Нетрадиционные возобновимые источники энергии

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?AOA?AO

O/aieea yenoa?iaoa i?e eeoeaa 1502

Ue?aiei Eaaia

Iao?aaeeoeeiiiua aiciaiiaeiua

enoi/ieee yia?aee

I E A I ? A O A ? A O A

1.Ieai
?aoa?aoa……………………………………………………….
………..

2.Anooieaiea……………………………………………………
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3.Yia?aey
Nieioea………………………………………………………..
……..

3.1.Aaeeionoaiiaee ia oe?ioa
60°………………………………………

3.2.Aaeeiiiaeeue
naaiaeiy…………………………………………………..

3.3.I?aia?aciaaoaee nieia/iie
yia?aee……………………………..

3.4.Eiioeaio?aoi?u nieia/iiai
naaoa………………………………

3.5.AEeeie aeii n nieia/iui
ioiieaieai…………………………..

4.Aao?iaay
yia?aey………………………………………………………..
……

4.1.Aaoa?………………………………………………………
………………..

4.2.Oi?yae aeey
aao?a………………………………………………………..

4.3.Iaiaeeaeaiiua i?iyaeaiey e i?eiaiaiey……………………….

5.Yia?aey
Caiee………………………………………………………….
……..

6.Yia?aey aioo?aiieo
aiae……………………………………………………

6.1. aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu e ?aciauaiea ayn…………….

7.Yia?aey ie?iaiai
ieaaia………………………………………………….

7.1. Yia?aey ieaaineeo
oa/aiee………………………………………..

7.2.Iieo/aiea yia?aee ca n/ao ?aciinoe oei. ninoaaa aiaeu….

7.3. Yia?aey aeiiannu
ieaaia…………………………………………..

7.4.Yia?aey ieaaineeo
oa/aiee…………………………………………

7.5.Oa?iaeueiay yia?aey
ieaaia…………………………………………

7.6.Aioo?aiiyy yia?aey iieaeoe
aiaeu……………………………….

8.Yia?aey
aeiiannu……………………………………………………….
…..

9.Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………..
………………….

10.Nienie
eeoa?aoo?u……………………………………………………..
…..

11.I?eeiaeaiey………………………………..
………………………………… ANOOIEAIEA.

Nae/an, eae ieeiaaea ino?i anoae aii?in, i oii, eaeei aoaeao aoaeouaa

ieaiaou a yia?aaoe/aneii ieaia. *oi aeaeao /aeiaa/anoai –
yia?aaoe/aneee aieiae eee yia?aaoe/aneia eciaeeea? A aacaoao e
?acee/iuo aeo?iaeao

ana /aua e /aua ano?a/athony noaouee ia yia?aaoe/aneii e?ecena Ec-ca
iaooe aicieeatho aieiu, ?anoeaaoatho e aaaeiatho ainoaea?noaa,
niaiythony i?aaeoaeuenoaa. E ?ac?yaeo aacaoiuo nainaoeee noaee
ioiineoue niiauaiey i caionea iiauo onoaiiaie eee i iiauo ecia?aoaieyo a
iaeanoe yia?aaoeee. ?ac?aaaouaathony aeaaioneea yia?aaoe/aneea
i?ia?aiiu, inouanoaeaiea eioi?uo iio?aaoao a?iiaaeiuo oneeee e
ia?iiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao. Anee a eiioea i?ioeiai aaea yia?aey
ea?aea, a iauai, aniiiiaaoaeueioth e iacia/eoaeueioth a ie?iaii aaeaina
?ieue, oi oaea a 1930 aiaeo a ie?a auei i?iecaaaeaii ieiei 300
ieeeea?aeia eeeiaaoo-/ania yeaeo?iyia?aee. Aiieia ?aaeai i?iaiic, ii
eioi?iio a 2000 aiaeo aoaeao i?iecaaaeaii 30 ouny/ ieeeea?aeia
eeeiaaoo-/ania! Aeaaioneea oeeo?u, ia?iiiua oaiiu ?inoa! E ana ?aaii
yia?aee aoaeao iaei – iio?aaiinoe a iae ?anooo aua auno?aa. O?iaaiue
iaoa?eaeueiie, a a eiia/iii n/aoa e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u ethaeae
iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa yia?aee, eiathuaeny a eo
?anii?yaeaiee. *oiau aeiauoue ?oaeo, auieaaeoue ec iaa iaoaee,
iino?ieoue aeii, naeaeaoue ethaoth aauue, ioaeii ec?anoiaeiaaoue
yia?aeth. A iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea ana a?aiy ?anooo, aea e ethaeae
noaiiaeony ana aieueoa. Oae ca /ai aea inoaiiaea? O/aiua e ecia?aoaoaee
oaea aeaaii ?ac?aaioaee iiiai/eneaiiua niiniau i?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee,
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yeaeo?e/aneie. Aeaaaeoa oiaaea no?ieoue ana aieueoa
e aieueoa yeaeo?inoaioeee, e yia?aee aoaeao noieueei, neieueei
iiiaaeiaeony! Oaeia, eacaeinue au, i/aaeaeiia ?aoaiea neiaeiie caaea/e,
ieacuaaaony, oaeo a naaa iaiaei iiaeaiaeiuo eaiiae. Iaoiieeiua caeiiu
i?e?iaeu ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iieo/eoue yia?aeth, i?eaiaeioth aeey
eniieueciaaiey, iiaeii oieueei ca n/ao aa i?a- ia?aciaaiee ec ae?oaeo
oi?i. Aa/iua aeaeaaoaee, yeiau i?iecaiaeyuea yia?aeth e ieioeoaea aa ia
aa?ouea, e niaeaeaieth, iaaiciiaeiu. A no?oeoo?a ie?iaiai
yia?aioicyenoaa e naaiaeiyoiaio aeith neiaeeeanue oaeei ia?acii, /oi
/aou?a ec

eaaeaeuo iyoe i?iecaaaeaiiuo eeeiaaoo iieo/athony a i?eioeeia oai aea
niiniaii,

eioi?ui iieueciaaeny ia?aiauoiue /aeiaae aeey nia?aaaiey, oi anoue i?e

naeeaaiee oiieeaa, eee i?e eniieueciaaiee caianaiiie a iai oeie/aneie

yia?aee, i?aia?aciaaiee aa a yeaeo?e/aneoth ia oaieiauo
yeaeo?inoaioeeyo.

I?aaaea, niiniau naeeaaiey oiieeaa noaee iaiiiai neiaeiaa e niaa?oaiiaa.

Aic?inoea o?aaiaaiey e caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iio?aaiaaee iiaiai
iiaeoiaea e yia?aaoeea. A ?ac?aaioea Yia?aaoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu i?eiyee

o/anoea aeaeiaeoea o/aiua e niaoeeaeenou ?acee/iuo noa?. N

iiiiuueth iiaaeoeo iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiua

iaoeiu ?ann/eoaee ianeieueei nioai aa?eaioia no?oeoo?u aoaeouaai

yia?aaoe/aneiai aaeaina . Auee iaeaeaiu i?eioeeieaeueiua ?aoaiey,

ii?aaeaeeaoea no?aoaaeth ?acaeoey yia?aaoeee ia a?yaeouea

aeanyoeeaoey. Oioy a iniiaa yia?aaoeee aeeaeaeoaai aoaeouaai
ii-i?aaeiaio

inoaiaony oaieiyia?aaoeea ia ia aiciaiiaeyaiuo ?ano?nao, no?oeoo?a aa

eciaieony. Aeieaeii nie?aoeoueny eniieueciaaiea iaooe. Nouanoaaiii
aic?anoao

i?iecaiaenoai yeaeo?iyia?aee ia aoiiiuo yeaeo?inoaioeeyo. Ia/iaony

eniieueciaaiea iiea aua ia o?iioouo aeaaioneeo caiania aeaoaauo oaeae,

iai?eia?, a Eociaoeeii, Eain-ei-A/eineii, Yeeaacoocneii aannaeiao.
Oe?iei

aoaeao i?eiaiyoueny i?e?iaeiue aac ( caianu eioi?iai a no?aia iaiiiai

i?aainoiaeyo caianu a ae?oaeo no?aiao). Yia?aaoe/aneay i?ia?aiia –

iniiaa oaoieee e yeiiiieee a eaioi 21 aaea. Ii o/aiua caaeyaeuaatho

e aia?aae, ca i?aaeaeu n?ieia, onoaiiaeaiiuo Yia?aaoe/aneie i?ia?aiiie.
Ia

ii?iaa 21 aaea, e iie o?acai ioaeatho naaa ion/ao a ?aaeueiinoyo
o?aoueaai

ouny/aeaoey. E niaeaeaieth, caianu iaooe, aaca, oaey ioithaeue ia
aaneiia/iu.

I?e?iaea, /oiau nicaeaoue yoe caianu, iio?aaiaaeenue ieeeeiiu eao,

ec?anoiaeiaaiu iie aoaeoo ca nioie . Naaiaeiy a ie?a noaee ana?ueac
caaeoiuaaoueny

iaae oai, eae ia aeiionoeoue oeuie/aneiai ?aca?aaeaiey caiiuo
aiaaonoa. Aaaeue

eeoue i?e yoii oneiaee caiania oiieeaa iiaeao oaaoeoue ia aaea. E
niaeaeaieth,

iiiaea iaooaaeiauaathuea no?aiu aeeaoo naaiaeiyoiei aeiai. Iie iauaaeii

?anoiaeotho iiaea?aiiua ei i?e?iaeie iaooyiua caianu. Nae/an iiiaea
ec yoeo

no?ai, iniaaiii a ?aeiia Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa, aoeaaeueii eoiathony a
aeaiueaao,

ia caaeoiuaaynue, /oi /a?ac ianeieueei aeanyoeia eao yoe caianu
ennyeioo. *oi aea

i?iecieaeao oiaaea, a yoi ?aii eee iicaeii neo/eony, eiaaea
ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe

e aaca aoaeoo en/a?iaiu? Aa?iyoiinoue nei?iai enoiuaiey ie?iauo
caiania

oiieeaa , a oaeaea oooaeoaiea yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee a ie?a,
(ia?a?aaioea

iaooe e aeiaieueii /anoua aaa?ee ai a?aiy aa o?ainii?oe?iaee
i?aaenoaaeytho

?aaeueioth oa?ico aeey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu) canoaaeee caaeoiaoueny i
ae?oaeo

aeaeao oiieeaa, niiniaiuo caiaieoue iaooue e aac. Nae/an a ie?a
ana aieueoa

o/aiuo eiaeaia?ia caieiathony iieneaie iiauo, iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo

enoi/ieeia eioi?ua iiaee au acyoue ia naay oioy au /anoue caaio ii

niaaaeaieth /aeiaa/anoaa yia?aeae. Iao?aaeeoeeiiiua aiciaiiaeyaiua

enoi/ieee yia?aee aeeth/atho nieia/ioth, aao?iaoth,
aaioa?iaeueioth

yia?aeth, aeiianno e yia?aeth Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

YIA?AEss NIEIOeA .

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy eioa?an e i?iaeaia eniieueciaaiey nieia/iie
yia?aee ?acei aic?in, e oioy yoio enoi/iee oaeaea ioiineony e
aiciaiiaeyaiui, aieiaiea, oaeaeyaiia aio ai anai ie?a, canoaaeyao ian
?anniio?aoue aai aiciiaeiinoe ioaeaeueii. Iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe
yia?aaoeee, iniiaaiiie ia eniieueciaaiee iaiin?aaenoaaiii nieia/iiai
eceo/aiey, /?acau/aeii aaeeee. Caiaoei, /oi eniieueciaaiea anaai eeoue
0.0125 % yoiai eiee/anoaa yia?aee Nieioea iiaei au iaania/eoue ana
naaiaeiyoiea iio?aaiinoe ie?iaie yia?aaoeee, a eniieueciaaiea 0.5 % –
iieiinoueth iie?uoue iio?aaiinoe ia ia?niaeoeao. E niaeaeaieth, a?yae
ee eiaaea-ieaoaeue yoe ia?iiiua iioaioeeaeueiua ?ano?nu oaeanony
?aaeeciaaoue a aieueoeo ianooaaao. Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa na?ueaciuo
i?aiyonoaee oaeie ?aaeecaoeee yaeyaony ieceay eioaineaiinoue nieia/iiai
eceo/aiey. Aeaaea i?e iaeeo/oeo aoiinoa?iuo oneiaeyo ( thaeiua
oe?iou, /enoia iaai ) ieioiinoue iioiea nieia/iiai eceo/aiey ninoaaeyao
ia aieaa 250 Ao/i2. Ii- yoiio, /oiau eieeaeoi?u nieia/iiai eceo/aiey
“niae?aee” ca aiae yia?aeth, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey anao
iio?aaiinoae /aeiaa/anoaa ioaeii ?acianoeoue eo ia oa??eoi?ee 130 000
ei2 ! Iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaoue eieeaeoi?u ia?iiiuo ?acia?ia,
e?iia oiai, aea/ao ca niaie cia/eoaeueiua iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou.
I?inoaeoee eieeaeoi? nieia/iiai eceo/aiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ca/a?iaiiue iaoaeee/aneee ( eae i?aaeei, aethieieaaue ) eeno, aioo?e
eioi?iai ?aniieaaathony o?oau n oee?eoee?othuae a iae aeeaeeinoueth.
Iaa?aoay ca n/ao nieia/iie yia?aee, iiaeiuaiiie eieeaeoi?ii,
aeeaeeinoue iinooiaao aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey. Niaeanii
?an/aoai ecaioiaeaiea eieeaeoi?ia nieia/iiai eceo/aiey ieiuaaeueth 1
ei2, o?aaoao i?eia?ii 10^4 oiii aethieiey. Aeieacaiiua aea ia naaiaeiy
ie?iaua caianu yoiai iaoaeea ioeaieaathony a 1.17*10^9 oiii. Ec
iaienaiiiai ynii, /oi nouanoaotho ?aciua oaeoi?u, ia?aie/eaathuea
iiuiinoue nieia/iie yia?aaoeee. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi a aoaeouai aeey
ecaioiaeaiey eieeaeoi?ia noaiao aiciiaeiui i?eiaiyoue ia oieueei
aethieiee, ii e ae?oaea iaoa?eaeu. Eciaieony ee neooaoeey a yoii
neo/aa ? Aoaeai enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi ia ioaeaeueiie oaca ?acaeoey
yia?aaoeee ( iinea 2100 aiaea ) ana ie?iaua iio?aaiinoe a yia?aee aoaeoo
oaeiaeaoai?youeny ca n/ao nieia/iie yia?aee. A ?aieao yoie iiaeaee
iiaeii ioeaieoue, /oi a yoii neo/aa iio?aaoaony “niae?aoue” nieia/ioth
yia?aeth ia ieiuaaee io 1*10^6 aei 3*10^6 ei2. A oi aea a?aiy iauay
ieiuaaeue iaoioiuo caiaeue a ie?a ninoaaeyao naaiaeiy 13*10^6
ei2.Nieia/iay yia?aaoeea ioiineony e iaeaieaa iaoa?eaeiaieei aeaeai
i?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee. E?oiiiianooaaiia eniieueciaaiea nieia/iie
yia?aee aea/ao ca niaie aeaaioneia oaaee/aiea iio?aaiinoe a
iaoa?eaeao, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e a o?oaeiauo ?ano?nao aeey aeiau/e
nu?uey, aai iaiaauaiey, iieo/aiey iaoa?eaeia, ecaioiaeaiea aaeeinoaoia,
eieeaeoi?ia, ae?oaie aiia?aoo?u, eo ia?aaicee. Iiaen/aou iieacuaatho,
/oi aeey i?iecaiaenoaa 1 IAo* aiae yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee n iiiiuueth
nieia/iie yia?aaoeee iio?aaoaony cao?aoeoue io 10 000 aei 40 000
/aeiaaei-/ania. A o?aaeeoeeiiiie yia?aaoeea ia i?aaie/aneii oiieeaa
yoio iieacaoaeue ninoaaeyao 200-500 /aeiaaei-/ania. Iiea aua
yeaeo?e/aneay yia?aey, ?iaeaeaiiay nieia/iuie eo/aie, iaoiaeeony
iaiiiai aei?iaea, /ai iieo/aaiay o?aaeeoeeiiiuie niiniaaie. O/aiua
iaaeathony, /oi yenia?eiaiou, eioi?ua iie i?iaaaeoo ia iiuoiuo
onoaiiaeao e noaioeeyo, iiiiaoo ?aoeoue ia oieueei oaoie/aneea, ii e
yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu.

Ia?aua iiiuoee eniieueciaaiey nieia/iie yia?aee ia eiiia?/aneie
iniiaa ioiinyony e 80-i aiaeai iaoaai noieaoey. E?oiiaeoeo oniaoia a
yoie iaeanoe aeiaeeanue oe?ia Loose Industries (NOA). Ath a aeaeaa?a
1989 aiaea aaaaeaia a yenieoaoaoeeth nieia/ii-aaciaay noaioeey
iiuiinoueth 80 IAo. Caeanue aea, a Eaeeoi?iee, a 1994 aiaeo aaaaeaii
aua 480 IAo yeaeo?e/aneie iiuiinoe, i?e/ai, noieiinoue 1 eAo// yia?aee
– 7-8 oeaioia. Yoi ieaea, /ai ia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo noaioeeyo. A ii/iua
/anu e ceiie yia?aeth aeaao, a iniiaiii, aac, a eaoii e a aeiaaiua /anu
– nieioea. Yeaeo?inoaioeey a Eaeeoi?iee i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea, /oi aac e
nieioea, eae iniiaiua enoi/ieee yia?aee aeeaeaeoaai aoaeouaai,
niiniaiu yooaeoeaii aeiiieiyoue ae?oa ae?oaa. Iiyoiio ia neo/aai auaiae,
/oi a ea/anoaa ia?oia?a nieia/iie yia?aee aeieaeiu aunooiaoue ?acee/iua
aeaeu aeeaeeiai eee aaciia?aciiai oiieeaa. Iaeaieaa aa?iyoiie
«eaiaeeaeaoo?ie» yaeyaony aiaei?iae. Aai iieo/aiea n eniieueciaaieai
nieia/iie yia?aee, iai?eia?, iooai yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu iiaeao auoue
aeinoaoi/ii aeaoaaui, a nai aac, iaeaaeathuee aunieie oaieioai?iie
niiniaiinoueth, eaaei o?ainii?oe?iaaoue e aeeeoaeueii o?aieoue.
Ionthaea auaiae: iaeaieaa yeiiiie/iay aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey
nieia/iie yia?aee, eioi?ay i?iniao?eaaaony naaiaeiy – iai?aaeyoue aa
aeey iieo/aiey aoi?e/iuo aeaeia yia?aee a nieia/iuo ?aeiiao caiiiai
oa?a. Iieo/aiiia aeeaeeia eee aaciia?aciia oiieeai iiaeii aoaeao
ia?aea/eaaoue ii o?oaii?iaiaeai eee ia?aaiceoue oaiea?aie a ae?oaea
?aeiiu. Auno?ia ?acaeoea aaeeiyia?aaoeee noaei aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y
nieaeaieth noieiinoe oioiyeaeo?e/aneeo i?aia?aciaaoaeae a ?an/aoa ia 1
Ao onoaiiaeaiiie iiuiinoe n 1000 aeieea?ia a 1970 aiaeo aei 3-5
aeieea?ia a 1997 aiaeo e iiauoaieth eo EIAe n 5 aei18%. Oiaiueoaiea
noieiinoe nieia/iiai aaooa aei 50 oeaioia iicaieeo aaeeionoaiiaeai
eiieo?e?iaaoue n ae?oaeie aaoiiiiiuie enoi/ieeaie yia?aee, iai?eia?, n
aeecaeueyeaeo?inoaioeeyie.

AAEEIONOAIIAEE IA OE?IOA 60°

Iaeiei ec eeaea?ia i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey yia?aee Nieioea
noaea Oaaeoea?ey. Caeanue iino?iaii i?eia?ii 2600 aaeeionoaiiaie ia
e?aiieaauo oioii?aia?aciaaoaeyo iiuiinoueth io 1 aei 1000 eAo e
nieia/iuo eieeaeoi?iuo ono?ienoa aeey iieo/aiey oaieiaie yia?aee.
I?ia?aiia, iieo/eaoay iaeiaiiaaiea «Niea?-91» e inouanoaeyaiay iiae
eicoiaii «Ca yia?aiiacaaeneioth Oaaeoea?eth!», aiineo caiaoiue aeeaae a
?aoaiea yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai e yia?aaoe/aneoth iacaaeneiinoue no?aiu
eiii?oe?othuae naaiaeiy aieaa 70 i?ioeaioia yia?aee.

I?ia?aiia «Niea?-91» inouanoaeyaony i?aeoe/anee aac iiaeaea?aeee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, a iniiaiii, ca n/ao aeia?iaieueiuo oneeee
e n?aaenoa ioaeaeueiuo a?aaeaeai, i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e ioieoeeiaeeoaoia.
E 2000-io aiaeo iia i?aaeoniao?eaaao aeiaanoe eiee/anoai
aaeeionoaiiaie aei 3000. Aaeeionoaiiaeo ia e?aiieaauo
oioii?aia?aciaaoaeyo, /aua anaai iiuiinoueth 2-3 eAo, iiioe?otho ia
e?uoao e oanaaeao caeaiee. Iia caieiaao i?eia?ii 20-30 eaaae?aoiuo
iao?ia. Oaeay onoaiiaea au?aaaouaaao a aiae a n?aaeiai 2000 eAo//
yeaeo?iyia?aee, /oi aeinoaoi/ii aeey iaania/aiey auoiauo ioaeae
n?aaeiaai oaaeoea?neiai aeiia e ca?yaeee ai?oiauo aeeoioeyoi?ia
yeaeo?iiiaeey. Aeiaaiie ecauoie yia?aee a eaoithth ii?o iai?aaeytho a
yeaeo?e/aneoth naoue iauaai iieueciaaiey. Ceiie aea, iniaaiii a ii/iua
/anu, yia?aey iiaeao auoue aanieaoii aica?auaia aeaaeaeueoeo
aaeeionoaiiaee.

E?oiiua oe?iu iiioe?otho ia e?uoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ei?ionia
aaeeinoaioeee iiuiinoueth aei 300 eAo. Iaeia oaeay noaioeey iiaeao
iie?uoue iio?aaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a yia?aee ia 50-70%.

A ?aeiiao aeueieeneiai aunieiai?uey, aaea ia?aioaaaeueii
i?ieeaaeuaaoue eeiee yeaeo?iia?aaea/, no?iyony aaoiiiiiua aaeeionoaiiaee
n aeeoioeyoi?aie.

Iiuo yenieoaoaoeee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi Nieioea oaea a
ninoiyiee iaania/eoue yia?aiiio?aaiinoe, ii iaiueoae ia?a, anao aeeeuo
caeaiee a no?aia. Aaeeionoaiiaee, ?aniieaaaynue ia e?uoao e noaiao
caeaiee, ia ooiicaueoiuo ia?aaeaeaieyo aaoiaei?ia, ia o?ainii?oiuo e
i?iiuoeaiiuo nii?oaeaieyo ia o?aaotho aeey ?aciauaiey aei?iainoiyuae
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eee ai?iaeneie oa??eoi?ee.

Aaoiiiiiay nieia/iay onoaiiaea o iinaeea A?eicaeue aeaao
yeaeo?iyia?aeth aeey e?oaeinooi/iiai inaauaiey aaoiaei?iaeiiai oiiiaey.
Aaeece ai?iaea Oo? nieia/iua iaiaee, niiioe?iaaiiua ia 700-iao?iaii
o/anoea ooiicaueoiiai ia?aaeaeaiey, aaeaaiaeii aeatho 100 eAo
yeaeo?iyia?aee. Nieia/iua iaiaee iiuiinoueth 320 eAo, onoaiiaeaiiua ii
caeaco oe?iu Biral ia e?uoa aa i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ei?iona a Ithiceiaaia,
ii/oe iieiinoueth iie?uaatho oaoiieiae/aneea iio?aaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey
a oaiea e yeaeo?iyia?aee.

Nia?aiaiiay eiioeaioeey eniieueciaaiey nieia/iie yia?aee iaeaieaa
iieii au?aaeaia i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa ei?ionia caaiaea ieiiiiai noaeea a
A?enaei?oa, aaea nieia/iui iaiaeyi iauae iiuiinoueth 50 eAo aua i?e
i?iaeoe?iaaiee auea ioaaaeaia aeiiieieoaeueiay ?ieue yeaiaioia
ia?ae?uoey e ioi?ieaiey oanaaea.

EIAe e?aiieaauo oioii?aia?aciaaoaeae i?e neeueiii iaa?aaa caiaoii
nieaeaaony e, iiyoiio, iiae nieia/iuie iaiaeyie i?ieiaeaiu
aaioeeyoeeiiiua o?oaii?iaiaeu aeey i?iea/ee ia?oaeiiai aicaeooa.
Iaa?aoue aicaeoo ?aaioaao eae oaieiiineoaeue eieeaeoi?iuo ono?ienoa.
Oaiii-neiea, ene?yueany ia nieioea oioii?aia?aciaaoaee ia thaeiii e
caiaaeiii oanaaeao aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ei?iona, ioaeaaay a naoue 9 eAo
yeaeo?iyia?aee, auiieiytho ?ieue aeaei?aoeaiie iaeeoeiaee .

AAEEIIIAEEUe NAAIAeIss

Iaeei ec e?oiiuo ?acaeaeia i?ia?aiiu «Niea?-91» – ?acaeoea
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa eniieuecothueo nieia/ioth yia?aeth, oae eae
aaoio?ainii?o «nuaaeaao» /aoaa?oue yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia iaiaoiaeeiuo
no?aia. Aaeaaiaeii a Oaaeoea?ee i?iaiaeeony iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?aeee
nieioeaiiaeeae «Oo? aea nie». O?anna ?aeee, i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 644
eeeiiao?a, i?ieiaeaia ii aei?iaai naaa?i-caiaaeiie Oaaeoea?ee e Aano?ee.
Aiiee ninoiyo ec 6 iaeiiaeiaaiuo yoaiia, aeeeia eaaeaeiai – io 80 aei
150 eeeiiao?ia.

Oaaeoea?neea a?aaeaeaia aiceaaatho aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu ia
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai yeaeo?e/aneie e oaieiaie yia?aee
nianoaaiiuie aaeeionoaiiaeaie. Yoi ioaa/aao iacaaeneiiio e
naiinoiyoaeueiiio oaaeoea?neiio oa?aeoa?o, /oanoao oeeaeeeciaaiiiai
nianoaaiieea, ia aeaeathuaai n?aaenoa ?aaee /enoiou ai?iiai aicaeooa,
aiaeu e caiee. Iaee/ea ia?niiaeueiuo aaeeinoaioeee noeioee?oao ?acaeoea
a no?aia yeaeo?iieee e yeaeo?ioaoieee, i?eai?ino?iaiey, oaoiieiaee
iiauo iaoa?eaeia e ae?oaeo iaoeiaieeo io?aneae.

A ethia 1985 aiaea O?n Ioioaaeea?, 27-eaoiee eiaeaia? ec Aa?ia,
i?iaae ii Aei?iaai Aa?iiu ia?aia iiiaiaeiaaiia ?aeee eaaeeo
yeaeo?iiiaeeae, iai?oaeiaaiiuo oioii?aia?aciaaoaeyie e eniieuecothueo
aeey aeaeaeaiey nieia/ioth yia?aeth. A iai o/anoaiaaei ianeieueei
oaaeoea?neeo naiiaeaeueueeia, ainnaaeaaoeo a «iinoaaeaiiuo ia eieana
yueeao ec-iiae iuea» n i?ee?o/aiiuie e iei naa?oo nieia/iuie iaiaeyie.
Ai anai ie?a oiaaea aaeaa ee iiaeii auei ian/eoaoue n aeanyoie
aaeeiiiaeeae.

I?ioei /aou?a aiaea. «Oo? aea nie» i?aa?aoeeny a iaioeoeeaeueiue
/aiieiiao ie?a. A iyoii «nieia/iii ?aeee», ninoiyaoainy a 1989 aiaeo,
o/anoaiaaei nauoa 100 i?aaenoaaeoaeae ec O?A, O?aioeee, Aiaeee, Aano?ee,
NOA e ae?oaeo no?ai. Oai ia iaiaa, aieueoa iieiaeiu aaeeiiiaeeae
i?eiaaeeaaeaei iii?aaeiaio oaaeoea?neei ia?aii?ioiaeoeai.

A oa/aiea iineaaeothueo iyoe eao iiyaeeinue iiiyoea na?eeiue
aaeeiiiaeeue. Aaeeiiiaeeue n/eoaaony na?eeiui, anee oe?ia-ecaioiaeoaeue
i?iaeaea ia iaiaa 10-oe ia?acoeia e iie eiatho na?oeoeeao, ?ac?aoathuee
aeaeaeaiea ii aei?iaai iauaai iieueciaaiey.

I?AIA?ACIAAOAEE NIEIA*IIE YIA?AEE

Nouanoaotho e ae?oaea iai?aaeaiey a inaiaiee nieia/iie yia?aee. Yoi,
i?aaeaea anaai, eniieueciaaiea oioineioace?othuae niiniaiinoe ?anoaiee.
Oaea nicaeaiu e oniaoii ?aaioatho, i?aaaea iiea a eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo,
oioiaeioeie/aneea nenoaiu, aaea yia?aey eaaioa naaoa eniieuecoaony aeey
ia?aiina yeaeo?iiia. Iie yaeythony i?iia?acii yooaeoeaiuo
i?aia?aciaaoaeae aoaeouaai, eniieuecothueo i?eioeeiu anoanoaaiiiai
oioineioaca.

?aoay aii?inu «yeiiiie/iinoe» nieia/iie yia?aaoeee, iaeuecy aiaaeaoue a
?ani?ino?aiaiiia caaeoaeaeaiea: n?aaieaaoue aei?iainoiyuoth, ii i/aiue
iieiaeoth oaoiieiaeth i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee Nieioea a yeaeo?e/anoai n
iiiiuueth oioiyeaiaioia, n aeaoaaie, ii «a?yciie» oaoiieiaeae
eniieueciaaiey iaooe e aaca. Yeiiiie/iinoue yoiai iiaiai aeaea
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia aeieaeia n?aaieaaoueny n oaie aeaeaie yia?aee,
eioi?ua aoaeoo a oao aea ianooaaao eniieueciaaoueny a aoaeouai.

?an/aou iieacuaatho, /oi noieiinoue oe?ieiai i?iecaiaenoaa
neioaoe/aneiai aeeaeeiai oiieeaa n iiiiuueth nieia/iie yia?aee aoaeao
?aaiyoueny 60 aeieea?ai ca aa??aeue. Aeey n?aaiaiey ioiaoei, /oi
naaiaeiy noieiinoue aa??aey iaooe ec ?aeiia Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa
ninoaaeyao 35 aeieea?ia.

Eioaineaiinoue nieia/iiai naaoa ia o?iaia ii?y ninoaaeyao 1-3 eAo ia
eaaae?aoiue iao?. EIAe eo/oeo nieia/iuo aaoa?ae ninoaaeyao 12-18
i?ioeaioia. N o/aoii EIAe i?aia?aciaaiea yia?aee nieia/iuo eo/ae n
iiiiuueth oioii?aia?aciaaoaeae iicaieyao iieo/eoue n iaeiiai
eaaae?aoiiai iao?a ia aieaa 1/2 eAo iiuiinoe.

Iiuo eniieueciaaiey nieia/iie yia?aee a oia?aiiuo oe?ioao iieacuaaao,
/oi yia?aeth nieioea auaiaeiaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeoioee?iaaoue e
eniieueciaaoue a aeaea oaiea. ?ac?aaioaiu i?iaeoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey aeey
Aeynee e naaa?a Eaiaaeu. I?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey yoeo ?aaeiiia
niiinoaaeiu n oneiaeyie n?aaeiae iieinu iaoae no?aiu. Nouanoaoao aeaa
iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey a ?acaeoee nieia/iie yia?aaoeee: ?aoaiea
aeiaaeueiiai aii?ina niaaaeaiey yia?aeae e nicaeaiea nieia/iuo
i?aia?aciaaoaeae, ?ann/eoaiiuo ia auiieiaiea eiie?aoiuo eieaeueiuo
caaea/. Yoe i?aia?aciaaoaee, a naith i/a?aaeue, oaeaea aeaeyony ia aeaa
a?oiiu; aunieioaiia?aoo?iua e ieceioaiia?aoo?iua .

A i?aia?aciaaoaeyo ia?aiai oeia nieia/iua eo/e eiioeaio?e?othony ia
iaaieueoii o/anoea, oaiia?aoo?a eioi?iai iiaeieiaony aei 3000°N. Oaeea
onoaiiaee oaea nouanoaotho. Iie eniieuecothony, iai?eia?, aeey ieaaee
iaoaeeia (ni. ?en. 1.)

?en.1.Aunieioaiia?aoo?iae aaeeinoao

Naiay iiiai/eneaiiay /anoue nieia/iuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae ?aaioaao i?e
ai?acaei iaiueoeo oaiia?aoo?ao – ii?yaeea 100-200°N. N eo iiiiuueth
iiaeia?aaatho aiaeo, iaannieeaatho aa, iiaeieiatho ec eieiaeoeaa. A
nieia/iuo eooiyo aioiayo ieuo. Neiioeaio?e?iaaiiui nieia/iui oaieii
nooao iaiue, o?oeou e aeaaea caii?aaeeaatho i?iaeoeou. Yia?aeth nieioea
iiaeii aeeoioee?iaaoue aeiai aeey iaia?aaa aeiiia e oaieeoe a ii/iia
a?aiy.

Nieia/iua onoaiiaee i?aeoe/anee ia o?aaotho yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia,
ia ioaeaeathony a ?aiiioa e o?aaotho cao?ao eeoue ia eo nii?oaeaiea e
iiaeaea?aeaiea a /enoioa. ?aaioaoue iie iiaoo aaneiia/ii.

EIIOeAIO?AOI?U NIEIA*IIAI NAAOA

N aeaonoaa iiiaea iiiiyo /oi n iiiiuueth niae?aoaeueiie eeicu io
nieia/iiai naaoa iiaeii caaea/ue aoiaao. A i?iiuoeaiiuo onoaiiaeao eeicu
ia eniieuecothony: iie oyaeaeu, aei?iae e o?oaeiu a ecaioiaeaiee.

Noieone?iaaoue nieia/iua eo/e iiaeii e n iiiiuueth aiaiooiai ca?eaea.
Iii yaeyaony iniiaiie /anoueth aaeeieiioeaio?aoi?a, i?eai?a, a eioi?ii
ia?aeeaeueiua nieia/iua eo/e niae?athony n iiiiuueth aiaiooiai ca?eaea.
Anee a oieon ca?eaea iiianoeoue o?oao n aiaeie, oi iia iaa?aaony. Oaeia
i?eioeei aeaenoaey nieia/iuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae i?yiiai aeaenoaey.

Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii eo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a thaeiuo oe?ioao, ii e a
n?aaeiae iieina iie iaoiaeyo i?eiaiaiea. Ca?eaea a onoaiiaeao
eniieuecothony eeai o?aaeeoeeiiiua – noaeeyiiua, eeai ec iiee?iaaiiiai
aethieiey. Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua eiioeaio?aoi?u nieia/iiai eceo/aiey
(?en. 2) eiatho oi?io:

1.oeeeeiae?e/aneiai ia?aaieieaea (a);

2.ia?aaieieaea a?auaiey (a);

3.ieinei-eeiaeiie eeicu O?aiaey (a).

?en. 2. Oi?iu eiioeaio?aoi?ia nieia/iie yia?aee

Oe?ia Loose Industries ia nieia/ii-aaciaie yeaeo?inoaioeee a
Eaeeoi?iee eniieuecoao nenoaio ia?aaiei-oeeeeiae?e/aneeo aeeeiiuo
io?aaeaoaeae a aeaea aeaeiaa. A aai oieona i?ioiaeeo o?oaa n
oaieiiineoaeai – aeeoaieeii, iaa?aaaaiui aei 350°N. AEaeia
iiai?a/eaaaony aeey neaaeaiey ca nieioeai oieueei aie?oa iaeiie ine (a
ia aeaoo, eae ieineea aaeeinoaou). Yoi iicaieeei oi?inoeoue nenoaio
neaaeaiey ca nieioeai. Nieia/iay yia?aey iiaeao iaiin?aaenoaaiii
i?aia?aciauaaoueny a iaoaie/aneoth. Aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony
aeaeaaoaeue Noe?eeiaa. Anee a oieona ia?aaiee/aneiai ca?eaea aeeaiao?ii
1,5 i onoaiiaeoue aeeiaie/aneee i?aia?aciaaoaeue, ?aaioathuee ii oeeeeo
Noe?eeiaa, iieo/aaiie iiuiinoe (1 eAo) aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau iiaeieiaoue n
aeoaeiu 20 iao?ia 2 i3 aiaeu a /an.

A ?aaeueiuo aaeeinenoaiao ieinei-eeiaeiay eeica O?aiaey eniieuecoaony
?aaeei ec-ca aa aunieie noieiinoe.

?en.3. Nieia/iue aiaeiiaa?aaaoaeue

Aiaeiiaa?aaaoaeue Aiaeiiaa?aaaoaeue i?aaeiacia/ai aeey niaaaeaiey
ai?y/ae aiaeie, a iniiaiii, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oicyenoa. Ono?ienoai
ninoieo ec ei?iaa ni ciaaaeeii, aaea oieiaeiie aiaeu, aaea-aeeoioeyoi?a
e o?oa. Ei?ia noaoeeiia?ii onoaiaaeeaaaony iiae oaeii 30-50° n
i?eaioaoeeae ia thaeioth noi?iio. Oieiaeiay, aieaa oyaeaeay, aiaea
iinoiyiii iinooiaao a ieaeithth /anoue ei?iaa, oai iia iaa?aaaaony e,
auoaniaiiay oieiaeiie aiaeie, iinooiaao a aae-aeeoioeyoi?. Iia iiaeao
auoue eniieueciaaia aeey ioiieaiey, aeey aeooa eeai aeey ae?oaeo
auoiauo ioaeae.

Aeiaaiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia oe?ioa 50° i?eia?ii ?aaia 2 eAo// n
eaaae?aoiiai iao?a. Oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu a aaea-aeeoioeyoi?a aeinoeaaao
60-70°. EIAe onoaiiaee – 40%.

Oaieiaua eiioeaio?aoi?u Eaaeaeue, eoi oioue ?ac auaae a oaieeoeao,
ciaao, eae ?acei ioee/athony oneiaey aioo?e iaa io ie?oaeathueo:
Oaiia?aoo?a a iae auoa . Nieia/iua eo/e ii/oe aani?aiyonoaaiii i?ioiaeyo
neaicue i?ic?a/iia iie?uoea e iaa?aaatho ii/ao, ?anoaiey, noaiu,
eiino?oeoeeth e?uoe. A ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee oaiei ?annaeaaaony iaei
ec-ca iiauoaiiie eiioeaio?aoeee oaeaeeneiai aaca. Ii noiaeiiio
i?eioeeio ?aaioatho e oaieiaua eiioeaio?aoi?u.

Yoi – aea?aayiiua, iaoaeee/aneea, eee ieanoeeiaua ei?iaa, n iaeiie
noi?iiu cae?uoua iaeeia?iui eee aeaieiui noaeeii. Aioo?ue ei?iaa aeey
iaeneiaeueiiai iiaeiuaiey nieia/iuo eo/ae anoaaeytho aieienoue
iaoaeee/aneee eeno, ie?aoaiiue a /a?iue oeaao. A ei?iaa iaa?aaaaony
aicaeoo eee aiaea, eioi?ua ia?eiaee/anee eee iinoiyiii ioae?athony
ioooaea n iiiiuueth aaioeeyoi?a eee ianina.

AEEEIE AeII N NIEIA*IUI IOIIEAIEAI

N?aaeiaa ca aiae cia/aiea noiia?iie nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee ia
oe?ioa 55°, iinooiathuae a nooee ia 20 i 2 ai?eciioaeueiie
iiaa?oiinoe, ninoaaeyao 50-60 eAo//. Yoi niioaaonoaoao cao?aoai yia?aee
ia ioiieaiea aeiia ieiuaaeueth 60 i2 .

Aeey oneiaee yenieoaoaoeee naciiii iaeoaaiiai aeeeeua n?aaeiae
iieinu iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuae yaeyaony aicaeooiay nenoaia
oaieiniaaaeaiey. Aicaeoo iaa?aaaaony a nieia/iii eieeaeoi?a e ii
aicaeooiaiaeai iiaeaaony a iiiauaiea. Oaeianoaa i?eiaiaiey aicaeooiiai
oaieiiineoaey ii n?aaiaieth n aeeaeeinoiui i/aaeaeiu:

– iao iianiinoe, /oi nenoaia caia?ciao;

-iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe a o?oaao e e?aiao;

– i?inoioa e aeaoaaecia.

Iaaeinoaoie – iaaunieay oaieiaieinoue aicaeooa.

Eiino?oeoeaii eieeaeoi? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?yae canoaeeaiiuo
aa?oeeaeueiuo ei?iaia, aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue eioi?uo ca/a?iaia iaoiaie
e?aneie, ia aeathuae caiaoa i?e iaa?aaa. Oe?eia ei?iaa ieiei 60 ni. A
/anoe ?aniieiaeaiey nieia/iiai eieeaeoi?a ia aeiia i?aaeii/oaiea
ioaeaaony aa?oeeaeueiiio aa?eaioo. Ii iiiai i?iua a no?ieoaeuenoaa e
aeaeueiaeoai ianeoaeeaaiee. Ii n?aaiaieth n iaeeiiiui eieeaeoi?ii
(iai?eia?, caieiathuei /anoue e?uoe), ia o?aaoaony oieioiaiey io aiaeu,
ioiaaeaao i?iaeaia niaaiaie iaa?ocee, n aa?oeeaeueiuo noaeie eaaei
niuoue iueue.

Ieineee eieeaeoi?, iiieii i?yiie nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee,
aini?eieiaao ?annayiioth e io?aaeaiioth ?aaeeaoeeth: a ianio?ioth
iiaiaeo, i?e eaaeie iaea/iinoe, neiaii, a oao oneiaeyo, eaeea iu
?aaeueii eiaai a n?aaeiae iieina. Ieineee eieeaeoi? ia nicaeaao
aunieiiioaioeeaeueiie oaieiou, eae eiioeaio?e?othuee eieeaeoi?, ii aeey
eiiaaeoeeiiiiai ioiieaiey yoiai e ia o?aaoaony, caeanue aeinoaoi/ii
eiaoue ieceiiioaioeeaeueioth oaieioo. Nieia/iue eieeaeoi? ?aniieaaaaony
ia oanaaea, i?eaioe?iaaiiii ia tha (aeiionoeii ioeeiiaiea aei 30° ia
ainoie eee ia caiaae) .

Ia?aaiiia?iinoue nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee a oa/aiea aeiy, a oaeaea
aeaeaiea iaia?aaaoue aeii ii/ueth e a ianio?iue aeaiue aeeeooao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ono?ienoaa oaieiaiai aeeoioeyoi?a. Aeiai ii iaeaieeaaao
oaieiaoth yia?aeth, a ii/ueth ioaeaao. Aeey ?aaiou n aicaeooiui
eieeaeoi?ii iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiui n/eoaaony a?aaeeii-aaea/iue
aeeoioeyoi?. Ii aeaoaa, i?ino a no?ieoaeuenoaa. A?aaeeioth canuieo
iiaeii ?acianoeoue a oaieieciee?iaaiiie caaeoaeaiiie oeieieueiie /anoe
aeiia. Oaieue aicaeoo iaaiaoaaony a aeeoioeyoi? n iiiiuueth aaioeeyoi?a.

Aeey aeiia, ieiuaaeueth 60 i 2 , iauai aeeoioeyoi?a ninoaaeyao
io 3 aei 6 i3 . ?aca?in ii?aaeaeyaony ea/anoaii eniieiaiey yeaiaioia
aaeeinenoaiu, oaieiecieyoeeae, a oaeaea ?aaeeiii nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee a
eiie?aoiie ianoiinoe. Nenoaia nieia/iiai oaieiniaaaeaiey aeiia
?aaioaao a /aou?ao ?aaeeiao

(?en. 4. a-a):

– ioiieaiea e aeeoioee?iaaiea oaieiaie yia?aee (a);

– ioiieaiea io aeeoioeyoi?a (a);

– aeeoioee?iaaiea oaieiaie yia?aee (a);

– ioiieaiea io eieeaeoi?a (a).

A oieiaeiua nieia/iua aeie iaa?aoue a eieeaeoi?a aicaeoo
iiaeieiaaony e /a?ac ioaa?noey o iioieea iinooiaao a iiiauaiey.
Oee?eoeyoeey aicaeooa eaeao ca n/ao anoanoaaiiie eiiaaeoeee. A yniua
oaieua aeie ai?y/ee aicaeoo caae?aaony ec aa?oiae ciiu eieeaeoi?a e n
iiiiuueth aaioeeyoi?a i?iea/eaaaony /a?ac a?aaee, ca?yaeay oaieiaie
aeeoioeyoi?. Aeey ii/iiai ioiieaiey e ia neo/ae ianio?iie iiaiaeu
aicaeoo ec iiiauaiey i?iaiiyaony /a?ac aeeoioeyoi? e aica?auaaony a
eiiiaou iiaeia?aoue.

A n?aaeiae iieina aaeeinenoaia eeoue /anoe/ii iaania/eaaao
iio?aaiinoe ioiieaiey. Iiuo yenieoaoaoeee iieacuaaao, /oi naciiiay
yeiiiiey oiieeaa ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey nieia/iie yia?aee aeinoeaaao
60%.

?en. 4. Nieia/iue aeii

AAO?IAAss YIA?AEss.

Ia?iiia yia?aey aeaeaeoueony aicaeooiuo iann. Caianu yia?aee aao?a
aieaa /ai a noi ?ac i?aauoatho caianu aeae?iyia?aee anao ?ae ieaiaou.
Iinoiyiii e iianthaeo ia caiea aeotho aao?u- io eaaeiai aaoa?ea,
ianouaai aeaeaiioth i?ioeaaeo a eaoiee ciie, aei iiao/eo o?aaaiia,
i?eiinyueo iaen/eneeiue o?ii e ?ac?ooaiey. Anaaaea ianiieiai aicaeooiue
ieaai, ia aeia eioi?iai iu aeeaai. Aao?u, aeothuea ia i?inoi?ao iaoae
no?aiu, iiaee au eaaei oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana aa iio?aaiinoe a
yeaeo?iyia?aee! Eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey iicaieytho ?acaeaaoue
aao?iyia?aaoeeo ia ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee io iaoeo caiaaeiuo a?aieoe aei
aa?aaia Aienay. Aiaaou yia?aeae aao?a naaa?iua ?aeiiu no?aiu aaeieue
iiaa?aaeuey Naaa?iiai Eaaeiaeoiai ieaaia, aaea iia iniaaiii iaiaoiaeeia
ioaeanoaaiiui ethaeyi, iaaeeaathuei yoe aiaaoaeoea e?ay. Ii/aio aea
noieue iaeeueiue, aeinooiiue aea e yeieiae/anee /enoue enoi/iee yia?aee
oae neaai eniieuecoaony? A iaoe aeie aeaeaaoaee, eniieuecothuea aaoa?,
iie?uaatho anaai iaeio ouny/ioth ie?iauo iio?aaiinoae a yia?aee. Oaoieea
20 aaea ioe?uea niaa?oaiii iiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey aao?iyia?aaoeee,
caaea/a eioi?ie noaea ae?oaie -iieo/aiea yeaeo?iyia?aee. A ia/aea aaea
I.A. AEoeianeee ?ac?aaioae oai?eth aao?iaeaeaaoaey, ia iniiaa eioi?ie
iiaee auoue nicaeaiu aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiua onoaiiaee, niiniaiua
iieo/aoue yia?aeth io naiiai neaaiai aaoa?ea. Iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai
i?iaeoia aao?iaa?aaaoia, ian?aaiaiii aieaa niaa?oaiiuo, /ai noa?ua
aao?yiua iaeueieoeu. A iiauo i?iaeoao eniieuecothony aeinoeaeaiey iiiaeo
io?aneae ciaiey. A iaoe aeie e nicaeaieth eiino?oeoeee aao?ieieana –
na?aeoea ethaie aao?iyia?aaoe/aneie onoaiiaee- i?eaeaeathony
niaoeeaeenou-naiieaoino?ieoaee, oiathuea aua?aoue iaeaieaa
oeaeaniia?aciue i?ioeeue eiianoe, enneaaeiaaoue aai a ay?iaeeiaie/aneie
o?oaa. Oneeeyie o/aiuo e eiaeaia?ia nicaeaiu naiua ?aciiia?aciua
eiino?oeoeee nia?aiaiiuo aao?iauo onoaiiaie.

Ia?aie eiianoiie iaoeiie, eniieueciaaaoae yia?aeth aao?a, aue ia?on.
Ia?on e aao?iaeaeaaoaeue e?iia iaeiiai enoi/ieea yia?aee iauaaeeiyao
iaeei e oio aea eniieuecoaiue i?eioeei. Enneaaeiaaiey TH. N. E?th/eiaa
iieacaee, /oi ia?on iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea aao?iaeaeaaoaey n
aaneiia/iui aeeaiao?ii eieana. Ia?on yaeyaony iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiie
eiianoiie iaoeiie, n iaeaunoei eiyooeoeeaioii iieaciiai aeaenoaey,
eioi?ay iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieuecoao yia?aeth aao?a aeey aeaeaeaiey.

?en.5.Aao?iaeaeaaoaeue ea?onieueiiai oeia

Aao?iyia?aaoeea, eniieuecothuay aao?ieieana e aao?iea?onaee (aeaeaaoaee
ea?onaeueiiai oeia ni. ?en. 5.), aic?iaeaeaaony nae/an, i?aaeaea anaai,
a iacaiiuo onoaiiaeao.A NOA oaea iino?iaiu e yenieoaoe?othony
eiiia?/aneea onoaiiaee. I?iaeou iaiieiaeio oeiaine?othony ec
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Aoi?oth iieiaeio eiaanoe?otho aoaeouea
iio?aaeoaee yeieiae/anee /enoie yia?aee.

Aua a 1714 aiaeo o?aioeoc Aeth Eaeo i?aaeeiaeee eniieueciaaoue
aao?iaeaeaaoaeue a ea/anoaa aeaeaeeoaey aeey ia?aiauaiey ii aiaea.
Iyoeeiianoiia aao?ieieani, onoaiiaeaiiia ia o?aiiaa, aeieaeii auei
i?eaiaeeoue a aeaeaeaiea a?aaiua eieana. Eaeay oae e inoaeanue ia
aoiaaa, oioy iiiyoii, /oi aaoa? i?iecaieueiiai iai?aaeaiey iiaeao
aeaeaaoue noaeii a ethaii iai?aaeaiee .

Ia?aua ?ac?aaioee oai?ee aao?iaeaeaaoaey ioiinyony e 1918 a. A.
Caeaaneee caeioa?aniaaeny aao?yeaie e aaeaoeeae iaeiia?aiaiii. Ii ia/ae
nicaeaaaoue iieioth oai?eth aao?yiie iaeueieoeu e auaae ianeieueei
oai?aoe/aneeo iieiaeaiee, eioi?ui aeieaeia ioaa/aoue aao?ionoaiiaea.

A ia/aea OO aaea eioa?an e aicaeooiui aeioai e aao?ieieanai ia aue
iainiaeai io iaueo oaiaeaioeee a?aiaie – eniieueciaaoue aaoa?, aaea
yoi oieueei aiciiaeii. Ia?aiia/aeueii iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea
aao?ionoaiiaee iieo/eee a naeueneii oicyenoaa. Aicaeooiue aeio
eniieueciaaee aeey i?eaiaea noaeiauo iaoaieciia. Ia anaie?ii ecaanoiii
«O?aia» («O?ai» [o?. frum aia?aae] – enneaaeiaaoaeueneia noaeii O.
Iainaia, enneaaeiaaoaey A?eoeee ) ii a?auae aeeiaiiiaoeio. Ia
ia?onieeao aao?yee i?eaiaeeee a aeaeaeaiea ianinu e yei?iua iaoaieciu.

A ?innee e ia/aeo iuiaoiaai aaea a?auaeinue ieiei 2500 ouny/ aao?yeia
iauae iiuiinoueth ieeeeii eeeiaaoo. Iinea 1917 aiaea iaeueieoeu
inoaeenue aac oicyaa e iinoaiaiii ?ac?ooeeenue. I?aaaea, aeaeaeenue
iiiuoee eniieueciaaoue yia?aeth aao?a oaea ia iao/iie e
ainoaea?noaaiiie iniiaa. A 1931 aiaeo aaeece sseou auea iino?iaia
e?oiiaeoay ii oai a?aiaiai aao?iyia?aaoe/aneay onoaiiaea iiuiinoueth
100 eAo, a iicaeiaa ?ac?aaioai i?iaeo aa?aaaoa ia 5000 eAo. Ii
?aaeeciaaoue aai ia oaeaeinue, oae eae Einoeooo aao?iyia?aaoeee,
caieiaaoeeny yoie i?iaeaiie, aue cae?uo.

Neiaeeaoayny neooaoeey ioithaeue ia iaoneiaeeaaeanue ianoiui
aieiaioyinoaii. Oaeiaa auea iauaie?iaay oaiaeaioeey. A NOA e 1940
aiaeo iino?ieee aao?iaa?aaao iiuiinoueth a 1250 eAo. E eiioeo aieiu
iaeia ec aai eiianoae iieo/eea iia?aaeaeaiea. Aa aeaaea ia noaee
?aiiioe?iaaoue – yeiiiienou iiaen/eoaee, /oi auaiaeiae eniieueciaaoue
iau/ioth aeecaeueioth yeaeo?inoaioeeth. Aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey
yoie onoaiiaee i?ae?aoeeenue, a aa nicaeaoaeue e aeaaeaeaoe I. Iooiyi
eceiaeee naie ai?anoiue iiuo a i?ae?aniie eieaa «Yia?aey aao?a»,
eioi?ay ia iioa?yea aei neo ii? naiae aeooaeueiinoe.

Iaoaeaaoeany iiiuoee eniieueciaaoue yia?aeth aao?a a e?oiiiianooaaiie
yia?aaoeea ni?ieiauo aiaeia ia auee neo/aeiu. Iaooue inoaaaeanue
n?aaieoaeueii aeaoaaie, ?acei nieceeenue oaeaeueiua eaieoaeueiua
aeiaeaiey ia e?oiiuo oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeeyo, inaiaiea aeae?iyia?aee,
eae oiaaea eacaeinue, aa?aioe?oao e ieceea oeaiu e oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueioth
yeieiae/aneoth /enoioo.

Nouanoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii yia?aee aao?a yaeyaony aa eciai/eainoue ai
a?aiaie, ii aai iiaeii neiiiaine?iaaoue ca n/ao ?aniieiaeaiey
aao?iaa?aaaoia. Anee a oneiaeyo iieiie aaoiiiiee iauaaeeieoue ianeieueei
aeanyoeia e?oiiuo aao?iaa?aaaoia, oi n?aaeiyy eo iiuiinoue aoaeao
iinoiyiiie. I?e iaee/ee ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia yia?aee aao?iaaia?aoi?
iiaeao aeiiieiyoue nouanoaothuea. E, iaeiiaoe, io aao?iaeaeaaoaey iiaeii
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iieo/aoue iaoaie/aneoth yia?aeth.

AAOA?

Aaoa? aeoao aacaea – ia nooa e ia ii?a. *aeiaae ia n?aco iiiye,
/oi ia?aiauaiea aicaeooiuo iann naycaii n ia?aaiiia?iui eciaiaieai
oaiia?aoo?u e a?auaieai caiee,

ii yoi ia iiiaoaei iaoei i?aaeeai eniieueciaaoue aaoa? aeey
ii?aieaaaiey.

Aeiaaeueiua aao?u

E aeiaaeueiui aao?ai ioiinyony iannaou e caiaaeiue aaoa?.

Iannaou ia?acothony a ?acoeueoaoa iaa?aaa yeaaoi?eaeueiie /anoe
caiee. Iaa?aoue aicaeoo iiaeieiaaony aaa?o, oaeaeay ca niaie aicaeooiua
iannu n naaa?a e thaa. A?auaiea caiee ioeeiiyao iioiee aicaeooa. A
?acoeueoaoa onoaiaaeeaathony aeothuea e?oaeue aiae n iinoiyiiie neeie
naaa?i-ainoi/iue iannao a naaa?iii iieooa?ee e thai-ainoi/iue – a
thaeiii. Iannaou aeotho a i?eyeaaoi?eaeueiie iaeanoe, caeeth/aiiie
iaaeaeo 25 e 30° naaa?iie e thaeiie oe?ioaie niioaaonoaaiii. A naaa?iii
iieooa?ee iannaou ioaaouaatho 11% iiaa?oiinoe ieaaiia, a a thaeiie –
20%. Neea iannaoiiai aao?a iau/ii ninoaaeyao 2-3 aaeea. Caiaaeiue aaoa?
aeoao e?oaeue aiae n caiaaea ia ainoie a iieina io 40 aei 60° thaeiie
oe?iou aaeieue e?iiee ae?aeoothueo eueaeia Aioa?eoeaeu. Yoi naiue
neeueiue iinoiyiiue aaoa?. Aai neea aeinoeaaao 8-10 aaeeia e ?aaeei
auaaao iaiaa 5 aaeeia.

A aeoaeia iaoa?eea iao iinoiyiiiai iai?aaeaiey aao?a. Oae eae
?aciua o/anoee nooe a ?aciia a?aiy aiaea iaa?aaathony ii-?aciiio iiaeii
aiai?eoue oieueei i i?aeiouanoaaiiii naciiiii iai?aaeaiee aao?a. E?iia
oiai, ia ?aciie aunioa aaoa? aaaeao naay ii-?aciiio, a aeey aunio aei
50 iao?ia oa?aeoa?iu «?uneathuea» iioiee.

Iioaioeeae aoiinoa?u iiaeii au/eneeoue ciay aa ianno e nei?inoue
?annayiey yia?aee. Aeey i?ecaiiiai neiy oieueiie a 500 iao?ia yia?aey
aao?a, i?aa?auathuayny a oaiei, ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 82 o?eeeeiia
eeeiaaoo-/ania a aiae. Eiia/ii, anth aa eniieueciaaoue iaaiciiaeii, a
/anoiinoe, ii oie i?e/eia, /oi /anoi iinoaaeaiiua aao?yee aoaeoo
caoaiyoue ae?oa ae?oaa. A oi aea a?aiy ioia?aiiay o aao?a yia?aey, a
eiia/iii n/aoa, aiiaue i?aa?aoeony a oaiei.

N?aaeiaaiaeiaua nei?inoe aicaeooiuo iioieia ia noiiao?iaie aunioa
i?aauoatho 7 i/n. Anee aueoe ia aunioo a 100 iao?ia, eniieuecoy
iiaeoiaeyuoth anoanoaaiioth aicauoaiiinoue, oi aacaea iiaeii noaaeoue
yooaeoeaiue aao?iaa?aaao. Ia ?en. 6 iieacaiu iaeanoe yia?aee
n?aaeiaaiaeiauo iioieia aao?a Aa?iiaeneie /anoe no?ai NIA. Anee acyoue
oieueei ieaeiee 100-iao?iaue neie e iinoaaeoue onoaiiaeo ia 100
eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia, oi i?e onoaiiaeaiiie iiuiinoe ieiei aeaoo
ieeeea?aeia eeeiaaoo iiaeii au?aaioaoue ca aiae 5 o?eeeeiiia
eeeiaaoo-/ania, /oi a 2 ?aca aieueoa aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea
no?ai NIA.

Ianoiua aao?u

Ia?auie aeey ieaaaiey eniieueciaaeenue ianoiua aao?u. E iei
ioiinyony a?ecu. ( A?ec [o?. brise] – naaaeee aaoa?.) A?ecu – yoi eaaeea
aao?u, ieaeieythuea aa?aaa iaoa?eeia e aieueoeo ino?iaia, aucuaaaiua
nooi/iui eieaaaieai oaiia?aoo?u. Eo ia?eiaee/iinoue iaoneiaeaia
?acee/eai oaiia?aoo?u nooe e ii?y aeiai e ii/ueth. Aeiai nooa
iaa?aaaaony auno?aa e neeueiaa, /ai ii?a.

Oaieue aicaeoo iiaeieiaaony iaae aa?aaiaie iieinie, a ia aai ianoi
ono?aieyaony i?ioeaaeiue aicaeoo n ii?y – ii?neie a?ec. Ii/ueth aa?aa
ioeaaeaeaaony auno?aa e neeueiaa, /ai ii?a, iiyoiio oaieue aicaeoo
iiaeieiaaony iaae ii?ai, a aai caiauaao oieiaeiue aicaeoo n nooe –
aa?aaiaie a?ec.

Aoi?uie, iinoiyiii aeothueie aao?aie, yaeythony ionniiu.(Ionnii
[a?aane. iaanei] – a?aiy aiaea) Yoe aao?u aeotho a Eiaeeeneii ieaaia e
naycaiu n naciiiui eciaiaieai oaiia?aoo?u iaoa?eea e ieaaia. Eaoii
nieia/iua eo/e neeueiaa iaa?aaatho nooo e aaoa? aeoao n ii?y ia nooo.
Ceiie ionnii aeoao n nooe ia ii?a. A?auaiea caiee aucuaaao iiyaeaiea nee
Ei?eieena, eioi?ua ioeeiiytho ionniiu ai?aai. Iiyoiio eaoii aeotho
thai-caiaaeiua ionniiu, a ceiie – naaa?iainoi/iua. Ionniiu aeinoeaatho
aieueoie neeu e aucuaatho a Eiaeeeneii ieaaia niioaaonoaothuea ianoiui
aao?ai iiaa?oiinoiua oa/aiey. .

?en.6. N?aaeiaaiaeiaua iioiee yia?aee aao?a

ia noiiao?iaie aunioa

OI?ssAEUe AeEss AAO?A

I?eioeei aeaenoaey anao aao?iaeaeaaoaeae iaeei: iiae iaii?ii aao?a
a?auaaony aao?ieieani n eiianoyie, ia?aaeaaay e?ooyuee iiiaio /a?ac
nenoaio ia?aaea/ aaeo aaia?aoi?a, au?aaaouaathuaai yeaeo?iyia?aeth,
aiaeyiiio ianino. *ai aieueoa aeeaiao? aao?ieieana, oai aieueoee
aicaeooiue iioie iii caoaaouaaao e oai aieueoa yia?aee au?aaaouaaao
aa?aaao.

I?eioeeieaeueiay i?inoioa aeaao caeanue eneeth/eoaeueiue i?inoi?
aeey eiino?oeoi?neiai oai?/anoaa, ii oieueei iaiiuoiiio acaeyaeo
aao?iaa?aaao i?aaenoaaeyaony i?inoie eiino?oeoeeae.

?en.7. E?ueue/aoue aao?iaeaeaaoiaeue

O?aaeeoeeiiiay eiiiiiiaea aao?yeia – n ai?eciioaeueiie inueth
a?auaiey (?en.7) – iaieioia ?aoaiea aeey aa?aaaoia iaeuo ?acia?ia e
iiuiinoae. Eiaaea aea ?aciaoe eiianoae au?inee, oaeay eiiiiiiaea
ieacaeanue iayooaeoeaiie, oae eae ia ?aciie aunioa aaoa? aeoao a ?aciua
noi?iiu. A yoii neo/aa ia oieueei ia oaeaaony iioeiaeueii i?eaioe?iaaoue
aa?aaao ii aao?o, ii e aicieeaao iianiinoue ?ac?ooaiey eiianoae.

E?iia oiai, eiioeu eiianoae e?oiiie onoaiiaee aeaeaaynue n aieueoie
nei?inoueth nicaeatho ooi. Iaeiaei aeaaiia i?aiyonoaea ia iooe
eniieueciaaiee yia?aee aao?a ana aea yeiiiie/aneay – iiuiinoue aa?aaaoa
inoaaony iaaieueoie e aeiey cao?ao ia aai yenieoaoaoeeth ieacuaaaony
cia/eoaeueiie. A eoiaa naaanoieiinoue yia?aee ia iicaieyao aao?yeai n
ai?eciioaeueiie inueth ieacuaaoue ?aaeueioth eiieo?aioeeth
o?aaeeoeeiiiui enoi/ieeai yia?aee.

Ii i?iaiicai oe?iu Aieia (NOA) ia oaeouaa noieaoea – aeeeia
eiianoae e?ueue/aouo aao?iaeaeaaoaeae ia i?aauneo 60 iao?ia, /oi
iicaieeo nicaeaoue aao?iaa?aaaou o?aaeeoeeiiiie eiiiiiiaee iiuiinoueth 7
I7Ao. Naaiaeiy naiua e?oiiua ec ieo – aaeaia «neaaaa». A aieueoie
aao?iyia?aaoeea oieueei i?e ianniaii no?ieoaeuenoaa iiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue
ia oi, /oi oeaia eeeiaaoo-/ana nieceony aei aeanyoe oeaioia.

Iaeiiiuiua aa?aaaou iiaoo au?aaaouaaoue yia?aeth i?eia?ii ao?ia
aieaa aei?iaoth. Aeey n?aaiaiey ioiaoei, /oi na?eeii auioneaaoeeny a
1991 aiaeo III «Aao?iyi» e?ueue/aoue aao?iaeaeaaoaeue, eiae ?aciao
eiianoae 6 iao?ia e iiuiinoue 4 eAo. Aai eeeiaaoo-/an iaoiaeeeny a
8…10 eiiaae.

Oeiu aao?iaeaeaaoaeae

Aieueoeinoai oeiia aao?iaeaeaaoaeae ecaanoiu oae aeaaii, /oi enoi?ey
oiae/eaaao eiaia eo ecia?aoaoaeae. Iniiaiua ?aciiaeaeiinoe
aao?iaa?aaaoia ecia?aaeaiu ia ?en. 8. Iie aeaeyony ia aeaa a?oiiu:

1.aao?iaeaeaaoaee n ai?eciioaeueiie inueth a?auaiey (e?ueue/aoua)
(2-5);

2.aao?iaeaeaaoaee n aa?oeeaeueiie inueth a?auaiey (ea?onaeueiua:
eiianoiua (1) e i?oiaiiaeueiua (6)).

Oeiu e?ueue/aouo aao?iaeaeaaoaeae ioee/athony oieueei eiee/anoaii
eiianoae.

?en8 Oeiu aao?iaeaeaaoaeae

E?ueue/aoua

Aeey e?ueue/aouo aao?iaeaeaaoaeae, iaeaieueoay yooaeoeaiinoue
eioi?uo aeinoeaaaony i?e aeaenoaee iioiea aicaeooa ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii e
ieineinoe a?auaiey eiianoaee?ueueaa, o?aaoaony ono?ienoai
aaoiiaoe/aneiai iiai?ioa ine a?auaiey. N yoie oeaeueth i?eiaiytho
e?uei-noaaeeecaoi?. Ea?onaeueiua aao?iaeaeaaoaee iaeaaeatho oai
i?aeiouanoaii, /oi iiaoo ?aaioaoue i?e ethaii iai?aaeaiee aao?a ia
eciaiyy naiaai iieiaeaiey.

Eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey yia?aee aao?a (ni. ?en. 9.) o
e?ueue/aouo aao?iaeaeaaoaeae iaiiiai auoa /ai o ea?onaeueiuo . A oi aea
a?aiy, o ea?onaeueiuo – iaiiiai aieueoa iiiaio a?auaiey. Ii iaeneiaeai
aeey ea?onaeueiuo eiianoiuo aa?aaaoia i?e ioeaaie ioiineoaeueiie
nei?inoe aao?a.

?ani?ino?aiaiea e?ueue/aouo aao?iaa?aaaoia iauyniyaony aaee/eiie
nei?inoe eo a?auaiey. Iie iiaoo iaiin?aaenoaaiii niaaeeiyoueny n
aaia?aoi?ii yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea aac ioeueoeieeeaoi?a. Nei?inoue a?auaiey
e?ueue/aouo aao?iaeaeaaoaeae ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia eiee/anoao
e?ueueaa, iiyoiio aa?aaaou n eiee/anoaii eiianoae aieueoa o?ao
i?aeoe/anee ia eniieuecothony.

?en. 9. Eiyooeoeeaiou eniieueciaaiey
?en.10. Iaeiieiianoiie ea?onaeueiue

yia?aee aao?a e a?auathuea iiiaiou
aeaeaaoaeue

?acee/iuo oeiia aao?iaeaeaaoaeae

Ea?onaeueiua

?acee/ea a ay?iaeeiaieea aeaao ea?onaeueiui onoaiiaeai i?aeiouanoai
a n?aaiaiee n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie aao?yeaie. I?e oaaee/aiee nei?inoe aao?a
iie auno?i ia?aueaatho neeo oyae, iinea /aai nei?inoue a?auaiey
noaaeeece?oaony. Ea?onaeueiua aao?iaeaeaaoaee oeoioiaeiu e yoi
iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue i?inoua yeaeo?e/aneea noaiu, iai?eia?, n
aneio?iiiui aaia?aoi?ii, aac ?enea iioa?iaoue aaa?eth i?e neo/aeiii
ii?uaa aao?a. Oeoioiaeiinoue auaeaeaaao iaeii ia?aie/eaathuaa
o?aaiaaiea – eniieueciaaiea iiiaiiiethniiai aaia?aoi?a ?aaioathuaai ia
iaeuo iai?ioao. Oaeea aaia?aoi?u ia eiatho oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey, a
eniieueciaaiea ioeueoeieeeaoi?ia (Ioeueoeieeeaoi? [eao. multiplicator
oiiiaeathuee] – iiauoathuee ?aaeoeoi? ia yooaeoeaii ec-ca ieceiai EIAe
iineaaeieo.

Aua aieaa aaaeiui i?aeiouanoaii ea?onaeueiie eiino?oeoeee noaea aa
niiniaiinoue aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo ooeu?aiee neaaeeoue ca oai «ioeoaea
aeoao aaoa?», /oi aanueia nouanoaaiii aeey i?ecaiiuo ?uneathueo iioieia.
Aao?iaeaeaaoaee iiaeiaiiai oeia no?iyony a NOA, ssiiiee, Aiaeee, O?A,
Eaiaaea.

Ea?onaeueiue eiianoiue aao?iaeaeaaoaeue iaeaieaa i?ino a
yenieoaoaoeee. Aai eiino?oeoeey iaania/eaaao iaeneiaeueiue iiiaio i?e
caionea aao?iaeaeaaoaey e aaoiiaoe/aneia naii?aaoee?iaaiea iaeneiaeueiie
nei?inoe a?auaiey a i?ioeanna ?aaiou. N oaaee/aieai iaa?ocee
oiaiueoaaony nei?inoue a?auaiey e aic?anoaao a?auathuee iiiaio aieioue
aei iieiie inoaiiaee.

I?oiaiiaeueiua I?oiaiiaeueiua aao?iaa?aaaou, eae iieaaatho
niaoeeaeenou, ia?niaeoeaiu aeey aieueoie yia?aaoeee. Naaiaeiy ia?aae
aao?iiieeiiieeaie i?oiaiiaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee noiyo ii?aaeaeaiiua
o?oaeiinoe. N?aaee ieo, a /anoiinoe, i?iaeaia caionea.

A i?oiaiiaeueiuo onoaiiaeao eniieuecoaony oio aea i?ioeeue e?uea,
/oi e a aeicaoeiaii naiieaoa (ni. ?en. 8. (6)). Naiieao, i?aaeaea /ai
«iia?aoueny» ia iiaeuaiioth neeo e?uea, aeieaeai ?acaaaeaoueny. Oae aea
ianoieo aeaei e a neo/aa n i?oiaiiaeueiie onoaiiaeie. Nia/aea e iae
ioaeii iiaeaanoe yia?aeth – ?ane?ooeoue e aeiaanoe aei ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ay?iaeeiaie/aneeo ia?aiao?ia, a oaea iioii iia naia ia?aeaeao ec ?aaeeia
aeaeaaoaey a ?aaeei aaia?aoi?a.

Ioai? iiuiinoe ia/eiaaony i?e nei?inoe aao?a ieiei 5 i/n, a
iiieiaeueiay iiuiinoue aeinoeaaaony i?e nei?inoe 14-16 i/n.
I?aaeaa?eoaeueiua ?an/aou aao?ionoaiiaie i?aaeoniao?eaatho eo
eniieueciaaiea a aeeaiaciia io 50 aei 20 000 eAo. A ?aaeenoe/iie
onoaiiaea iiuiinoueth 2000 eAo aeeaiao? eieueoea, ii eioi?iio
aeaeaeoony e?ueuey, ninoaaeo ieiei 80 iao?ia.

O iiuiiai aao?iaeaeaaoaey aieueoea ?acia?u. Iaeiaei iiaeii
iaieoenue e iaeuie – acyoue /eneii, a ia ?acia?ii. Niaaaeea eaaeaeue
yeaeo?iaaia?aoi? ioaeaeueiui i?aia?aciaaoaeai iiaeii i?inoiie?iaaoue
auoiaeioth iiuiinoue au?aaaouaaaioth aaia?aoi?aie. A yoii neo/aa
iiauoaaony iaaeaaeiinoue e aeeao/anoue aao?ionoaiiaee.

Iaiaeeaeaiiua i?iyaeaiey e i?eiaiaiey ?aaeueii ?aaioathuea
aao?iaa?aaaou iaia?oaeeee ?yae io?eoeaoaeueiuo yaeaiee. Iai?eia?,
?ani?ino?aiaiea aao?iaaia?aoi?ia iiaeao cao?oaeieoue i?eai oaeaia?aaea/
e nicaeaaaoue iiuiua caoeiaua eieaaaiey. Iiyaeaiea yenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aao?iaeaeaaoaey ia I?eiaeneeo ino?iaao (Aiaeey) a 1986 aiaeo aucaaei
iiiai/eneaiiua aeaeiau io oaeac?eoaeae aeeaeaeoeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia .
A eoiaa ieiei aao?inoaioeee aue iino?iai oaeaaeceiiiue ?ao?aineyoi?.
Eiianoe e?ueue/aoie aao?yiie oo?aeiu auee auiieiaiu ec noaeeiieanoeea,
eioi?ue ia io?aaeaao e ia iiaeiuaao ?aaeeiaieiu. Iiiaoe nicaeaaae
noaeueiie ea?ean eiianoae e eiathueany ia ieo iaoaeee/aneea iieinee,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ioaiaea oaea?ia iieiee. Iie io?aaeaee e
?annaeaaee oeueo?aei?ioeiaieiiaue neaiae. Io?aaeaiiue neaiae niaoeaaeny
n i?yiui, eaeouei io ia?aaeao/eea, e nicaeaaae ia ye?aiao iiiaoe.
Iino?iaiiay a 1980 aiaeo a ai?iaeea Aoi (NOA) aao?iyeaeo?inoaioeey,
aeathuay 2 ouny/e eeeiaaoo, aeaenoaiaaea aacioeacii, ii aucuaaea
ia?aeaiey aeeoaeae ai?iaeea. Ai a?aiy ?aaiou aao?yea a ieiao
ae?aaacaeaee noaeea e caaiaea iinoaea ia iieeao [17]. Auei
onoaiiaeaii, /oi oanoeaeanyoeiao?iaue aeio i?e ii?aaeaeaiiie nei?inoe
a?auaiey ecaeaaae eio?acaoe. Ii ia iuouaaony /aeiaa/aneei ooii, ii
aucuaaao iecei/anoioiua eieaaaiey i?aaeiaoia e iaaaciianai aeey
/aeiaaea. Iinea aei?aaioee eiianoae io eio?acaoeiauo eieaaaiee oaeaeinue
ecaaaeoueny. Aao?iaeaeaaoaee iiaoo ia oieueei au?aaaouaaoue yia?aeth.
Niiniaiinoue i?eaeaeaoue aieiaiea a?auaieai aac ?anoiaeiaaiey yia?aee
eniieuecoaony aeey ?aeeaiu. Iaeaieaa i?inoie – iaeiieiianoiue
ea?onaeueiue aao?iaeaeaaoaeue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?yiioaieueioth
ieanoeieo n ioiaioouie e?ayie (?en. 4.18). Cae?aieaiiue ia noaia ii
ia/eiaao a?auaoueny aeaaea i?e iacia/eoaeueiii aao?a. Ia aieueoie
ieiuaaee e?ueueaa ea?onaeueiue o?ao-/aou?ao eiianoiue aao?iaeaeaaoaeue
iiaeao a?auaoue ?aeeaiiua ieaeaou e iaaieueoie aaia?aoi?. Caianaiiay a
aeeoioeyoi?a yeaeo?iyia?aey iiaeao inaauaoue e?ueuey n ?aeeaiie a ii/iia
a?aiy, a a aacaao?aiioth iiaiaeo e a?auaoue eo.

OA?IAEUeIAss YIA?AEss CAIEE.

Ecaeaaia ethaee ciatho i noeoeeiuo i?iyaeaieyo aeaaioneie yia?aee,
oayuaeny a iaae?ao caiiiai oa?a. Iaiyoue /aeiaa/anoaa o?aieo i?aaeaiey
i eaoano?ioe/aneeo ecaa?aeaieyo aoeeaiia, oianoeo ieeeeiiu /aeiaa/aneeo
aeeciae, iaociaaaaii eciaieaoeo iaeee iiiaeo iano ia Caiea. Iiuiinoue
ecaa?aeaiey aeaaea n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoiai aoeeaia eieinnaeueia, iia
iiiaie?aoii i?aauoaao iiuiinoue naiuo e?oiiuo yia?aaoe/aneeo onoaiiaie,
nicaeaiiuo ?oeaie /aeiaaea. I?aaaea, i iaiin?aaenoaaiiii
eniieueciaaiee yia?aee aoeeaie/aneeo ecaa?aeaiee aiai?eoue ia
i?eoiaeeony-iao iiea o ethaeae aiciiaeiinoae iaocaeaoue yoo
iaiiei?ioth noeoeth, aea e, e n/anoueth, ecaa?aeaiey yoe aeinoaoi/ii
?aaeeea niauoey. Ii yoi i?iyaeaiey yia?aee, oayuaeny a caiiuo iaae?ao,
eiaaea eeoue e?ioioiay aeiey yoie iaen/a?iaaiie yia?aee iaoiaeeo auoiae
/a?ac iaiaaeuoauea aea?ea aoeeaiia. Iaeaiueeay aa?iiaeneay no?aia
Eneaiaeey- “no?aia eueaea” a aeineiaiii ia?aaiaea- iieiinoueth
iaania/eaaao naay iiieaei?aie, yaeieaie e aeaaea aaiaiaie!
Iiiai/eneaiiua eneaiaeneea oaieeoeu iieo/atho yia?aeth io oaiea caiee-
ae?oaeo ianoiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee a Eneaiaeee i?aeoe/anee iao. Caoi
i/aiue aiaaoa yoa no?aia ai?y/eie enoi/ieeaie e ciaiaieouie
aaeca?aie-oiioaiaie ai?y/ae aiaeu, n oi/iinoueth o?iiiiao?a
au?uaathuaeny ec-iiae caiee. E oioy ia eneaiaeoeai i?eiaaeeaaeeo
i?ei?eoao a eniieueciaaiee oaiea iiae- caiiuo enoi/ieeia (aua ae?aaiea
?eieyia e ciaiaieoui aaiyi-oa?iai Ea?aeaeeu- iiaeaaee aiaeo ec-iiae
caiee), aeeoaee yoie iaeaiueeie naaa?iie no?aiu yenieoaoe?otho
iiaecaiioth eioaeueioth i/aiue eioaineaii. Noieeoea – ?aeeueyaee, a
eioi?ie i?iaeeaaao iieiaeia ianaeaiey no?aiu, ioaieeaaaony oieueei ca
n/ao iiaecaiiuo enoi/ieeia. Ii ia oieueei aeey ioiieaiey /a?iatho
ethaee yia?aeth ec aeoaei caiee. Oaea aeaaii ?aaioatho yeaeo?inoaioeee,
eniieuecothuea ai?y/ea iiaecaiiua enoi/ieee. Ia?aay oaeay
yeaeo?inoaioeey, nianai aua iaeiiiuiay, auea iino?iaia a 1904 aiaeo a
iaaieueoii eoaeueyineii ai?iaeea Ea?aea?aeei, iacaaiiii oae a /anoue
o?aioeocneiai eiaeaia?a Ea?aea?aeee, eioi?ue aua a 1827 aiaeo ninoaaee
i?iaeo eniieueciaaiey iiiai/eneaiiuo a yoii ?aeiia ai?y/eo enoi/ieeia.
Iinoaiaiii iiuiinoue yeaeo?inoaioeee ?inea, a no?ie anooiaee ana
iiaua aa?aaaou, eniieueciaaeenue iiaua enoi/ieee ai?y/ae aiaeu, e a
iaoe aeie iiuiinoue noaioeee aeinoeaea oaea aiooeoaeueiie aaee/eiu-360
ouny/ eeeiaaoo. A Iiaie Caeaiaeee nouanoaoao oaeay yeaeo?inoaioeey
a ?aeiia Aae?aeae, aa iiuiinoue 160 ouny/ eeei- aaoo. A 120 eeeiiao?ao
io Nai-O?aioeenei a NOA i?iecaiaeeo yeaeo?iyia?aeth aaioa?iaeueiay
noaioeey iiuiinoueth 500 ouny/ eeei- aaoo.

YIA?AEss AIOO?AIIEO AIAe.

Ia?iiiua caianu yia?aee ne?uou a oaeouae aiaea eae Ie?iaiai Ieaaia, oae
e aioo?aiieo aiae. ?aiueoa anaai ethaee iao/eeenue eniieueciaaoue
yia?aeth ?ae. Ii eiaaea ianooiee cieioie aae yeaeo?e/anoaa, i?iecioei
aic?iaeaeaiea aiaeyiiai eieana, i?aaaea, oaea a ae?oaii iaee/uea – a
aeaea aiaeyiie oo?aeiu. Yeaeo?e/aneea aaia?aoi?u, i?iecaiaeyuea
yia?aeth, iaiaoiaeeii auei a?auaoue, a yoi aiieia oniaoii iiaea
aeaeaoue aiaea, oai aieaa /oi iiiaiaaeiaie iiuo o iaa oaea eiaeny.
Iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi nia?aiaiiay aeae?iyia?aaoeea ?iaeeeanue a 1891
aiaeo. I?aeiouanoaa aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee i/aaeaeiu- iinoiyiii
aiciaiiaeyaiue naiie i?e?iaeie caian yia?aee, i?inoioa yenieoaoaoeee,
ionoonoaea caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Aea e iiuo iino?ieee e
yenieoaoaoeee aiaeyiuo eiean iia au ieacaoue iaiaeoth iiiiuue
aeae?iyia?aaoeeai. Iaeiaei iino?ieea ieioeiu e?oiiie
aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee ieacaeanue caaea/ae eoaea aieaa neiaeiie, /ai
iino?ieea iaaieueoie cai?oaeu aeey a?auaiey iaeueie/iiai eieana. *oiau
i?eaanoe ai a?auaiea iiuiua aeae?ioo?aeiu, ioaeii iaeiieoue ca
ieioeiie ia?iiiue caian aiaeu. Aeey iino?ieee ieioeiu o?aaoaony
oeiaeeoue oaeia eiee/anoai iaoa?eaeia, /oi iauai aeaaioneeo aaeiaoneeo
ie?aieae ii n?aaiaieth n iei iieaaeaony ie/oiaeiui. Iiyoiio a ia/aea 20
aaea auei iino?iaii anaai ianeieueei aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee. Aaeece
Iyoeai?nea, ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca ia ai?iie ?aea Iiaeeoiie oniaoii
aeaenoaiaaea aeiaieueii e?oiiay yeaeo?inoaioeey n iiiaicia/eoaeueiui
iacaaieai “Aaeue oaieue”. Yoi auei eeoue ia/aeii. Oaea a enoi?e/aneii
ieaia AIYE?I i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue no?ieoaeuenoai e?oiiuo
aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee. A 1926 aiaeo a no?ie aioea Aieoianeay AYN, a
neaaeothuai ia/aeinue no?ieoaeuenoai ciaiaieoie Aeiai?ianeie.
Aeaeueiiaeaeiay yia?aaoe/aneay iieeoeea, i?iaiaeyuayny a iaoae no?aia,
i?eaaea e oiio, /oi o ian, eae ie a iaeiie no?aia ie?a, ?acaeoa
nenoaia iiuiuo aeae?iyeaeo?e/aneeo noaioeee. Ie iaeii ainoaea?noai
ia iiaeao iioaanoaoueny oaeeie yia?aaoe/aneeie aeaaioaie, eae
Aieaeneea, E?aniiy?neay e A?aoneay, Nayii-Oooaineay AYN. Yoe noaioeee,
aeathuea aoeaaeueii ieaaiu yia?aee, noaee oeaio?aie, aie?oa eioi?uo
?acaeeenue iiuiua i?iiuoeaiiua eiiieaenu. Yia?aionoaiiaea ia ?aea ?ain
(A?aoaiue), ninoiyuay ec aeaaaeoeaoe /aou?ao ?aaa?neaiuo
oo?aiaaia?aoi?ia, e eiathuay auoiaeioth iiuiinoue 240 iaaaaaoo –
iaeia ec iaeaieaa iiuiuo aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee ai O?aioeee.
Aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee yaeythony iaeaieaa yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiui
enoi/ieeii yia?aee, ii aianoa n yoei eiatho ?yae na?ue?ciuo
iaaeinoaoeia, naycaiiuo n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth o?ainii?oe?iaee yia?aee ia
aieueoea ?annoiyiey (/anoi iio?aaeoaee yia?aee ?aniieiaeaiu aaeaee io
?ae). I?e o?ainii?oe?iaea yeaeo?iyia?aee ii EYI (eeieyi
yeaeo?iia?aaea/) i?ienoiaeyo iioa?e aei 30% e nicaea?ony yeieiae/anee
iianiia yeaeo?iiaaieoiia eceo/aiea. A aeiiieiaiea ei anaio aeey
i?iaaaeaiey EYI ,au?oaathony eana, /oi oiaea io?aaeaaony ia yeieiaee.

Iiea ethaeyi neoaeeo eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneiai
iioaioeeaea caiee. Aaeaaiaeii ia?iiiua iioiee aiaeu, ia?aciaaaoeany io
aeiaeaeae e oayiey niaaia, noaeatho a ii?y iaeniieueciaaiiuie. Anee au
oaeaeinue caaea?aeaoue eo n iiiiuueth ieioei, /aeiaa/anoai iieo/eei au
aeiiieieoaeueii eieinnaeueiia eiee/anoai yia?aee.

AEAe?IYIA?AAOE*ANEEA ?ANO?NU E ?ACIAUAIEA AYN

Iniiaiuie iieacaoaeyie, iicaieythueie ioeaieoue aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneee
iioaioeeae ?aaeiiia, yaeythony aiaeiinoue ?ae e iaee/ea cia/eoaeueiuo
ia?aiaaeia aunio ?aeueaoa. Niaieoiiinoue aeaiiuo ii iauaio noiea
ianoiuo aiaeioieia, e?oiiuo o?aiceoiuo ?ae e aiieeooaea ?aeueaoa
yaeyaony aeinoaoi/iie aeey aaeaeaaoiie ioeaiee iioaioeeaeueiie
yia?aaoe/aneie iiuiinoe ?aaiou aiaeu ia eaaeaeie oa??eoi?ee, anee i?e
yoii ia noaaeoue caaea/e ?an/aoa iaaaaaoo iioaioeeaeueiie iiuiinoe AYN
(Ea?oa 1.).

Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuie iioaioeeaeueiuie aeae?iyia?ai?ano?naie
?aniieaaatho ?aaeiiu n?aaeiae e ainoi/iie Neae?e, eiathuea ai?iue
?aeueao, iiiaeanoai iaeuo e n?aaeieo ?ae, a oaeaea oaeea ?a/iua
aeaaiou, eae Aienae, Aiaa?a, Eaia, Aio?. Ia inoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee
no?aiu ii aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneiio iioaioeeaeo auaeaeythony ai?iua
?anioaeeee Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca, caiaaeiue iae?ineeii O?aeueneiai o?aaoa e
Eieueneee iieoino?ia. Ieieiaeueiui iioaioeeaeii ?aniieaaatho canooeeaua
?aeiiu thaa ?innee e ?aaiei Caiaaeiie Neae?e.

Aeaiiua i i?iecaiaenoaa aeae?iyia?aee ia aeooo o?oaeiniiniaiiai
ianaeaiey niioaaonoaothuaai ?aaeiia i?eaaaeaiu ia Ea?oa 2.

Aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneee iioaioeeae ia cia/eoaeueiie /anoe oa??eoi?ee
no?aiu ia eniieuecoaony aiiaua. A ?aaeiiao Neae?e eeoue Aiaa?neee e
Aienaeneee eaneaaeu AYN iicaieytho eniieueciaaoue /anoue iioaioeeaea
iaeaieaa e?oiiuo ?ae. Ia inoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee Neae?e eniieueciaaiea
naiaiaeiie yia?aee aeaeaeaiey aiaeu eiaao eeoue oi/a/iue oa?aeoa?
(Iiaineae?neay, Onoue-Oaioaeneay, Caeneay, Aeetheneay AYN e ae?.). Ia
aa?iiaeneie oa??eoi?ee no?aiu iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia eiee/anoai
yeaeo?iyia?aee ecaeaeaaony a ieaeiai oa/aiee Aieae, oioy iioaioeeae
aeae?iyia?aaoeee caeanue ia noieue aaeee ec-ca ?aaieiiiai ?aeueaoa. A oi
aea a?aiy aieueoee ii noiia?iie iiuiinoe, ii aeenia?nii ?ani?aaeaeaiiue
iioaioeeae ?ae Eaaeaca e caiaaeiiai O?aea eniieuecoaony neaaaa.
Iaiaoiaeeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi yia?aiaeaoeoeeoiia oicyenoai I?eii?uey
aiiaua ia eiaao AYN, oioy yoio ?aaeii ?aniieaaaao aieueoeie
aeae?iyia?ai?ano?naie. Ii-aeaeeiiio yoi naycaii n e?aeiei iaiinoiyinoaii
?aaeeia ?ae a oneiaeyo ionniiiiai eeeiaoa n ?aaoey?ii i?ioiaeyueie
oaeooiaie, /oi aaaeao e nouanoaaiiiio oaei?iaeaieth no?ieoaeuenoaa a
nayce n i?iaeaiaie aaciianiinoe. Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey a ?aaieiiuo
?aeiiao iau/ii auoa, /ai a ai?iuo, iiyoiio ciiu n aunieei iioaioeeaeii
aeae?i?ano?nia e oa??eoi?ee n iaeaieueoae /eneaiiinoueth iioaioeeaeueiuo
iio?aaeoaeae yia?aee ?acianaiu a i?ino?ainoaa. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao
eeoue Eaaeac. Iaeiaei, eiaiii ia i?eia?a Eaaeaca aeaeii, /oi iioaioeeae
iaeuo e n?aaeieo ?ae iaaeieniieuecoaony aeaaea i?e noieue ?aaeeii
ni/aoaiee aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee. Nae/an ia i?eioeeieaeueii, /oi yaeyaony
oiio i?e/eiie – oaoiieiae/aneay iayooaeoeaiinoue nicaeaiey iaeuo AYN,
naenie/aneay iianiinoue eee oaea/aiea “no?ieeaie aaea”. Aaaeii, /oi a
no?aia ia neiaeeeinue oaoiieiaee i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaeeo noaioeee, eo
no?ieoaeuenoaa, ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e
iiuoa eieaeueiiai ?aoaiey yia?aaoe/aneeo i?iaeai ?acaeoey ionoaeuo
?aaeiiia. Oeie/iui i?eia?ii iai?eaiaeiinoe iaeiieaiiiai i?e nicaeaiee
AYN-aeaaioia iiuoa yaeeenue aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneea i?iaeou aeey neaai
?acaeouo Aeoay (Eaooineay) e Yaaieee (Oo?ooaineay). Iaeiiaoe, o?aouey
a?oiia i?iaeai naycaia n aunieie, aeioiaeyuae aei iianiie
eioaineaiinoueth eniieueciaaiey aeae?iyia?aiiioaioeeaea n?aaeiae e
ieaeiae Aieae. Ianiio?y ia aaia?aoe/aneoth eieaeueiinoue, yoa i?iaeaiu
aaaeia oai, /oi cao?aaeaaao ciio i?iaeeaaiey ia?iiiuo iann ianaeaiey. A
aeae?iyia?aaoeea ?acaeoea neooaoeee iaei caaeneo io ni/aoaiee ?ano?niiai
iioaioeeaea e o?iaiy aai eniieueciaaiey. Nicaeaiea iiauo AYN nei?aa
aoaeao caaenaoue io iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneie ianoaiiaee e iaee/ey
oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee aeey iaeie aeae?iyia?aaoeee. A yoeo oneiaeyo
i?eioeeieaeueiie yaeyaony ?ieue ainoaea?noaa, eae e?oiiaeoaai caeac/eea
e eiaanoi?a i?e nicaeaiee e?oiiuo AYN. A aeeaeaeoea aiaeu oaeie aa?eaio
iaeiaa?iyoai, ii anee ii e aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny, oi nei?aa anaai ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea, aaea neeaaeuaaaony onoie/eaue yia?aiaeaoeoeeo.
Oieueei ainoaea?noao iiae neeo yenoaineaiia inaiaiea iioaioeeaea,
eiathuaainy ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea. Oeaeaniia?aciinoue e?oiiiai
aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneiai no?ieoaeuenoaa a yoii ?aaeiia iiaeao auoue
ii?aaaeaia eeoue i?e e?oiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiia ?acaeoey
Aeaeueiaainoi/iiai ?aeiia, eae no?aoaae/aneiai oi?iinoa ?innee a
Aceaonei-Oeoiieaaineii ?aaeiia. Ai?acaei aieueoa oainia ia ?aaeecaoeeth
eiatho aa?eaiou, naycaiiua n nicaeaieai iaeuo AYN. ?aoaiea oaoie/aneeo
i?iaeai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, no?ieoaeuenoaa e iniauaiey iaeuo aeae?inoaioeee
aieaa aa?iyoii a oneiaeyo nie?auaiey ?iee ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea e
oneeaiey e?oiiuo /anoiuo eiiiaiee e ?aaeiiia. A oaeie iauaiieeoe/aneie
neooaoeee ?acaeoea iaeie aeae?iyia?aaoeee aiciiaeii a aonoiianaeaiiuo
?aaeiiao, eiathueo ?acaeoie i?iiuoeaiiue iioaioeeae (n?aaeiee e thaeiue
O?ae) eee aunieoth /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey (Naaa?iue Eaaeac).

?acaeoea neooaoeee n Aieaeneei eaneaaeii AYN i?iaiice?oaony aac
iniauo aa?eaioia. Ino?ioa neiaeeaoaainy caeanue aeenaaeaina iaaeaeo
ieceei aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneei iioaioeeaeii e iiuiinoueth nicaeaiiuo AYN
aeaeaao ?acaeoea aieaa caaeneiui io oi?ioi ecaanoiuo i?e?iaeiuo
oeeeeia. Eaneaae aieaeneeo AYN i?iaeoe?iaaeny ia iniiaa aeaiiuo ca
aeaaeiua 40-a aa. A nooea 70-a aa. aiaeu ia oaaoaei, AYN ia
au?aaaouaaee i?iaeoe?oaiiai eiee/anoaa yia?aee. Ai aeaaeiua 80-a – 90-a
aa., iaiai?io, iaaethaeaeny ecauoie aiaeu e AYN auioaeaeaiu auee ii/oe
e?oaeue aiae inouanoaeyoue aaa?eeiua nionee. A?yaeouay oaiei-nooay oaca
auciaao aua aieaa ?aceee niaae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e nea/eiia?aciue
?ino caa?yciaiee ca n/ao nieaeaiey ?acaaaeaiey e ?inoa oo?aoeaioiiai
ia?aiaoeaaiey a iacaiieiaiiuo aiaeio?aieeeuao ia?iiiuo iann
caa?yciaiiiai eea, ia?aciaaaoeony ca aiaeu na?inia i?iiuoeaiiuo noieia
e niuaa n iieae.

YIA?AEss IE?IAIAI IEAAIA

A Ie?iaii Ieaaia ne?uou eieinnaeueiua caianu yia?aee . Oae, oaieiaay
(aioo?aiiyy) yia?aey, niioaaonoaothuay ia?aa?aao iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae
ieaaia ii n?aaiaieth n aeiiiuie, neaaeai, ia 20 a?aaeonia, eiaao
aaee/eio ii?yaeea 10^26 Aeae. Eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey ieaaineeo oa/aiee
ioeaieaaaony aaee/eiie ii?yaeea 10^18 Aeae. Iaeiaei iiea /oi ethaee
oiatho eniieueciaaoue eeoue ie/oiaeiua aeiee yoie yia?aee, aea e oi
oeaiie aieueoeo e iaaeeaiii ieoiathueony eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, oae /oi
oaeay yia?aaoeea aei neo ii? eacaeanue iaeiia?niaeoeaiie. Iaeiaei
i?ienoiaeyuaa aanueia auno?ia enoiuaiea caiania eneiiaaiuo oiieea
(i?aaeaea anaai iaooe e aaca), eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo e oiio aea naycaii
n nouanoaaiiui caa?yciaieai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu (aeeth/ay nthaea oaeaea
e oaieiaia “caa?yciaiea”, e a?icyuaa eeeiaoe/aneeie iineaaenoaeyie
iiauoaiea o?iaiy aoiinoa?iie oaeaeeneiou), ?aceay ia?aie/aiiinoue
caiania o?aia (yia?aaoe/aneia eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo e oiio aea
ii?iaeaeaao iianiua ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu) e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue eae
n?ieia, oae e yeieiae/aneeo iineaaenoaee i?iiuoeaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey oa?iiyaea?iie yia?aee canoaaeyao o/aiuo e eiaeaia?ia
oaeaeyoue ana aieueoaa aieiaiea iieneai aiciiaeiinoae ?aioaaaeueiie
ooeeecaoeee iaoe?iuo e aaca?aaeiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee e ia oieueei
ia?aiaaeia o?iaiy aiaeu a ?aeao, ii e nieia/iiai oaiea, aao?a e
yia?aee a Ie?iaii ieaaia. Oe?ieay iauanoaaiiinoue, aea e iiiaea
niaoeeaeenou aua ia ciatho, /oi iieneiaua ?aaiou ii ecaea/aieth yia?aee
ec ii?ae e ieaaiia i?eia?aee a iineaaeiea aiaeu a ?yaea no?ai oaea
aeiaieueii aieueoea ianooaau e /oi eo ia?niaeoeau noaiiayony ana
aieaa iaauathueie.

Ieaai oaeo a naaa ianeieueei ?acee/iuo aeaeia yia?aee: yia?aeth
i?eeeaia e ioeeaia, ieaaineeo oa/aiee, oa?iaeueioth yia?aeth, e ae?.

Yia?aey I?eeeaia.

Iaeaieaa i/aaeaeiui niiniaii eniieueciaaiey ieaaineie yia?aee
i?aaenoaaeyaony iino?ieea i?eeeaiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee (IYN). N 1967 a. a
onouea ?aee ?ain ai O?aioeee ia i?eeeaao aunioie aei 13 iao?ia ?aaioaao
IYN iiuiinoueth 240 oun. eAo n aiaeiaie ioaea/ae 540 oun. eAo*/.
Niaaoneee eiaeaia? Aa?iooaei ?ac?aaioae oaeiaiue niinia iino?ieee
aeieia IYN, aoene?oaiuo ia ieaao a ioaeiua ianoa, e ?ann/eoae
?aioaaaeueioth i?ioeaaeo?o aeeth/aiey IYN a yia?ainaoe a /anu eo
iaeneiaeueiie iaa?ocee iio?aaeoaeyie. Aai eaeae i?iaa?aiu ia IYN,
iino?iaiiie a 1968 aiaeo a Eeneie Aoaa ieiei Io?iainea; naiae
i/a?aaee aeaeao IYN ia 6 iei. eAo a Iacaineii caeeaa ia Aa?aioeaaii
ii?a.

A 70-o aiaeao neooaoeey a yia?aaoeea eciaieeanue. Eaaeaeue ?ac,
eiaaea iinoaaueee ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea, a Ao?eea e THaeiie Aia?eea
iiaeieiaee oeaiu ia iaooue, yia?aey i?eeeaia noaiiaeeanue ana aieaa
i?eaeaeaoaeueiie, oae eae iia oniaoii eiieo?e?iaaea a oeaia n
eneiiaaiuie aeaeaie oiieeaa. Anei?a ca yoei
a Niaaoneii Nithca, THaeiie Ei?aa e
Aiaeee aic?in eioa?an e i/a?oaieyi
aa?aaiauo eeiee e aiciiaeiinoyi nicaeaiey ia ieo yia?ai-
onoaiiaie. A yoeo no?aiao noaee ana?ueac
iiaeoiuaaoue ia eniieueciaaiee
yia?aee i?eeeaia aiei e auaeaeyoue n?aaenoaa
ia iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey a yoie iaeanoe, ieaie?iaaoue eo.

Aaeaiu e iayee, eniieuecothuea yia?aeth aiei, oaea onayee
i?ea?aaeiua aiaeu ssiiiee. A oa/aiea iiiaeo eao aaeaiu – naenoee
aa?aaiaie io?aiu NOA aeaenoaotho aeaaiaea?y aieiiaui eieaaaieyi.
Naaiaeiy a?yae ee nouanoaoao i?ea?aaeiue ?aeii, aaea ia auei au
naiaai nianoaaiiiai ecia?aoaoaey, ?aaioathuaai iaae nicaeaieai
ono?ienoaa, eniieuecothuaai yia?aeth aiei Ia/eiay n 1966 aiaea aeaa
o?aioeocneeo ai?iaea iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?ytho naie iio?aaiinoe a
yeaeo?iyia?aee ca n/ao yia?aee i?eeeaia e ioeeaia.

Iieo/aiea Yia?aee Ca N/ao ?aciinoe Oeie/aneiai Ninoaaa

Aiaeu

A ieaaia ?anoai?aii ia?iiiia eiee/anoai nieae. Iiaeao ee nieaiinoue
auoue eniieueciaaia, eae enoi/iee yia?aee ? Iiaeao. Aieueoay
eiioeaio?aoeey niee a ieaaia iaaaea ?yae enneaaeiaaoaeae Ne?eiineiai
ieaaiia?aoe/aneiai einoeoooa a Ea- Eieea (Eaeeoi?iey) e ae?oaeo oeaio?ia
ia iuneue i nicaeaiee oaeeo onoaiiaie. Iie n/eoatho, /oi aeey
iieo/aiey aieueoiai eiee/anoaa yia?aee aiieia aiciiaeii
neiino?oe?iaaoue aaoa?ae, a eioi?uo i?ienoiaeeee au ?aaeoeee iaaeaeo
nieaiie e ianieaiie aiaeie.

Yia?aey Aeiiannu Ieaaia

A ieaaia nouanoaoao caia/aoaeueiay n?aaea aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeecie,
a ninoaa eioi?ie aoiaeyo ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa, niee e ae?oaea ieia?aeu.
A yoie n?aaea ?anoai?aiiue a aiaea eenei?iae ieoaao anao ii?neeo
aeeaioiuo io naiuo iaeaiueeeo aei naiuo aieueoeo, io aiaau aei aeoeu.
?anoai?aiiue oaeaeeneue aac oi/ii oae aea iiaeaea?aeeaaao aeeciue anao
ii?neeo ?anoaiee io iaeiieeaoi/iuo aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae aei
aeinoeaathueo auniou 200-300 oooia (60-90 iao?ia) ao?uo aiaei?ineae.
Ii?neiio aeieiao ioaeii naeaeaoue eeoue oaa aia?aae, /oiau ia?aeoe io
aini?eyoey ieaaia eae i?e?iaeiie nenoaiu iiaeaea?aeaiey aeecie e
iiiuoea ia/aoue ia iao/iie iniiaa ecaeaeaoue ec yoie nenoaiu
yia?aeth. I?e iiaeaea?aeea aiaiii-ii?neiai oeioa NOA a na?aaeeia 70-o
aiaeia a?oiia niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiey ieaaia, ii?neeo
eiaeaia?ia e aiaeieacia nicaeaea ia?aoth a ie?a ieaaineoth
yia?aaoe/aneoth oa?io ia aeoaeia 40 oooia (12 iao?ia) iiae caeeoie
nieioeai aeaaeueth Oeoiai ieaaia aaeece ai?iaea Nai- Eeaiaio. Oa?ia
auea iaaieueoa, ii nooe naiae, ana yoi auei eeoue yenia?eiaioii. Ia
oa?ia au?aueaaeenue aeaaioneea eaeeoi?ieeneea ao?ua aiaei?inee. Ii
iiaieth aee?aeoi?a i?iaeoa aeieoi?a Aiaa?aea A. Oeeeiena, nio?oaeieea
Oeaio?a enneaaeiaaiey ii?neeo e ieaaineeo nenoai a Nai-Aeeaai
(Eaeeoi?iey), “aei 50 % yia?aee yoeo aiaei?ineae iiaeao auoue i?aa?auaii
a oiieeai- a i?e?iaeiue aac iaoai(N2I6). Ieaaineea oa?iu aoaeouaai,
au?aueaathuea ao?ua aiaei?inee ia ieiuaaee i?eia?ii 100 000 ae?ia (40
000 aa), niiaoo aeaaaoue yia?aeth, eioi?ie oaaoeo, /oiau iieiinoueth
oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoe aia?eeaineiai ai?iaea n ianaeaieai a 50 000
/aeiaae”.

.

Yia?aey Ieaaineeo Oa/aiee

. Ia oae aeaaii a?oiia o/aiuo ieaaiieiaia ia?aoeea aieiaiea ia oio
oaeo, /oi Aieueono?ei ianao naie aiaeu aaeece aa?aaia Oei?eaeu ni
nei?inoueth 5 ieeue a /an. Eaeay eniieueciaaoue yoio iioie oaieie aiaeu
auea aanueia caiai/eaie. Aiciiaeii ee yoi ? Niiaoo ee aeaaioneea
oo?aeiu e iiaeaiaeiua i?iiaeea?u, iaiiieiathuea aao?yiua iaeueieoeu,
aaia?e?iaaoue yeaeo?e/anoai, ecaeaeay yia?aeth ec oa/aiee e aiee ?
“Niiaoo” – oaeiai a 1974 aiaeo auei caeeth/aiea Eiieoaoa Iae-A?oo?a,
iaoiaeyuaainy iiae yaeaeie
Iaoeeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey ii enneaaeiaaieth
ieaaia e aoiinoa?u a Iaeaie (Oei?eaea).Iauaa iiaiea cae-
eth/aeinue a oii, /oi eiatho ianoi
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iaea- iu, ii ana iie
iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu a neo/aa auaeaeaiey anneaiiaaiee, oae eae “a yoii
i?iaeoa iao ie/aai oaeiai, /oi i?aauoaei au aiciiaeiinoe nia?aiaiiie
eiaeaia?iie e oaoiieiae/aneie iunee”.

Oa?iaeueiay Yia?aey Ieaaia

Aieueoia aieiaiea i?eia?aea “ieaaiioa?ie/aneay yia?aieiiaa?ney”
(IOYE), o.a. iieo/aiea yeaeo?iyia?aee ca n/ao ?aciinoe oaiia?aoo?
iaaeaeo iiaa?oiinoiuie e cananuaaaiuie ianinii aeoaeiiuie ieaaineeie
aiaeaie, iai?eia? i?e eniieueciaaiee a caieiooii oeeeea oo?aeiu oaeeo
eaaeienia?ythueony aeeaeeinoae eae i?iiai, o?aii eee aiiiiee.

Oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu ieaaia a ?aciuo ianoao ?acee/ia. Iaaeaeo o?iieeii
?aea e o?iieeii Eica?iaa iiaa?oiinoue aiaeu iaa?aaaaony aei 82 a?aaeonia
ii Oa?aiaaeoo (27 C). Ia aeoaeia a 2000 oooia (600 iao?ia) oaiia?aoo?a
iaaeaao aei 35,36,37 eee 38 a?aaeonia ii Oa?aiaaeoo (2-3.5 N).
Aicieeaao aii?in: anoue ee aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue ?acieoeo
oaiia?aoo? aeey iieo/aiey yia?aee ? Iiaea au oaieiaay yia?aionoaiiaea,
ieuaouay iiae aiaeie, i?iecaiaeeoue yeaeo?e/anoai ? Aea, e yoi
aiciiaeii. A aeaeaeea 20-a aiaeu iaoaai noieaoey AEi?ae Eeiae,
iaea?aiiue, ?aoeoaeueiue e aanueia ianoie/eaue o?aioeocneee oecee, ?aoee
enneaaeiaaoue oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue. Aua?aa o/anoie ieaaia aaeece aa?aaia
Eoau, ii noiae-oaee iinea na?ee iaoaea/iuo iiiuoie iieo/eoue onoaiiaeo
iiuiinoueth 22 eeeiaaooa. Yoi yaeeinue aieueoei iao/iui aeinoeaeaieai e
i?eaaonoaiaaeinue iiiaeie o/aiuie. Eniieuecoy oaieoth aiaeo ia
iiaa?oiinoe e oieiaeioth ia aeoaeia e nicaeaa niioaaonoaothuoth
oaoiieiaeth, iu ?aniieaaaai anai iaiaoiaeeiui aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
yeaeo?iyia?aee, oaa?yee noi?iiieee eniieueciaaiey oaieiaie yia?aee
ieaaia. “Niaeanii iaoei ioeaieai, a yoeo iiaa?oiinoiuo aiaeao
eiathony caianu yia?aee, eioi?ua a 10 000 ?ac i?aauoatho iauaie?iaoth
iio?aaiinoue a iae”. “Oau, – aic?aaeaee neaioeee, – AEi?ae Eeiae
iieo/ee a caeeaa Iaoainan anaai 22 eeeiaaooa yeaeo?iyia?aee. Aeaei ee
yoi i?eaueue ?” Ia aeaei, oae eae, /oiau iieo/eoue yoe 22
eeeiaaooa, Eeiaeo i?eoeinue cao?aoeoue 80 eeeiaaoo ia ?aaioo naieo
ianinia. Naaiaeiy i?ioanni? Ne?eiineiai einoeoooa ieaaiia?aoee Aeaeii
Enaaen aeaeaao au/eneaiey aieaa aeeo?aoii. Ii aai ioeaieai, nia?aiaiiay
oaoiieiaey iicaieeo nicaeaaaoue yia?aionoaiiaee, eniieuecothuea aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?e/anoaa ?acieoeo oaiia?aoo? a ieaaia, eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeeee au aai a aeaa ?aca aieueoa, /ai iauaie?iaia iio?aaeaiea ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue. Yoi aoaeao yeaeo?iyia?aey, i?iecaiaeeiay
yeaeo?inoaioeeae, i?aia?acothuae oa?iaeueioth yia?aeth ieaaia (IOAN).
Eiia/ii, yoi – i?iaiic iaiae?ythuee, ii aeaaea anee ii ii?aaaeaaony,
?acoeueoaou ia iiiiaoo ?ac?aoaieth ie?iauo yia?aaoe/aneeo i?iaeai.

Aioo?aiiyy Yia?aey Iieaeoe Aiaeu

Eiia/ii, aeinooi e caianai yeaeo?iyia?aee IOAN i?aaeinoaaeyao
aaeeeieaiiua aiciiaeiinoe, ii (ii e?aeiae ia?a iiea) yeaeo?e/anoai
ia iiaeieiaao a iaai naiieaou, ia aoaeao aeaeaaoue eaaeiaua e
a?ociaua aaoiiiaeee e aaoiaonu, ia iiaaaeao ei?aaee /a?ac ii?y. Iaeiaei
naiieaou e eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee, aaoiaonu e a?ociaeee iiaoo
i?eaiaeeoueny a aeaeaeaiea aacii, eioi?ue iiaeii ecaeaeaoue ec aiaeu,
a oae aiaeu-oi a ii?yo aeinoaoi/ii. Yoio aac – aiaei?iae, e ii iiaeao
eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa ai?th/aai. Aiaei?iae- iaeei ec iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo yeaiaioia ai Anaeaiiie. A ieaaia ii niaea?aeeony a
eaaeaeie eaiea aiaeu. Iiiieoa oi?ioeo aiaeu? Oi?ioea HOH cia/eo, /oi
iieaeoea aiaeu ninoieo ec aeaoo aoiiia aiaei?iaea e iaeiiai aoiia
eenei?iaea. Ecaea/aiiue ec aiaeu aiaei?iae iiaeii naeeaaoue eae oiieeai
e eniieueciaaoue ia oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau i?eaiaeeoue a aeaeaeaiea
?acee/iua o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, ii e aeey iieo/aiey yeaeo?iyia?aee.
Ana aieueoaa /enei oeieeia e eiaeaia?ia n yiooceaciii ioiineony e
“aiaei?iaeiie yia?aaoeea” aoaeouaai, oae eae iieo/aiiue aiaei?iae
aeinoaoi/ii oaeiaii o?aieoue: a aeaea naeaoiai aaca a oaiea?ao eee a
naeeaeaiiii aeaea a e?eiaaiiuo eiioaeia?ao i?e oaiia?aoo?a 423 a?aaeona
ii Oa?aiaaeoo (-203 N). Aai iiaeii o?aieoue e a oaa?aeii aeaea iinea
niaaeeiaiey n aeaeaci-oeoaiiaui nieaaii eee n iaaieai aeey
ia?aciaaiey iaoaeee/aneeo aeae?eaeia. Iinea yoiai eo iiaeii eaaei
o?ainii?oe?iaaoue e eniieueciaaoue ii ia?a iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Aua a 1847
aiaeo o?aioeocneee ienaoaeue AEtheue Aa?i, iia?aaeeaoee naia a?aiy,
i?aaeaeaeae aicieeiiaaiea oaeie aiaei?iaeiie yeiiiieee. A naiae eieaa
“Oaeinoaaiiue ino?ia” ii i?aaeneacuaae, /oi a aoaeouai ethaee
iao/aony eniieueciaaoue aiaeo a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea aeey iieo/aiey
oiieeaa. “Aiaea, – ienae ii, – i?aaenoaaeo iaennyeaaiua caianu oaiea e
naaoa”. Ni a?aiai AEthey Aa?ia auee ioe?uou iaoiaeu ecaea/aiey
aiaei?iaea ec aiaeu. Iaeei ec iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo ec ieo – yeaeo?ieec
aiaeu. (*a?ac aiaeo i?iioneaaony yeaeo?e/aneee oie, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai i?ienoiaeeo oeie/aneee ?aniaae. Inaiaiaeaeathony aiaei?iae e
eenei?iae, a aeeaeeinoue en/acaao.) A 60-a aiaeu niaoeeaeenoai ec
IANA oaeaeinue noieue oniaoii inouanoaeoue i?ioeann yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu e
noieue yooaeoeaii niae?aoue aunaiaiaeaeathueeny aiaei?iae, /oi
iieo/aaiue oaeei ia?acii aiaei?iae eniieueciaaeny ai a?aiy iieaoia ii
i?ia?aiia “Aiieeii”.

***************************************************

Oaeei ia?acii, a ieaaia, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao 71 i?ioeaio iiaa?oiinoe
ieaiaou, iioaioeeaeueii eiathony ?acee/iua aeaeu yia?aee – yia?aey aiei
e i?eeeaia; yia?aey oeie/aneeo naycae aacia, ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa,
nieae e ae?oaeo ieia?aeia; ne?uoay yia?aey aiaei?iaea, iaoiaeyuaainy a
iieaeoeao aiaeu; yia?aey oa/aiee, niieieii e ianeii/aaii aeaeaeoueony a
?acee/iuo /anoyo ieaaia; oaeeaeoaeueiay ii caianai yia?aey, eioi?oth
iiaeii iieo/aoue, eniieuecoy ?acieoeo oaiia?aoo? aiaeu ieaaia ia
iiaa?oiinoe e a aeoaeia, e eo iiaeii i?aia?aciaaoue a noaiaea?oiua
aeaeu oiieeaa. Oaeea eiee/anoaa yia?aee, iiiaiia?acea aa oi?i
aa?aioe?otho, /oi a aoaeouai /aeiaa/anoai ia aoaeao eniuouaaoue a iae
iaaeinoaoea. A oi aea a?aiy ia aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoe caaenaoue io
iaeiiai – aeaoo iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee, eaeeie, iai?eia?,
yaeythony aeaaii eniieuecothueany eneiiaaiua aeaeu oiieeaa e yaea?iiai
ai?th/aai, iaoiaeu iieo/aiey eioi?iai auee ?ac?aaioaiu iaaeaaii. Aieaa
oiai, a ieeeeiiao i?ea?aaeiuo aea?aaaiue e naeaiee, ia eiathueo nae/an
aeinooia e yia?ainenoaiai, aoaeao oiaaea aiciiaeii oeo/oeoue aeeciaiiua
oneiaey ethaeae. AEeoaee oao iano, aaea ia ii?a auaaao neeueiia
aieiaiea, niiaoo eiino?oe?iaaoue e eniieueciaaoue onoaiiaee aeey
i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee aiei. AEeaouea aaeece oceeo i?ea?aaeiuo caeeaia,
eoaea ai a?aiy i?eeeaia n ?aaii a?uaaaony aiaea, niiaoo eniieueciaaoue
yoo yia?aeth. Aeey anao inoaeueiuo ethaeae yia?aey ieaaia a ioe?uoii
aiaeiii i?ino?ainoaa aoaeao i?aia?aciauaaoueny a iaoai, aiaei?iae
eee yeaeo?e/anoai, a caoai ia?aaeaaaoueny ia nooo ii eaaaeth eee ia
ei?aaeyo. E any yoa yia?aey oaeony a ieaaia eniieii aaeia. Ia
eniieuecoy aa, iu oai naiui iii?inoo aa ?anoi/aai. ?acoiaaony, o?oaeii
aeaaea i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ia?aoiae io noieue i?eau/iuo, o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
aeaeia oiieeaa – oaey, iaooe e i?e?iaeiiai aaca – e iaciaeiiui,
aeueoa?iaoeaiui iaoiaeai iieo/aiey yia?aee. ?acieoea oaiia?aoo? ?
Aiaei?iae, iaoaeee/aneea aeae?eaeu, yia?aaoe/aneea oa?iu a ieaaia ?
Aeey iiiaeo yoi cao/eo eae iao/iay oaioanoeea. E oai ia iaiaa
ianiio?y ia oi /oi ecaea/aiea yia?aee ieaaia iaoiaeyony ia noaaeee
yenia?eiaioia e i?ioeann ia?aie/ai e aei?iainoiyu, oaeo inoaaony
oaeoii, /oi ii ia?a ?acaeoey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna yia?aey a
aoaeouai iiaeao a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aeiauaaoueny ec ii?y. Eiaaea –
caaeneo io oiai, eae nei?i yoe i?ioeannu noaioo aeinoaoi/ii aeaoaauie.
A eiia/iii eoiaa aeaei oie?aaony ia a aiciiaeiinoue ecaea/aiey ec
ieaaia yia?aee a ?acee/iuo oi?iao, a a noieiinoue oaeiai ecaea/aiey,
eioi?ay ii?aaeaeeo, ianeieueei auno?i aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny oio eee eiie
niinia aeiau/e Eiaaea au yoi a?aiy ie ianooieei, ia?aoiae e
eniieueciaaieth yia?aee ieaaia i?eianao aeaieioth iieueco: nyeiiiieo
iauanoaaiiua n?aaenoaa e naeaeaao aieaa aeecianiiniaiie o?aoueth ieaiaoo
Nieia/iie nenoaiu – iaoo Caieth.

Aia?aua oaea? ii iauanoaaiiiio ea?iaio aue iaianai a 1973 aiaeo
iiaeuaiii oeai ia eneiiaaiua aeaeu oiieeaa. Iniaaiii aic?inee oeaiu ia
iaooue – iniiaiie aeae oiieeaa a XX aaea, eniieuecoaiue a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneii oicyenoaa, aeey ioiieaiey. Aneaae ca yoei
i?iecioei iiauoaiea o?iaiy eioeyoeee, a iineieueeo iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey
e yenia?eiaiou oiaea o?aaotho anneaiiaaiee, iienee iiauo aeaeia oiieeaa
iiaeiyee oeaiu aua auoa. Eneiiaaiua aeaeu oiieeaa enoiuathony, iu
auioaeaeaiu eo yeiiiieoue e oaaee/eaaoue yia?aiiaania/aiea ca n/ao
no?ieoaeuenoaa yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia, eioi?ua o?aaotho cia/eoaeueiuo
oeiainiauo cao?ao e aucuaatho iianaiey o ethaeae, aeeaoueo aaeece.
Eiia/ii, yia?aiiio?aaeaiea nieceony, anee auoue aieaa yeiiiiiuie. A NOA,
ianaeaiea eioi?uo ninoaaeyao 5,3 % io iauaie?iaiai e aaea
eniieuecoaony 35 % anao aeaeia eneiiaaiiai oiieeaa e
aeae?iyeaeo?iyia?aee ie?a, iio?aaeaiea yia?aee iiaeao auoue eaaei
nieaeaii aei 30 – 32 % , a oi e aei 25 %. Nouanoaoao aeaaea iiaiea, /oi
ii ni?aaaaeeeainoe Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou aeieaeiu nieceoue iio?aaeaiea
yia?aee aei 5,3 %. Yeiiiieea, iaeiaei, eeoue iaeia noi?iia aeaea.
Ae?oaay noi?iia ioiineony e no?aiai ?acaeaathueiny, eioi?ua noa?athony
aeinoe/ue o?iaiy aeecie i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai, ii?aaeaeythuaainy
eniieueciaaieai aieueoiai eiee/anoaa yia?aee. Naaiaeiy ia?iaeu Acee,
Ao?eee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee no?aiyony ia?aeoe io iauanoaa, a eioi?ii
eniieuecoaony a iniiaiii oece/aneee o?oae, e iauanoao n ?acaeoie
eiaeono?eae. Aeey oiai /oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoue a
?aaiii?aaiii ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeaoaaie yia?aee iaaeaeo anaie no?aiaie,
iio?aaoaony oaeia aa eiee/anoai, eioi?ia, aiciiaeii, a ouny/e ?ac
i?aauneo naaiaeiyoiee o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey, e aeinoa?a oaea ia
ni?aaeony n caa?yciaieai, aucuaaaiui eniieueciaaieai iau/iuo aeaeia
oiieeaa. Oai ia iaiaa i?aceaeaio Einoeoooa enneaaeiaaiee a iaeanoe
yeaeo?iyia?aee a Iaei Aeueoi (Eaeeoi?iey) *iine Noa?? iieaaaao:
“Iaiaoiaeeii i?eciaoue, /oi ie?iaia iio?aaeaiea yia?aee aoaeao
?acaeaaoueny eiaiii a yoii iai?aaeaiee e oae auno?i, eae oieueei
iicaieyo iieeoe/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea e oaoie/aneea oaeoi?u”. Oae eae
ni?aaiiaaiea ca iaeaaeaiea enoiuathueieny aeaeaie oiieeaa iaino?yaony,
?anoiae iauanoaaiiuo n?aaenoa aoaeao ?anoe. ?ino yoio i?iaeieaeeony,
oae eae iaiaoiaeeii ai?ioueny n caa?yciaieai aicaeooa e aiaeu, oaieioie,
auaeaeythuaeny i?e nai?aiee eneiiaaiuo aeaeia oiieeaa. Ii noieo ee
aieiiaaoueny a iieneao iiauo enoi/ieeia eneiiaaiiai oiieeaa ? Ca/ai
aeeneooe?iaaoue ii aii?ino i no?ieoaeuenoaa yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia ? Ieaai
iaiieiai yia?aeae, /enoie, aaciianiie e iaennyeaaiie. Iia oai, a ieaaia,
oieueei e aeaeao aunaiaiaeaeaiey. E yoi – i?aeiouanoai iiia? iaeei.
Aoi?ia i?aeiouanoai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi eniieueciaaiea yia?aee
ieaaia iicaieeo Caiea auoue a aeaeueiaeoai iaeoaaiie ieaiaoie.

Iiaeii ainiieueciaaoueny ae?oaei aa?eaioii, i?aaeoniao?eaathuei
oaaee/aiea eniieueciaaiey i?aaie/aneeo e yaea?iuo aeaeia oiieeaa. Yoi,
ii- iiaieth iaeioi?uo niaoeeaeenoia, iiaeao i?eaanoe e eaoano?ioa: a
aoiinoa?o noaiao auaeaeyoueny neeoeii aieueoia eiee/anoai oaeaeeneiai
aaca e oaieiou, /oi a?iceo nia?oaeueiie iianiinoueth /aeiaa/anoao.
“Ionoyee, – oniaoathony neaioeee. – Iu iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaoai
aicaeooiua oeeueo?u e i/enoiua nii?oaeaiey. Aua aiae-aeaa e oaa?e/iua
aeuiiaua o?oau aoaeoo auioneaoue i?aeoe/anee /enoue aicaeoo. ?acaa iu ia
i/euaai auoeiiiua aacu aaoiiiaeeae ? Nei?i au aiiaua caaoaeaoa, /oi
oaeia ia?u aeaoieene na?u.” Oai ia iaiaa oaeaeeneue aac e oaieioa,
auaeaeyaiua a aoiinoa?o aeuiiauie o?oaaie oaa?ee e ae?oaeo i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, a eiiaaea e aieueoeie iiiaieaa?oe?iuie eiiieaenaie,
eioi?ua eniieuecotho eneiiaaiua aeaeu oiieeaa, aiooatho aieueoia
aaniieienoai. Ii eoi caiaoeo, /oi a aicaeooa noaei aieueoa
oaeaeeneiai aaca ? Ii aanoeaaoai e ia eiaao caiaoa. Ii iocu?eony a
i?ioeaaeeoaeueiuo iaieoeao. A eoi caiaoeo iinoaiaiiia, iaaeeaiiia
iiauoaiea aoiinoa?iie oaiia?aoo?u Caiee ia iaeei, aeaa eee o?e a?aaeona
ii Oa?aiaaeoo ? Caiaoeo ieaiaoa, eiaaea oaeaeeneue aac /a?ac iaeioi?ia
a?aiy ieooaao aa iiaeiaii iaeayeo, eioi?ia ia?anoaiao i?iioneaoue
ecauoi/iia oaiei a einiin. AEae Eonoi, ieiia? inaiaiey e
enneaaeiaaiey ieaaia, n/eoaao: “Eiaaea eiioeaio?aoeey oaeaeeneiai aaca
aeinoeaiao ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy, iu ieaaeainy eae aoaeoi a ia?ieea”.
Yoi cia/eo, /oi oaieioa, auaeaeyaiay Caieae, aoaeao caaea?aeeaaoueny
iiae neiai no?aoinoa?u. Iaeaieeaathuaany oaiei iiauneo iauoth
oaiia?aoo?o. A oaaee/aiea aa aeaaea ia iaeei, aeaa eee o?e a?aaeona ii
Oa?aiaaeoo i?eaaaeao e oayieth eaaeieeia. Ieeeeiiu oiii ?anoayaoaai
eueaea iiaeieioo o?iaaiue ii?ae ia 60 iao?ia. Ai?iaea ia iiaa?aaeuea e
a aeieeiao aieueoeo ?ae ieaaeoony caoiieaiiuie. Ii aeaiiiio aii?ino, eae
e ii iiiaei ae?oaei, o/aiua ?acaeaeeeenue ia aeaa eaaa?y. A iaeiii
eaaa?a n/eoatho, /oi ooieuathuaany iaeayei oaeaeeneiai aaca auciaao
iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u e i?eaaaeao e oayieth eaaeieeia, oi anoue, ii
ii?aaeaeaieth aeieoi?a Aiaa?aea Oeeeiena, i?aa?aoeoue Caieth a ia?iee.
Noi?iiieee ae?oaiai eaaa?y iieaaatho, /oi oi aea naiia iaeayei aoaeao
i?aa?aaeaeaoue iooue oaieo, eceo/aaiiio nieioeai, /oi noaiao i?e/eiie
ianooieaiey iiaie y?u ieaaeaiaiey. Eoae, /oi aea /aeiaa/anoai aeieaeii
aeaeaoue ? Aoaeai ee iu enoiuaoue inoaoee eneiiaaiiai oiieeaa, no?ieoue
ana aieueoaa /enei yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia, ?eneoy eciaieoue oaiia?aoo?o
aoiinoa?u, eee aea ia?aoeiny e ieaaio – eeaaeacth iaennyeaaiie yia?aee –
e aoaeai eneaoue niinia ecaea/aiey yoie yia?aee aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaoeo
oeaeae – aio a /ai caeeth/aaony aii?in. Iaeaioia anooieaiey a 21 aae
o/aiua-ieaaiieiae i?ecuaatho i?ae?aoeoue ionoua aeeneonnee e
ioeacaoueny io iaaeaaeaeu ia oi, /oi “oaoiieiae/aneia ?acaeoea ?ac?aoeo
ana i?iaeaiu ia nooa”. Iie oioyo ia?aoeoue aieiaiea iauanoaa ia ieaai,
eioi?ue ca?yaeaaony yia?aeae aiacaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, yia?aeae
aeinooiiie, ia caa?yciythuae ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo e aiciaiiaeyaiie.

I?e nia?aiaiiuo oaiiao iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna nouanoaaiiua
naeaeae a ieaaineie yia?aaoeea aeieaeiu i?iecieoe a aeeaeaeoea
aeanyoeeaoey. Ieaai iaiieiai aiacaiiie yia?aeae, eioi?ay
iinooiaao a iaai ec einiina. Iia aeinooiia e aaciiania, e ia caa?yciyao
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, iaennyeaaia e naiaiaeia. Ec einiina iinooiaao
yia?aey Nieioea. Iia iaa?aaaao aicaeoo e ia?acoao aao?u, aucuaathuea
aieiu. Iia iaa?aaaao ieaai, eioi?ue iaeaieeaaao oaieiaoth yia?aeth. Iia
i?eaiaeeo a aeaeaeaiea oa/aiey, eioi?ua a oi aea a?aiy iaiytho naia
iai?aaeaiea iiae aicaeaenoaeai a?auaiey Caiee. Ec einiina aea iinooiaao
yia?aey nieia/iiai e eoiiiai i?eoyaeaiey. Iia yaeyaony aeaeaeouae neeie
nenoaiu Caiey – Eoia e aucuaaao i?eeeau e ioeeau. Ieaai – yoi ia
ieineia, aacaeeciaiiia aiaeiia i?ino?ainoai, a ia?iiiay eeaaeiaay
aaniieieiie yia?aee. Caeanue ieauoo aieiu, ?iaeaeathony i?eeeau e
ioeeau, ia?anaeathony oa/aiey, e ana yoi iaiieiaii yia?aeae.

Iaeioi?ua ec i?aaeeaaaaoeony ieaaineeo yia?aaoe/aneeo onoaiiaie iiaoo
auoue ?aaeeciaaiu, e noaoue ?aioaaaeueiuie oaea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.
Aianoa n oai neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue, /oi oai?/aneee yiooceaci, eneonnoai
e ecia?aoaoaeueiinoue iao/ii-eiaeaia?iuo ?aaioieeia oeo/oeoue
nouanoaothuea e nicaeaaeoo iiaua ia?niaeoeau aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia Ie?iaiai ieaaia

YIA?AEss AEIIANNU

E aeiianna, e?iia oaea oiiiyioouo aiaei?ineae, iiaeii oaeaea ioianoe

e i?iaeoeou aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo. Oae, 16 yiaa?y
1998

aiaea a aacaoa «Naieo Iaoa?ao?aneea Aaaeiiinoe» auea iaia/aoaia noaouey,

iiae iacaaieai «Yeaeo?e/anoai… ec eo?eiiai iii?oa» a eioi?ie
aiai?eeinue

i oii, /oi iaoiaeyuayny a oeineii ai?iaea Oaiia?a aei/a?iyy oe?ia

iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ii?aaaeneiai noaeino?ieoaeueiiai eiioea?ia Kvaerner

no?aieony iieo/eoue iiaeaea?aeeo AN aeey nii?oaeaiey a a?eoaineii

Ii?ooyiioiia yeaeo?inoaioeee, aeaenoaothuae… ia eo?eiii iiiaoa. I?iaeo

aoiaeeo a i?ia?aiio EN Thermie, eioi?ay i?aaeoniao?eaaao ?acaeoea iiauo,

iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo, enoi/ieeia yia?aee e iaoiaeia naa?aaeaiey

yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia. Eiienney AN ?ani?aaeaeeea 13 yiaa?y 140 iei

YETH n?aaee 134 i?iaeoia.

Ni?iaeoe?iaaiiay oeineie oe?iie neeiaay onoaiiaea aoaeao naeeaaoue a

oiieao 120 ouny/ oiii eo?eiiai iiiaoa a aiae, au?aaaouaay 75 iei
eeeiaaoo-/ania yia?aee.

CAEETH*AIEA.

Ca a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey iaoae oeeaeeecaoeee iiiai ?ac i?ienoiaeeea
niaia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee ia iiaua, aieaa niaa?oaiiua. E
ia iioiio, /oi noa?ue enoi/iee aue en/a?iai. Nieioea naaoeei e
iaia?aaaei /aeiaaea anaaaea: e oai ia iaiaa iaeiaaeaeu ethaee i?e?o/eee
iaiiue, ia/aee aea/ue ae?aaaneio. Caoai ae?aaaneia onooieea ianoi
eaiaiiiio oaeth. Caianu ae?aaaneiu eacaeenue aaca?aie/iuie, ii
ia?iaua iaoeiu o?aaiaaee aieaa eaei?eeiiai “ei?ia”. Ii e yoi aue
eeoue yoai. Oaieue anei?a onooiaao naia eeaea?noai ia yia?aaoe/aneii
?uiea iaooe. E aio iiaue aeoie:a iaoe aeie aaaeoueie aeaeaie oiieeaa
iiea inoathony iaooue e aac. Ii ca eaaeaeui iiaui eoaiiao?ii aaca eee
oiiiie iaooe ioaeii eaeoe ana aeaeueoa ia naaa? eee ainoie, ca?uaaoueny
ana aeoaaea a caieth. Iaioae?aii, /oi iaooue e aac aoaeoo n eaaeaeui
aiaeii noieoue iai ana aei?iaea. Caiaia? Ioaeai iiaue eeaea?
yia?aaoeee. Ei, ianiiiaiii, noaioo yaea?iua enoi/ieee. Caianu o?aia,
anee, neaaeai, n?aaieaaoue eo n caianaie oaey, a?iaea au ia noieue oae
e aaeeee. Ii caoi ia aaeeieoeo aana ii niaea?aeeo a naaa yia?aee a
ieeeeiiu ?ac aieueoa, /ai oaieue. A eoia oaeia: i?e iieo/aiee
yeaeo?iyia?aee ia AYN ioaeii cao?aoeoue, n/eoaaony, a noi ouny/ ?ac
iaiueoa n?aaenoa e o?oaea, /ai i?e ecaea/aiee yia?aee ec oaey. E
yaea?iia ai?th/aa i?eoiaeeo ia niaio iaooe e oaeth… Anaaaea auei oae:
neaaeothuee enoi/iee yia?aee aue e aieaa iiuiui. Oi auea, anee iiaeii
oae au?aceoueny, “aieinoaothuay” eeiey yia?aaoeee. A iiaiia ca ecauoeii
yia?aee /aeiaae ana aeoaaea iia?oaeaeny a noeoeeiue ie? i?e?iaeiuo
yaeaiee e aei eaeie-oi ii?u ia i/aiue caaeoiuaaeny i iineaaenoaeyo
naieo aeae e iinooieia Ii a?aiaia eciaieeenue. Nae/an, a eiioea 20
aaea, ia/eiaaony iiaue, cia/eoaeueiue yoai caiiie yia?aaoeee. Iiyaeeanue
yia?aaoeea “uaaeyuay”. Iino?iaiiay oae, /oiau /aeiaae ia ?oaee
noe, ia eioi?ii ii neaeeo. Caaioeeny ia io?aia oaea neeueii
iia?aaeaeaiiie aeinoa?u Ianiiiaiii, a aoaeouai ia?aeeaeueii n eeieae
eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey yia?aaoeee iieo/ao oe?ieea i?aaa a?aaeaeainoaa e
eeiey yenoaineaiay: ?ann?aaeioi/aiiua enoi/ieee yia?aee ia neeoeii
aieueoie iiuiinoe, ii caoi n aunieei EIAe, yeieiae/anee /enoua,
oaeiaiua a ia?auaiee. ss?eee i?eia? oiio -auno?ue noa?o
yeaeo?ioeie/aneie yia?aaoeee, eioi?oth iicaeiaa, aeaeeii, aeiiieieo
yia?aaoeea nieia/iay. Yia?aaoeea i/aiue auno?i aeeoioee?oao,
anneieee?oao, aae?aao a naay ana naiua iiaaeoea eaeae, ecia?aoaiey,
aeinoeaeaiey iaoee. Yoi e iiiyoii: yia?aaoeea naycaia aoeaaeueii ni
Anai, e Ana oyiaony e yia?aaoeea, caaeneo io iaa. Iiyoiio yia?aioeiey,
aiaei?iaeiay yia?aaoeea, einie/aneea yeaeo?inoaioeee, yia?aey,
caia/aoaiiay a aioeaauanoaa, eaa?eao, “/a?iuo aeu?ao”, aaeooia, -yoi
anaai eeoue iaeaieaa y?eea aaoe, oo?eoe, ioaeaeueiua /a?oi/ee oiai
noeaia?ey, eioi?ue ieoaony ia iaoeo aeacao e eioi?ue iiaeii iacaaoue
Caao?aoiei Aeiai Yia?aaoeee. Eaae?eiou yia?aaoeee. Oaeinoaaiiua
ia?aoiaeu, oceea, ecaeeenoua o?iiee. Iieiua caaaaeie, i?aiyonoaee,
iaiaeeaeaiiuo ica?aiee, aiieae ia/aee e ii?aaeaiee, eeeeia ?aaeinoe e
iiaaae. Oa?ieno, iai?ino, iai?yi yia?aaoe/aneee iooue /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii
iu aa?ei, /oi iu ia iooe e Y?a Yia?aaoe/aneiai Eciaeeey e /oi ana
i?aiiiu, i?aa?aaeu e o?oaeiinoe aoaeoo i?aiaeieaiu. ?anneac ia yia?aee
iiaeao auoue aaneiia/ai, iaen/eneeiu aeueoa?iaoeaiua oi?iu aa
eniieueciaaiey i?e oneiaee, /oi iu aeieaeiu ?ac?aaioaoue aeey yoiai
yooaeoeaiua e yeiiiie/iua iaoiaeu. Ia oae aaaeii, eaeiai aaoa iiaiea i
ioaeaeao yia?aaoeee, ia enoi/ieeao yia?aee, aa ea/anoaa, e
naaanoieiinoe. Iai, ii-aeaeeiiio. neaaeoao eeoue niaeaneoueny n oai,
/oi neacae o/aiue ioae?aoe, eiy eioi?iai inoaeinue iaecaanoiui: “Iao
i?inouo ?aoaiee, anoue oieueei ?acoiiue auai?”.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

A.Aieiaeei, I.Oacaiianeee “Yia?aey, aae aeaaaeoeaoue ia?aue”.
A.Aieaeei “Ieaaiu yia?aee”.

E.N. THaeanei “Yia?aaoeea: i?iaeaiu e iaaeaaeaeu”.

«Naieo-iaoa?ao?aneea aaaeiiinoe» No 08(1682) io 16.01.1998

I?EEIAEAIEss

Eiino?oeoeey i?aia?aciaaoaey oa?iaeueiie yia?aee ieaaia

Ii naiae eiino?oeoeee nenoaia caieiooiai oeeeea i/aiue i?inoa.
Ianinu inouanoaeytho oee?eoeyoeeth ?aai/ae aeeaeeinoe (aeeaeeee
i?iiai, o?aii eee aiieae) /a?ac ninoaaiua /anoe yeaeo?inoaioeee –
eiii?anni?u, o?oau e o.i. Nia/aea ?aai/ay aeeaeeinoue iiiaaeaao a
eaia?o eeiaiey. Caeanue, iaa?aaaynue io oaieie ieaaineie aiaeu, iia
i?aa?auaaony a aac. Aac ono?aieyaony a oo?aiaaia?aoi?, a?auaao aai e
au?aaaouaaao yeaeo?e/aneee oie. Iaeiaei io?aaioaiiue aac ia oaeaeyaony
ec onoaiiaee. Iinea i?ioiaeaeaiey /a?ac oo?aiaaia?aoi? ii iinooiaao
a eiiaeainaoi?, aaea eiiaeaine?oaony e naeeaeaaony. Caoai, oaea iiyoue
a aeeaeeii ninoiyiee, ?aai/ay aeeaeeinoue aiiaue iaea/eaaaony a eaia?o
eeiaiey, e oeeee iiaoi?yaony. Ii i?a?uaaaony oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea
yeaeo?inoaioeey i?ae?auaao naith aeayoaeueiinoue ec-ca ?aiiioiuo
eee ia?eiaee/aneeo i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ?aaio.

Yia?aaoe/aneea oa?iu a ieaaia

Ao?ua aiaei?inee oaea aeaaii ecaanoiu eae iieaciua ?anoaiey. Iie
eniieueciaaeenue aeey i?eaioiaeaiey i?iaaineiai ianea e yaeyeenue
eia?aaeeaioaie a i?iecaiaenoaa ieanoiann, e?anie, ea?oiia, coaiie
ianou e ieoaoaeueiie niane aeey aeeaioiuo. Ia oae aeaaii ao?ua
aiaei?inee noaee i?eaeaeaoue o/aiuo-ieaaiieiaia eae enoi/iee
iieo/aiey iaoaia. “Iu iiaeai ?annaaeeaaoue ao?ua aiaei?inee ia
ieaaineeo yia?aaoe/aneeo oa?iao, eoeueoeae?iaaoue eo, niae?aoue o?iaeae
e i?aa?auaoue caianaiioth a ieo yia?aeth a iaoai. Eae ecaanoii ao?ua
aiaei?inee ?anooo ia iaeeiaiaeuea. Aeey eieoaoeee aeia i?eoeinue
iino?ieoue aieueoie ieio, iia?oceoue ia aeoaeio 12 iao?ia, iie?uoue
aai naoueth iieei?iieeaiiauo o?inia e i?ee?aieoue aeeeiiuie eaiaoaie e
aeio ieaaia, iaoiaeyuaiony cia/eoaeueii aeoaaea. Aeey au?aueaaiey ia
yia?aaoe/aneie oa?ia aue aua?ai aeae ao?uo aiaei?ineae – Macrocystis
pyriefa (Iae?ioeenoen a?ooaaeaeiue). Yoi iaeaieueoee ii ?acia?ai aeae
ao?uo aiaei?ineae, au?anoathuee a ieaaia aei auniou, eioi?ie ia nooa
aeinoeaatho eeoue aeaaioneea naeaiee. Eae oieueei iieiaeia ?anoaiea
cae?aieony ia aeia, iii ia/eiaao ?anoe aaa?o, e naaoo. Eiaaea iii
aeinoeaaao iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu, aai ei?e/iaaua aaoae eaioaie noaeyony ii
caeeoie nieioeai iiaa?oiinoe ii?y. A yoeo-oi aaoayo e i?ienoiaeeo
i?aa?auaiea nieia/iie yia?aee a oeie/aneoth a i?ioeanna oioineioaca.

Eiiaeie?iaaiiay onoaiiaea ii i?aia?aciaaieth yia?aee

aiei e aao?a

Eiino?oeoeey aeaiiie onoaiiaee ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae: ?aca?aoa?a e
iaeeiiiie ieineinoe. Eiaaea iaeeiiiay ieineinoue iiiauaaony a ii?a,
aieiu, iaaaaay ia iaa ia?aeaouaathony e iiiaaeatho a ?aca?aoa?.
Ianiio?y ia i?inoioo eiino?oeoeee onoaiiaea aaia?e?oao
cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai yeaeo?iyia?aee. Aeaaea a oa aeie, eiaaea
aunioa aiei aeinoeaaao aeaoo iao?ia, a nei?inoue aao?a 25 ei//,
onoaiiaea iiaeao au?aaaouaaoue 1.5 iaaaaaooa. Aieii- aao?yiua
i?aia?aciaaoaee iiaoo oaeaea auoue niiioe?iaaiu ia noaeueiuo
ea?eanao, iaoiaeyueony ia i?e/aea a ea/anoaa
aieiieiiia-yeaeo?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae. Au/eneaiey iieacuaatho, /oi
iyoiaaeoeaoue oaeeo oaeeo ea?eania, eaaeaeue ii 100 iao?ia aeeeiie,
niiaoo iaania/eaaoue yeaeo?e-/anoaii ianaeaiiue ioieo n
aeaaaeoeaoeouny/iui ianaeaieai. I?e yoii iioie yia?aee aoaeao
iinoiyiiui, oae eae iaeeiiiua ieineinoe aoaeoo aaoiiaoe/anee
iiaeno?aeaaoueny iiae aunioo aiei, a ea?eanu aieiieiiia
iiai?a/eaaoueny, i?eaioe?oynue ii iai?aaeaieth aao?a e aiei.
Niaoeeaeenou ?ann/eouaatho nicaeaoue ?aaioathuoth yia?ainenoaio oaeiai
eiiaeie?iaaiiiai oeia. Oaoiieiaey aa i?inoa, iaaei?iaa e aiieia
?aaeueia. Iaiaoiaeeiua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey iaaaeeee, aieiu e aao?u
aanieaoiu.

Ono?ienoai nieia/iie oaieiaie yeaeo?inoaioeee

Aaeeinoaou (ca?eaeueiua iiaeoee) ioneaaeeaatho iieiaeaiea Nieioea e
io?aaeatho aai eo/e ia eieeaeoi? nieia/iiai eceo/aiey. Iineaaeiee
onoa-iaaeeaaaony ia eieeaeoi? e iaa?aaaao oaieiiineoaeue. Aeaeueiaeoay
ia?aaea/a oaieiaie yia?aee io eieeaeoi?a e yeaeo?iaaia?aoi?o i?ienoiaeeo
ii noaia, eniieuecoaiie ia iau/iie OYN. Yoio iaoiae “niae?aiey”
nieia/iiai eceo-/aiey, o.a. iiauoaiea eioaineaiinoe a nioie ?ac,
oaoie/anee iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaai. Ia ?enoiea oeacaiu iaeioi?ua
ia?aiao?u iiuoiie i?iiuoeaiiie NOYN ieeiaie yeaeo?e/aneie
iiuiinoueth2 IAo, i?iaeo eioi?ie ?ac?aaioai ai O?aioeee.

I?aia?aciaaoaeue yia?aee aiei, aui?yieoaeue ?annaea

Yoa onoaiiaea ?aaoee?oao aeaeaeaiea aiaeu oae, /oi iia
iinooiaao ia

oo?aeio oieueei n iaeiie noi?iiu. Ianeieueei ?aca?aoa?ia
cae?aieaiu

ia yei?yo a ioe?uoii ii?a, i?e yoii iaeioi?ua ec ieo iaoiaeyony
iaae, a

iaeioi?ua – iiae iiaa?oiinoueth aiaeu. Iaaeaeo aa?oieie

e ieaeieie ?aca?aoa?aie ?aniieiaeai oo?aiaaia?aoi?.

Aieiu iaaiiytho aiaeo a aa?oiea ?aca?aoa?u. Ioooaea iia (

/a?ac iaaica?aoiua eeaiaiu ) noaeaao aiec, i?eaiaeeo a aeaeaeaiea

oo?aiaaia?aoi?, i?iecaiaey oai naiui yeaeo?e/anoai e aueeaaaony
ia?oaeo.

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