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Aiaea…

Aiaea… 2/3 iiaa?oiinoe Caiee iie?uou aiaeie! Aiaea – aoi?ia ii
aaaeiinoe aauanoai ia Caiea, iinea eenei?iaea. Aac aiaeu, /aeiaae
iiaeao i?iaeeoue anaai o?e aeiy. Ai ac?ineii /aeiaaea i?eia?ii 78 %
aeeaeeinoe. Aiaea iaiaoiaeeia aeey ?acaeoey ?anoaiee, aini?iecaiaeyueo
eenei?iae, aeeaioiuo, eioi?ua yoio eenei?iae iio?aaeytho e ethaeae,
eioi?ua an? ii?oyo. Iaeia ec oaaaeeoaeueiaeoeo oai?ee i i?ienoiaeaeaiee
aeecie ia Caiea aeaneo, /oi “aeeciue auoea ec aiaeu” o.a. i?inoaeoea
i?aaieciu, ia?aciaaaoeany eiaiii a aiaea, a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee noaee
aieaa i?aaieciaaiiuie nouanoaaie. Yoa oai?ey aucuaaao aeiaa?ea o o/?iuo
?aciuo no?ai, oioy iaeioi?ua i?eaea?aeeaathony ae?oaeo iiaiee.

Aiaea – iniiaa aeecie ia Caiea.

ss aeoiath, /oi anai oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi ?aiiyy noaaeey yia?eiia
/aeiaaea eiaao aeaa?u, /oi e aeieacuaaao oi, /oi /aeiaae ?aiueoa aue
i/aiue naycai n aiaeie e /oi ii eiaao iauaai i?aaeea ni iiiaeie ii?neeie
aeeaioiuie. Yoi oaeaea iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iaiau/aeiay noiaeanoue yia?eiiia
?aciuo aeeaioiuo, a oii /enea e /aeiaaea. Aiiaua ana aeeaioiua i/aiue
naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie, e au? iie i/aiue oanii naycaiu n aiaeie, iioiio
/oi aiaea – yoi aeeciue, o.e. aac aiaeu ia iiaeao auoue aeecie ia Caiea.
Iaoea au? ia ecaanoii oaeia aeeaia nouanoai, eioi?ia iiaei au
iaoiaeeoueny aac aiaeu. Ie?iaie ieaai, eae eieinnaeueiia neiieaiea
aiaeu, niinianoaoao aeecie ia Caiea. Oai aieaa, /oi iniiaiie i?ioeaio
eenei?iaea ia Caiea aini?iecaiaeyo ia eana, a neia – caeaiua aiaei?inee
– iaeoathuea a ieaaia.

*oi oaeia Ie?iaie ieaai.

Noaey ii oioia?aoeyi, naeaeaiiui ec einiina, iaoae ieaiaoa aieueoa
iiaeioei au iacaaiea “Ieaai”. Auoa oaea auei neacaii, /oi 70,8 % anae
iiaa?oiinoe Caiee iie?uoi aiaeie. Eae ecaanoii ia Caiea 3 iniiaiuo
ieaaia – (auienea ec eieae “Iaoa Ieaiaoa” iiae ?aaeaeoeeae aeieoi?a
aaia?aoe/aneeo iaoe Oaiioaaaa) – Oeoee, Aoeaioe/aneee e Eiaeeeneee, ii
aioa?eoe/aneea e a?eoe/aneea aiaeu oiaea n/eoathony ieaaiaie. I?e/?i
Oeoee ieaai ii naiae ieiuaaee i?aainoiaeeo ana iaoa?eee aianoa acyoua.
Yoe 5 ieaaiia i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia iainiaeaiiua aiaeiua aannaeiu, a
aaeeiue ieaaie/aneee iannea n oneiaiuie a?aieoeaie. ?onneee aaia?ao e
ieaaiia?ao TH?ee Ieoaeeiae/ Oaeaeueneee iacaae anth iai?a?uaioth
iaiei/eo Caiee – Ie?iaui ieaaiii. Yoi nia?aiaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea. Ii
e?iia oiai, /oi eiaaea-oi ana iaoa?eee iiaeiyeenue ec aiaeu, a oo
aaia?aoe/aneoth yiioo, eiaaea ana eiioeiaiou oaea, a iniiaiii,
neiaeeeenue e eiaee i/a?oaiey, aeeceea e nia?aiaiiui, Ie?iaie ieaai
iaeaaeae ii/oe anae iiaa?oiinoueth Caiee. Yoi aue Anaeaineee iioii.
Naeaeaoaeuenoaa i aai iiaeeeiiinoe ia oieueei aaieiae/aneea e
aeaeaeneea. Aei ian aeioee ienueiaiiua enoi/ieee – ooia?neea oaaee/ee,
?anoeo?iaee caienae ae?aoeia Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa. Any iiaa?oiinoue Caiee,
ca eneeth/aieai iaeioi?uo ai?iuo aa?oei, auea iie?uoa aiaeie. A
Aa?iiaeneie /anoe iaoaai iaoa?eea aiaeyiie iie?ia aeinoeaae aeaoo
iao?ia, a ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiiai Eeoay – ieiei 70 – 80 ni.

Ieaai – ei?ieeaoe /aeiaaea.

Ieaai anaaaea ei?iee ethaeae, n iacaiaiyoiuo a?ai?i /aeiaae eiaee ?uao
e ?aeiia?aciuo, niae?ae aiaei?inee, iieethneia. I oii, eae aaee i?iiunae
?uaaee a ae?aaiinoe, ?anneacuaatho iai ianeaeueiua ecia?aaeaiey, ?enoiee
e eeoa?aoo?iua enoi/ieee. Oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi a naiae iniiaa iaoiaeu e
i?oaeey i?ea?aaeiiai eiaa ii/oe ia eciaieeinue. Oaia?ue, i?aaaea, n
?acaeoeai anaaiciiaeiuo o?aoea?ia e iaoiaeia nio?aiaiey oeiaa, aeiau/a
?uau aaae?ony ia oieueei o iiaa?aaeuey. Oae, a oieiaeiuo aiaeao naaa?iie
Aoeaioeee aaae?ony aani?a?uaiue eia naeueaee – iaeiie ec naiuo
ieoaoaeueiuo ?ua. O?anea – aoi?ie ii aaaeiinoe iauaeo i?iiuoeaiiiai
?uaieianoaa a Naaa?iie Aa?iia. THaeiaa – iaeaieaa aaaeiia cia/aiea
eiatho ?uau: iae?aeue(?iaenoaaiiay ooioeo), ii?neie ycue e eaiaaea. Yoi
oieueei ianeieueei ?ua ec oiai iiiaeanoaa ii?neeo aeeaioiuo, eioi?ua
eiaeo /aeiaae.

Ia?aua ii?aieaaaoaee.

Ii iaoe i?aaeee aeaeaee a ieaaia i?aa?aaeo e iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth
neacaoue, /oi oieueei a neeo ianoiyoaeueiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe iie
ioaaaeeeenue aueoe a ii?a. Aiciiaeii /aeiaaea oieeioee ia yoi aieaa
aaaeiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa: eciaiaiea eeeiaoe/aneie ianoaiiaee a
eaaeieeiaue ia?eiae, auioaeeaoaa aai ionoeoueny a ieaaaiea a iieneao
iiauo aieaa aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee. Iiieiay, /oi eae ieiaaoe ii ia
iiaeao iieaaaoueny ia naie neeu, /aeiaae nia/aea i?eniiniaee naaa a
iiiiuue noaieu aea?aaueaa, ia?ai?aaeyynue ia ieo ii aiaea ia iaaieueoea
?annoiyiey. Neaaeothuei oaaii auea iino?ieea ieioia, a caoai iiyaeeenue
auaeieaeaiiua ec a?aaia /aeiiee e eaiiy. Io yoeo ia?auo eiaeie e iioei
no?ieoaeuenoai ii?neeo noaeia, aa?oeiie eioi?iai yaeeinue nicaeaiea
ia?iiiuo ieaaineeo eaeia?ia e aaeaiinoeaa.

Niaa?oainoaiaaeinue eneonnoai noaeino?iaiey, e ia?aua iaaeaaoi?u
iao/eeenue aeinoaaeyoue a eoeueoo?iua oeaio?u ae?aaiaai ie?a oiaa?u ec
aeaeueieo no?ai. Ia?aua ii?neea iooaoanoaey ioiinyony e ai?acaei aieaa
?aiiaio a?aiaie, /ai i?eiyoi n/eoaoue. Aua caaeieai aei oiai, eae Aiia?
ainiae iiaeaeae Oeenna a N?aaeecaiiii ii?a, eoioeu – ii?aieaaaoaee
eo?ne?iaaee iaaeaeo E?aniui ii?ai e Ia?neaeneei caeeaii, a a?aaneea
noaea aacee n Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea a oi?aiaua oeaio?u Caiaaea oeaie,
?aaeeea ni?oa aea?aaa e ae?aaioeaiiua eaiie. Oioy cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
yoeo ia?aaicie inouanoaeyeanue ia iaeaiueeeo eaaioaaeiuo noaeaiuoeao,
oai ia iaiaa ae?aaiea ii?aieaaaoaee, ianiiiaiii, oaea aeaaii ai?icaeeee
Y?eoaeneia ii?a, eae oiaaea iacuaaee Eiaeeeneee ieaai. Aiciiaeii,
/oi i?eia?ii a oi aea a?aiy ae?aaiea ii?yee aia?aua i?iieeee a
aoeaioe/aneee ieaai, e aiieia aa?iyoii, oioy ia yoii ia nio?aieeinue
ieeaeeo caienae, /oi niaeua ii?aieaaaoaee aeiae?aeenue aei caiaaeiiai
iiaa?aaeuey Ao?eee e aeaaea ia?anaeaee Aeneaeneee caeea, iai?aaeyynue e
aa?aaai caiaaeiie O?aioeee e A?eoaiee. A 1 ouny/aeaoee aei i.y.
iiyaeythony ienueiaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaa ioiineoaeueii ia?auo iiiuoie
iiei?eoue ii?neea i?inoi?u. E ia/eiaaony y?a ii?aieaaaiey, i eioi?ie
iiaeii ?anneacuaaoue aaneiia/ii, e y eiia/ii aea ia niia au oianoeoue
ana yoi a naiai iaeaiueeii ?aoa?aoa.

Oi?inneee iaye.

A 332 – 331 aiaeao aei i.y. Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee iniiaae noieeoeo
Yeeeienoe/aneiai Aaeioa Aeaenaiae?eth. Iiiai caia/aoaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee
auei aicaaaeaii a Aeaenaiae?ee. E iei i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
Aeaenaiae?eeneee iaye ia neaeenoii ino?iaa Oi?inn aaeece aeaeueou Ieea.

Eniieueciaaiea iayeia ia/aeinue a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe e naycaii n
?acaeoeai ii?aieaaaiey. A ia/aea yoi auee eino?u, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia
aunieeo aa?aaao, a caoai eneonnoaaiiua nii?oaeaiey. Iaeii ec naie
/oaean ae?aaiaai ie?a – Aeaenaiae?eeneee eee Oi?inneee, naaoyueeny iaye
aue nii?oaeai a 283 aiaeo aei i.y. No?ieoaeuenoai yoiai aeaaioneiai
nii?oaeaiey caiyei anaai iyoue eao, /oi naii ii naaa i?eia/aoaeueii.

Aio a eaeeo no?ieao Iineaeeii, nia?aiaiiee Nie?aoa, ainiae oi?inneia
aeeai:

“E auniei ?annaeay yoe?, iiaeieiaaony aaoiy,

Anthaeo ca iiiaeanoai aa?no aeaeiay iooieeo aeiai;

Ii/ueth aea ecaeaee aeaeyo ieuaouea ii?ai ana a?aiy

Naao io aieueoiai iaiy a naiii aa?oo iayea…”

Aunioa iayea ia?iiia: ii iaeiei aeaiiui 120 iao?ia, ii iienaieyi Eai-
aeue – Naeoa ( 11 aae ) – 130 – 140 iao?ia, ii iaeioi?ui nia?aiaiiui
ioaeeeaoeeyi, aeaaea 180 iao?ia. Aeaenaiae?eeneee iaye i?inoiye ieiei
1500 eao, iany neoaeao naaoi/a, iiiiaay i?eaioe?iaaoueny
n?aaeecaiiiii?neei “eeaa?iaoin”, eae iacuaaee ei?i/eo ae?aaiea a?aee.
Iaye aeaaaeaeu no?aaeae io caieao?ynaiee, ii aai ainnoaiaaeeaaee, iiea,
iaeiiaoe, ii ia ?ac?ooeeny ec – ca auaao?eaaiey eaiiy. Iacaaiea
ino?iaa i?aa?aoeeinue a neiaie. Oi?inneee iaye – iaeii ec naie /oaean
naaoa.

Ieaaia a ieoieiaee.

Ii?a anaaaea oyioei /aeiaaea e naaa, iiaeao auoue aeaaea aieueoa, /ai
iaai. Ia ciath, anoue ee caiyoea aieaa eioa?aniia, /ai enneaaeiaaiea
ii?neeo aeoaei, aaaeue aeaaea nae/an ia oieueei aieueoeinoai oaei
ieaaia inoathony caaaaeeaie aeey ethaeae, ii e aeaeaei ia ai anao /anoyo
ieaaia iiauaae /aeiaae.

Ia ieaaia neeaaeuaaeinue e nae/an neaaaaony i/aiue iiiai eaaaiae,
ieoia. Iai?eia? a a?a/aneie ieoieiaee, Ieaai – aiaeanoai iaeiieiaiiie
?aee, iiuaathuae Caieth; Ieaai – oeoai, nui O?aia ( iaaa ) e Aae ( Caiee
) o iaai o?e ouny/e aei/a?ae – ieaaieae e noieueei aea nuiiaae – ?a/iuo
iioieia. Ecaanoai naiei ie?iethaeai e aeia?ioie, ii iiuaae a?aieoeu
iaaeaeo ie?ii aeecie e nia?oe. Iinaeaeii – aeaaeuea ii?y a?ao Caana e
Aeaea, n eioi?uie ii iiaeaeee ainiiaenoai iaae ie?ii. O?eoii – nui
Iinaeaeiia, o?eoiiaie oaeaea iacuaaee ii?neea nouanoaa, ?acayueany e
aeothuea a ?aeiaeiu, i?e nii?iaiaeaeaiee Iinaeaeiia e Aioeo?eaeu ( aai
aeaiu ). Anaaiciiaeiua ciae, /oaeeua yaeythony aa?iyie ieaaineeo
neacaiee. A iaae oaeiie i?iiaaoae Aoeaioeaeu aei neo ii? auethony
o/aiua e enneaaeiaaoaee.

Oa/aiey, aao?u, ao?e.

Ieaai i?eoyaeaae e ioaae ethaeae. Yoiio niinianoaiaaee e?ooaiey,
aeaaeue yeeiaaeae, noaeia. Ii?neea eaoano?iou ia oaeia oae e /anoia
yaeaiea, ii ia aieueoeo ei?aaeyo neiioeaio?e?iaaii oaeia eiee/anoai
ethaeae , oaoieee e a?ocia, /oi yoi n?aco noaiiaeony nainaoeeae aeey
caaae e aaaeie aeey ia?aaiiaeooiuo. Aei neo ii? ioaaao iacaaiea
Na?aanniai ii?a. *oi yoi – eiaooea? Aiaei?inee, iieaoathuea aeieua
ei?aaeae e ooyaeaathuea eo a io/eio. Iao ec yoiai ii?y auoiaea. A
aaaeue ii enneaaeiaaieyi ianeieueei neeueiuo ii?neeo oa/aiee i?ioiaeyo a
yoii ianoa ieaaia. O A. Aaeyaaa “Ino?ia iiaeaoeo ei?aaeae” nia?ae io
eieoiaianeeo ei?aaaee aei nia?aiaiiuo noia?eaeia?ia e aeeoaeae ni anae
ieaiaou. A /oi oaeia Aa?ioaeneee o?aoaieueiee?…

Ii ieaai yaeyaony ia oieueei enoi/ieeii eaaaiae e ieoia, ieaaineea
ooi?iu, oeoiaie, ao?e i?eiinyo iaiaeue oua?a ethaeyi. Ia nouanoaoao
ii?ae e ieaaiia, aaea ia auei au aiei e i?eeeaia. A aianoa n aao?aie iie
i?eiinyo aieueoea ?ac?ooaiey. Oae, a yiaa?a 1953 aiaea aunieee i?eeea,
ooi?iiaua aieiu e aaoa?, nei?inoue eioi?iai aeinoeaaea 185 eeeiiao?ia a
/an, iiaeiyee o?iaaiue Naaa?iiai ii?y ia 3 iao?a auoa iau/iiai. A
Aaeeeia?eoaiee yoi aucaaei neeueiua iaaiaeiaiea, a a Ieaea?eaiaeao
ieacaeinue caoiieaii 4,3 i?ioeaioa anae ieiuaaee no?aiu, auei
?ac?ooaii e iia?aaeaeaii aiaeie 30 ouny/ aeiiia, iiaeaei 1800 /aeiaae.
Oeoiaie eiiaaea iacuaatho i?eeeaiuie aieiaie, ii e i?eeeaai iie ieeaeiai
ioiioaiey ia eiatho. I?e/eiie ia?aciaaiey oeoiaie neoaeao, a iniiaiii,
caieao?ynaiee, a oaeaea iiaeaiaeiua iiiecie e aoeeaie/aneea ecaa?aeaiee.
A 1933 aiaeo a Oeoii ieaaia eaieoaineee iinoee aia?eeaineiai oaiea?a
“?iiaii” ieacaeny ia iaeiii o?iaia n a?aaiai ninaaeiae aieiu, e aunioo
aieiu iiiiaea au/eneeoue aua iaeia oi/ea – ia?niaay ieiuaaeea. Yoi
auea naiay aunieay aieia, eioi?oth oaeaeinue iaaethaeaoue a ioe?uoii
ii?a, e iia eiaea aunioo 34 iao?a. Iau/ii, a ioe?uoii ii?a, aunioa aiei
?aaeei i?aauoaao 60 – 90 naioeiao?ia, ii aeeeia oaeeo aiei ii?ie
aeinoeaaao nioai eeeiiao?ia, a i?e iiaeoiaea e aa?aao aunioa aieiu
iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 40 iao?ia. Naiua ?ac?ooeoaeueiua oeoiaie
ia?acothony a Oeoii ieaaia, ii iaaethaeathony iie e a Aoeaioeea. Oae
iinea caieao?ynaiey 1755 aiaea, ia?iiiay aieaia ia?ooeeanue ia
Eennaaii. A aeaea ?ac?ooeoaeueiiai aaea aunioie 4 – 6 iao?ia iia
aeinoeaea Aano – Eiaeee.

Ii?neea aeeaioiua.

Ie?iaie ieaai yaeyaony ianoii iaeoaiey ia?iiiiai eiee/anoaa ?anoaiee,
?ua e ii?neeo aeeaioiuo, a oii /enea ieaeiieoathueo. Ii naiui ne?iiiui
iiaen/aoai, aan anao aeeauo i?aaieciia a Ie?iaii ieaaia aeinoeaaao 60
-70 ieeeea?aeia oiii. A aa?oieo neiyo ieaaia (aeoaeia aei 500 iao?ia)
iaeoaao aieaa 100 ouny/ aeaeia ec 150 ouny/ ii?neeo aeeaioiuo. I?e yoii
a iaeiii eeo?a aiaeu aa?oiaai 10 – iao?iaiai neiy iaeoaao
iaeiieeaoi/iuo iee?ineiie/aneeo i?aaieciia aieaa, /ai 500 ouny/
yecaiiey?ia, a ia aeoaeia 200 iao?ia – ia iiiaei aieueoa 200 i?aaieciia.

Iieaciua eneiiaaiua.

Ieaaiu iaeaaeatho ia?iiiuie caianaie iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. Naia ii?neay
aiaea niaea?aeeo ii/oe ana oeie/aneea yeaiaiou, ii iiiaea ec ieo – a
noieue ieceeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo, /oi noieiinoue eo ecaea/aiey ai?acaei
auoa noieiinoe aeiau/e oao aea yeaiaioia ia nooa.

Ec ii?neie aiaeu a i?iiuoeaiiuo ianooaaao ecaeaeatho eeoue iaiiiaea
aauanoaa, a eiaiii: iau/ioth iiaa?aiioth nieue, iaaiee e a?ii.

Nieue iieo/aee ec ii?y n aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ieiei 33 i?ioeaioia ie?iaie aeiau/e niee i?eoiaeeony ia aeieth ii?neie
aiaeu.

Iaaiee – iacaiaieiay ninoaaeythuay eaaeeo nieaaia, i?eiaiyaony a
naiieaoi – e ?aeaoino?iaiee. A 1939 aiaeo aiaee/aiaie aue ?ac?aaioai
oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann ioaeaeaiey iaaiey a oi?ia aeae?ieneaea iinea
niaoeaaiey n ii?neie aiaeie ecaanoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaiee,
iieo/aaiue ec ii?neie aiaeu, ninoaaeyao aieaa 60 i?ioeaioia aai
aaeaaiaeiie ie?iaie i?iaeoeoeee.

A?ii – yeaiaio, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey oioia?aoee, oa?iaoeaaoe/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?iecaiaenoaa aunieiieoaiiaiai aaiceia, – oiaea a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aeiauaaaony ec aiaeu. Iiieii ?ano?nia,
caeeth/aiiuo a naiie aiaea, nouanoaaiiia eiee/anoai ieia?aeia aeaao
yenieoaoaoeey ieaaineiai aeia e aieueooth /anoue eo aeiauaatho aaeece
aa?aaiaie eeiee eee iaeeiaiaeiuo ciiao eiioeiaioaeueiiai oaeueoa. Ianie,
a?aaee e ecaanoiye, eniieuecoaiua a no?ieoaeuenoaa iieo/atho n ieyaeae
eee ec i?ea?aaeiuo aiae. Aaaeiia cia/aiea oaeaea i?eia?aoaao aeiau/a
iaoa?eaeia n ii?neiai aeia ia iaeeiaiaeuea. Aie?oa ssiiiee
ionanuaatho ii o?oaai iiaeaiaeiua aeaeaciniaea?aeauea ianee, ssiiiey
ieiei 20 i?ioeaioia oaey aeiauaaao ec iiaeaiaeiuo oaoo. Iaae caeaaeaie
oaey nii?oaeatho eneonnoaaiiue ino?ia e ao?yo noaie, ane?uaathuee
oaieueiua ieanou. Ia/eiay n 1962 aiaea aaaaeoony ?ac?aaioee aeiaciiai
a?aaey aaeece aa?aaia Iaieaee. Ni aeia Iaeneeaineiai caeeaa n
iiiiuueth ia?aa?aoie aiaeu auoaieeaaaony na?a. Na?iia ianoi?iaeaeaiea
auei ioe?uoi oai i?e iieneao iaooe. Iaooue e aac yaeythony naiuie
aaaeiuie aeaeaie ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey, aeiauaaaiiai ia ii?neii aeia, e
ianiio?y ia o?oaeiinoe, oaea nae/an ieiei 20 i?ioeaioia ie?iaie aeiau/e
iaooe i?eoiaeyony ia ii?neea ?ac?aaioee e ii ia?a enoiuaiey iaooyiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee ia nooa, yoa aeiey aoaeao aic?anoaoue. Iaooue, e?iia
oiai, neoaeeo nu?ueai aeey iaooaoeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
i?iecaiaeyuae ieanoiannu, neioaoe/aneea aieieia e iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo
i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, a oii /enea eaea?noa, ianoeoeeaeia e
aeaoa?aaioia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yooaeoeaii aaaeoony iiaeaiaeiua
?ac?aaioee ia aanueia cia/eoaeueiuo aeoaeiao.

*aeiaae iiae aiaeie.

N ae?aaieo a?aiai /aeiaae no?aieeny iiciaoue iiaeaiaeiue ie?. Aua
Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee (356 – 323 aiaeu aei i.y.) iia?oaeaeny a ii?a
a aieueoii noaeeyiiii ninoaea, a a naieo aiaiiuo iia?aoeeyo i?eaaaae e
iiiiue iu?yeueueeia (iai?eia? i?e inaaea Oe?a a 334 aiaeo aei i.y.).
Naiua ?aiiea oiiieiaiey i aiaeieaciuo aiia?aoao ioiinyony e 16 aaeo.
Oaeea aiia?aou i?aaenoaaeyee niaie eeoaiiua aeia eieieiea, a eioi?ua
ii o?oaai iinooiae aicaeoo. Ia?aue eieieie, aiauaaoee a naay aieaa
iaeiiai aiaeieaca aue iino?iai a 1690 aiaeo Yaeiiiaeii Aaeeaai (1656 –
1742 a.a.). Oi?ioi ecaanoiue iai aiaeieaciue einothi n iaoaeee/aneei
oeaiii, neiino?oe?iaaiiue aiaee/aieiii A.Ceaa, aua a 1837 aiaeo oe?iei
eniieuecoaony i?e iiaeaiaeiuo ?aaioao ia aeoaeiao aei 60 iao?ia. A 1943
aiaeo AEae Ea Eonoi e Yieeue Aaiueyi ecia?aee aeaaeaia, eioi?ue naeaeae
aiaeieaca cia/eoaeueii iiaeaeaeiaa. A 1620 aiaeo Ei?iaeeon aai
Ae?aaaaeue iino?iee iaeio ec ia?auo iiaeaiaeiuo eiaeie. I?eaiaeeiay a
aeaeaeaiea aeaaaeoeaoueth a?aaoeaie, iia ieaaaea ii Oaica ia aeoaeia 5
iao?ia. N 60-o aiaeia iaoaai aaea iiaeaiaeiua noaea noaee i?eiaiyoueny
aeey iiaeaiaeiuo iaaethaeaiee e iiaeaiaeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. N 1973
aiaea iiaeiaiua noaea eniieuecothony i?e iiaeaiaeiie aeiau/a iaooe e
aaca aeey iniio?a o?oaii?iaiaeia, ?aiiioa e ianeoaeeaaiey ieaooi?i.
Na?ueaciua iiiuoee enneaaeiaaoue aieueoea aeoaeiu auee ia/aou a 1930
aiaeo, eiaaea o Aa?ioaeneeo ino?iaia Ioen Aa?oii e Oeeueyi Aea a
aaoenoa?a -noaeueiii oa?a, iioneaaiii n ei?aaey ia o?ina,
iia?oceeenue aei aeoaeiu 425 iao?ia. 23 yiaa?y 1960 aiaea AEae Ieeea? e
Aeiiaeueae Oieo a aaoeneaoa “ O?eano” aeinoeaee aeoaeiu 10917 iao?ia
ia aeia aiaaeeiu *aeeaiaeaea? a Ia?eaineii aeaeiaa.

Eniieueciaaiea ieaaineeo iaae?.

Oe?iei i?eiaiythony niiniau aeiau/e oaey, iaooe e aaca n ii?neiai
aeia, aaea oieueia oaa?aeiai iie?iaa aei caeaaeae oiiueoa, /ai ia
iiaa?oiinoe caiee, e yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue /aeiaaeo aieaa aeaoaauie
n?aaenoaaie iieo/eoue iieaciua eneiiaaiua.

Nia?aiaiiue o?iaaiue oeeaeeecaoeee e oaoiieiaee aue au iaiuneei aac
oie aeaoaaie e iaeeueiie yia?aee, eioi?oth i?aaeinoaaeyao iai iaooue e
aac, aeiauaaaiua ni aeia ii?ae e ieaaiia. A oi aea a?aiy ia Eanieeneii
ii?a, ia iiaa?aaeuea A?aaneeo Yie?aoia e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo ianoao
i?aeoe/anee oie/oiaeaiu i?e?iaeiue eaiaeoaoo, eco?iaeiaaia aa?aaiaay
eeiey, caa?yciaia aoiinoa?a e eno?aaeaiu oei?a e oaoia.

?aoeoue i?iaeaio yia?aaoe/aneiai e?ecena ia ii?neeo e ieaaie/aneeo
iiaa?aaeueyo iiiiaatho yeaeo?inoaioeee, ?aaioathuea ia yia?aee i?eeeaia
e ioeeaia. Oaeaea n iiiiuueth i?eaiaa ?aaioatho iaeueieoeu. Nouanoaotho
i?iaeou, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui ia iio?aaoaony ono?ienoai ieioei, yoeo
no?aoiuo o?iiaia ia ?aeao, aeey iaeiieaiey aiaeu – a oii /enea ieoueaaie
e ia?anoaiao oa?iaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue ono?ienoaa iaaiaeiuo eaiaeia –
eaaeieee Naaa?iiai ieaaia iiaoo iaiieoue ionouie.

Eno?aaeaiea ii?neeo aeeaioiuo.

Ca iineaaeiea 100 eao a Ie?iaii ieaaia aeiauoi aieaa 2,1 ieeeeiia
eeoia. Aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey e ia?aie/aiey eeoiaieiiai i?iiunea a 1964
aiaeo auea nicaeaia Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eeoiaieiay eiienney, aeeth/aaoay
i?aaenoaaeoaeae 20 no?ai. Ii i?eiyoui i?aaeeai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
niaeaoaiey cai?auaia ioioa ia iaeioi?ua aeaeu eeoia. A 1972 aiaeo
aiaeeeneee enneaaeiaaoaeue I.A. Iaeaioio iiaen/eoae, /oi a Aioa?eoeea
caianu oaiaaeia (aeae eeoia) oiaiueoeeenue a 5 ?ac, neieo a 25, a
ai?aaouo a 30 ?ac. Ana yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueiie
ia?ie nianaiey eeoia aue au iauee cai?ao eeoiaieiiai i?iiunea. O/aiua
iin/eoaee, /oi aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey aioa?eoe/aneeo noaae neieo eeoia aei
150 ouny/ aieia iio?aaoaony ieieioi 50 eao, a aeey ?inoa noaaea ai?aaouo
eeoia aei 27 ouny/ aieia ieieioi 60 eao. Yoe naaaeaiey oieueei i eeoao,
a oaia?ue i?aaenoaaueoa naaa neieueei eaaeaeue aeaiue aeaiao ae?oaeo
ii?neeo aeeaioiuo: otheaiae, ii?neeo eioeeia, ?uau… *anoue eo
eno?aaeyaony, /anoue oie?aao io yeieiae/aneie caa?yciaiiinoe. Iiiaea
aeaeu ii?neeo aeeaioiuo iioa?yiu aeey ian iaanaaaea…

Yeieiae/aneia caa?yciaiea.

Aei ii?u aei a?aiaie /aeiaae ioiineeny e ieaaiai n aeaaiaiaaieai e
no?aoii, a iioii ia/ae na?anuaaoue a aiaeo anaaiciiaeiua iooiaeu –
oaa?aeua, aeeaeeea e aaciia?aciua. Ia?ioiaeu e aa?aee oaicyo oaa?aeue
ioni? iiaeaeueoa a ii?a.

*a?ac ai?o ei?aaey aua?anuaathony iooiaeu ec eaiaoca, i?yii a ii?a
neeaatho aiaeo ec ooaeaoa. ?aee auiinyo a i?ea?aaeiua aiaeu naie a?oc
noi/iuo aiae, aeiaaiiuo aauanoa e acaaoaiiiai oa??aeiai iaoa?eaea.
Ianoeoeeaeu, niaaeeiaiey naeioea e iiiaea ae?oaea caa?yciythuea
aauanoaa, iieethoaiou, ?aciinyony a aoiinoa?a, inaaeatho e auiaaeatho
aianoa n aeiaeae?i, aeiaaaeyy a?ycue a ieaai.

Ooa/ea iaooe.

Iaooue e aiaea ia niaoeaathony, a a ieaai neo/aeii eee i?aaeiaia?aiii
aaeaaiaeii neeaaaony ianeieueei ieeeeiiia oiii iaooai?iaeoeoia. Iniaaiii
aeo?iie neaaie iieuecothony aaa?eeiua ?aceeau iaooe. A 1967 aiaeo a
?acoeueoaoa e?ooaiey oaiea?a “ Oi??e Eaiueii ” ii/oe 100 ouny/ oiii
nu?ie iaooe, iiiaa a aiaeo aeec iuna Eaiaenyiae, iie?uee iiiaea
eeeiiao?u aiaeeeneiai e o?aioeocneiai iiaa?aaeuey oienoui neiai /??iie
a?yce e iiaoaeee iiiai ouny/ ii?neeo ioeoe; iniaaiii iino?aaeaee oa,
eioi?ua aeiauaatho ieuo n iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu, eae iai?eia?, – /enoee.
E?ooaiey oaiea?ia i?ienoiaeyo aaeaaiaeii. Eiiaaea yoi neo/aaony a oi?iuo
ianoao, eae noieeiiaaiea “ Ianeoee Aei?e ” e “ Aeeaa?i ” a i?ieeaa
Ea-Iaio a 1970 aiaeo, a eiiaaea a ioae?iiuo ianoao, eae e?ooaiea oaiea?a
“Iaooeea ” a Iaaaaeaiiaii i?ieeaa a 1974 aiaeo. Ii ai anao neo/ayo
a?iiaaeiua iyoia iaooe iaaeeaiii ?anoaeathony ii iiaa?oiinoe ieaaia.
Nouanoaotho e ae?oaea aeaeu neo/aeiie ooa/ee. Iaeei ec naiuo e?oiiuo
aua?inia iaooe i?iecio?e a 1969 aiaeo i?e i?iaaaeaiee iiaeaiaeiiai
ao?aiey iaaeaeaei io iiaa?aaeuey Eaeeoi?iee, aeec ai?iaea Naioa –
Aa?aa?a. Aianoa n ?inoii ?acia?ia oaiea?ia, oaaee/eaathony e aaa?eeiua
neeau iaooe a ieaai. Ii i?e aaa?eyo a? aueeaaaony an? aea iaiueoa, /ai
i?e aacioaaonoaaiiuo aeaenoaeyo yeeiaaeae. Aeaei a oii, /oi oaiee
iaooaia?aeeaiuo noaeia i?iiuaatho ii?neie aiaeie, eioi?oth iioii
aueeaatho ca ai?o. Iaeiaei aieueoa anaai ii?a caa?yciyaony
iaooai?iaeoeoaie, iinooiathueie n nooe, – iooiaeaie i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee e aaoiiiaeeueiuo aeaeaaoaeae. I?iaeoeou nai?aiey ia?aaeei
aac ?acai?a na?anuaathony a ii?a eee auiinyony ooaea ?aeaie.

Caa?yciaiea ieaaia iai?aaie/aneeie aauanoaaie.

Caa?yciaiea ii?y iaooai?iaeoeoaie aucuaaao aaniieienoai, ii iaooue,
a neeo naiaai i?aaie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ni a?aiaiai iiaeao an? –
oaee auoue ia?a?aaioaia ii?neeie i?aaieciaie, a aio oaeea oyae?eua
iaoaeeu, eae naeiaoe, eaaeiee e ?oooue, nio?aiytho oiene/iinoue
aaneiia/ii aeieai. I?e/ai ii?neea i?aaieciu aeaeatho eo au? aieaa
yaeiaeouie. Aeieaia a?aiy n/eoaeinue, /oi oiene/iinoue ?oooe, iiiaaoae a
i?ea?aaeiua aiaeu ssiiiee, ia i?aaenoaaeyaony iianiie. Iaeiaei caeanue
i?iecioei i?aa?auaiea ?oooe a iaoeeiaoth ?oooue, neeueiaeoee yae,
aoaeoaeueii aeaenoaothuee ia ia?aioth nenoaio. Eae yoi ia?aaeei
neo/aaony, yae eiioeaio?e?iaaeny a ?uaa e iieethneao, oiio?aaeyaiuo a
ieuo, e aucuaae aniuoee aieacie, ecaanoiie oaia?ue, eae aieaciue
Ieieiaoa; i?e/eiu, ii?iaeeaoea a?, ii/oe aeanyoeeaoea inoaaaeenue
iaauyniaiiuie. A caeeaa Ieieiaoa e a iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aoooao ssiiiee,
aaea ?oooue an? au? inoa?ony a ii?neie aiaea, ?uaieiaiue i?iiunae
ieeiaaea oaia?ue ia aoaeao aaciianai.

Iaeiaei aaaenoaey, i?e/eiyaiua caa?yciaieai ieaaia, iiea au? iaei
eiai aieiotho. Iio?aaiaaeinue iiiai oneeee, /oiau onoaiiaeoue i?e/eio
ia/aeueii ecaanoiie ianniaie aeaaee ii?neeo ioeoe a E?eaiaeneii ii?a. A
eiioea eiioeia auynieeinue, /oi aeiie anaio iieeoei?eaeoaieeu –
i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, iinoiyiii na?anuaaaiua i?iiuoeaiiuie noi/iuie
aiaeaie a ynooa?ee ?aee Eeaeae. Iaeioi?ua ec oiene/aneeo aauanoa,
iiiaaeathueo a ii?a, ia?aiinyony i/aiue aeaeaei io enoi/ieea
caa?yciaiey, aea e oiio aea ?uau e ioeoeu iiaoo ?aciineoue neeueiaeoea
einaeoeoeeaeu a naiua ioaeaeaiiua oaieee caiiiai oa?a. A aeaaea nianai
iacia/eoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea, iai?eia?, ia/aeueii ecaanoiiai AeAeO
iiaeao inoaiiaeoue oioineioac, ea?athuee aaaeioth ?ieue ia oieueei a
aeecie ii?neeo aiaei?ineae, ii e a eenei?iaeiii aaeaina Caiee.

?aaeeiaeoeaiia caa?yciaiea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaiciiaeii naeaeaoue iaci? yeieiae/aneeo iineaaenoaee
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai caa?yciaiey, iineieueeo yoa i?iaeaia, neieue iaaeaaii
aicieeoay, noieue e neiaeiay. Yoi caa?yciaiea aicaeaenoaoao aeaaiui
ia?acii einaaiiui iooai ( aaiaoe/aneea, eaioea?iaaiiua iineaaenoaey e
o.ae.) e cao?aaeaaao a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeieiaeth /aeiaaea.

Iau/ii iaoeeiiaeueiua eioa?anu io?aiythony aieaa ?aaiinoii, /ai ”
Iauaa aeinoiyiea anaai /aeiaa/anoaa “, e iiea ia oneeeony
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai, ieaai aoaeao neoaeeoue naaeeie aeey
noi/iuo aiae, oaa?aeuo iooiaeia, ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa e i?i/eo
ioa?inia oeeaeeecaoeee. A /oi aoaeao, eiaaea yaea?iua iooiaeu auaa?oony
ec caoi/aiey, iia?aaaiiua ia aeia ieaaiia a eiioaeia?ao.

Enneaaeiaaoaeueneea yeniaaeeoeee.

Enneaaeiaaiea, aa?iaa iaaeinoaoie aai – aeaaiay i?iaeaia ieaaiia. Aeey
eco/aiey Ie?iaiai ieaaia i?aaieciauaaeenue yeniaaeeoeee, auee e
niaeue/aee -iaeeii/ee. Iaeiie ec naiuo ecaanoiuo i?ia?aii eco/aiey
ieaaia auee yeniaaeeoeee Oo?a Oaea?aeaea. Yoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeeiaaee
iino?ieee ii ?enoieai, iaeaeaiiui a Ae?aaiai Aaeioa noaea ec o?inoieea e
iaie?ona. Naycaa eo iniaui niiniaii, iie niaa?oeee aeeeoaeueiua ii?neea
ia?aoiaeu ia ei?aaeyo” ?a-1 ” e ” ?a-2 “, aeieacaa, /oi ae?aaiea
aaeioyia iiaee ieaaaoue ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey.

AEae Ea Eonoi ni naiae eiiaiaeie aiineo ia?iiiue aeeaae a aeaei
eco/aiey ieaaia. Aai io/aou iu iiaeai aeaeaoue ii oaeaaeci?o, a o/aiua
iieuecothony aai i?iaaie e eaai?aoi?iuie enneaaeiaaieyie.

Aiaea – nayuaiiay iniiaa aeecie.

Aiaea – eae nayuaiiay iniiaa aeecie i?enoonoaoao a ?eooaeao anao
?aeeaee ie?a. Iai?eia?, e?auaiea: /aeiaaea iioneatho a aiaeo eee
iieeaatho aiaeie naa?oo… Nayoay aiaea, ii-iiaio, oae aea ia
neo/aeiinoue. O iiiaeo ia?iaeia ianoi aie?oa enoi/ieea n/eoaaony
nayuaiiui. E?aeneea aceaeu ( iniaay ?aeeaeiciay naeoa ) aiiaua ieeiaaea
ia iithony, iieaaay a?aoii ia/eaoue aiaeo i a?yciua oaea. A ioee/ea io
ieo ae?aoiaienou e aoaeaeenou aa?yo, /oi iiuaaiea a aiaeao Aaiaa aea?oao
caei?iauea oaeo e i/euaao aeooo.

I?aaeinoa?aaeaiea.

A oaia?ue y oi/o i?eaanoe no?iee ec Aiieaeeinena: “… E acye Aiaae
eaaeeeueieoeo, e iaiieiee aa iaiai n aea?oaaiieea, e iiaa?a ia Caieth: e
i?iecioee aieina e a?iiu, e iieiee e caieao?ynaiea.

E naiue Aiaaeia eiathuea naiue o?oa i?eaioiaeeenue o?oaeoue.

… O?aoee Aiaae aino?oaee, e oiaea n iaaa aieueoay caacaea, ai?yuay
iiaeiaii naaoeeueieeo, e iaea ia o?aoueth /anoue ?ae e ia enoi/ieee
aiae. Eiy nae caacaeu ” iieuiue “; e o?aouey /anoue aiae naeaeaeanue
iieuiueth, e iiiaea ec ethaeae oia?ee io aiae, iioiio /oi iie noaee
ai?ueee.

… Iyoue Aiaae aino?oaee, e y oaeaeae caacaeo, iaaeooth n iaaa ia
Caieth, e aeai ae aue eeth/ io eeaaeacy aacaeiu. Iia ioai?eea eeaaeycue
aacaeiu, e auoae aeui ec eeaaeacy, eae aeui ec aieueoie ia/e; e
iii?a/eeinue nieioea e aicaeoo io aeuia ec eeaaeacy. E ec aeuia auoea
na?ai/a ia caieth, e aeaia auea ae aeanoue, eaeoth eiatho caiiua
nei?ieiiu.

E neacaii auei ae /oi – au ia aeaeaea a?aaea o?aaa caiiie, e ieeaeie
caeaie, e ieeaeiio aea?aao, a oieueei iaeiei ethaeyi, eioi?ua ia eiatho
ia/aoe Aiaeeae ia /aeao naieo. E aeaii ae auei ia oaeaaoue eo, a oieueei
io/eoue iyoue ianyoeaa; e io/aiea io iaa iiaeiaii io/aieth io nei?ieiia,
eiaaea oaeaeeo /aeiaaea. A oa aeie ethaee aoaeoo eneaoue nia?oe, ii ia
iaeaeoo aa; iiaeaeatho oia?aoue, ii nia?oue oaaaeeo io ieo… ”

Ana oi, i /ai aiai?eony a Aiieaeeinena – i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea ethaeyi, ii
i?e oaeii ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuaio aai ie?o, eae nae/an, yoi
i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea iiaeao noaoue ?aaeueiinoueth ai?acaei ?aiueoa, /ai
iiaei au auoue…

ss caeii/ee, iaaa?iia, ia nianai oie oaiie… Ii iu ana ?aaii aeieaeiu
iiiieoue, /oi ieaai – iao aeii, ec iaai iu auoee e anee iu ” oaueai ”
aai, oi iu oaueai – naie naay…

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Aeaeey.

2. Iaoa Ieaiaoa; Iineaa; 1985 aiae.

3. A.Ai?aianeee; Caaaaeee Ae?aaiaeoae enoi?ee; Iineaa; 1971 aiae.

4. No?aiu e ia?iaeu; Iineaa; 1985 aiae.

5. Iuea? Aaann; Eeth/e e yeieiaee; Eaieia?aae; 1982 aiae.

6. ?.Ey??eiaoii; Aeieiaey ii?y; Eaieia?aae; 1966 aiae

7. A.C.*a?iye; Naiue /oaean e ae?oaea; Iineaa; 1983 aiae.

8. O?aioe Uaaae; Aa?eaoeee ia oaio iaeiie ieaiaou; 1972 aiae.

9. A.A.Oiieeei; A ie?a eeoia e aeaeueoeiia; Iineaa; 1976 aiae.

10. Oieueei Eoeee/e; Ieaai; Iineaa; 1976 aiae.

11. AEi?ae Aeii; Aaeeeee /an ieaaiia – Aoeaioe/aneee; Iineaa; 1978
aiae.

12. AEi?ae Aeii; Aaeeeee /an ieaaiia – N?aaeecaiiia ii?a; Iineaa;
1978 aiae.

13. Oo? Oaea?aeae; Iooaoanoaea ia ” Eii – Oeee “; Aeia – Aoa; 1960
aiae.

14. AEae Ea Eonoi e Oeeeii Aeiea; Iiao/ee aeanoaeei ii?ae; Iineaa;

1982 aiae.

15. A.I.Noaiaiia; I?e?iaea Ie?iaiai ieaaia; Iineaa; 1982 aiae.

16. Aa?aa?o Aano; Eanoiiiaea ieiaoeu; Eaieia?aae; 1966 aiae.

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