaei?ineae iaeeieeaoi/iuie. Ia?aeeaeueii n oiaiueoaieai a ninoaaa
oeoiieaieoiia aeiee iaeice?u, a a ninoaaa ciiieaieoiia – ei?iiauo
i?aaieciia ?ua nieceeanue ?ieue oeeeeiia – oeie/iiai aaeeaeueneiai aeaea
aaniicaiii/iuo. Ii n?aaiaieth n o?iaiai a 1961 – 1965 aa. e 1996 aiaeo
aaeaia oiaiueoeeanue aeiianna ciiieaieoiia a ia?eiae inaiiaai iaeneioia
aai ?acaeoey. Ia/eiay n 1966 – 1967 aa. ?acei nieceeenue oaiiu ?inoa e
oooaeoeeenue oeceieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee aaeeaeueneeo ?ua, a oii
/enea iioey. Anee a 50-o aiaeao iioeue aia?aua oae ia ia?ano a aic?anoa
/aou?ao eao e eiae ianno 500 a, oi

a iineaaeiea aiaeu ii eaeao ia ia?ano a aic?anoa 7 – 8 eao e ianna
aia?aua ia?anoothueony iniaae ninoaaeyao 180-200 a. A 1987 a.
ioia/aeanue ianniaay aeaaeue ia?iu aneaaenoaea na?ina a ica?i aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa oeaieeaieia ec iaeiieoaeae Aaeeaeueneiai
oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiiai eiiaeiaoa, niaea?aeauaai oeaeoth aaiio a?aaeiuo
aauanoa, a oii /enea e iieeoei?aeoaieeia. Eiioiiay nenoaia aeeaioiuo
iiae aeeyieai io?aaeaiey auea ineaaeaia, /oi iaoneiaeei eo caaieaaaiea e
aeaaeue.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaenoaothuea i?aaeea io?aiu aiaeiaiia ia iaania/eaatho
o?aaiaaiey aeaaea nouanoaothuaai oieaa?naeueiiai noaiaea?oa ia
ieoueaaoth aiaeo e, a oii /enea, ii ?uaioicyenoaaiiui ii?iaoeaai, i?e
eioi?uo ia aeieaeii i?ienoiaeeoue: a) aeaaee ?ua e ei?iiauo i?aaieciia
aeey ?ua, a) iinoaiaiiiai en/aciiaaiey aeaeia ?ua e ei?iiauo i?aaieciia,
a) oooaeoaiey oiaa?iiai ea/anoaa iaeoathueo a aiaeiii iauaeoa ?ua, a)
eciaiaiey oneiaee, niiniaiuo i?eaanoe e aeaaee ?ua eee caiaia oeaiiuo
aeaeia ia iaeioeaiiua.

A ie?iaii iao/iii niiauanoaa iauai?eciaiii, /oi ica?i Aaeeae –
oieeaeueiue aiaeiai. E iaio iaeuecy iiaeoiaeeoue n ia?eaie,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuie aeey iau/iuo aiaeiaiia aeaaea ieoueaaiai iacia/aiey.
Oai aieaa /oi noaiaea?o ia ieoueaaoth aiaeo ?ac?aaioai aeey auai?a
i?eaiaeiiai aeey yoeo oeaeae aiaeienoi/ieea e ia iiaeao neoaeeoue
yoaeiiii aeey ioeaiee aeiionoeiuo caa?yciaiee.

Aiaeiaiu n ieoueaaie aiaeie aiiaua ia aeieaeiu caa?yciyoueny, a ieo ia
aeiionoei na?in eaeeo-eeai /oaea?iaeiuo aauanoa. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi
oneiaea aeieaeii niaethaeaoueny ii ioiioaieth e Aaeeaeo – ie?iaiio
?aca?aoa?o iai?aacieaeaiiie ii ea/anoao ieoueaaie aiaeu.

I?iecaiaenoaaiieee – aiaeiiio?aaeoaee anaie niiniaaie e a eioi?ue oaea
?ac iuoathony i?e?aaiyoue Aaeeae e ?yaeiaui aiaeiaiai e ?ani?ino?aieoue
ia iaai aeaenoaea nouanoaothueo i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo
aeoia. Aaeeae aea o?aaoao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiaeoiaea e niaoeeaeueiiai
caeiia i aai io?aia e aeeth/aiey a aeiaaeueiue ia?a/aiue iauaeoia
ie?iaiai ianeaaeey. A iai nin?aaeioi/aii 1/5 ie?iauo caiania i?aniie
ieoueaaie aiaeu. Iaeiaei ica?i e aai aannaei i?iaeieaeatho caa?yciyoue
i?iiuoeaiiuie, auoiauie e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie iooiaeaie,
aa?aeoeeaeaie, ae?oaeie ianoeoeeaeaie e ?acee/iuie oeie/aneeie
aauanoaaie. Aneaaenoaea yoiai e aua?inia a aoiinoa?o i?ienoiaeeo oaeaea
ia?ano?ieea iacaiiuo yeinenoai a aannaeia ica?a . Oae, a /anoiinoe, iiae
aeeyieai iueaaaciauo aua?inia AOeAE e ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee, naeeaathueo
oaieue, aeaioo oaieiua eana. Aieueoa ae?oaeo no?aaeatho oaiiioaieiua e,
iniaaiii, ieooiaua eana – i?ienoiaeeo ianniaia (250 oun. aa) onuoaiea

ae?aainoiaa (40 oun. aa ec ieo iiaeaei aacaica?aoii). O ae?oaeo ii?iae
oiaiueoaaony i?e?ino ae?aaaneiu, nieaeaaony ieiaeiiioaiea, a aieueoia
eiee/anoai naiyi o niniu e eenoaaiieoeu ieacuaaaony iaaeecianiiniaiui
(ieceay anoiaeanoue).Aneaaenoaea yoiai iaiaoiaeeii cao?a/eaaoue aieueoa
oneeee aeey caaioiaee iinaaiiai iaoa?eaea.

Inoathony ia eco/aiiuie e ioaeaeaiiua iineaaenoaey aicaeaenoaey
caa?yciaiey ia aeecianiiniaiinoue ?anoaiee, eioi?ua au?anooo ec naiyi,
iiaeaa?aoeony aeeyieth a?aaeiuo iueaaaciauo aua?inia. Anee
aeecianoieeinoue e yia?aey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe oaeeo naiyi ieaaeoony
iiieaeaiiuie, oi e au?inoea ec ieo ?anoaiey iiaoo eiaoue oiaiueoaiioth
yia?aeth ?inoa e ieiaeiiioaiey. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue ae?aainoiaa ec oaeeo
aea?aaueaa e n?iee ieiaeiiioaiey iiaoo auoue iiieaeaiiuie, a nic?aaaiea
ae?aaaneiu – oaeeeiaiiui, o.a. aoaeao nieaeaia aeieiae/aneay
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue eaniuo oaiaeee, /oi aaaeii oaea ia oieueei aeey
?aaeiia, ia e ieaiaou a oeaeii. Inouanoaeaieai oaeie aiaeiio?aiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iu ia auiieiei naiaai aeieaa i?aae iioiieaie, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e naiaai iacia/aiey ia Caiea.

Ea?aeeiaeueiia ?aoaiea caaea/e i?aaeioa?auaiey caa?yciaiey Aaeeaea
ninoieo ia a oii, /oiau na?anuaaoue a iaai aeaaea oi?ioi i/euaiiua, ii
ana aea aoaeoaeueiua aeey aiaeiuo i?aaieciia i?iiuoeaiiua noiee e
iueaaaciaua aua?inu, a a oii, /oiau iieiinoueth eneeth/eoue eo
iiiaaeaiea ia oieueei a ica?i e a aoiinoa?o iaae iei, a e a aai aannaei.
Yoi aeeeooaony e caaioie ia io?aia oieeaeueiie yeinenoaiu Aaeeaea, e
yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoueth. Iao niiiaiey a oii, /oi oua?a,
iaiineiue i?e?iaea aneaaenoaea oooaeoaiey ea/anoaa aiaeu ica?a,
?anoiaeoaiie ia ?acaaaeaiea i?ioaaeoeo /a?ac i/enoiua ono?ienoaa, ii aua
inoathueony a?aaeiuie i?iinoieia, a oaeaea io iueaaaciauo aua?inia, ai
iiiai ?ac i?aauoaao noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiuo
eiiaeiaoia.

Yeieiaecaoeey aiaeiuo i?iaeai.

Eae ecaanoii, iiae aiaeiuie ?ano?naie iiieiatho ia ana aeaeu aiae ia
ieaiaoa, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu /aeiaaeii, ii i?aaeaea anaai
?ano?nu i?e?iaeiuo i?aniuo aiae. Iaaeaeo oai a nia?aiaiiii ie?a
iaino?yaony aeeni?iii?oeey iaaeaeo iio?aaeaieai i?aniie aiaeu e a?
aeinooiiuie caianaie. Oaea naaiaeiy aiai?yo ia oa?ica “aiaeiiai
aieiaea”, iaaenoaai iaae /aeiaa/anoaii, e aeaoeoeeo i?aniie aiaeu
oaia?ue ia oieueei oicyenoaaiiay, ii e yeieiae/aneay i?iaeaia.

A yoie nayce e aicieeaao aii?in: a /?i nooue yeieiaecaoeee ?aaeiiaeueiuo
aiaeiuo i?iaeai? *oi cia/eo io?aiyoue aiaeiua ?ano?nu naaiaeiy?

Iaoe o/?iua ia ?acaeaeytho ianneienoe/aneee acaeyae ia iaecaaaeiinoue
“aiaeiiai aieiaea”, oioy i?iaeaia aiaeiiaania/aiey a ?acoeueoaoa
no?aieoaeueiiai ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, ?inoa ia?iaeiianaeaiey
aoeaaeueii ia aeacao iaoaai iieieaiey noaea “i?iaeaiie iiia? iaeei”,
iaeiie ec o?oaeiuo i?iaeai /aeiaa/anoaa eiaiii a neeo naiae
yeieiae/aneie niaoeeoeee.

?a/ue eae?o i?aaeaea anaai i iaaeaeaoaeueiuo yooaeoao oicyenoaaiiiai
inaiaiey /aeiaaeii aeae?inoa?u Caiee. Nae/an eniieuecoaony iaiaa
aeanyoie /anoe aeiaaeueiiai noiea ?ae, ii eiaiii n eo caa?yciaieai
naycaia oa?ica enoiuaiey aiaeiuo ?ano?nia, iaia?aoeiiai eciaiaiey
oieeaeueiuo aiaei?iia, ia?ooaiey yeieiae/aneiai ?aaiiaaney a i?e?iaea.

Oae “oicyenoaaiiia” aoi?aeaiea a e?oaiai?io aiaeu a i?e?iaea (a
aeieiae/anee /aeiaae caaeaenoaiaai a i?i) ii?iaeaeaao yeinenoaiiua
i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua oae eee eia/a iai?a/eaathony aeey /aeiaaea e
aiaeiniaaaeai/aneeie i?iaeaiaie – e?oa a eiioea eiioeia caiueaaony, a
aeaoeoeeo aiaeu aic?anoaao.

Iaino?aiea aiaeiuo i?iaeai ai iiiaii iauyniyaony aio?iiiaaiiuie
eciaiaieyie ?a/iiai noiea.

Yoi e aa?ioaoie/aneea, e eaniiaeei?aoeaiua ia?ii?eyoey, ?acaeoea
i?iiuoeaiinoe e o?aaiecaoeey, iaeiiaoe i?ineoaeueiua e inooeoaeueiua
iaeei?aoeee, ioaaoeaoea iuia ieiuaaee a aeanyoee ieeeeiiia aaeoa?ia.
Iai?eia?, a ?acoeueoaoa caai?a aiaeu ec aiaeienoi/ieeia aeey ?acee/iuo
ioaeae oicyenoaa aiaeiaie noie iiiaeo e?oiiuo ?ae ?innee nieceeny ia
17-25 i?ioeaioia. A iaeiaiaeiua aiaeu nieaeaiea noiea aeioiaeeo aei
40-60 i?ioeaioia, a aaaeue anaai eeoue 30 eao iacaae nieaeaiea noiea a
aannaeiao yoeo ?ae ec-ca oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey ia i?aauoaei 2-5
i?ioeaioia. ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia noie e ea/anoai aiaeu a ?aeao ieacaei
ca?aaoee?iaaiea eo aiaeio?aieeeuaie, /enei eioi?uo a no?aia i?aauoaao
1200.Oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue neacaeanue ia oieueei ia aannaeiao
oaeeo ?ae, eae Aeiai?, Aeii, Eoaaiue, Aeiano?, O?ae, Oa?ae.

“Aiaeiua” i?ioeai?a/ey aicieeee iaaeaeo nooae e aioo?aiieie ii?yie e
ic??aie. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy Acianeia ii?a iaaeiiieo/aei 23 i?ioeaioa
iaeiaaea iinooiaaoae a iaai aiaeu.

O?oaeiinoe a ?aoaiee aiaeiuo i?iaeai aucuaathony oaeaea cia/eoaeueiuie,
a iiae/an iai?eie?eiuie i?ioeai?a/eyie eioa?ania aiaeiiio?aaeoaeae, /oi
iniaaiii ?acei i?iyaeyaony eiaiii a oneiaeyo ino?iai iaaeinoaoea aiaeiuo
?ano?nia. A /anoiinoe, ii ia?a ?acaeoey io?aneae aiaeiiai oicyenoaa, a
oaeaea eaneaaeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa aiaeio?aieeeu e iaaeaannaeiiauo
niaaeeiaiee i?ienoiaeeo iaino?aiea iaeioi?uo iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo,
iaaeio?aneaauo i?ioeai?a/ee, iai?eia?, iaaeaeo yia?aaoeeie e aiaeiui
o?ainii?oii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ?uaiui e naeueneei oicyenoaii – n
ae?oaie, a oaeaea e aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiuo e aioo?eio?aneaauo i?ioeai?a/ee,
i?iyaeythueony a iniiaiii o?aaiaaieyo e ?aaeeiai

?aaoee?iaaiey noiea auoa e ieaea ieioei.

A nayce n inouanoaeaieai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey noiea an?
aieaa iaino?ythony iaae?aaeiiaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey…

Anoanoaaiiua(i?e?iaeiua) o?oaeiinoe a ?aoaiee aiaeiuo i?iaeai
ia/eiathony e ?aoathony a i?e?iaea.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie i?e/eiu o?oaeiinoae n i?aniie aiaeie e iooe eo
?ac?aoaiey eiaee /enoi aeae?ieiae/aneee oa?aeoa?. I?e?iaeiua o?oaeiinoe
aiaeiiaania/aiey oicyenoaa e ianaeaiey iaoneiaeaiu i?aaeaea anaai
oa??eoi?eaeueiie e a?aiaiiie ia?aaiiia?iinoueth ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia
aiaeu ia Caiea. Iaeie ianae?iiua ?aeiiu no?aaeatho io iaaeinoaoea aiaeu
(nae/an yoi ia 60 i?ioeaioao ianae?iiie oa??eoi?ee ieaiaou),a ae?oaea
eiatho a? ecauoie.

Iai?eia?, a Aa?iia e Acee nin?aaeioi/aii 70 i?ioeaioia ianaeaiey Caiee,
a ?aniieiaatho iie eeoue o?aoueth ie?iauo caiania ?a/iuo aiae. Aieaa 80
i?ioeaioia ?ano?nia iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae i?eoiaeeony o ian ia aannaeiu
Naaa?iiai Eaaeiaeoiai e Oeoiai ieaaiia, a oi a?aiy eae ia thaeiua e
thai-caiaaeiua aannaeiu *??iiai e Acianeiai ii?ae e A?aei-Eanieeneie
ieciaiiinoe, aaea nin?aaeioi/aii 75 i?ioeaioia ianaeaiey e 80%
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eoiaeeony
anaai eeoue 16% ?ano?nia iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae, e oiio aea e aieaa iieiaeiu
aiaeiaiai noiea caeaoieo ?ae

“i?ioiaeeo” anaai ca aeaa aanaiieo ianyoea.

Ia?aaiiia?iinoue naciiiay e cia/eoaeueiua eieaaaiey aiaeiiiniinoe ?ae io
aiaea e aiaeo iianaianoii iaino?ytho aeaoeoeeo i?aniie aiaeu…

Nicaea?ony aia/aoeaiea, /oi ?aee oaeoo ia ooaea, eoaea yoi iaaei
/aeiaaeo. Nianoaaiii, aeaaii oaea aeae?ioaoieee aiai?yo, iai?eia?, i
“aaniieaciinoe” noiea a A?eoeeo naaa?iuo ?ae anaai iieooa?ey n oi/ee
c?aiey aiaeiiaania/aiey /aeiaa/anoaa. E aicieeaao aii?in i iio?aaiinoyo.
Eaeea oaiiu e ianooaau aiaeiiio?aaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecotho nae/an yoo
ie?iaoth “aeaaeaeo” /aeiaa/anoaa?

Aiaea – ia i?inoi oieaa?naeueiue oicyenoaaiiue ?ano?n i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, yia?aaoeee e o?ainii?oa, eiiioiaeueii-auoiaia
oaeianoai eee iauaeo ?ae?aaoeee ianaeaiey, iiaouanoaaiiia
naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneia n?aaenoai, iaeiiaoe.

Yoi iacaiaieiue aeeciaiiue ?ano?n /aeiaa/anoaa, iniiaa aeecie ia Caiea.
Ia aoaeao i?aoaaee/aieai neacaoue, /oi nia?aiaiiay oeeaeeecaoeey
iaiuneeia aac ?aaoee?iaaiey ?ano?nia aiae /aeiaaeii e /oi aiciiaeiinoe
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a nia?aiaiioth yiioo a cia/eoaeueiie
ia?a caaenyo io iaania/aiiinoe aiaeie.

Oaiiu aeiaaeueiiai aiaeiiio?aaeaiey no?aieoaeueii ?anooo. Anee a 1900
aiaeo iii ninoaaeyei(a eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ao) 400 (a oii /enea
“aacica?aoiia” – 270),oi oaea a 1950 aiaeo aeinoeaei 1100(650),a 1975
aiaeo – 3000(1800),a ii i?iaiicai ia 2000 aiae ninoaaeo
6000(3000).E?oiiaeoee iio?aaeoaeue aiaeu – i?ioaaiia caieaaeaeea.

Caieiay eeoue oanooth /anoue anae ieiuaaee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
oaiaeee, iii aea?o i?eia?ii iieiaeio anae i?iaeoeoeee, a 2/3 iinaaia
oeii/aoieea a ie?a nouanoaoao aeaaiaea?y i?ioaieth…

“Aica?aoiua” aiaeu, iai?eia?, i?iiuoeaiiuo e eiiioiaeueiuo noieia,
iai?aaeyaiua a ?aee e aiaei?iu, eae ecaanoii, aeaaea iinea
iniiaaoaeueiie i/enoee iaiaoiaeeii ?acaaaeyoue /enoie aiaeie…

Oaa?eee e caaiaeu a ii?aaeae?iiie noaiaie i?aa?auathony e a i?aaei?eyoey
ii ia?aaioea aiaeu. Iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiua nia?aiaiiua i/enoiua
nii?oaeaiey i?e yoii iaania/eaatho inaiaiaeaeaiea noi/iuo aiae,
iai?eia?, io i?aaie/aneeo caa?yciaiee, eae i?aaeei, oieueei ia
85-90%.Iiyoiio e iinea i/enoee iaiaoiaeeii 6-12 e?aoiia, a a ?yaea
neo/aaa e aieueoaa ?acaaaeaiea eo /enoie aiaeie aeey nio?aiaiey
ii?iaeueiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aiaeiuo yeinenoai.

Cia/aiea i/enoee e aeii/enoee noi/iuo aiae ii?aaeaeyaony naaiaeiy e oai,
/oi oaia?ue a iaaeeouo ?aeiiao no?aiu a ?acoeueoaoa no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo
ai?iaeia e aeayoaeueiinoe i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee noai?u
aiaeiiieueciaaiey ?aniieiaeaiu noieue ieioii, /oi ia?aaeei ianoa na?ina
noi/iuo aiae e aiaeicaai?u iaoiaeyony ?yaeii.

*oi eiaiii iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue n yeieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey i?e
?aoaiee aiaeiuo i?iaeai? Eaeiau iooe e ia?niaeoeau oi?ie?iaaiey,
eniieueciaaiey e io?aiu aiaeiuo ?ano?nia?

?aoaiea aiaeioicyenoaaiiuo i?iaeai ioo?i ca?aaoee?iaaiey noiea, aai
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey auaeaeaaao a naith i/a?aaeue ia
oieueei neiaeiaeoea oaoie/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua, ii e
yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi i?iaeaia
aiaeiiaania/aiey /aeiaa/anoaa iiaeao auoue ?aoaia oieueei i?e oneiaee
?aoeeiiaeueiiai e eiiieaeniiai eniieueciaaiey aiaeiuo iauaeoia(aeeth/ay
i?inooth yeiiiieth aiaeu),io?aiu eo io caa?yciaiey e iao/ii iainiiaaiiii
oi?aaeaiee e?oaiai?ioii aiaeu a i?e?iaea.

Io?aia aeae?inoa?u o ian yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae ainoaea?noaaiiie caaea/ae,
iineieueeo iaaeaeaoaeueiua eciaiaiey a iae cao?aaeaatho ia oieueei
aeae?iaeieiae/aneea ?ano?nu aiaeiuo yeinenoai, ii e ?ac?ooathua
aeaenoaotho ia yeieiae/aneea nenoaiu nooe.

Naaiaeiy aiaeiua i?iaeaiu ia iiaoo ?aoaoueny eciee?iaaiii, aac o/?oa
aiciiaeiuo yeieiae/aneeo iineaaenoaee, e yoi noaiiaeony iiiyoiui
i?aaeaea anaai i?e ?ac?aaioea aeieain?i/iuo ieaiia ?acaeoey oicyenoaa.
Aaaeue aiaeiua i?iaeaiu, i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia
i?aniie aiaeu – yoi iaiouaieaiay /anoue acaeiinaycaiiuo i?iaeai
iioeiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey ?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai ie?a,
yia?aaoe/aneeo, caiaeueiuo ?ano?nia e io?aiu aeaaiiai “?ano?na” –
yeieiae/aneiai ?aaiiaaney a i?e?iaea.

Aiai?y i iooyo e ia?niaeoeaao ?aoaiey aiaeiuo i?iaeai e io?aiu aiaeiuo
?ano?nia, neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi eaaeaeiio o?iaith ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa niioaaonoaoao oio eee eiie oa?aeoa?
eniieueciaaiey aiaeiuo iauaeoia, oa eee eiua ianooaau aicaeaenoaey
aiaeioicyenoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo. Anee aei 1940
aiaea a NNN? iniiaiia cia/aiea eiaee aa?ioaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey ia
aiaeinai?ao, a a ia?eiae 1950-1970 aiaeia aaaeouaa cia/aiea
i?eiaaeeaaeaei ?oneiaiio ?aaoee?iaaieth ?ae, oi a ia?niaeoeaa, eiaaea
an? aieueoaa cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao i?ioaiea, cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue aoaeao
eiaoue oa??eoi?eaeueiia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea noiea.

Oaea nouanoaothuae nenoaiie eaiaeia aiciiaeii ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aei 100
eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia aiaeu. Iaeiaei, o/eouaay, /oi aiciiaeiinoe
ca?aaoee?iaaiey e oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iiaa?oiinoiiai
noiea a iauai-oi ia?aie/aiu e aoaeoo en/a?iaiu (aeeth/ay
e?oiiiianooaaiua) a aeeaeaeoea 30-50 eao, oaea a iaoe aeie, e a
iniaaiiinoe a ia?niaeoeaa, e aeinooiiui aiaeiui ?ano?nai neaaeoao
ioianoe i?aniua, nieiiiaaoua e nie?iua iiaecaiiua aiaeu, a oaeaea aiaeu
ii?ae.

Aaaeue aeaaea i?e iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiii ?acaeoee oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey noiea ca n/?o aiae naaa?iuo ?ae a N?aaeiae Acee e
Eacaonoaia iiaeii aoaeao i?ineoue oieueei 8-10% i?eaiaeiie aeey i?ioaiey
oa??eoi?ee, a oicyenoaaiiia inaiaiea anae inoaeueiie iiaeao auoue
inouanoaeaii oieueei i?e eniieueciaaiee ianoiuo ?ano?nia nieiiiaaouo e
nie?iuo aiae: caianu eo oieueei a a?oaceaineeo aannaeiao Aioaea?uee e
Nu?aea?uee ioeaieaatho a iauai a 33 ouny/e ei. eoae/aneeo (ii e i?aniie
aiaeie aiaaou n?aaeiaaceaoneea ionouie – ioe?uou aieueoea caianu eo a
naiii oeaio?a Ea?aeoiia).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaea iac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ia?ii?eyoeyo ii
eneonnoaaiiiio ainiieiaieth, a oaeaea oi?aaeaieth ea/anoaii e
eniieueciaaieai iiaecaiiuo aiae ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao iaoae no?aiu.

Eneonnoaaiiia ainiieiaiea caiania iiaecaiiuo aiae (iaaaceie?iaaiea) –
iaeiieaiea aiaeu iiae caie?e a iiiaiaiaeiua e n?aaeiea ii aiaeiinoe
aiaeu aeey eniieueciaaiey a? a iaeiaiaeiua e canooeeaua naciiu – aaaeiue
iaoiae ai?ueau n enoiuaieai aiaeiuo ?ano?nia.

A ie?a nae/an eiathony nioie iiaecaiiuo aiaeio?aieeeu, e o ian eo
ianeieueei aeanyoeia, a a ia?niaeoeaa cia/aiea iaaaceie?iaaiey e
ii?aniaiey (aeaieia?aeecaoeee) n eaaeaeui aeanyoeeaoeai aoaeao
aic?anoaoue. Ii?aniaiea iaiaoiaeeii ia oieueei aeey eniieueciaaiey
nieiiiaaouo e nie?iuo aiae (aeeth/ay ieia?aeeciaaiiua ae?aiaaeiua aiaeu
e aiaeu oaooiuo eieiaeoeaa),a oaeaea aiaeu ic?? e ii?ae, ii e aiae,
iaoiaeyueony a iai?ioiii aiaeiniaaaeaiee i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Oaea ia/aeanue yiioa i?iiuoeaiiie aeaieia?aeecaoeee aiaeu, e iaaei
iieaaaoue, /oi a ia?niaeoeaa, o/eouaay ia?aie/aiiinoue i?aniuo aiae,
aeaieia?aeeciaaiiua aiaeu caeioo aeieaeiia ianoi a oaeiaeaoai?aiee
iio?aaiinoae /aeiaa/anoaa…

Ia?aaiiia?iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aiaeiuo ?ano?nia, ianaeaiey, i?iiuoeaiiinoe
e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia iicaieyao
oaea ?aoaoue aiaeiua i?iaeaiu a ianooaaao no?aiu oieueei ioo?i
?aaoee?iaaiey noiea aiaeio?aieeeuaie.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue e?oiiiianooaaiiai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey
aiaeiuo ?ano?nia iniciaia nae/an ai iiiaeo no?aiao.

Iiuo e?oiiiai aeae?ioaoie/aneiai no?ieoaeuenoaa eae a NNN?, oae e ca
?oaaaeii iieacuaaao, /oi i?e inouanoaeaiee iaaeaannaeiiauo niaaeeiaiee
e?iia aeaeaoaeueiuo oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo eciaiaiee a i?e?iaea e oicyenoaa
i?ienoiaeyo e iaaeaeaoaeueiua (iaaeaaii?eyoiua) eciaiaiey, eioi?ua iiaoo
i?iyaeoueny aeinoaoi/ii eioaineaii ia aieueoeo oa??eoi?eyo, aio ii/aio
iaiaoiaeeii niecia?youe eo n iieiaeeoaeueiui yooaeoii oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Neaaeoao oaeaea eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a i?aaeaeao ciiu einaaiiiai
aicaeaenoaey eciaiaiey iiaoo auoue ia iaiaa nouanoaaiiuie, /ai a ciia
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aeeyiey ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aiae. Anee a
ia?aiia/aeueiuo i?iaeoao no?aieeenue a iniiaiii iiiieieoue aiaeiua
?ano?nu i?e ieieiaeueiii oua?aa, iaiineiii ie?oaeathuae n?aaea e
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieth a ?aeiiao ecuyoey noiea, oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ii?aaeaeeoue aeaeaoaeueiinoue oeo/oaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia oieueei a
ciia ?ani?aaeaeaiey noiea, ii e a ciiao aai nie?auaiey e iaeiieaiey
(aeeoioeyoeee),aaaeue ia?aa?inea noiea naaa?iuo ?ae ia tha cao?aaeaaao
i?e?iaeo e oicyenoai ia aieueoeo oa??eoi?eyo no?aiu.

Naaiaeiy aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeaeaniia?aciinoe inouanoaeaiey e?oiiuo
aiaeioicyenoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee e eo yooaeoeaiinoe o?aaothony iao/ii
iainiiaaiiua i?iaiicu (aeeth/ay aeieain?i/iua) i?iyaeaiey aa?iyoiuo
eciaiaiee a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, ioeaiee yoeo eciaiaiee n iiceoeee
io?aiu i?e?iaeu e i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey.

Ii e yoiai ia aeinoaoi/ii. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ciaoue aiciiaeiua iooe
i?aaeioa?auaiey iaaeaeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee, iaiaoeoue niioaaonoaothuea
ia?ii?eyoey.

O?aaoaony e n?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea noieiinoe yoeo ia?ii?eyoee, iioiio
/oi ia eneeth/aia aiciiaeiinoue, /oi noieiinoue ia?ii?eyoee “ii
i?aaeioa?auaieth” iiaeao i?aauneoue noieiinoue i?iaiice?oaiiai oua?aa.
Ionthaea e iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii iaeneiaeueiiio
i?aaeioa?auaieth io?eoeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee, n o/?oii iaania/aiey
iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ioeaiee
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ia?ii?eyoee, ?ac?aaioaiiuo ia eo iniiaa.
Aieaa oiai, i?iaiic i?iyaeaiey iaaeaeaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee aiciiaeii
iieo/eoue eeoue ia iniiaa i?iaiica iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Iiiaiia?aciua e iiiainoi?iiiea iineaaenoaey, eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue
i?iaeoiua ?aoaiey, o?aaotho eae ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ai
iiiaeo iai?aaeaieyo, oae e eiiieaeniiai, nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea: eiaiii
iiiaia?aiiinoue, acaeiiaeeyiea e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue i?e?iaeiuo e
aio?iiiaaiiuo i?ioeannia ii?aaeaeyao iaiaoiaeeiinoue nenoaiiiai
iiaeoiaea, iai?eia?, e nicaeaieth e yenieoaoaoeee aiaeio?aieeeu. A
aaaeue aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie eo ?anniao?eaaee oieueei eae ?aaoeyoi?u
noiea.

Iaeiaei /oiau nicaeaaaoue e yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue aiaeio?aieeeua eae
iauaeo, aiinyuee nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea a i?e?iaeo e oicyenoai ?a/iuo
aeieei, aeaeueo, a oaeaea ic??, aioo?aiieo ii?ae e i?eonoueaauo o/anoeia
ie?aeiiuo ii?ae, a?aiioii “aienaoue” aai a i?e?iaeo yeieiae/anee, iaaei
aeaeaoue a i?i iaeiia?aiaiii e neeaae aiaeu – aaaeiaeoaai ?ano?na aeey
iiiaeo io?aneae oicyenoaa; e iauaeo, nouanoaaiii eciaiythuee ea/anoai
?a/iie aiaeu, a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo oeo/oay, a a ae?oaeo – oooaeoay aai;
e ?aaoeyoi? noiea, i?aia?acothuee ?aaeei ?aee a iai?aaeaiee, iaeaieaa
aeaaii?eyoiii aeey eniieueciaaiey aiaeiuo ?ano?nia aaaeoueie io?aneyie
aiaeiiai oicyenoaa; e enoi/iee, aeeoioeyoi? aeae?iyia?aee, niiniaiue a
iaeaieueoae noaiaie ioaa/aoue iio?aaiinoyi yia?aaoe/aneeo nenoai a
iie?uoee ieeiauo iaa?ocie, a ?aaoee?iaaiee /anoiou e iaania/aiee
aaa?eeiiai ?aca?aa; e aeaaoi?eth, eniieuecoaioth aiaeiui o?ainii?oii,
?uaiui oicyenoaii, i?aaeinoaaeythuoth oaeaea e oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey
i?aaiecaoeee ioaeuoa e nii?oa ianaeaiey; e iio?aaeoaey caiee
(caoiieaiea, iiaeoiieaiea, ia?a?aaioea aa?aaia); e iauaeo, iicaieythuee
a ?yaea ?aeiiia nouanoaaiii oaaee/eoue eniieueciaaiea caiaeueiuo
?ano?nia (ca n/?o e??eaaoeee, ai?ueau n iaaiaeiaieyie, oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey noiea).

?acaeoea aiaeiiai oicyenoaa, aaaeouaa e iai?a?uaiiio oneiaeiaieth
nenoaiu aiaeio?aieeeu eae a i?aaeaeao aannaeia iaeiie ?aee, oae e a
iniaaiiinoe i?e iaaeaannaeiiauo niaaeeiaieyo, iinoiyiii auaeaeaaao
ia?aae iaoeie e i?aeoeeie an? iiaua i?iaeaiu – yeieiae/aneea,
iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneea, nioeeaeueiua.

Naaiaeiy iniciaii, /oi i?iaeoe?iaaiea e nicaeaiea e?oiiuo aiaeio?aieeeu
aeieaeii aanoenue n iniaie ouaoaeueiinoueth e inoi?iaeiinoueth. An?
caeanue aeieaeii auoue iiae/eiaii iioeiaeueiui oneiaeyi eiiieaeniiai
eniieueciaaiey aiaeio?aieeeu ia eaaeaeii i?iaiice?oaiii yoaia ?acaeoey
aiaeiiai oicyenoaa. A oeaio?a aieiaiey o/?iuo, i?iaeoe?iaueeia e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeii auoue aiaeio?aieeeua, a ia
aeae?iocae…

I?e anaaic?anoathuai iaaeaaii?eyoiii aicaeaenoaee ia aiaei?iu,
ii-aeaeeiiio, oieueei ia iniiaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai e i?aeoe/aneiai
i?eiaiaiey i?eioeeiia aeaaoi?eaeueiiai ?aeiie?iaaiey, ieaie?iaee e
eiaeaia?iiai iaono?ienoaa aiciiaeii oniaoiia auiieiaiea iiiaeo
i?ioeai?a/eauo ooieoeee, aiceaaaaiuo ia eiiieaeniua aiaeio?aieeeua.
Iniaaiii aic?anoaao ?ieue aeaaoi?eaeueiiai ?aeiie?iaaiey e ieaie?iaee a
nayce n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eiiieaeniiai oi?aaeaiey aiaei?iaie.
?aeiie?iaaiea e nicaea?o iaiaoiaeeioth iniiao aeey auai?a iai?aaeaiey
oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia aeaaoi?ee e aa?aaiauo
cii, aeey aeaaoi?eaeueiie ieaie?iaee aiaei?iia, eioi?ay aeieaeia
i?iecaiaeeoueny n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciuo aeaeia
oicyenoaaiiie e i?e?iaeiio?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia o/anoeao aeaiiie
aeaaoi?ee iiaa?aaeuey.

An? yoi e aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoue i?aeoe/aneia iaono?ienoai aeaaoi?ee, oi
anoue nenoaio eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee aeey nicaeaiey
iacaaeneiiai aeae?ieiae/aneiai, aeae?ioeie/aneiai e aeae?iaeieiae/aneiai
oi?aaeaiey ?aaeeiaie ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia aiaei?iia.

Iai?eia?, aicaeaenoaea ia e?oaiai?io aauanoaa e yia?aee ioo?i ecuyoey
eceeoieo iann i?aaieee eee aea oneeaiey “ieoaiey” (o?ioeee) aiaei?ia
aianaieai oaeia?aiee; ay?aoeey aiaeu, oeceei-oeie/aneay e aeieiae/aneay
iiaeaioiaea a? a ?aeiiao aiaeicaai?a; nicaeaiea caiiaaaeiuo,
aiaeiio?aiiuo e aooa?iuo cii; iai?aaeaiiia oi?ie?iaaiea yeinenoai e
iiiaea ae?oaea ia?ii?eyoey ii oi?aaeaieth aiaei?iii. E?aeia aaaeii,
/oiau aicaeaenoaea ia aiaei?i inouanoaeyeinue ii aaeeiiio ieaio.

A iaaieueoeo ianooaaao ia ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeao aiaeio?aieeeu e nae/an
inouanoaeythony ia?ii?eyoey, eioi?ua yaeythony aiaeiaii aeaaoi?eaeueiie
ieaie?iaee, ii iie inouanoaeythony ?aciuie io?aneyie oicyenoaa, eae
i?aaeei, ianiaeaniaaiii e ia aeinoeaatho o?aaoaiie noaiaie
eiiieaeniinoe, a ca/anooth e i?ioeai?a/ao ae?oa ae?oao…

?inneeneei aiaeiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii onoaiiaeai i?ei?eoao
eniieueciaaiey aiaeu aeey ieouey e oicyenoaaiii-auoiauo oeaeae ia?aae
anaie ae?oaeie aeaeaie eniieueciaaiey…

A ?yaea ?aeiiia ea/anoai aiaeu aoaeao aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei
aiciiaeiinoue e oeaeaniia?aciinoue inouanoaeaiey oao eee eiuo i?iaeoia
aeae?ioaoie/aneiai no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Iai?eia?, i?e oa??eoi?eaeueiii ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee noiea a aannaeiao ?ae,
ec eioi?uo iaia/aaony caai? aiaeu, caiaoii nie?aoeony eioaineaiinoue
i?ioeannia naiii/euaiey, /oi iiaeao neacaoueny ia ea/anoaa aiaeu. E
caeanue a iniaaiiinoe aaaeia ioeaiea oneiaee aiaeiiieueciaaiey ianaeaiey
– naieoa?ii-oaoie/aneea e aiaeiio?aiiua ia?ii?eyoey, eiio?ieue
i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee oi?ie?iaaiey ea/anoaa aiaeu. Ionthaea e iiaua iao/iua
caaea/e inouanoaeaiey iiieoi?eiaa (iaaethaeaiea, ioeaiea e eiio?ieue)
anae nenoaiu ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey noiea.

A caueoa aiaeiuo enoi/ieeia io enoiuaiey e caa?yciaiey ioo?i anaia?iiai
nieaeaiey aiaeiiio?aaeaiey e aiaeiioaaaeaiey ia?yaeo n
niaa?oainoaiaaieai oaoiieiaee eniieueciaaiey aiaeu ai anao caaiueyo
oicyenoaa, a eiaiii niaa?oainoaiaaieai e ?anoe?aieai i/enoiuo
nii?oaeaiee, ia?aaiaeii i?aaei?eyoee ia iai?ioiia aiaeiniaaaeaiea e
aaciooiaeioth oaoiieiaeth, aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao nicaeaiea eiiieaeniuo
?aeiiiuo noai aiaeiiio?aaeaiey, aiaeiioaaaeaiey e i/enoee noi/iuo aiae,
aaoiiaoecaoeee eiio?iey ca ea/anoaii aiaeu.

Eiiieaeniua ?aeiiiua noaiu iicaieyo ?aaeeciaaoue i?aeoe/anee
aiciiaeiinoue iiaoi?iiai iiiaie?aoiiai eniieueciaaiey aiaeu, yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue iauea aeey ?aeiia i/enoiua nii?oaeaiey e
aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeannu oi?aaeaiey ?aaioie aiaeii?iaiaea e
eaiaeecaoeee.

Naaiaeiy i?iaeaia ea/anoaa aiaeu ieoueaaiai iacia/aiey iniaaiii aieioao
o/?iuo. Ia iiaanoea aeiy i?iaeaia “ea/anoai aiaeu e aeeciue”. Auei
onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua eiioeaio?aoeee aauanoa (IAeE)
aeey aiaei?iia ieoueaaiai iacia/aiey iaaeinoaoi/iu aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
oneiaee aeecie aeae?iaeiioia – iaeoaoaeae aeaaoi?ee, aiaei?iia, ?ae.
Iiyoiio auee ?ac?aaioaiu ?uaioicyenoaaiiua ii?iu, e naaiaeiy iiiaea
o/?iua n/eoatho iaiaoiaeeiui ?ac?aaioaoue yeieiae/aneea IAeE, eioi?ua
iaania/eaaee au ia oieueei aaca?aaeiinoue aiaeu aeey /aeiaaea, ii e
ii?iaeueioth aeeciue a aiaeiuo yeinenoaiao, a oai naiui e nio?aiaiea
naiii/euathuae niiniaiinoe aiaeiuo iauaeoia.

Iooue ?acaeoey oi?aaeaiey aiaeiuie ?ano?naie – ?aoeeiiaeueiia
?ani?aaeaeaiea aiaeiuo ?ano?nia ii oa??eoi?ee e ii naciiai aiaea. Yoio
iooue icia/aao oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannaie oi?ie?iaaiey aiaeiuo ?ano?nia e eo
ea/anoaii ia iniiaa i?iaiica ?acaeoey iniiaiuo io?aneae oicyenoaa aeey
ioeaiee ianooaaia ?acaeoey aiaeiiio?aaeaiey e o?aaiaaiee e aiaeiui
?ano?nai.

I?e yoii iaiaoiaeei o/?o anaiauae acaeiinayce i?e?iaeiuo aiae i?e
?ac?aaioea ia?ii?eyoee ii eo eniieueciaaieth e io?aia – i?aaeaea anaai
aeey i?eiyoey iioeiaeueiuo ?aoaiee, ni/aoathueo oaeouea e ia?niaeoeaiua
eioa?anu oicyenoaa. A yoi e anoue iooue yeieiaecaoeee aiaeiuo i?iaeai.

*oi eanaaony ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey aiaeiuie ?ano?naie, neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi ec-ca auoiaaaoaai a i?ioeii i?aaenoaaeaiey ia iaeeee
aiaeiuo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea ii ?yaeo ae?oaeo i?e/ei o ian ia
noi?ie?iaaeinue aei naai a?aiaie iniaie oicyenoaaiiie io?anee – “aiaeiia
oicyenoai”. Aea a iioeii, ii-aeaeeiiio, a yoii e ia auei ioaeaeu:
ecaanoii, /oi aii?inii oi?aaeaiey aiaeiuie ?ano?naie a iaoae no?aia
anaaaea oaeaeyeinue ia?ainoaiaiiia aieiaiea.

Aiai?y ia yeieiaecaoeee aiaeiuo i?iaeai, oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue caeanue
neaaeothuaa. Naaiaeiy, eiaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia iniciaia /aeiaa/anoaii a iieiie ia?a,
iineieueeo iiiaea ?ano?nu i?e?iaeu iaoiaeyony nae/an ia a?aie enoiuaiey,
iaiaoiaeeii iioeiaeueii ni/aoaoue aiaeiua, caiaeueiua e yia?aaoe/aneea
?ano?nu a eaaeaeii ?aeiia no?aiu, ia eaaeaeii yoaia ?acaeoey oicyenoaa,
a yoi o?aaoao e niaethaeaiey i?eioeeia: ?acoiii oi?aaeyoue
oi?ie?iaaieai, eniieueciaaieai e io?aiie anao aeaeia aiae, eiathueony ia
ieaiaoa.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. A.A.Iiaeinaiiaa “Oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu”.
1980 a.

2. Ia?iaeiue oieaa?neoao, anoanoaaiiiiao/iue oaeoeueoao “Caiey ethaeae”

5 auione. 1983 a.

3. I.A.Ieaeae “Eieieie o?aaiae”. 1990 a.

4. I.O.Aeiieo?iaa, A.N.Eaia?eeiaa, A.A.Ieeieeia, A.E.Ne?ioei,
A.I.Nie?iiaa

“I?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea” o/aaiee aeey 10-11 eeannia. 1994 a.

5. Eioa?iao: http://www.greenpeace.ru/

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