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Микроклимат пещеры Мраморная и формы антропогенного влияния

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NIAeA?AEAIEA

Aaaaeaiea

1. Oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneea oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey ea?noiauo iieinoae
*aou?-Aeaaa.

1.1.Oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea iaua?u I?aii?iay.

1.2.Ii?oiaaiacen iaua?u I?aii?iay.

2. Enoi?ey ioe?uoey e iai?oaeiaaiey iaua?u I?aii?iay.

3. Iaoiaeeea iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo iaaethaeaiee.

Eniieuecoaiay oa?ieiieiaey.

Oeaee e caaea/e enneaaeiaaiey.

I?iaaaeaiea iaaethaeaiee.

I?eai?u aeey iaaethaeaiee.

4. Oa?aeoa?enoeea e iiieoi?eia iee?ieeeiaoa iaua?u.

4.1 Aeae?ioeie/aneay e oaiia?aoo?iay oa?aeoa?enoeea aiae iaua?u.

4.2 Oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa.

4.3 Aeaaeiinoue.

4.4 Niaea?aeaiea NI2 a aicaeooa iaua?u.

4.5 Aaci?oooiay nuaiea.

4.6 ?acoeueoaou iee?iaeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee.

4.7 ?acoeueoaou ?aaeeiiao?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee.

5. Aio?iiiaaiiua oaeoi?u, ieacuaathuea aeeyiea ia iee?ieeeiao

iaua?u.

6. Ia?u i?aaeioa?auaiey io?eoeaoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey aio?iiiaaiiuo

oaeoi?ia ia iee?ieeeiao iaua?u.

Caeeth/aiea

AAAAeAIEA

Niaeaieiaey – yoi iiaia iao/iia iai?aaeaiea, eioi?ia auaeaeeeinue ec
ea?noieiaee e i?aaenoaaeyao eiiieaen iaoee, caieiathueeny eco/aieai
iieinoae a caiiie ei?a, aeinooiiuo aeey /aeiaaea e oa?aeoa?ecothueony
niaoeeoe/aneei eaiaeoaooii.

Iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo, ii iiea aua neaai?ac?aaioaiiuo aaoaae niaeaieiaee
– yoi niaeaieeeiaoieiaey eee o/aiea i iee?ieeeiaoa ea?noiauo iieinoae.
Iniiau niaeaieeeiaoieiaee auee caeiaeaiu ?aaioaie TH.Eenoiaa (1885),
A.E?oaa?a (1915), A.Ee?ea (Kyrle, 1922), A.Aieueoa ( Wolf, 1929) e ?yaea
ae?oaeo enneaaeiaaoae ae.

60-80 a.a. auee aiaeaie iaeiieaiey oaeoia,niaa?oainoaiaaiey
iaoiaeee,iinoaiiaee iao/iuo i?iaeai. E oieueei a eiioea 80-o aiaeia
noaee iiyaeyoueny iao/iua ?aaiou a iaeanoe niaeaieeeiaoieiaee e naiaeee
ii iee?ieeeiaoo ioaeaeueiuo ea?noiauo ?aaeiiia.

Noaoeeiia?iua ,aeieaia?aiaiiua iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea iaaethaeaiey a
ioaeaeueiuo iieinoyo ia oa??eoi?ee E?uia, i?aeoe/anee ia aaeenue. Ii
yoiio i?aaiecaoeey iiieoi?eiaa oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaeu iaua?u
I?aii?iay yaeyaony ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue aaeeinoaaiiie a ea?noiaii
?aaeiia E?uineiai iieoino?iaa.

I?aaiecaoeey nenoaiiuo, aeieaia?aiaiiuo iaaethaeaiee ca
oeceei-aaa?aoe/aneie n?aaeie ea?noiaie iieinoe, eae ca neiaeiie,
iiiaia?aiiie aeeiaie/aneie nenoaiie yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai i?e
i?aaiecaoeee iauaeoia aai-yeieiae/aneiai e niaeai-oo?ecia .Ie?iaie iiuo
i?aaiecaoeee iiaeiaiuo iauaeoia oo?ecia a oaeeo anaie?ii ecaanoiuo
iaua?ao eae Iaiiioiaa-Oeeio-?eaeae, Ea?enaaaeneay a NOA; Iinoieinea yia
, Iaoeioa a Neiaaiee e o.ae. iieacuaaao, /oi iiieoi?eia iaua?iie n?aaeu
aeieaeai aeeth/aoue iiiai ?aciiia?aciuo ia?aiao?ia, ii iaeiei ec naiuo
aaaeiuo yaeyaony iee?ieeeiao iaua?u. Iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey,
yaeythony iaeaieaa oycaeiuie a aeeiaie/aneii iiaecaiiii eaiaeoaooa, ii
yoiio o?aaotho naiiai aeaoaeueiiai eco/aiey.

Oeaeueth ianoiyuae ?aaiou yaeyaony iiaeaioiaea oa?aeoa?enoeee
iee?ieeeiaoa a iaua?a I?aii?iay, auyaeaiea e ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie
aeeyiey ia iaai aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia, ia iniiaaiee ?aaeeiiuo
iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo, iee?iaeieiae/aneeo, aeae?i – oeie/aneeo, aaieiai –
ieia?aeiae/aneeo iaaethaeaiee.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee iaiaoiaeeii auei ?aoeoue ?yae caaea/.

Ai-ia?auo : i?aaiecaoeey ?aaoey?iiai nai?a e nenoaiaoe/aneie ia?aaioee
iieacaiee i?eai?ia;

ai-aoi?uo : iiaeai? niaoeeaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo i?ia?aii aeey
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo e eiiiuethoa?iay ia?aaioea iaoa?eaea;

a- o?aoueeo : auyaeaiea iaeaieaa cia/eiuo oaeoi?ia aio?iiiaaiiiai
aeeyiey ia iee?ieeeiao iaua?u;

a- /aoaa?ouo : aiaeec iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue oio oaeo , /oi nae/an iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iai?oaeiaaiey e io?aiu iaua?u I?aii?iay ia aucuaaao ieeaeiai niiiaiey, a
ia ia/aeueiii yoaia ?aaio ii inaiaieth iaua?u Neioa?iiieueneei eeoaii
niaeaieiaia auneacuaaeenue iiaiey ioaeaeueiuo niaeieiae/aneeo eeoaia i
yeiau iaainiieieiii ,ono?auathueo ?acia?ia, oua?aa iaianaiiii iaua?a
I?aii?iay a ?acoeueoaoa iiaeiaiuo aeaenoaee. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ,
ec ie?iaiai e ioa/anoaaiiiai iiuoa e i?aeoeee ynii, /oi iai?oaeiaaiea
e io?aia iaua?u eae oieeaeueiaeoaai iaiyoieea i?e?iaeu aeey
yeneo?neiiiiai i?aaieciaaiiiai, no?iai eiio?iee?oaiiai iinauaiey,
yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui niiniaii oaa?a/ue aa io ?aca?aaeaiey e
iaeni?aaeiiai ia?ooaiey aa aeeiaie/aneie nenoaiu. Ii yoiio
,iieiinoueth ecaaaeaoue aio?iiiaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa iaaiciiaeii a
ethaii neo/aa, ia caaeneii io oiai iai?oaeiaaia iaua?a eee iao (
ia/aeueii ecaanoai iiuo ieeai ia io?aiyaiuo iaua?, eioi?ua aa?aa?nee
caa?yciaiu e ?ac?ooaiu).

I?e iiaeaioiaea ?aaiou eniieueciaaia ?aciiia?aciay ioa/anoaaiiay e
ca?oaaaeiay eeoa?aoo?a ii aeaiiie i?iaeaia, a oii /enea ?aiaa
iioaeeeiaaiiua noaouee A.I. Aeoaeyineiai ( 1969, 1982, 1985) , E.I.
Nioeeiaie ( 1977, 1981. 1982 ,1989), A.A. Aao?ooaaa (1978) , TH.E.Oooiaa
(1969,1971, 1992) , iao/iua io/aou ea?noiaie eiiennee i?e AI ONN? (
1994), ioaeaea ea?noa EI? AI ONN? (1996) ii iaua?a I?aii?iay , Eeaaneiai
ea?noieiai-niaeaieiae/aneiai oeaio?a (1994,1996).

1.Oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneea oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey ea?noiauo iieinoae
*aou?-Aeaaa.

Aeaaiay a?yaea E?uineeo ai?, e eioi?ie ioiineony *aou?aeaaneee iannea,
niioaaonoaoao naaa?iie /anoe iaaaioeeeeii?ey Ai?iiai E?uia. A ?ac?aca
Aeaaiie a?yaeu /aoei i?ineaaeeaathony aeaa no?oeoo?iuo yoaaea. Ieaeiee
yoaae neaaatho neiaeii aeeneioee?iaaiiua ii?iaeu oaa?e/aneie na?ee –
a?aeee n i?ineiyie aeaa?ieeoia e ian/aieeia aa?oiaai o?eana e ieaeiae
th?u e caeaaathuay ia ieo n ianiaeaneai aoeeaiiaaiiay oieua, a?aeeeeou
e ian/aieee n?aaeiae th?u. Aiaeioii?iue oeieieue Aeaaiie a?yaeu ia
?aciuo ianneaao iaoiaeeony ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo, /oi ii?aaeaeyao oneiaey
aeaeaeaiey iiaecaiiuo aiae e ?acaeoea ea?noa a ea?aiiaoiuo ii?iaeao
aa?oiaai no?oeoo?iiai yoaaea. Ia *aou?aeaaa aiaeioii?iue oeieieue oaeaea
aeeneioee?oaony a ?acee/iuo o/anoeao ieaoi ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo.

Aa?oiee no?oeoo?iue yoaae Aeaaiie a?yaeu, a oii /enea e *aou?aeaaa
neiaeai aa?oiath?neeie e ieaeiaiaeiauie (aaeaiaeeineeie) ioeiaeaieyie.
Eo ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth yaeyaony eeoieiae/aneia ?aciiia?acea,
oaoeeaeueiay eciai/eainoue, eiio?anoiinoue iiuiinoae.

Iieiaeaiea Ai?iiai E?uia ia naaa?iie ie?aeia noao?iie/aneiai iiyna
iaoneaaeeaaao iyaeinoue eeeiaoa ( ?ano?nu….1996). Iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie,
ii?aaeaeythueie aai iniaaiiinoe, e , aianoa n oai, oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey
iee?ieeeiaoa ea?noiauo iieinoae, yaeythony ?aaeeaoeeiiiue aaeain,
aoiinoa?iay oee?eoeyoeey e oa?aeoa? iiaenoeeathuae iiaa?oiinoe.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue nieia/iiai neyiey a Ai?iii E?uio iaiyaony io 2180
aei 2470 /ania. Yoi iaoneiaeeaaao cia/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey a eeeiaoe/aneeo
iniaaiiinoyo naaa?iiai e thaeiiai iae?ineeiiia. I?yiay nieia/iay
?aaeeaoeey nouanoaaiii caaeneo io e?ooeciu neeiiia e eo yeniiceoeee .
Eciaiaiey eiee/aneoaa nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee ia naaa?iii iae?ineeiia a
caaeneiinoe io aai e?ooeciu io?aaeaiu a Oaae.1.

Oaaeeoea 1.

Eciaiaiey i?yiie nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee, eae/aiae a caaeneiinoe io
e?ooeciu neeiia.

E?ooecia neeiia, a?aaeonu Naaa?iue iae?ineeii.

0 – 9 18958

10 – 19 15370

20 – 45 4533

?acee/ey a i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe nieia/iiai neyiey e aaee/eia i?yiie
nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee ieacuaatho iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia
oi?ie?iaaiea oaiia?aoo? i?ecaiiiai neiy aicaeooa e aai oaeaaeiaiea a
ciiao caeiaeaiey ea?noiaie iieinoe.

?aciiia?acea oaieiaiai ?aaeeia *aou?aeaaa ii?aaeaeyaony a caeiiiia?iii
eciaiaiee n?aaeieo aiaeiauo oaiia?aoo? ia ?aciuo aunioao, ii?aaeaeythuai
oa?ie/aneea oneiaey ea?noiauo iieinoae (Oaae.2)

Oaaeeoea 2

Eciaiaiey n?aaeieo aiaeiauo oaiia?aoo? ia naaa?iii iae?ineeiia.

N?aaeiyy aiaeiaay

oaiia?aoo?a,iN. Aaniethoiay aunioa ,i

+ 9,0

+8,0

+7,0

+6,0 250 – 400

560 – 630

800 – 840

1000 – 1050

Ecioa?ia +6,0 ieiioo?eaaao ieiuaaeue *aou?aeaaneiai ianneaa.
Aiieeooaea eieaaaiee iaaeaeo n?aaeiaaiaeiauie e n?aaeieie yiaa?neeie
(etheueneeie) oaiia?aoo?aie caeanue ia i?aauoaao 9 – 10 a?aaeonia N.

Eioa?aniu eciaiaiey n?aaeianooi/iuo oaiia?aoo? aicaeooa,
iaoneiaeeaathuea eieaaaiey aaniethoiie aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa ia
iiaa?oiinoe e a ea?noiauo iieinoyo. Nooi/iay aiieeooaea oaiia?aoo?
aicaeooa ceiie cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai a eaoiee ia?eiae. I?e
ianio?iie, n ooiaiaie iiaiaea n?aaeiyy nooi/iay aiieeooaea a iiya?a –
yiaa?a iaiaa 2 a?aae.N, e ia?oo iinoaiaiii aic?anoaao aei 3 a?.N.
Iaeneiaeueiua aa cia/aiey (3,5 – 4,0 a?.N) iaaethaeaaony a
ai?aea-naioya?a. A ioaeaeueiua aeie cia/aiey aiieeooae oaiia?aoo?
aicaeooa iiaoo aeinoeaaoue 15-20 a?.N, i?e/ai a eaoiee ia?eiae yoi
iaaethaeaaony /aua, /ai ceiie.

Iaeaieaa ieceea cia/aiey n?aaeiaai ieieioia ioia/athony ia ieaoi n
iiya?y ii ia?o. Iie iaaethaeathony i?e onoaiiaeaiee naaa?i-ainoi/iiai e
naaa?iiai oeiia oee?eoeyoeee ( i?e aoi?aeaiee eiioeiaioaeueiiai aicaeooa
). Aaniethoiue ieieioi aue ioia/ai ia Ae-Iao?e (- 27,4 a?.N, 1967 a.).

Naciiu aiaea ia yeea au?aaeaiu io/aoeeai. Oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa ieaea 0
a?.N onoaiaaeeaaaony a ia/aea aeaeaa?y. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaea n
oaiia?aoo?ie -5 a?.N aeinoeaaao 110 aeiae. Ceia ia yeea n?aaieoaeueii
iyaeay, ni n?aaeiaiany/iie oaiia?aoo?ie ieiei – 4 a?.N, n eioaineaiui
aieieaaeii, ecii?icueth, neeueiuie aao?aie e iaoaeyie. Eaoi ianooiaao
i?e ia?aoiaea n?aaeiaiany/iie oaiia?aoo?u /a?ac 15 a?.N. A ethea-
aaaonoa n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa iiauoaaony aei 16,4 a?. N, a
aaniethoiua iaeneioiu aeinoeaatho 28-30 a?.N. Ia?eiae ni
n?aaeianooi/iuie oaiia?aoo?aie auoa 10 a?.N aeeeony ieiei 120-140 aeiae.

N?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a ii/au neaaeoao aiaeiaiio oiaeo oaiia?aoo?u
aicaeooa. A yiaa?a ii/aa ioeaaeaeaaony aei -4 a?N,a a ioaeaeueiua aeie
aeaeaa?y e oaa?aey aeaaea aei -15…-25a?.N. A ethia- ethea iia
i?ia?aaaaony aei 19 – 21 a?.N. A n?aaeiai aea a ai?ao ieiei 50 aeiae n
ioeaaie oaiia?aoo?ie ii/au.

Ia?aiin ?acee/iuo aicaeooiuo iann, eo o?ainoi?iaoeey e o?iioiaaiac
yaeythony iniiaiuie oee?eoeyoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie oi?ie?iaaiey eeeiaoa
Aeaaiie a?yaeu , a o./. *aou?aeaaneiai ianneaa. Aoiinoa?iay oee?eoeyoeey
oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?aiaeaaeaieai caiaaeiiai ia?aiina, iaoneiaeeaathuaai
i?eoie aicaeooa ec Aoeaioeee. Ia?eiaee/anee aoi?aathony oieiaeiua
aicaeooiua iannu n naaa?iuo oe?io, oaieua e aeaaeiua ni N?aaeecaiiiai
ii?y, nooea – n oa??eoi?ee Acee.

Aeaaiay a?yaea, niinianoaoy oneeaieth aeeiaie/aneie oo?aoeaioiinoe
aicaeooa e nicaeaaay oneiaey aeey iiaeuaia aicaeooiuo iann, oi?ie?oao
nianoaaiiue ?aaeei oaeaaeiaiey. Aic?anoaiea aei 6,1 – 9.8 ii.?o.no.
eaoii niinianoaoao eiiaeainaoeee aeaae a o?aueiii-ea?noiauo eieeaeoi?ao.
Nooi/iue oiae aaniethoiie aeaaeiinoe ia yeea au?aaeai neaai.

Aiaeiaay aiieeooaea ioiineoaeueiie aeaaeiinoe ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 12 –
15 %. Iaeneiaeueiay ioiineoaeueiay aeaaeiinoue ca n/ao aieueoie
iiaoi?yaiinoe oeeeeiie/aneeo yaeaiee ioia/aaony ceiie (78 – 85% i?e
iaeneioia a yiaa?a). Ieieiaeueiua cia/aiey oa?aeoa?iu aeey aaaonoa ( 30
– 66%), nooi/iue oiae ioiineoaeueiie aeaaeiinoe ia ieaoi iaeaieaa /aoei
i?iyaeyaony eaoii (eieaaaiey ieiei 10 – 20 %).

?aaeei inaaeeia iaoneaaeeaaaony i?aeiouanoaaiiui aicaeaenoaeai
thai-caiaaeiiai e naaa?i-ainoi/iiai oeiia neiiioe/aneeo neooaoeee.
Iethaeiiao?e/aneee a?aaeeaio a n?aaeiai aeinoeaaao 60 ii ia eaaeaeua
100i. N?aaeiaiany/iia eiee/anoai inaaeeia a oaieue nacii ninoaaeyao
i?eaeeceoaeueii 60 ii. Niaaeiue iie?ia onoaiaaeeaaaony ia yeea a
n?aaeiai ia?aie-aoi?ie aeaeaaea iiya?y e aea?aeeony io 30 aei 150 aeiae.

A oeaeii eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey Aeaaiie a?yaeu e *aou?aeaaneiai ianneaa
a oaieue ia?eiae aiaea iaaeaaii?eyoiu aeey ieoaiey iiaecaiiuo aiae e
?acaeoey ea?noiauo i?ioeannia,. Aieueoay /anoue auiaaeathueo inaaeeia
?anoiaeoaony ia enia?aiea. Caianu iiaecaiiuo aiae iiiieiythony oieueei
ca n/ao eiiaeainaoeee e eeaiaauo inaaeeia n eioaineaiinoueth aieaa 20
ii/noo. A oieiaeiue ia?eiae, iai?ioea, i?ienoiaeeo ieoaiea iiaecaiiuo
aiae ca n/ao i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo aeiaeaeae, niaaioayiey, a oaeaea
aeoeaecaoeey ea?noiauo i?ioeannia.

Oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea iaua?u I?aii?iay.

Iaua?a ?aniieiaeaia a i?ea?iai/iie /anoe naaa?i-caiaaeiiai caiueaiey
ieaoi *aou?-Aeaa. Iaia?oaeaia Neioa?iiieueneeie niaeaieiaaie a 1987
aiaeo. Aeeceia ?annoiyiea io a. Neioa?iiiey ( 32 ei ) e o?annu
Neioa?iiieue-sseoa ( 16 ei ) aeaeaao aa eaaei aeinooiiie.
Ia?aiia/aeueiue aoiae a iaa aaeaea iyoeiao?iaiai anoanoaaiiiai
eieiaeoea, ?aniieiaeai ia aunioa 918 iao?ia iaae o.i. e iaoiaeeony ia
ieineii aiaei?acaeaea iaaeaeo aeaoiy aaei/iuie nenoaiaie ( *oiiio ia
caiaaea e Aacuiyiiay ia ainoiea ) . Aa?oiauey yoeo aaeie aeoaiei
a?acaiu a naaa?iua neeiiu e ieaoi *aou?-Aeaaa . Iaeiaei, a nayce n oai,
/oi yoe aaei/iua nenoaiu yaeythony aieaa iieiaeuie oi?iaie ?aeueaoa,
/ai naia ea?noiaay iieinoue, eaeay-eeai naycue iaaeaeo ieie ionoonoaoao.

Ii?oiaaiacen iaua?u I?aii?iay.

O/anoie ieaoi, ia eioi?ii ?aniieiaeaia iaua?a, neiaeai a?oaineienouie e
e?oiiiieeoiauie ieaeiaoeoiineeie ecaanoiyeaie, eioi?ua iiae oaeii 20 –
30 a?aae. iaaeatho ia caiaae ( iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaae iaua?ie : Ai 270 –
280 a?aae. oaie iaaeaiey 20 – 22 a?aae.). Ia caiaaeiii neeiia ianneaa
yoe ecaanoiyee ni no?oeoo?iui ianiaeaneai eiaeaoueny ia
aeaoonioiao?iaoth oieuo ienoi?aeneeo eiiaeiia?aoia e ian/aieeia, niyouo
a oe?ieea neeaaeee. Eiiaeiia?aou e ian/aieee oaeaea ni no?oeoo?iui
ianiaeaneai iaeaaatho ia ioeiaeaiey oaa?e/aneie na?ee (1) .

O/anoie , a eioi?ii caeiaeaia iaua?a, ia?aie/ai oaeoiie/aneeie
ia?ooaieyie, eioi?ua eiay oe?ioiia e ia?eaeeiiaeueiia i?inoe?aiea ,
aue?aeaatho e?oiiue oaeoiie/aneee aeie n o?i/euai *oiiio e i?eeaaathueie
aiaei?acaeaeaie. Ooi/iaiey na?inia e cii oaeoiie/aneie o?aueiiaaoinoe
aoaeao i?iecaiaeeony a i?ioeanna aeaeueiaeoaai iao/iiai eco/aiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a i?ioeanna iiaa?oiinoiuo ia?o?ooiuo enneaaeiaaiey e
iaaethaeaiee a iieinoe onoaiiaeaii iaee/ea aeaoo ia?ooaiey,
ii?aaeaeythueo ii?oieiaeth e iai?aaeaiea iiaecaiiuo oiaeia ia o/anoeao
ia?ana/aiey eie iieinoe. Ia?aia ia?ooaiea oeene?oaony a thaeiie /anoe
o/anoea noaieie n?uaa n Ai? 310 a?aae. Caeanue ia eiioaeoa neienouo e
ianneaiuo ecaanoiyeia i?yii iaae iieinoueth noi?ie?iaaeanue e?oiiay
ea?noiaay ai?iiea. A iieinoe aaeieue ieineinoe na?ina ?acaeo
e?ooiiaeeiiiue oiae aaa?o, auiieiaiiue ?uoeui iaeiii/iui iaoa?eaeii,
/anoue eioi?iai auaaeeeanue a iaua?o.

Aoi?ia ia?ooaiea, au?aaeaiiia ciiie o?aueiiaaoinoe n Ai? 285 a?aae.
iaoiaeeony a naaa?iie /anoe o/anoea. A iaua?a ia?ooaieth yoie ciiu
niioaaonoaoao eieiaeaoe, niaaeeiythuee aeaa yoaaea iaua?u (aa?oiee e
ieaeithth aaea?ath ).

Naia iieinoue auoyiooa aaeieue ia?eaeeaiaeueiiai ?aceiia , i?ioiaeyuaai
aaeieue anaai caiaaeiiai ai?oa *aou?-aeaaa. Yoio na?in naaa?iaa ooiaeeo
iiae ieaeiaiaeiaua ioeiaeaiey e aeinoeaaao Ayineiai enoi/ieea,
auoaeathuaai ec iaua?u Ayineay.

Aeae?iaaieiae/aneay ?ieue yoiai ?aceiia aanueia aaeeea. Ii
ia?ai?eaioe?oao i?aeoe/anee aanue iiaecaiiue noie Ieaeiaai ieaoi
*aou?-Aeaaa n caiaaeiiai ia naaa?iia e auaiaeeo aai a Ayineee
enoi/iee.

Enoi?ey ioe?uoey e iai?oaeiaaiey iaua?u I?aii?iay.

Iaua?a iaia?oaeaia a 1987 aiaeo Neioa?iiieueneeie niaeaieiaaie. A
oa/aiee yoiai e iineaaeothuaai aiaea auea acyoa iiae io?aio
Neioa?iiieueneiai eeoaa niaeaieiaia (i?aaenaaeaoaeue A.O.Eiceia ) .
Aoiae a iieinoue aue cae?uo ?aoao/aoui etheii , iaae aoiaeii a iaua?o
aaeinoue iinoiyiiia aeaaeo?noai /eaiia eeoaa. Yoe ia?u auee iaiaoiaeeiu
, oae eae aaeeeieaiiiio iaoa/iiio oa?ainoao iaua?u ( eae iicaeiaa
auynieeinue oieeaeueiiio ) oa?iaeaei aa?aa?neia ?aca?aaeaiea.

A oa/aiea iieooi?a eao ( eiiaoe 1987 – ia/aei 1989 ) iaua?a
iai?oaeiaaeanue ( aeaaiui ia?acii ia?aay i?eaoiaeiaay aaea?ay Neacie )
e auea aaaaeaia a yenieoaoaoeeth a ai?aea 1989 aiaea. Ia?aay i/a?aaeue
yeneo?neiiiiai ia?o?ooa ninoaaeea 180 iao?ia. I?aaiecaoeey. eioi?ay
caiyeanue io?aiie e iai?oaeiaaieai iaua?u aue Neioa?iiieueneee eeoa
niaeaieiaia, a iineaaenoaee ?ai?aaieciaaiiue a Oeaio? niaeaioo?ecia
«IIEEN-OO?». Ia?aiia/aeueii Oeaio? eiae iiae/eiaiea Iauaaeeiaieth
iieiaeaaeiuo eeoaia ii eioa?anai , a caoai Aineiieoaoo ii aeaeai
iieiaeaaee, Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue Oeaio? yaeyaony naiinoiyoaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeeae n eieeaeoeaiie oi?iie nianoaaiiinoe.

Ia?aui yoaiii iai?oaeiaaiey iaua?u aeey yeneo?neiiiiai iinauaiey auei
ono?ienoai iaoaoiaeiuo aei?iaeae e iniauaiea eo oaeiaiuie ia?eeaie a
Aaea?aa neacie.

Neaaeothuee yoai aeeth/ae a naay i?ieeaaeeo oaeiaiiai ai?eciioaeueiiai
oiiiaey a Oea?iaue Oiae e iai?oaeiaaiea aai aaea?ae yeneo?neiiiuie
aei?iaeeaie i?eaeeceoaeueiie i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 200 iao?ia.

Iiauoaiea eiee/anoaa yeneo?naioia e ana aic?anoathuai eioa?ana e
ea?noiaui iaua?ai, eae oieeaeueiui iauaeoai i?e?iaeu auyaeei
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey yeneo?neiiiuie ia?o?ooaie Caea
Ia?ano?ieee, /oi i?aaenoaaeyei aeey ?aaioieeia Oeaio?a iaeaieueooth
neiaeiinoue. ( Ia?iiiue aeuaiaue caaae ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai caea).

A ia?niaeoeaa ieaie?oaony iai?oaeiaaiea yecioe/aneeo yeneo?neiiiuo
ia?o?ooia aeey ia?aie/aiiiai eiee/anoaa yeneo?naioia ( a iniiaiii
niaeaieiaia) a Ieaeieo aaea?ayo iaua?u.

Enneaaeiaaiey iaua?u ia i?ae?auaeinue ni aeiy aa ioe?uoey
neioa?iiieueneeie niaeieiaaie. A ia?aua aea ianyoeu ioe?uoey
(iiya?ue-aeaeaa?ue 1987 aiaea) auea naeaeaia iieoeino?oiaioaeueiay
nuaiea iaua?u. Nae/an ieaiu e ?ac?acu iieinoe iinoiyiii ooi/iythony,
i?iaiaeeony oaiaeieeoiay nuiea iniiaiuo oiaeia iaua?u.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iaua?a iai?oaeiaaia ii ie?iaui noaiaea?oai, ca
aiae aa iinauaao aieaa 100 oun./aeiaae. Iaua?iue eiiieaen I?aii?iay
yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui a no?aiao NIA, aioaaeoei a ea/anoaa
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai /eaia a Iaaeaeoia?iaeioth annioeeaoeeth iinauaaiuo
iaua? ( ISCA ).

3.Iaoiaeeea iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo iaaethaeaiee.

Iaoiaeeea iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a ea?noiauo iieinoyo
?ac?aaioaia neaai. Yoio ?acaeae aiiaua ionoonoaoao a iaueo iaoiaee/aneeo
?oeiaiaenoaao ii eco/aieth ea?noa ( Iaoiaeu…, 1963a.; *eeeoaa, 1973
a.). A 1950 – 1980 aiaeao a NNN? e ca ?oaaaeii iiyaeeenue iiiai/eneaiiua
ioaeeeaoeee, a eioi?uo, ia?yaeo n eceiaeaieai ?aaeiiaeueiiai
oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea , cao?aaeaathony e iaoiaee/aneea aii?inu (
Aieiae, 1976 a ; 1978 a; Aeoaeyineee, 1977 a. e ae?.; Nioeeiaa , 1981 a.
e ae?). A 1981 aiaeo ai Ananithciii einoeoooa ea?noiaaaeaiey e
niaeaieiaee ninoiyeanue canaaeaiea ?aai/ae a?oiiu , eioi?ay
iiaeaioiaeea iaoiaeeeo iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo iaaethaeaiee a anoanoaaiiuo e
eneonnoaaiiuo iieinoyo o?aueiiaaouo, caea?noiaaiiuo ii?iaeao e ai
eueaeao ( Iaoiaeeea …1982 a.). Yoe iaoa?eaeu aioee oaeaea a ia?aoth a
NNN? iaoiaee/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai ii eco/aieth ea?noiauo iieinoae (
I?iaeaiu… ,1983 a.). Ieaea e?aoei eceiaeaiu iniiaiua iieiaeaiey
iaoiaeeee iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee.

3.1 Eniieuecoaiay oa?ieiieiaey.

Oa?ieiu « iaua?iay iiaiaea» e «iee?ieeeiao iaua?» aaae a iao/ioth
eeoa?aoo?o A.Ee?e ( Kyrle, 1922 ) . Aei 1960 aiaea oa?iei «iee?ieeeiao
iaua?» eniieueciaaeny ioa/anoaaiiuie, e , a iniaaiiinoe ca?oaaaeiuie
enneaaeiaaoaeyie aac anyeeo iaiai?ie e ia?aie/aiee. A 60 – 80 -o aiaeao
, a nayce n ?acaeoeai iauae eeeiaoieiaee iiyaeeenue oaiaeaioeee,
ineiaeiythuea neooaoeeth.

Oae A.A. Aeenia e ae?oaea ( 1952 a., ) iiieiaao iee?ieeeiao eae ianoiua
iniaaiiinoe eeeiaoa, iaoneiaeaiiua no?iaieai iiaenoeeathuae iiaa?oiinoe.
E.A. Aieueoeaa?a (1987 a) n/eoaao iee?ieeeiaoii eeeiao iaaieueoie
oa??eoi?ee, aicieeathuee iiae aeeyieai ?acee/ee a ?aeueaoa,
?anoeoaeueiinoe , ninoiyiey ii/au e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia. Iia auaeaeyao
iee?ieeeiao iiey, aieioa, iiooee eana, ai?iaea. I.E. Ua?aaiue (1972 a)
n/eoaao, /oi iee?ieeeiao eae eeeiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe iaaieueoeo
o/anoeia caiiie ei?u iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycai n eeeiaoii. Oaeei ia?acii,
iiiyoea «ianoiue eeeiao» ia yaeyaony iauai?eiyoui. Iaaeeee e a?oeoaeoi?u
aiai?yo i eeeiaoa caieioouo i?ino?ainoa, nicaeaiiuo /aeiaaeii :
iee?ieeeiaoa eaa?oe?u, iiaecaiiiai nii?oaeaiey e i?. (Oaiiaaeia,
Ieoeeaae/, 1975 ) . N yoeo iiceoeee i?eiaiaiea oa?ieia « iee?ieeeiao
ea?noiauo iieinoae» aiieia ii?aaaeaii, oae eae eo eeeiao yoi eeeiao
iaaieueoeo oa??eoi?ee, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie caieiooia i?ino?ainoai.

A ea?noieiaee iaaethaeaaony i?eia?ii oaeay aea ea?oeia. *anoue
enneaaeiaaoaeae ?anniao?eaaao iee?ieeeiao iaua? eae ?ani?aaeaeaiea e
eciaiaiea aeaaeaiey, oaiia?aoo?u, e aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa iiae caieae
iiae aeeyieai eciaiaiey yoeo oaeoi?ia ia iiaa?oiinoe, a ioe?uoie
aoiinoa?a ( Trimmel, 1968 ;Wwigley, Brown, 1978 e ae?.). ?.Aaeaa? (1960
) ii?aaeaeee iee?ieeeiao iaua? eae eeeiao eo i?ecaiiiai neiy. Iaeaieaa
aeaoaeueii ?ac?aaioae yoo i?iaeaio Ee.Aiae?ei ( Andrieux, 1971 ). Ii
n/eoaao, /oi ia iiaa?oiinoe neaaeoao auaeaeeoue iae?ieeeiao (
aieueoeo oa??eoi?ee), iacieeeiao ( eeeiao ianoiinoe ) e iee?ieeeiao (
eeeiao iiaenoeeathuaai neiy ) . Eo niaianoiia aeeyiea ia?aaeaaony /a?ac
iee?ieeeiao ia iiaecaiiue eeeiao, eioi?ue a naith i/a?aaeue aeaeeony ia
oiiieeeiao ( eeeiao ioaeaeueiuo aaea?ae, caaaeia, eieiaeoeaa ) e eeeiao
eeieoe?oaiiai neiy ( iniaaiiinoe ciiu eiioaeoa iaua?iiai aicaeooa n
iieii, noaieaie e iioieeii iaua?u ) . I/aaeaeii , aaaaeaiea yoeo iiiyoee
e oa?ieiia eiaao niune oieueei i?e i/aiue aeaoaeueiii noaoeeiia?iii
eco/aiee eeeiaoa ea?noiauo iieinoae.

Aaoi? iiieiaao iiae iee?ieeeiaoii ea?noiaie iieinoe ?aaeei
iaoai?ieiae/aneeo yeaiaioia ( aoiinoa?iia aeaaeaiea, aeaeaeaiea
aicaeooa, oaiia?aoo?a, aeaaeiinoue, aaciaue ninoaa aicaeooa ) aioo?e
iaua?u eee oaoou ii?aaeaeaiiiai ii?oiaaiaoe/aneiai oeia.

3.2 Oeaee e caaea/e enneaaeiaaiee

Oeaeueth iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a ea?noiaie iieinoe iaua?u
I?aii?iay yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea nooi/iuo , iaaeaeueiuo, iany/iuo,
aiaeiauo iniaaiiinoae aicaeooiie oee?eoeyoeee ( iai?aeaiea , nei?inoue
aeaeaeaiey aicaeooa) , oa?iiaeaaeiinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aicaeooa (
aoiinoa?iia aeaaeaiea, oaiia?aoo?a, aaniethoiay e ioiineoaeueiay
aeaaeiinoue) e aai aaciaiai ninoaaa.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo iaaethaeaiee yaeythony

oa?aeoa?enoeea iee?ieeeiaoa ea?noiaie iieinoe;

ii?aaeaeaiea aeeyiey iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee ea?noiauo iieinoae ia
oi?ie?iaaiea iiaecaiiuo aiae, ea?noiauo iee?ioi?i e ?acee/iuo iaua?iuo
ioeiaeaiee,;

ii?aaeaeaiea aeeyiey aio?iiiaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ia iee?ieeeiao
iaua?u.

3.3 I?iaaaeaiea iaaethaeaiee.

I?aaiecaoeey iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo iaaethaeaiee i?aaeiieaaaao ?aaoey?iue
eiio?ieue ca ninoiyieai ecia?eoaeueiuo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea eo iiaa?eo (
ii iaeaieaa oi/iui ) ia?aae ia/aeii na?ee ecia?aiee aeey auyaeaiey
iaeni?aaiuo i?eai?ia e ii?aaeaeaiey nenoaiaoe/aneeo iia?aoiinoae n
iineaaeothuei aaaaeaieai a ?acoeueoaou ecia?aiee niioaaonoaothueo
iii?aaie (Noa?icao, 1978).

Ion/ao iieacaiee i?iecaiaeeony n oi/iinoueth 0,2 – 0,5 oeaiu
iaeiaiueoaai aeaeaiey i?eai?a iinea auaea?aeee , niioaaonoaothuae
eia?oeeiiiinoe ecia?eoaeueiiai eiiieaeoa. Aeey oaiia?aoo?iuo ecia?aiee n
iiiiuueth ?oooiuo oa?iiiao?ia iaiaoiaeeiay auaea?aeea ninoaaeyao : a
aiaea – 10 – 15 naeoiae, a aicaeooa 3 – 5 ieioo, a ianea, ?uoeie
ii?iaea, aei 1 /ana; i?e ion/aoa iieacaiee anie?aoeeiiiiai ineo?iiao?a
– 4 ieioou, e?ueue/aoiai aiaiiiao?a – 100 naeoiae. I?e i?iaaaeaiee
ia?auo caia?ia iaaei i?aaeoniio?aoue iaiaoiaeeiia a?aiy aeey
au?aaieaaiey oaiia?aoo?u i?eai?ia n oaiia?aoo?ie aicaeooa a iaua?a ( 15
– 30 ieioo ) .

A oceeo ( ieceeo ) oiaeao e caeao iaeiai iauaia oaieiauaeaeaiey e
aeuoaiea iaaethaeaoaey iiaoo nouanoaaiii eneaceoue ?acoeueoaou ecia?aiee
, /oi iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue i?e i?aaiecaoeee iaaethaeaiee. A oiy /anoe
iaua?u, aaea i?iecaiaeeony iaaethaeaiey , iaiaoiaeeii ia?aie/eoue
i?aauaaiea iinoi?iiieo ethaeae e eneeth/eoue iieueciaaiea naaoeeueieeaie
, iaa?aaaoaeyie ioe?uoiai iaiy ( naa/e, ea?aeaeiua eaiiu ) .

A oa/aiee anaai ia?eiaea iaaethaeaiee ia iiaa?oiinoe ( aaeece iaua?u,
aia ciiu aeeyiey aicaeooiiai iioiea ec aoiaeiiai ioaa?noey ) i?iecaiaeyo
n?i/iua caia?u iniiaiuo iaoaiyeaiaioia ( oaiia?aoo?a , aeaaeaiea,
aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa, iai?aaeaiea e nei?inoue aao?a ) n oeacaieai
iiaiaeiuo oneiaee ( iaea/iinoue, inaaeee e eo eioaineaiinoue ) e
?aniieiaeaiea ioieoa iaaethaeaiee a ?aeueaoa. N?iee iaaethaeaiee
aeaeaoaeueii neio?iiece?iaaoue ni noaiaea?oiuie aeey iaoainoaioeee (
0,3,6,9,12,15,18,21 /an ii iineianeiio aeae?aoiiio a?aiaie) , /oi
iicaieyao a niaieoiiinoe n aeaiiuie iaoainoaioeee ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
oneiaey ia iiaa?oiinoe. A nayce n aiciiaeiuie i?iyaeaieyie a iaua?a
caiacaeuaaiey iiaiaeiuo eieaaaiee ia iiaa?oiinoe aeaeaoaeueii
?aniieaaaoue naaaeaieyie i iaoaioneiaeyo ia iiaa?oiinoe ca 2 – 5 nooie
aei ia/aea iaaethaeaiee ( ii aeaiiui iaoainoaioeee eee nianoaaiiui
ecia?aieyi ).

Ia ia/aeueiii yoaia eco/aiey iee?ieeeiaoa iieinoe auyaeytho noaio
aeaeaeaiey aicaeooa a iaua?a e i?iecaiaeyo ecia?aiey a aa oa?aeoa?iuo
o/anoeao ( aoiaeiia ioaa?noea, iniiaiua caeu e aaea?ae , ciia
noaaeeecaoeee oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe e o.ae.) n iaianaieai oi/ae
iaaethaeaiey ia ieai iieinoe e oeacaieai ianoa e a?aiaie ecia?aiey,
oaa?e/iiai ( iieaaiai iiia?a i?eai?a, oaieeey iaaethaeaoaey )

Nei?inoue e iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey aicaeooa oeene?otho ai anao ianoao n
iuooeiie oyaie ( anoanoaaiiuo noaeaieyo oiaeia ), eiay aeaeo aiciiaeiia
ano?a/iia aeaeaeaiea iioieia o iiea e naiaea aaea?ae , eeai o noai ia
ine aa?oeeaeueiiai oiaea.

I?e i?aaiecaoeee ?aaoey?iuo (aeeeoaeueiuo eee ia?eiaee/aneeo ) ecia?aiee
( aeaeaoaeueii a oa/aiea 24 – 28 /an. ia?eiaee/iinoueth 1 – 2 ianyoea ia
i?ioyaeaiee 1 – 2 eao ) ia iniiaa aiaeeca ii?oieiaee iieinoe, noaia
aaioeeyoeee e ?acoeueoaoia ia?ae/iuo iaaethaeaiee iaia/atho iinoiyiiua
oi/ee caia?ia, oeene?oaiua a iaua?a n iiiiuueth onoie/eauo ia?ie e
iiae/eiythuaeny ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaia : aieaa ?ac?aaeaiiay naoue n oaaii
5 – 10 – 20 iao?ia e aieaa ia o/anoeao n iaeciaiiie ii?oieiaeae e a
ciia ieieiaeueiuo naciiiuo eieaaaiee; aieaa aonoay naoue n oaaii 0,5 – 2
iao?a a ianoao ?aceiai eciaiaiey iaoaiyeaiaioia ( a i?eaoiaeiaie ciia,
ia ia?ana/aiee oiaeia e o.ae.) auai? oi/ae ii?aaeaeyaony caaea/aie
enneaaeiaaiee.

Aeey ?aaeno?aoeee an?aaeiaiiuo ii na/aieth cia/aiee oaiia?aoo?u e
aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa ( n iiiiuueth anie?aoeeiiiiai ineo?iiao?a ) caia?u
i?iecaiaeyo ii inaaie eeiee oiaea, a caeao ia ?annoiyiee ia iaiaa 0,35 –
0,40 A ( A – iaeiaiueoae ec ?acia?ia ii aunioa eee oe?eia ) io iiea
eee noaiu niioaaonoaaiii.

3.4 I?eai?u aeey iaaethaeaiee

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iaoaiyeaiaioia anoanoaaiiie ea?noiaie iieinoe
eniieuecothony noaiaea?oiua aeae?iiaoai?ieiae/aneea i?eai?u: aa?iiao?
-aia?ieae ( iia?aoiinoue +_ 100 Ia), n?i/iua iaeneiaeueiua e
ieieiaeueiua oa?iiiao?u ( iia?aoiinoue +_ 0,1 – 0,2 a?aae.),
anie?aoeeiiiue ineo?iiao? ( iiaa?aoiinoue ii aeaaeiinoe +_ 1-4%),
e?ueue/aoue eee /aoa/iue aiaiiiao?u , a aeaiiii eiie?aoiii neo/aa
e?ueue/aoue, (iia?aoiinoue +_ 0,1 – 0,2 i/n). Aaciaue ninoaa aicaeooa ia
ianoa enneaaeoaony n iiiiuueth oaooiiai eioa?oa?iiao?a ( NI2 , NI 4)
eee yenia?ann-iaoiaeii ( NI2) , iaeiaei iaai? ii?aaeaeyaiuo i?e yoii
eiiiiiaioia ia?aie/ai, a oi/iinoue iaaaeeea ( iia?aoiinoue +_0,5%). A
nayce n yoei iniiaiuie i?e eco/aiee aaciaiai ninoaaa aicaeooa yaeythony
eaai?aoi?iua iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey ninoaaa ioia?aiiuo i?ia ( aaciaay
o?iiaoia?aoey). Aeey ii?aaeaeiey aaiacena oaeaeeneiou eniieuecoaony
iann-niaeo?iiao?e/aneee iaoiae aiaeeca ecioiiiiai noinoaaa oaea?iaea.

Aeey iai?a?uaiie ?aaeno?aoeee eciaiaiee oaiia?aoo?u, aeaaeiinoe e
aeaeaiey aicaeooa eniieuecotho nooi/iua, (iaaeaeueiua) oa?iia?aou,
aa?ia?aou e aea?ia?aou ( iia?aoiinoe +- 1 a?.N, +_1% aeaaeiinoe, +_
100Ia niioaaonoaaiii).

A nayce n iaaeinoaoi/iie eieaeueiinoueth noaiaea?oiuo i?eai?ia, eo
iaaunieie oi/iinoueth e cia/eoaeueiie eia?oeeiiiinoueth i?e eco/aiee
iee?ieeeiaoa iaua? neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue i?eai?u ( oa?iiyeaiaiou e
oa?ii?acenoi?u aeey ecia?aiey oaiia?aoo?u , oa?iiaiaiiiao?u,
iae?iiaiiiao?u e o.ae.), iaeaaeathuea aieaa aunieie oi/iinoueth (
iia?aoiinoue ecia?aiey oaiia?aoo?u 0,01 a?.N, aeaaeiinoe 0,5%, nei?inoe
aicaeooa 0,01 i/n, aeaaeaiey 10 Ia), ieceie eia?oeeiiiinoueth e o.ae.
I?eiaiaiea yoeo i?eai?ia o?aaoao eo iaycaoaeueiie iiaa?ee ii
noaiaea?oiui iaoai?ieiae/aneei eee ia?acoeiaui i?eai?ai. In?aaeiaiiay
nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey aicaeooa ii?aaeaeyaony iooai iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo
caia?ia a oceao i?yiioaieueiie naoee ( n oaaii 0,25 – 0,5 A),
ia?ae?uaathuae iiia?a/iia na/aiea oiaea. Eieaeueiua eciaiaiey
iaoaiyeaiaioia i?iecaiaeyo a 5-10-20 ni io iiea iin?aaeeia oiaea n
oeacaieai oa?aeoa?a iiaenoeeathuae iiaa?oiinoe ( ianie, a?aaee, eaae e
o.ae.).

I?e ?aaoey?iuo iaaethaeaieyo aeey auyaeaiey e?oiiiianooaaiuo
iniaaiiinoae iieae oaiia?aoo?u (aeaaeiinoe) i?iecaiaeyo caia?aiey ii
aeeeia oiaeia ( i?iaeieueiua ?ac?acu) ii ieiuaaee caeia ( ia iniiaa
naoee ecia?eoaeueiuo oi/ae), a oaeaea ii na/aieth oiaea n oaaii 0,5 –
1,0 ;0 – 2, 0 – 5,0 i, caaenyuai io ?acia?ia iieinoe e caaea/
enneaaeiaaiey. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia aeae?iaeeiaie/aneiai e
oa?ie/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aicaeooiiai iioiea ni aiauathuae ii?iaeie,
eae i?aaeei, a ianoao n iuooeiie aicaeooiie oyaie i?iecaiaeyo
a?aaeeaioiua iaaethaeaiey ia ?annoiyieyo 0,1-0,2-0,5-1,0-1,5-2,0 i io
iiea ( noai), niaiauay eo n caia?aie oaiia?aoo?u iiea ( noai) e anao
aiaeii?iyaeaiee a enneaaeoaiii na/aiee.

Ioai? i?ia aicaeooa aeey eco/aiey aaciaiai ninoaaa i?iecaiaeeony iooai
iaea/ee ( i?iea/ee) a noaeeyiiua aaciaua ieiaoee n o?oaeaie ec
aaeooiiiai noaeea ( eeai a ?aceiiaua eee iieeyoeeaiiaua aieinoe) iauaiii
ia iaiaa 250 ii n caaeeiaie. ?aciauaiea oi/ae ioai?a i?ia aeieaeii
auyaeoue aa?eaoeee aaciaiai ninoaaa ii ieiuaaee e ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo
iaua?u. ?aaeeiiue ioai? i?ia, iaania/eaathuee eco/aiea aioo?enooi/iuo,
iaaenooi/iuo e naciiiuo aa?eaoeee aaciaiai ninoaaa aicaeooa iaua?,
neaaeoao i?iaiaeeoue ia oeene?iaaiiuo oi/eao.

Ia?aaioea iaaethaeaiee

Iaoiaeeea ia?ae/iie ia?aaioee ?acoueoaoia iaaethaeaiee eceaaaaony a
niioaaonoaothueo ?oeiaiaenoaao ( Iaoiaee/aneea…, 1951,1953,1954) .

Aeey ia?aaioee ?acoeueoaoia ecia?aiee, auiieiaiiuo n iiiiuueth
anie?aoeeiiiiai ineo?iiao?a e aeaeueiaeoeo ?an/aoia oaieiaeaaeiinoiuo
naienoa aicaeooa neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue Ineo?iiao?e/aneea oaaeeoeu (1972) e
J- aeeaa?aiio ( Naienoaa …, 1963).

Ia iniiaa ia?ae/iuo aeaiiuo iaaethaeaiee ii?aaeaeythony ia?aiao?u
aicaeooiiaiaia ( naciiiua noaiu aaioeeyoeee, ?aaeeiu aeaaeaiey, ?anoiae
aicaeooiiai iioiea e eiyooeoeeaio aicaeooiiaiaia a ?aciua naciiu),
aaee/eia e iai?aaeaiea ia?aiaaeia oaiia?aoo? aiaea-aicaeooa, noaia ( iie
) – aicaeoo, aiieeooaeu nooi/iuo (naciiiuo ) eieaaaiee iniiaiuo
iaoaiyeaiaioia ii o/anoeai iieinoe e o.ae..

Ii naiaeiui ?acoeueoaoai ecia?aiee no?iyo a?aoeee – eciaiaiey
oaiia?aoo?u ( aeaaeiinoe ) ii iniiaiui aaea?ayi iieinoe, oaiia?aoo?iua
iiey ii na/aieyi oiaeia e ieiuaaee caeia, niaiauaiiua a?aoeee nooi/iiai
(naciiiiai) eciaiaiey iaoaiyeaiaioia ia iiaa?oiinoe e iiae caieae;
?an/eouaatho aenoia?aiiu ?ani?aaeaeiey oaiia?aoo?u ( aeaaeiinoe ii
aeeeia oiaeia ,ieiuaaee eee iauaia iieinoe aeey au/eneaiey
niioaaonoaothueo in?aaeiaiiuo aaee/ei, eniieuecoaiuo i?e ninoaaeaiee
oaieiauo aaeainia e ?an/aoia eiiaeainaoeee. A?aoe/anee enneaaeotho
ei??aeyoeeiiiua nayce iaaeaeo oaiia?aoo?ie ( aeaaeiinoe ) e aeoaeiie (
aeeeiie) iieinoe , iai?aaeaieai e nei?inoueth aicaeooiiai iioiea e
ia?iaaeii aeaaeaiey ia enneaaeoaiii o/anoea e o.ae., iiaeae?atho
ai?aeneie?othuea o?aaiaiey e iaoiaeyo eo eiyooeoeeaio.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai aiaeecia aaciaiai ninoaaa aicaeooa ii?aaeaeytho
aaniethoia i?aaeaeu eciaiaieiee niaea?aeaiey eiiiiiaioia aeey aeaiiie
iieinoe, i?aaeaeu eciaiaiee e n?aaeiea cia/aiey ii ianyoeai e
in?aaeiaiiua cia/aiey aeey o/anoeia, ?acee/iuo ii ii?oieiaee e oneiaeyi
caeiaeaiey. No?iyony a?aoeee eciaiaiey aaciniaea?aeaiey ii aunioa iaae
iieii e a?aoeee naciiiiai oiaea niaea?aeaiey. ?acoeueoao aaciaiai
aiaeeca au?aaeathony a iauaiiuo i?ioeaioao. Aeey ioeaiee eciaiaiey
aaciaiai ninoaaa iaua?iiai aicaeooa i?e niaoeaaiee n aoiinoa?ie
eniieuecoth niaoeeaeueiua ?an/aoiua i?eaiu .

Eciai/eainoue aaciaiai ninoaaa aicaeooa a i?ino?ainoaa iaua?u e ai
a?aiaie aiaeece?othony a oaniie nayce n ?aaeeiii aicaeooiie oee?eoeyoeee
e ae?oaeie aiciiaeiuie aacioi?ie?othueie oaeoi?aie. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
aaiacena oaeaeeneiou eniieuecothony aeaiiua ii ecioiiiiio ninoaao
oaea?iaea.

Caeeth/eoaeueiue yoai ia?aaioee iaoa?eaea – iino?iaiea iaoaiaoe/aneie
iiaeaee iee?ieeeiaoa iaua?u ia iniiaa aiaeeoe/aneeo caaeneiinoae,
aaeainiauo ?an/ioia, /eneaiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey eee eco/aiey
noaoenoe/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo aa iniiaiuie ii?oieiai-ii?oiiao?e/aneeie
ia?aiao?aie, aaieiai-eeoieiae/aneeie, oaieioece/aneeie e ae?oaeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e eeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie ia iiaa?oiinoe. *oi iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae iauea caaea/e iiieoi?eiaa iaua?u.

I?e eco/aiee neiaeiuo ea?noiauo nenoai (oaeiaie yaeyaony I?aii?iay), e
i?iaaaeaiee niaoeeaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ( eco/aiea i?e/ei e aeeiaieee
?acaeoey iiaecaiiiai ieaaeaiaiey, ?inoa aaeeeoeoia, /oi oaeaea i/aiue
aeooaeueii aeey I?aii?iie ,e i?.) iaiaoiaeeia ?ac?aaioea niaoeeaeueiuo
i?eai?ia e iaoiaee/aneeo i?eaiia enneaaeiaaiee.

Ana aeaiiua, ia eioi?uo aace?oaony ianoiyuay ?aaioa, iieo/aiu a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie eceiaeaiiie auoa iaoiaeeee. E?iia oiai aeey
ia?aaioee iaaethaeaiee eniieueciaaiu ia iienuaaaiua a iaoiaeeea iaoiaeu
eiiiuethoa?iie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee, iieo/eaoea ?ani?ino?aiaiea oieueei
a iineaaeiea 4-5eao ( ia oa??eoi?ee NIA). Eniieueciaaeanue
eiiiuethoa?iay aaca Eeaaneiai ea?noieiai-niaeaieiae/aneiai oeaio?a e
Einoeoooa ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia AI Oe?aeiu.

4.Oa?aeoa?enoeea iee?ieeeiaoa iaua?u

4.1 Aeae?ioeie/aneay e oaiia?aoo?iay oa?aeoa?enoeea aiae iaua?u.

I?iau aiaeu ioae?aeenue ec no?oe, noaeathueo ni naiaeia eee noai iaua?u
a ?aciuo aa oi/eao. ?acoeueoaou aiaeecia iieacuaatho . /oi aiaeu a
iaua?a ioiinyony e iau/iui ea?noiaui n aeae?iea?aiiaoiui-eaeueoeeaaui
ninoaaii. n?aaeiae ieia?aeecaoeee 365 ia/e. Oi/ee ioai?a i?ia oeacaiu ia
?enoiea Auaeaeythony aeaa a?oiiu aiaeecia : iaeia a Aaea?aa
Neacie ( i?iau 1-8 ) ni n?aaeiae ieia?aeecaoeeae 0,4 a/e e ae?oaay a
Iaaaeueiii caea eee Caea Ia?ano?ieee ( i?iau io 9 -15 ) ni n?aaeiae
ieia?aeecaoeeae 0,35 a/ e. A ia?aii neo/aa n?aaeiyy iiuiinoue
ia?ae?uaathueo ii?iae ninoaaeea 16,7 i, aeoaeia io iiaa?oiinoe 25,6 i,
ai aoi?ii 33 e 36 i niioaaonoaaiii . Oaeei ia?acii ioia/aaony nieaeaiea
ieia?aeecaoeee n oaaee/aieai aeoaeiu e iiuiinoe ia?ae?uaathueo ii?iae.
Niioaaonoaaiii ieia?aeecaoeee eciaiyaony aa?anneaiinoue iiaecaiiuo aiae
ii ioiioaieth e eaeueoeeoo. A ia?aie a?oiia ana aiaeu neaai ia?aianuuaiu
– eiaeaen ianuuaiey eieaaeaony io +0,02 aei + 0,19 , ai aoi?ie a?oiia
aiaeu a iniiaiii iaaeiianuuaiu, eiaeaen ianuuaiey eciaiyaony io – 0,08
aei +0,08 . ?ani?aaeaeaiea aa?anneaiinoe iiaecaiiuo aiae niioaaonoaoao
?ani?aaeaeaieth iaoa/iuo ia?aciaaiee aioo?e iaua?u ( a aa?oiai yoaaea )
. Oae , aieueoay /anoue iaoa/iuo ia?aciaaiee nin?aaeioi/aia a aaea?aa
neacie, a oi a?aiy eae e a Iaaaeueiii caea eiathony o/anoee aeeoioeyoeee
ea?aiiaoiiai iaoa?eaea a aeaea e?oiiuo noaeaeoeoia , noaeaaieoia, ao?ia,
oae e o/anoee ei??iceiiiiai auuaea/eaaiey.

Oaiia?aoo?a iiaecaiiuo aiae eciaiyaony aanueia iacia/eoaeueii, eae a
?aciuo oi/eao iaua?u oae e ai a?aiaie . Oae , 16 ethey 1992 aiaea
oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu a ?aciuo oi/eao iaua?u eciaiyeanue io 8,4 aei 8,5
a?.N ( i?e oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa 9,2 – 8,6 a?.N) .Ae?oaie caia?, 11
naioya?y, iieacae, /oi oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu a oao aea oi/eao : 8,3 – 8,6
a?.N ( oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa 9,2 aei 8,8 a?.N).

4.2 Oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa

I?e iienaiee neaaeothueo ?acoeueoaoia iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo iaaethaeaiee
iaiaoiaeeii oeacaoue neaaeothuaa. Ec-ca ionoonoaey i?eai?ia –
naiiienoeaa e

iieiie iaaiciiaeiinoe eo iieo/aiey, eco/aiea iee?ieeeiaoa
i?iecaiaeeeinue ia?o?ooiuie iaoiaeaie. Caia?u oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe
aicaeooa i?iecaiaeeeenue anie?aoeeiiiuie ineo?iiao?aie.

Iaaethaeaiey aaeenue a iinoiyiii cae?aieaiiuo oi/eao, eiee/anoai eioi?uo
iaiyeinue io 9 aei 37. Iinea aeaoo oeeeeia iaaethaeaiee auynieeenue
iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiua 16 oi/ae, eioi?ua aeinoaoi/ii oa?aeoa?eciaaee anth
iaua?o a oeaeii.

Ia ia?aiia/aeueiii yoaia enneaaeiaaiee ( 1990 aiae) auei i?iaaaeaii 6
na?ee caia?ia oaiia?aoo? (ai?aeue – ieoya?ue) aeaiiua caia?ia naaaeaiu a
oaaeeoeo 3. Oaiia?aoo?a ia iiaa?oiinoe iaiyeanue io 11 aei 19 a?aaeonia
N, n?aaeiaa cia/aiea 19,5 a? N. Iaaethaeaaony iineaaeiaaoaeueiia
nieaeaiea oaiia?aoo?u io iiaa?oiinoe e iniiaiie /anoe iaua?u: io 14,5
aei 8,8 a?N e iaaieueoia iiauoaiea aa io iniiaiie /anoe e Oea?iaiio
oiaeo e ieaeiaio yoaaeo. Io o/anoea e o/anoeo eciaiyaony e aiieeooaea
eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?: io 8,1 ia iiaa?oiinoe io 0,2 – 0,6 a?.N ia
Ieaeiai yoaaea.

Eae e a ethaie iaua?a a I?aii?iie /aoei auaeaeyaony «o?aaieaathuay»e
«iaeo?aeueiay» ciiu . A «o?aaieaathuae» ciia oi?ioi au?aaeaiu eae
naciiiue, oae e nooi/iue ( aiieeooaea 2,5 a?.N) oiae oaiia?aoo?u
aicaeooa. A enneaaeoaiie iieinoe «o?aaieaathuay» ciia ?ani?ino?aiyaony
i?eaeeceoaeueii ia ?annoiyiea 25 – 30 iao?ia io aoiaea. Cia/eoaeueiia
aeeyiea ia iee?ieeeiao «o?aaieaathuae» ciiu ieacuaaao aoi?ie ( noa?ue)
eieiaeoeaia?aciue aoiae a iaua?o. Aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth aeaoo aoiaeia a
i?eaoiaeiie /anoe iaua?u a i?aaeaeao 5 – 6 iao?ia io aoiaeiie aeaa?e
ia?acoaony eieaeueiay oee?eoeyoeey aicaeooa e oaiea. I?e yoii iaaeaeo
i?eaoiaeiaie /anoueth iaua?u e iniiaiie aa /anoueth ia?acoaony
iaaieueoay «aooa?iay» iiaeciia, ia eioi?oth ieacuaaao aeeyiea eae
i?eaoiaeiaay , oae e iniiaiay ( «iaeo?aeueiay» )/anoe iaua?u. Eia/a
aiai?y, a no?oeoo?a «o?aaieaathuae» ciiu auaeaeyaony aeaa iiaeciiu:
i?eaoiaeiaay e aooa?iay. Eo iaee/eai iauyniyaony oaeie oaiiiai, eae
nieaeaiea oaiia?aoo?u iaaeaeo oi/eaie 3 (8,3 a?.N) e oi/eaie 5 (8,4
a?.N) aei 8 a?.N a oi/ea 4 , eioi?ay iaaethaeaeanue 6 ai?aey 199i
aiaea. Yoa aiiiaeey iaaethaeaeanue a 10.45 oo?a, eiaaea aicaeoo ia
iiaa?oiinoe oaea iaa?aeny aei 12,8 a?.N, ii a aooa?iie iiaeciia
nio?aieeenue oaiia?aoo?u caoaeoaai a i?eaoiaeiaoth /anoue oieiaeiiai
ii/iiai aicaeooa. A «iaeo?aeueiie» ciia auaeaeyaony 3 o/anoea n ?aciuie
n?aaeieie oaiia?aoo?aie e aiieeooaeaie eo eciaiaiey. Aaea?ay neacie e
Cae Ia?ano?ieee iaeaaeatho i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiaie n?aaeiae
oaiia?aoo?ie ?aaiie 8,8 a?.N, ia 0,1 a?.N oaiia?aoo?a auoa a Ieaeiai
yoaaea, ia 0,2 a Oea?iaii oiaea ( a aai aeeaeiae /anoe). Oeacaiiia
oaaee/aiea oaiia?aoo? naycaii , ii aeaeeiiio, n aieueoae noaiaiueth
eciee?iaaiiinoe io iiaa?oiinoiuo oneiaee. Iieo/aiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee
o?aaotho eo ooi/iaiey a i?ioeanna aeaeueiaeoeo iaaethaeaiee.

Oaaeeoea 3.

N?aaeiea oaiia?aoo?u a ?aciuo o/anoeao iaua?u I?aii?iay, a a?aaeonao N.

O/anoee Ioaeaeueiua

aaea?ae N?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a Aiieeooaea Eiee/anoai

caia?ia N v

Iiaa?oiinoue

14,7 8 6 0,2

Aoiae, ia?aae

aeaa?ueth

13,6 8,1 7 0,21

«O?aaieaathuay» ciia

9,6 2,3 7 0,1

«Iaeo?aeueiay ciia Aaea?ay neacie e Cae Ia?ano?ieee 8,8 0,5-0,8 50 0,3

«Iaeo?aeueiay

ciia Oea?iaue oiae 9,0 0,6 12 0,03

«Iaeo?aeueiay

ciia Ieaeiee yoaae 8,9 0,2-0,6 19 0,01

?acoeueoaou ecia?aiey oaiia?aoo?u a iaua?a ca ia?eiae 1996 – 1997
aiae io?aaeaiu ia a?aoeea «Iaua?a I?aii?iay, n?aaeiaiany/iay
oaiia?aoo?a», iino?iaiiii n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiie eiiiuethoa?iie
i?ia?aiiu .

Aiaeece?oy iieo/eaoaany a?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea eciaiaiey
n?aaeiaiany/iuo oaiia?aoo? a iaua?a iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiaeu i noaiaie
aeeyiey aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu ieaea.

4.3 Aeaaeiinoue

Oae aea eae e oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa ?ani?aaeaeyaony aeaaeiinoue aioo?e
iaua?u ( oaaeeoea 4). I?e yoii iaeaieaa aunieay aeaaeiinoue caeiiiia?ii
niioaaonoaoao ieaeiaio yoaaeo iaua?u, n?aaeiyy aaee/eia aa caeanue ?aaia
11,1 Ia, a inoaeueiuo iiaeciiao «iaeo?aeueiie»ciiu e a «o?aaieaathuae»
ciia n?aaeiyy aeaaeiinoue i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiaay – 16,9 Ia (Oaaeeoea
4), iaeiaei aiieeooaea Nv caeanue cia/eoaeueii ioee/athony ae?oa io
ae?oaa. N?aaeiyy aeaaeiinoue ia iiaa?oiinoe cia/eoaeueii ieaea oaeiaie a
iaua?a – 9,6 Ia. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?aeiouanoaaiiii enia?aiee ec
iaua?u a enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae, /oi naycaii n yeno?aiaeueii nooei e
aea?eei eaoii e inaiueth. Oieueei a iaeei ec caia?ia (30 ethiy )
aeaaeiinoue ia iiaa?oiinoe ( 14,6 Ia) auea auoa oaeiaie a iaua?a ( 11,6
Ia ) . Yoi oi?ioi niaeanoaony n aecoaeueiuie iaaethaeaieyie,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothueie i cia/eoaeueiii enia?aiee iaua?u ( noaiee e iaoaee
nooea, aieueoeinoai aaiii/ae aunioei e o.ae. ).

Aieaa eiie?aoiua aeaiiua i ?aaeeia aeaaeiinoe iiaeii ii/a?iiooue ec
a?aoeea «N?aaeiyy iany/iay aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa a iaua?a I?aii?iay ca
ia?eiae 1996-1997 aiaea».

Iuooeiia oaaee/aiea aeaaeiinoe iaaethaeaaony a n?aaeiae /anoe Oea?iaiai
oiaea , e oiaiueoaaony e aeaeueiae aai /anoe.

Oiae aeaaeiinoe a ia?aoiaeiie ciia a a?oai naeaaeaiiii aeaea iiaoi?yao
oiae aeaaeiinoe ia iiaa?oiinoe, ii i?aeoe/anee ieeae ia aeeyao ia
oaeiaie ai aioo?aiieo ciiao iaua?u. Ia nooi/iue e aiciiaeii, naciiiue
oiae aeaaeiinoe ai aioo?aiieo /anoyo iaua?u ia aeeyao oaeaea oiae yoiai
iaoaiyeaiaioa ia iiaa?oiinoe, a oaeaea eciaiaiea aeaaeaiey.

Oaaeeoea 4

N?aaeiyy aeaaeiinoue a ?aciuo o/anoeao iaua?u I?aii?iay, Ia.

O/anoee N?aaeiyy

aeaaeiinoue Aiieeooaea Eiee/anoai

caia?ia Nv

Iiaa?oiinoue 9,9 8,8 6 0,27

Aoiae, ia?aae aeaa?ueth 9,0 10,6 7 0,39

«O?aaieaathuay ciia» 10,9 1,9 7 0,05

«Iaeo?aeueiay ciia» Aaea?ay neacie e cae Ia?ano?ieee

10,9

0,9

50

0,02

«Iaeo?aeueiay ciia» Oea?iaue oiae 10,9 1,1 12 0,03

«Iaeo?aeueiay ciia» Ieaeiee yoaae 11,1 0,3 19 0,011

4.4 Niaea?aeaiea NI2 a aicaeooa iaua?u

A ?acee/iuo oi/eao iaua?u ioia?aii 26 i?ia. I?iau ioia?aiu a noaeeyiiua
ieiaoee ( ii iaoiaeeea EAI AI Oe?aeiu) e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu a
eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo ia o?iiaoia?aoa «Ae?o-O?ii» aeaoaeoi?-eaoa?iiao?,
aac – iineoaeue – aaeee, eieiiea – 1 – iieeni?a, eieiiea 2 –
iieaeoey?iua neoa NaA.

E?iia yoiai, i?iecaaaeaii 37 ecia?aiee NI2 ia ianoa ii?oaoeaiui
o?iiaoia?aoii «Iiene – 1», aeaoaeoi? – eaoa?iiao?, aac – iineoaeue –
a?aii. Niaea?aeaiea acioa a aicaeooa iaua?u eieaaeaony io 78,45 aei
79,11 ia.%, eenei?iaea io 20,16 aei 21,19 ia.% ( ec-ca aeeceie
oaieii?iaiaeiinoe eenei?iae auoiaeeo aianoa n a?aiiii ). Iaoai e ae?oaea
oyaeaeua oaeaaiaei?iaeu a eiioeaio?aoeeyo nauoa 1 o 10 ia iaia?oaeaiu.

Iaeaieaa eciai/eaui eiiiiiaioii iaua?iiai aicaeooa yaeyaony oaeaeeneue
aac. Aai niaea?aeaiea eieaaeaony io 0,03 ia.% ( aeeaeiyy /anoue iaua?u,
?yaeii ni aoiaeii ) aei 1,0 ia.% (ooiee aieco iniiaiie aaea?ae ).

Niaea?aeaiea oaeaeeneiou a aicaeooa iaua?u ia niio?y ia cia/eoaeueiue
?aciao cia/aiee a aicaeooa iaua?u a ?aciua naciiu , iaia?oaeeaaao
/aoeoth caeiiiia?iinoue, oaaee/aiea oaeaeeneiai aaca io aoiaea a iaua?o
e aieaa ioaeaeaiiui a ieaia e ii aeoaeia o/anoeai aa.

Niaea?aeaiea oaeaeeneiou ieaaii oaaee/eaaaony io 0,67 ia.% aicea
iiaa?oiinoe aei 0,82 ia.% a ooieeiaie /anoe Caea Ia?ano?ieee, e aei
0,82 – 0,84 ia.% a caeao ieaeiaai yoaaea.

Oaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia yiaeiaaiiii i?ienoiaeaeaiee
NI2 , iaeiaei, ionoonoaea a ninoaaa aicaeooa neieueei-ieaoaeue
cia/eoaeueiuo eiee/anoa oyaeaeuo oaeaaiaei?iaeia i?ioeai?a/eo yoie
aeiioaca. Ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu aoaeao aiciiaeiui oieueei
iinea i?iaaaeaiey ecioiiiiai eco/aiey aicaeooa iaua?u, eioi?ia
caieaie?iaaii aaanoe a ninoaa ?aaio ii iaaethaeaieth iee?ieeeiaoa
iaua?u a aoaeouai.

Eco/aiea ninoaaa aicaeooa a iaeieo e oao aea oi/eao , ii ia ?aciie
aunioa e a ?aciuo aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo iieacaei :

i?e ionoonoaee aiaeu, cia/eoaeueiuo ioee/ee a niaea?aeaiee NI2 ia
?aciuo aunioao ia iaia?oaeeaaaony. Oae a caea Ia?ano?ieee, a caieioeiiie
/anoe niaea?aeaiea oaeaeeneiai aaca ia aunioa 0,1 i – 0,87 ia.%; 1,0i
– 0,87ia.%; 2,0 i – 0,86 ia.%;

a aeuaiaii iaaaea Caea Ia?ano?ieee niaea?aeaiea NI2 iiae aeuaaie –
0,73, iaae aeuaaie 0,41 ia.%. Yoio oaeo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao a iieueco
yiaeiaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey;

a Aaeeiiiii caea , caia?u aieco o aiaeu iieacaee niaea?aeaiea NI2 –
0,71 ia.%;-0,76 ia.%, aaa?oo – 0,95ia.% – 1,0 ia.%, yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
aeiioaco ia aeoeaiii ?anoai?aiee oaeaeeneiai aaca a iaua?iuo oneiaeyo.

Ioai? e aiaeec i?ia i?iecaiaeeeny nio?oaeieeaie Eeaaneiai
ea?noieiai-niaeaieiae/aneiai oeaio?a e eino?oeoi?aie Oeaio?a
niaeaioo?ecia «IIEEN-OO?».

4.5 ?acoeueoaou aaci?oooiie nuaiee.

A iaua?a (aa?oiai yoaaea ) i?iaaaeaia aaci?oooiay nuaiea n oeaeueth
ii?aaeaeaiey niaea?aeaiey ia?ia ?oooe a aicaeooa iieinoe.

Oneiaey nuaiee : i?iaiaeeeanue 11 naioya?y 1990 aiaea n 19-00 aei 21-00,
oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa ia iiaa?oiinoe 12,6 – 13,0 a?.N , a iaua?a 10,2 –
8,8 a?.N, ioiineoaeueiay aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa ia iiaa?oiinoe 78%, a
iaua?a 81 – 87%.

?acoeueoaou nuaiee i?eaiaeyony a oaaeeoea 5. Oi/ee ii?aaeaeaiey ?oooe a
aicaeooa iieacaiu ia ?enoiea 1.

Aiaeece?oy aeaiiua oaaeeoeu ioia/aai, /oi iaeaieueoea aaee/eiu
niaea?aeaiey ?oooe a aicaeooa iaia?oaeaii a oi/eao 3,4,5,5a, 8,
aeinoeaay aaee/eiu a 1,5 IAeE ( IAeE aeey aeeeuo iiiauaiee ?aaii 300 o
10 ). Ana yoe oi/ee nin?aaeioi/aiu a Aaea?aa neacie, a ia?aaeaeao
iaoaoiaeiuo aei?iaeae. A oaeaeaiiuo io aaea?ae neacie /anoyo iaua?u
niaea?aeaiea ?oooe a aicaeooa oiaiueoaaony aei 92 o 10 .

Iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea ?oooe a aicaeooa Aaea?ae neacie naycaii ,
ii-aeaeeiiio , n oaoiiaaiiui ca?aaeaieai, eieaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. Aii?in
yoio o?aaoao aeaeueiaeoaai eco/aiey, a eiaiii iinoaiiaee ?aaeeiiuo
iaaethaeaiee n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey enoi/ieeia iinooieaiey ?oooe a
aicaeoo iaua?u.

Oaaeeoea 5.

?acoeueoaou aaci?oooiie nuaiee

??

o.o. I ? e a y c e a Oaiia?aoo-?a aicaeooa,

a?aae.N Niaea?aeaiea

?oooe

n o 10

1 Iiaa?oiinoue o aoiaea 12,6 40

2 Aoiae,ia?aae aeaa?ueth 13 42

3 Iaua?a,iiae noa?ui aoiaeii 10,2 500

4 Iaua?a ,o eieiaeoea 8,8 374

5 Iiai?io a Oea?iaue oiae 9,2 410

5a Oea?iaue oiae , ieiuaaeea 9,2 352

6 Oea?iaue oiae, iiai?io 9,2 182

7 Oea?iaue oiae, uaeue 8,6 100

8 Eiiaoe iaoaoiaeiie aei?iaeee 8,8 266

9 Iaaaeueiue cae, aeuaa, eaaay noaiea 8,8 142

10 Iaaaeueiue cae, noaeaaiao, eaaay noaiea 8,8 124

11 Ieioeia, 2 iao?a ieaea 8,8 174

12 Ieioeia, aa?o 8,8 166

13 Eiioeaaay /anoue caea Ia?ano?ieee 8,8 62

14 Cae Ia?ano?ieee, ia?aae aoiaeii a ieaeiee yoaae 9,0 114

4.6 Iee?iaeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.

Ethaay iaua?a, iinauaaiay a ianniaii ii?yaeea, iiaeaa?aaaony iianiinoe
caa?yciaiey. A iniaaiiinoe iiiai i?iaeai aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa
?anoeoaeueiinoe aie?oa iinoiyiii inaauaaiuo /anoae iaua?u.

Iaoe?iue iiuo yenieoaoaoeee iaua? a ie?a e iaaieueoie a auaoai NNN?
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi i?e ianiaethaeaiee ia? i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoe
iaua?a oa?yao naie ia?aicaeaiiue iaeee.

Ii?aaeaeythueie oaeoi?aie iiyaeaiey ?anoeoaeueiinoe a iaua?a yaeythony :

onoaiiaea enoi/ieeia eneonnoaaiiiai naaoa n iaeiie noi?iiu e iiyaeaiea
ianaienoaaiiie iaua?a iee?ioei?u e iee?ioaoiu, eioi?ay caiineony a
iaua?o iinaoeoaeyie. Iai iaecaanoiu ?aaiou, iinayuaiiua ?ani?ino?aiaieth
?anoeoaeueiinoe a iaua?ao NNN? . Ca ?oaaaeii aea yoe i?iaeaiu
ianoaeaeathony aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei. Iaeia ec oaeeo ?aaio [ ] iienuaaao
?ani?ino?aiaiea oae iacuaaaiie eaiiiaie oei?u a iaua?a Aa?aaeea
(Aaia?ey) .

A iaua?a Iiai-Aoiineay ( Aaoacey) ?anoeoaeueiinoue iiyaeeanue e ao?ii
?acaeeanue a oa/aiee iaiaa 10 eao. Iaeaieueooth iianiinoue a yoii iunea
i?aaenoaaeytho aaeiaaiiaua eaiiu.

N oeaeueth ioeaiee iee?iaeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee iaua?u I?aii?iay
i?iaiaeeeenue ii?aaeaeaiey ea/anoaaiiiai e eiee/anoaaiiiai ninoaaa
iee?ioei?u a?oioa e aicaeooa. Ioai? i?iecaiaeeeny a iyoe noaoeeiia?iuo
oi/eao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a i?aaeaeao Aaea?ae neacie ( ni. o.o. 1 – 5 ia
?enoiea ). E?iia oiiiyioouo oi/ae i?iau ioae?aeenue : a ieaeiai yoaaea
( Cae iaaeaaeae ,o.6 ) e a Ethno?iaii caea. A yoeo aeaoo oi/eao
ioae?aeenue oieueei i?iau a?oioa. Ioai? i?ia, aiaeec e ia?aaioea
iieo/aiiuo iaoa?eaeia i?iecaiaeeeenue nio?oaeieeaie EI? AI Oe?aeiu.

Ioai? i?ia a?oioa inouanoaeyeny ii iauai?eiyoie iaoiaeeea, a
noa?eeueiua iaoi/ee. Iinea aeinoaaee i?ia a eaai?aoi?eth ii?aaeaeyeenue
aeaaeiinoue ia?acoeia, aioiaeeanue na?ey iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo ?acaaaeaiee
ec i?ia a?oioa e inouanoaeyeny iinaa ecaanoiui ia?acii , eiio?ieue ca
iee?iaeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaeie i?iaiaeeeny a yeeeeoeaiuo n?aaeao:

Yoae – aeey auaeaeaiey aciooeene?othueo iee?ii?aaieciia;

IIA – aeey auaeaeaiey aaoa?io?ioia, ?acaeaathueony ia i?aaie/aneii
noano?aoa;

EAI – aeey auaeaeaiey aeoeiiieoeaoia ( a /enea eioi?uo auniei
niaea?aeaiea oi?i iaoiaaiiuo aeey /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo);

*aiaea – aeey auaeaeaiey iee?ineiie/aneeo a?eaia;

N?aaea Oaiey – aeey auaeaeaiey iee?iaiaei?ineae.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee naaaeaiu a oaaeeoeao 6 e 7.

E?iia enneaaeiaaiee a oiiiyioouo oi/eao, auee enneaaeiaaiu ia?acoeu
iee?ioei?u, ioia?aiiua ia noaeaeoeoao e a?oioa a Ethno?iaii caea. Iyoia
ieanaie ia ianoa iiaecaiiiai eaaa?y auee iaia?oaeaiu caeanue aecoaeueii
i?e enneaaeiaaiee iaua?u 16 ethey 1990 aiaea. Yoa ieanaiue ninoieo ec
iee?ineiie/aneeo a?eaia, eioi?ua iinea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
eiaeaioeoeeaoeee auee ioianaiu e ?iaeo

Ec aiaeeca oaaee/iuo aeaiiuo neaaeoao, /oi iauay /eneaiiinoue
iee?ii?aaieciia iaeaieaa auniea a ioieoao 1,2,5 ( ii ninoiyieth ia
20.09.90 a.) A oi aea a?aiy i?e ia?aii ioai?a ( 0.6. 0.4.90 a.) iauay
/eneaiiinoue iee?ii?aaieciia iaeaieaa aunieie auea a ioieoao 2,5. I?e
ia?auo aeaoo ioai?ao n?aaee eco/aaiuo a?oii iee?ii?aieciia iaeaieaa
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie auee aaoa?io?ioiua aaeoa?ee e aeoeiiieoeaou. A /enea
aaoa?io?ioia aeiieie?otho aaoeeeeu : Bac.megaterium, Bac.sultiles,
Bac.mesentericus. Iee?ineiie/aneea a?eau i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaiaaee a
a?oioa iaua?u e auee iaiiiai/eneaiiu a aicaeooa. Iee?ioei?a
auaeaeyaoayny ia n?aaea Oaiey auea i?aaenoaeaia, a iniiaiii,
aaoio?ioiuie iee?ii?aaieciaie ( ?anooueie ia ieia?aeueiii noano?aoa).
Iee?iaiaei?inee ia ia?eiae 06 .04.- 16.07.90a. iaia?oaeaiu ia auee.
*eneaiiinoue iee?ii?aaieciia a oeacaiiue ia?eiae auea ia 1-2 ii?yaeea
auoa a a?oioao , /ai a aicaeooa.

?acoeueoaou o?aoueaai ianeaaeiaaiey, 20.09.90 a. iieacaee : oaiaeaioeey
e ia?anoaieth iee?ii?aaieciia ii enneaaeoaiui a?oiiai iee?ioei?u
nio?aieeanue. Iniaaiii aic?inea /eneaiiinoue a?eaia e aaoa?io?ioiuo
iee?ii?aaieciia, iaeaieueoay ieioiinoue eioi?uo ioia/aeanue ia ieiuaaeea
o aoiaea. Ii – aeaeeiiio, yoa caeiiiia?iinoue yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
yenieoaoaoeee iaua?u a ea/anoaa yeneo?neiiiiai iauaeoa.

4.7 ?aaeeiiao?e/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.

I?e auiieiaiee ?aaio eniieueciaaeny na?eeiue ?aaeeiiao? ia?ee N?I – 68
– 01, ecia?ythuee aeanoeia aaiia-eceo/aiea a ie?//an. Caia?u i?iaaaeaiu
ia oeene?iaaiiuo oi/eao ia anai i?ioyaeaiee iaua?u io aoiaea aei
aa?oiae e ieaeiae aeaeiauo ieiuaaeie. Aiaeec ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeaiiuo ii
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe ia yoii o/anoea iaua?u iieacae, /oi eieaaaiey
iaaethaeathony a i?aaeaeao io 5 ( noaeaaieo Iaiiio) aei 13 ie?//an ( ia
aa?oiae aeaeiaie ieiuaaeea), oi anoue iaoiaeyony a iaaeaeao oiia ai?iaea
Neioa?iiiey ?aaiiai 12 – 15 ie?//an e aeaaea ieaea aai. Ianeieueei
caia?ia auiieiaiuo aeaeueoa ii Caeo Ia?ano?ieee iieacaee niaea?aeaiea
ineieueei auoa, a eiaiii aei 16 – 17 ie?//an.

Aieaa aeaoaeueiua ?aaeeiiao?e/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, auiieiaiiua 30.11.90
a. ia aa?oiai o/anoea iaua?u ( io aoiaea aei ieaeiae e aa?oiae
ieiuaaeie) iieacaee oa aea niaea?aeaiey ( a i?aaeaeao 5 – 13 ie ?//an).
I?iaeieaeea ecia?aiey /a?ac caaae a noi?iio caea Ia?ano?ieee e i?ieaey
aei eiioea caea auei auyaeaii iaeioiia iiauoaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe io15
ie?//an ( a ia/aea caea) aei 20 -25 (a na?aaeeia caea), ?acei iiauoaii
aei 40 ie?//an o aeeienoiai iaiuaa e ianuie a eiioea caea – 27
ie?/a/n. I?e yoii, eae io/aoeeai aeaeii, iiauoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee yaii
naycaii n aeeiyiie noanoaioeeae, auiieaaeeaathuae iie caea.

Caia?u auiieiaiiua a ieaeiae /anoe iaua?u ( a noi?iio Ethno?iaiai caea)
iieacaee eieaaaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe a i?aaeaeao io 15 aei 20 ie ?//an e
oieueei o ae?aie?iaee ia?ae Ethno?iaui caeii iiuaoaiu aei 30 ie?//an.

Aiaeece?oy iieo/aiiua aeaiiua iiaeii ioiaoeoue:

ia aa?oiai o/anoea iaua?u onoaiiaeaiu iaeaieaa ieceea niaea?aeaiey
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe, ia i?aauoathuea 10 – 15 ie?//an;

iaeaieaa aunieea eiioeaio?aoeee ioia/aiu a caea Ia?ano?ieee aei 40
ie?//an;

a ieaeiae /anoe iaua?u (a noi?iio Ethno?iaiai caea) niaea?aeaiea
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe i?eia?ii a 2 ?aca auoa, /ai a i?eaoiaeiaie /anoe iaua?u
e aiaeiae/ii aieueoeinoao caia?ia a caea Ia?ano?ieee, ca eneeth/aieai
aeeienoie ianuie;

a oeaei aea niaea?aeaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe ieceea e ia i?aaenoaaeytho
yeieiae/aneie iianiinoe.

5. Aio?iiiaaiiua oaeoi?u, ieacuaathuea aeeyiea ia iee?ieeeiao

iaua?u.

Iiae aio?iiiaaiiuie oaeoi?aie, ieacuaathueie aeeyiea ia iee?ieeeiao
iaua?u e ia aa oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneoth n?aaeo a oeaeii aaoi? iiieiaao
yeaiaiou aiaoaoaeuenoaa a ?acoeueoaoa iai?oaeiaaiey e yenieoaoaoeee
iaua?u eae yeneo?neiiiiai iauaeoa.

Naii aiaoaoaeuenoai a yeieiae/aneoth nenoaio iaua?u i?aaeiieaaaao aa
eciaiaey, ii aii?in ninoieo a noaiaie aeeyiey yoiai aio?iiiaaiiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa e aai iineaaenoaee aeey o?oieie aeeiaie/aneie nenoaiu
ea?noiaie iieinoe. Ieaea iienaiu oaeoi?u aio?iiiaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa
ia iaeaieaa aaaeiua yeaiaiou iee?ieeeiaoa iaua?u e noaiaiue eo aeeyiey
ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue.

Iai?oaeiaaiea aoi?iai eneonnoaaiiiai aoiaea a iaua?o (ia/aeueiue yoai
inaiaiey iaua?u).

Ono?ienoai iaoaoiaeiuo aei?iaeae, i?ioyaeaiiinoueth aieaa 700 iao?ia.

Ia?ae?uoea aeaa?yie niiauaiey n aaea?aae Oea?iaue oiae.

Eneonnoaaiiia yeaeo?e/aneia inaauaiea iaua?u, aai iiuiinoue, iai?aaeaiea
io/ea naaoa.

Iinauaaiinoue iaua?u yeneo?neiiiuie a?oiiaie, oaaee/aiea aai
eioaineaiinoe ca ei?ioeee i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie ( a iniiaiii etheue –
aaaono).

Ana yoe oaeoi?u a naith i/a?aaeue a ?aciie noaiaie aeeytho ia yeaiaiou
iee?ieeeiaoa iaua?u.

1. Aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth aeaoo aoiaeia a iaua?o a ieaoiaeiaie /anoe aa a
i?aaeaeao 5 – 6 iao?ia io aoiaeiie aeaa?e ia?acoaony eieaeueiay
oee?eoeyoeey aicaeooa a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie ?acei auaeaeyaony iaaieueoay
aooa?iay iiaeciia ia eioi?oth ieacuaaao aeeyiea, eae i?eaoiaeiaay, oae e
iniiaiay «iaeo?aeueiay /anoe» iaua?u.

Iiyaeaiea eaaeyiuo noaeaaieoia e noaeaeoeoia a i?eaoiaeiaie /anoe iaua?u
naycaii n iiyaeaieai aeiiieieoaeueiiai aicaeooiiaiaia n iiaa?oiinoueth
ca n/ao aoi?iai aoiaea a iieinoue, e yaeyaony neaaenoaeai aieueoae
caaeneiinoe «i?eaoiaeiaie» ciiu io eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u ia iiaa?oiinoe,
ii yoie aea i?e/eia.

Iuooeiia oaaee/aiea oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe a n?aaeiae /anoe Oea?iaiai
oiaea iauyniyaony eae anoanoaaiiuie i?e/eiaie ( caeanue iia auea auoa a
ia?aiia/aeueiue yoai enneaaeiaaiee, o.a. aei yeneo?neiiiie iaa?ocee)
oae oaoiiaaiiuie : iaee/ea a oa/aiea iieoaiaea aeaa?e a Oea?iaue oiae,
i?aiyonoaothuae aicaeooiiaiaio, e , /oi iaeaieaa aaaeii n?aaieoaeueii
aieueoaa, /ai a ae?oaeo aaea?ayo eiee/anoai iinaoeoaeae. I?e yoii
iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi iauaiu Oea?iaiai oiaea ai?acaei iaiueoa, /ai
ae?oaea yeneo?neiiiua aaea?ae iaua?u I?aii?iay. Aanueia oa?aeoa?ii, /oi
oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeiinoue oiaiueoathony e aeaeueiae /anoe Oea?iaiai
oiaea (iaiueoa iinaoeoaeae, iaee/ea nayce n iiaa?oiinoueth eee ae?oaeie
,aua ia i?ieaeaiiuie /anoyie iaua?u)

Aiaeece?oy «A?aoee n?aaeiaiany/iuo oaiia?aoo?…» iiaeii naeaeaoue
auaiae, /oi iiauoaiey yoe iacia/eoaeueiua , iaeneiaeueii – a na?aaeeia
Oea?iaiai oiaea aei 12 a?aae.N ( n?aaeiyy aeey yoie ciiu 10 a?.N).
Aiaeiae/ii i?ienoiaeeo iiauoaiea aeaaeiinoe a yoie ciia ,eae aeaeii ec
«A?aoeea eciaiaiey aaniethoiie aeaaeiinoe….» aei 13 Ia ( n?aaeiyy
aeey yoie oi/ee 12,3 ia).

I?iecaiaeiie io oaeoa i?enoonoaey a caieiooii i?ino?ainoaa iaua?u
/aeiaaea yaeyaony auaeaeaiea oaeaeeneiai aaca a i?ioeanna aeuoaiey.

Niaea?aeaiea oaeaeeneiai aaca a iaua?a eieaaeaony io 0,03 ia.% ( oi
anoue oaeia aea eae e ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee ) aei 1,0 ia.%, oaaee/eaaynue
e aieaa oaeaeaiiui io aoiaea e neaai i?iaao?eaaaiui o/anoeai iaua?u. Ii
oaeia iiauoaiea iiaeao iauyniyoueny yiaeiaaiiui i?ienoiaeaeaieai
oaeaeeneiai aaca. Aii?in oaaee/aiey eiioeaio?aoeee oaeaeeneiai aaca a
ioaeaeaiiuo e ieciaiiuo o/anoeao iaua?u iaeaieaa aeooaeai ia
naaiaeiyoiee ia?eiae yenieoaoaoeee iaua?u, oae eae eiee/anoai
yeneo?naioia n eaaeaeui aiaeii oaaee/eaaaony e oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai
auaeuoaaiie oaeaeeneiou.

Ia niaea?aeaiea a aicaeooa ae?oaeo aaciauo i?eianae aio?iiiaaiiia
aiaoaoaeuenoai aeeyiey ia ieacuaaao.

Iniauaiea iaua?u yeaeo?e/aneei inaauaieai ( iaee/ea inaaoeoaeueiuo
Ca?aaeaiea iineei no?iai eieaeueiue oa?aeoa?, aicieeei , eae auyni eaii,
yeaeo?ii?iaiaeee) i?eaaei e iiauoaieth ia?ia ?oooe a aicaeooa iaua?u (
500 o 10). Oaoiiaaiiia ca?aaeaiea auei ioia/aii oieueei ia iaeiii
o/anoea yeneo?neiiiiai ia?o?ooa Aaea?ae neacie , a ia iinauaaiue
ia?eiae. ec-ca iia?aaeaeaiey inaaoeoaeueiiai i?eai?a, e iaaieueoie
ooa/ee ?oooe ec ?acaeoiai ?oooiiai oa?iiiao?a i?e niyoee caia?ia
oaiia?aoo?u nio?oaeieeaie Oeaio?a. Oaoiiaaiiia ca?aaeaiea auei
eeeaeaee?iaaii a e?ao/aeoea n?iee aeoeaiui i?iaao?eaaieai. Iniauaiea
iaua?u yeaeo?iinaaoeoaeueiui iai?oaeiaaieai oaeaea aeeyao ia ninoiyiea
iee?iaeieiae/aneie n?aaeu iieinoe. Ca n/ao aeaenoaey iai?aaeaiiiai
io/ea naaoa ia iiaa?oiinoue noai e iaoaeia ( eae neaaenoaea – oaaee/aiea
oaiia?aoo?u ) i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth ia ieo eiee/anoaa iee?ii?aaieciia,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aciooeene?othueie aaeoa?eyie, aaoa?io?ioaie,
aeoeiiieoeaoaie, iee?ineiie/aneeie a?eaaie e iee?iaiaei?ineyie.

Iai?oaeiaaiea iaua?u aeey yeneo?neiiiiai iinauaiey i?aaeiieaaaao
iaoiaeaeaiea a iieinoe aieueoiai eiee/anoaa yeneo?naioia. I?enoonoaea
/aeiaaea ianiiiaiii aeeyao ia ninoiyiea iee?iaeieiae/aneie n?aaeu
iaua?u. Oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea aeaiiuo iee?ii?aaieciia a aicaeooa
iaua?u, ii iaoiaaiiuo aeey /aeiaaea iee?ii?aaieciia ia naaiaeiyoiee
aeaiue ia iaia?oaeaii.

Aeeyiey anao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo oaeoi?ia aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
iiauoaiea ?aaeeiiao?e/aneiai oiia a iaua?a ia caoeene?iaaii. Oioy ca
nioiyieai aeaiiiai aii?ina iaiaoiaeei ouaoaeueiue eiio?ieue, oae eae
anoue iianiinoue oaoiiaaiiiai ca?aaeaiey. ?aaeeiiao?e/aneeie
enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaiu eieaaaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe io 5aei 40 ie?
//an, /oi ia i?aaenoaaeyao iianiinoe aeey iinaoeoaeae ( oii
a.Neioa?iiiey ?aaai 12 – 15 ie?//an).

6. Ia?u i?aaeioa?auaiey io?eoeaoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey aio?iiiaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia ia iee?ieeeiao iaua?u.

Aeaeueiaeoee eiio?ieue ca ninoiyieai iee?ieeeiaoa iaua?u iaiaoiaeei aeey
nicaeaiey eiiieaena io?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii aa io?aia e aiaeiae/iuo
iaua?, eioi?ua aoaeoo aiineaaenoaee iai?oaeiaaoueny ia oieueei ia
*aou?-Aeaaa, ii e ia oa??eoi?ee NIA .

Eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u e ieia?aeecaoeee iiaecaiiuo aiae, a oaeaea eo
caa?yciaiey ?acee/iuie aauanoaaie n iiaa?oiinoe iiaeii i?aaeioa?aoeoue.
Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeei no?iaee eiio?ieue eino?oeoi?a Oeaio?a
niaeaioo?ecia ca iinauaieai iaua?u. Caa?yciaieth iiaecaiiuo aiae
oaeaea i?aiyonoaoao iai?oaeiaaiea yeneo?neiiiuo aei?iaeae ai?oeeaie,
aunioie ia iaiaa 7 ni, i?aiyonoaothueie iiiaaeaieth caa?yciaiey n
aaoiiiie iaoaoiaeiie aei?iaeee. Aaeaiaaeaeueiay ia?aaioea aei?iaeae
niaoeeaeueiui aeaceioeoee?othuei ?anoai?ii.

I?aaeioa?auaieth eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeia iaua?u e ?aaeeia
aeaaeiinoe aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue /aoeee eiio?ieue ca ninoiyieai
aeinooia aicaeooa /a?ac aoi?ie eneonnoaaiiue aoiae a iaua?o. Aoiaeiay
aeaa?ue aeieaeia ieioii cae?uaaoueny iinea i?ioiaea yeneo?neiiiie
a?oiiu. Aeaa?ue a aaea?ath Oea?iaue oiae aeieaeia auoue aeaiiioe?iaaia
aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey anoanoaaiiie oee?eoeyoeee aicaeooa .

Aeey eiio?iey ca ?aaeeiii aeaaeiinoe e oaiia?aoo?u a yeneo?neiiiuo
aaea?ayo iaua?u iaiaoiaeei iiaen/ao e ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie
yeneo?neiiiie iaa?ocee aeey eaaeaeiai yeneo?neiiiiai ia?o?ooa a
ioaeaeueiinoe. Oae eae iie ?acee/iu ii i?ioyaeaiiinoe e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe i?aauaaiey a ieo yeneo?neiiiuo a?oii. Niaoeeaeueiua
iaaethaeaiey aeieaeiu i?iaiaeeoueny ca aeeyieai iiuiinoe
yeaeo?iinaaoeoaeueiuo i?eai?ia ia iaa?aa iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeia e noai
iaua?u.

*aoeee eiio?ieue ca eiee/anoaii yeneo?naioia ia ?acee/iuo ia?o?ooao a
iaua?a oae aea iaiaoiaeei aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey neiieaiey oaeaeeneiai
aaca a aicaeooa iaua?u. Caia?u aeieaeiu i?iecaiaeeoueny iinea eaaeaeiai
yeneo?neiiiiai aeiy ai anao iinauaaiuo aaea?ayo iaua?u., /oiau a neo/aa
i?aauoaiey ii?iu niaea?aeaiey NI2 a aicaeooiie n?aaea i?iecaanoe
aiaeec aai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e i?iecaanoe i?iaao?eaaiea aeaiiiai o/anoea
iaua?u. A oeaeii aea, /oi eanaaony ia?ooaiey aaciaiai ninoaaa aicaeooa,
i?e neieueei-ieaoaeue iacia/eoaeueiii neiieaiee iinoi?iiieo caiaoia, ia
naienoaaiiuo aeey aicaeooiie n?aaeu iaua?u, iaiaoiaeeii iaiaaeeaiiia
i?iaao?eaaiea e aiaeec aaciaiai ninoaaa aicaeooa.

I?aaeioa?auaieth oaoiiaaiiiai caa?yciaiey ia?aie ?oooe iaua?iie n?aaeu
niinianoaoao iaoeinieoaeueiia niaethaeaiea oaoieee aaciianiinoe i?e
?aaioa n ethauie i?eai?aie e eino?oiaioaie aa niaea?aeaueie, a oaeaea
oaie, a ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo ethaua eiioea?iaaiiua yeaiaiou, (ia
oieueei ?oooue). I?e oeene?iaaiee oaaee/aiey niaea?aeaiey ia?ia ?oooe
iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaanoe ouaoaeueii i?iaao?eaaiea ca?aaeaiiiai o/anoea
iaua?u.

A i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiee, iinea iieo/aiey ia?auo ?acoeueoaoia
iee?iaeieiae/aneeo iaaethaeaiee a iaua?a I?aii?iay auynieeny ?yae ia?
niinianoaothueo i?aaeioa?auaieth eciaiaiey iee?iaeieiae/aneie n?aaeu
iieinoe:

A o/anoeao, aaea iaaethaeaaony ?ani?ino?aiaiea a?eaeiaie eioaeoeee
?aeiiaiaeoaony aeaaeiia niyoea ieoeaeeaeueiiai iaeaoa n iineaaeothuae
ia?aaioeie eioeoee?iaaiiuo i/aaia 10% ?anoai?ii oi?iaeeia eee oaiiea
(ea?aieiaie eeneiou). Aiciiaeia oaeaea ia?aaioea aaeoa?eoeeaeiie
eaa?oeaaie eaiiie.

Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey ?acaeoey ?anoeoaeueiinoe a iaua?a ?aeiiaiaeoaony
iai?oaeiaaiea ia aoiaeiie ieiuaaeea o/anoea ni niaoeeaeueiui iie?uoeai
i?iieoaiiui aeaceioeoee?othuei ?anoai?ii. Caeanue iinaoeoaee iaycaiu
auoe?aoue ieaeithth /anoue iaoae;

ia?eiaee/anee eneonnoaaiii aaioeee?iaaoue iaua?o;

ia?eiaee/anee iaiyoue ?aniieiaeaiea naaoeeueieeia eee ii e?aeiae ia?a
iai?aaeaiea iioiea naaoa io oiai eee eiiai enoi/ieea.;

iiyaeaoothny ieanaiue iaiaaeeaiii nieiaoue e ia?aaaouaaoue
eioeoee?iaaiiua o/anoee aeaceioeoee?othuei ?anoai?ii;

i?iaeieaeaoue iaaethaeaiey ca iee?iaeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaeie a iaua?a,
?ac?aaaouaay iaeiia?aiaiii yooaeoeaiua ia?u ai?ueau n eioaineaii
?acaeaathuaeny iee?ioei?ie..

6. Aeey eiio?iey ca ?aaeeiiao?e/aneei oiiii a iaua?a aeieaeiu
i?iecaiaeeoueny ?aaoey?iua iaaethaeaiey ca ninoiyieai aeaiiiai aii?ina.
Ai ecaaaeaiea oaoiiaaiiiai caa?yciaiey iaiaoiaeei /aoeee eiio?ieue ca
niaethaeaieai oaoieee aaciianiinoe i?e aaaeaiee oaoie/aneeo ?aaio a
iaua?a, niaethaeaieai i?aaee iinauaiey yeneo?neiiiuo ia?o?ooia. Aiiaua
aea oii ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe ia i?aaenoaaeyao iianiinoe aeey iinaoeoaeae
iaua?u I?aii?iay.

CAEETH*AIEA

Enneaaeiaaiey iee?ieeeiaoa iaua?u I?aii?iay aeaee aiaaoue iaoa?eae ii
iniaaiiinoe aa oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeia, ?aaeeia aeaaeiinoe , a oaeaea
ninoiyieai aaciaiai ninoaaa aicaeooa, iee?iaeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee,
?aaeeiiao?e/aneiai oiia e oaniie acaeiinayce yoeo eiiiiiaioia.
Aeaeueiaeoea iaaethaeaiey aeieaeiu iiiieieoue eiathueeny aaie aeaiiuo e
i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie iinoiyiiue iiieoi?eia ca iee?ieeeiaoii iaua?u
I?aii?iay. Eniieuecoaiua i?eai?u, eiathuea iaaeinoaoi/ii aunieoth
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e i?eiaiyaiua iaoiaeu iaaethaeaiee ( a i?enoonoaee
/aeiaaea) nouanoaaiii ia?aie/eaatho aiciiaeiinoe niaeaiiao?ee aeey
eco/aiey oao i?iaeai, eioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaenoaaeytho
iaeaieueoee iao/iue e i?aeoe/aneee eioa?an a naaoa ?acaeoey
yeneo?neiiiuo eiiieaenia ia aaca ea?noiauo iaua? Ai?iiai E?uia.
Enneaaeiaaiey iee?ieeeiaoa iaua?u I?aii?iay auyaeee ?yae nouanoaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia aeeyiey ia iaai e , /oi i/aiue iaiaeiaaaeii, iicaieeee
ii?aaeaeeoue ?yae ia? ii oiaiueoaieth noaiaie aeeyiey aio?iiiaaiiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa.

A oeaeii aea iinea i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee auyaeaii:

Aiaea a iaua?a /?acau/aeii /enoay, n ieia?aeecaoeeae 0,365 a\e e
oaiia?aoo?ie 8,3 – 8,6 a?aaeonia.

A i?ioeanna iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo iaaethaeaiee a iaua?a I?aii?iay auyaeaii
ianeieueei iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo cii. Ia?aay ec ieo – yoi o?aaiiaaoeaathuay
ciia, eioi?ay ?aniieaaaaony ia ?annoiyiee 20 – 30 iao?ia io aoiaeiiai
oiiiaey. Ia niio?y ia iacia/eoaeueioth i?ioyaeaiiinoue, yoa ciia eiaao
/?acau/aeii aieueoia cia/aiea, oae a aa i?aaeaeao i?ienoiaeyo i?ioeannu
o?aaiiaaoeaaiey iinoiyiiuo oaiia?aoo? e aeaaeiinoe aioo?e iaua?u n
oaeiauie ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee. Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iee?ieeeiao
o?aaiiaaoeaathuae ciiu ii i?aaeiaio ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia?aiia/aeueiue
(anoanoaaiiue) eieiaeoeaia?aciue aoiae a iaua?o, a ia iiaue
eneonnoaaiiue eae i?aaeiieaaaeinue. Ii ana aea aeaaiaea?y iiyaeaieth
aoi?iai eneonnoaaiiiai aoiaea a iaua?o a i?aaeaeao 5 – 6 iao?ia io
aoiaeiie aeaa?e ia?acoaony iaaieueoay aooa?iay iiaeciia, ia eioi?oth
ieacuaaao aeeyiea eae i?eaoiaeiaay, oae e iniiaiay iaeo?aeueiay /anoe
iaua?u. O?aaiiaaoeaathuay ciia eiaao oaiia?aoo?o a n?aaeiai 9,4 a?aaeona
e aeaaeiinoue a i?aaeaeao 10,6 – 11,1 ia.

A iaeo?aeueiie ciia auaeaeythony o?e iiaeciiu. Ia?aay ec ieo i?eo?i/aia
e Aaea?aa neacie e caeo Ia?ano?ieee. Oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeiinoue caeanue,
niioaaonoaaiii, 8,8-9,2 a?aae. e 10,9- 11,6 ia.

Aoi?ay iiaeciia i?eo?i/aia e aeeaeiae /anoe Oa?iaiai oiaea. Oaiia?aoo?a
e aeaaeiinoue caeanue, niioaaonoaaiii : 10 a?N ,12,3 ia.

O?aouey iiaeciia ?aniieaaaaony a aeaeueiae /anoe Oea?iaiai oiaea.
Oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeiinoue caeanue niioaaonoaaiii 9,7 – 9,8 a?aae.N e 12
– 12,1 ia.

Iuooeiia oaaee/aiea oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe a n?aaeiae /anoe Oa?iaiai
oiaea iauyniyaony eae anoanoaaiiuie i?e/eiaie ( caeanue iia auea auoa
aua a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae yenieoaoaoeee , oae e oaoiiaaiiuie : iaee/ea a
oa/aiee iieoaiaea aeaa?e a Oea?iaue oiae, i?aiyonoaiaaaoae
aicaeooiiaiaio, iaee/ea iinaoeoaeae a n?aaieoaeueii iaeii iauaia
iieinoe, e , i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii iaee/ea inaaoeoaeueiuo eaii. Aanueia
oa?aeoa?ii, /oi oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeiinoue oiaiueoathony e aeaeueiae
/anoe Oea?iaiai oiaea ( iaiueoa iinaoeoaeae, iaee/ea nayce n
iiaa?oiinoueth, eee ae?oaeie aua iai?ieaeaiiuie /anoyie iaua?u).

Oiae aeaaeiinoe a ia?aoiaeiie ciia a a?oai naeaaeaiiii aeaea iiaoi?yao
oiae aeaaeiinoe ia iiaa?oiinoe, ii i?aeoe/anee ieeae ia aeeyao ia
oaeiaie ai aioo?aiieo /anoyo iaua?u. Ia nooi/iue e, aiciiaeii, naciiiue
oiae oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe ai aioo?aiieo /anoyo iaua?u ia aeeytho
oaeaea oiae yoeo iaoaiyeaiaioia ia iiaa?oiinoe , a oaeaea eciaiaiey
aeaaeaiey. Ia yoe yeaiaiou iee?ieeeiaoa, a aeaeueieo /anoyo iaua?u oae
aea ia aeeyao iioie iinaoeoaeae e inaaoeoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea.

Iaeiaei, iacia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe a
ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeao iaua?u ii n?aaiaieth n ia/aeueiui ia?eiaeii
yenieoaoaoeee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaee/ee oaoiiaaiiie iaa?ocee, eioi?ay
e aucaaea yoi iiauoaiea.

Niaea?aeaiea oaeaeeneiai aaca eieaaeaony io 0,03 ia.% ( o.a oaeiai aea
eae e ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee) aei 1,0 ia.%, oaaee/eaaynue e aieaa
oaeaeaiiui io aoiaea e neaaii?iaao?eaaaiui o/anoeai. Eiathuayny
oaiaeaioeey e iaeiieaieth oaeaeeneiai aaca a ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeao iaua?u
aeaeaao aeooaeueiui aii?in i iinoiyiiuo caia?ao niaea?aeaiey NI2 a
aicaeooa iaua?u, iniaaiii a ia?eiae iaeneiaeueiie yeneo?neiiiie
iaa?ocee.

Iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea ia?ia ?oooe a aicaeooa iaua?u ( 500 o 10) ,
oa?aeoa?iia aeey ioaeaeueiuo oi/ae Aaea?ae neacie naycaii n oaoiiaaiiui
eieaeueiui ca?aaeaieai, eioi?ia auei eeeaeaee?iaaii aeoeaiui
i?iaao?eaaieai

Iee?iaeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa
yenieoaoaoeee iaua?u ( aeeyiea yeaeo?e/aneiai inaauaiey e i?enoonoaea
/aeiaaea) i?iecioei ?ani?ino?aiaiea e oaaee/aiea a iae /eneaiiinoe
iee?ii?aaieciia, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aciooeene?othueie aaeoa?eyie,
aaoa?io?ioaie, aeoeiiieoeaoaie, iee?ineiie/aneeie a?eaaie,
iee?iaiaei?ineyie. Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey ?acaeoey iaua?iie «ieanaie»
aue ii?aaeaeai e i?aaei?eiyo ?yae i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ia?.

?aaeeiiao?e/aneeie enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaiu eieaaaiey
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe io 5 aei 40 ie ?//an, /oi ia i?aaenoaaeyao iianiinoe
aeey iinaoeoaeae. Iaeioi?ia iiauoaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe ( aei 40
ie?//an) naycaii n aeeienoie noanoaioeeae, auiieiythuae iie Caea
Ia?ano?ieee.

.Neacaiiia ii?aaeaeyao iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee ia aeeaeaeoea
ianeieueei eao.

Iaua?a I?aii?iay yaeyaony oieeaeueiui iaiyoieeii i?e?iaeu,
aeaenoaeoaeueiay aa io?aia e yenieoaoaoeey aiciiaeiu oieueei aeaaiaea?y
yiooceacio nio?oaeieeia Oeaio?a niaeaioo?ecia «IIEEN-OO?». Enneaaeiaaiey
yoie iieinoe iaiaoiaeeiu aeey nicaeaiey eiiieaena ia?ii?eyoee ii aa
io?aia e aiaeiae/iuo iaua?, eioi?ua n oa/aieai a?aiaie aoaeoo
aaiaeeoueny a yenieoaoaoeeth eae a Oe?aeia , oae e a no?aiao NIA.

Oaaeeoea 5.

Naiaeiay oaaeeoea ii?aaeaeaiey /eneaiiinoe iee?ii?aaieciia a ?acee/iuo
i?iaao a?oioa

Ianoi

ioai?a

i?ia Aeaoa

ioai?a Iauay /eneaiiinoue

iee?ii?aaieciia

IIA

*aiaea

Yoae

EAA

Oaiey

1 06.04. 7.1o10 5.4o10 0 1.9o10 5.4o10 –

16.07 8.3o10 6.2o10 1.9.o10 1.4o10 8.5o10 2.3o10

20.09 17.2o10 9.1o10 7.4o10 8.2o10 2.0o10 7.4o10

2 06.04

16.07

20.09 10.9o10

15.1o10

16.4o10 9.0o10

9.8o10

7.8o10 0

0

0 1.8o10

5.7o10

2.7o10 1.3o10

1.3o10

9.9o10 –

5.3o10

2.9o10

3 06.04

16.07

20.09 4.3o10

6.2o10

8.6o10 2.8o10

3.5o10

5.8o10 0

0

2.8o10 0

8.2o10

3.2o10 2.8o10

3.2o10

7.5o10 –

8.4o10

1.1o10

4 06.04

16.07

20.09 3.1o10

5.7o10

8.1o10 7.1o10

8.3o10

6.7o10 0

0

2.4o10 2.3o10

3.8o10

1.1o10 2.4o10

2.5o10

3.0o10 –

2.1o10

5.3o10

5 06.04

16.07

20.09 9.4o10

9.8o10

13.5o10 0

2.1o10

1.8o10 0

0

2.2o10 3.2o10

5.1o10

9.2o10 2.7o10

3.9o10

2.3o10 –

5.8o10

4.1o10

6 16.07 1.1o10 0 0 1.0o10 3.7o10 2.2o10

Oaaeeoea 6

Naiaeiay oaaeeoea ii?aaeaeaiey /eneaiiinoe iee?ii?aaieciia

a i?iaao aicaeooa

Ianoi

ioai?a

i?ia Aeaoa

ioai?a

IIA

*aiaea

Yoae

EAA

Oaiey

1 06.04

20.09 2.5o10

3.9o10 1.01o10

1.4o10 1.27o10

8.0o10 8.9o10

6.6o10 –

3.8o10

2 06.04

20.09 2.5o10

3.7o10 1.39o10

1.2o10 1.78o10

2.8o10 2.03o10

1.9o10 –

2.7o10

3 06.04

20.09 8.9o10

4.2o10 1.09o10

1.2o10 2.92o10

3.1o10 1.52o10

4.9o10 –

3.1o10

4 06.04

20.09 2.5o10

1.6o10 1.27o10

1.8o10 1.01o10

4.2o10 3.69o10

2.9o10 –

4.2o10

5 06.04

20.09 1.3o10

1.9o10 1.26o10

3.8o10 2.76o10

2.5o10 7.5o10

2.7o10 –

2.5o10

EEOA?AOO?A

Aaa?eeaa I.N. Iaoai?ieiaey.-I.: Ecae-ai IAO, 1951.-N.18-29.

Aeenia A.I., Ae?icaeia I.A. ,?oaeiooaei A.N. Eo?n eeeiaoieiaee.-E.:
Aeae?iiaoaiecaeao, 1952. – 487 n.

Aao?ooaa A.A., Ai?aaothe A.I. Aeae?ieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey e
aaciianiinoue iaua?iuo yeneo?neiiiuo eiiieaenia // Enneaaeiaaiey
ea?noiauo iaua? a oeaeyo eniieueciaaiey eo eae yeneo?neiiiuo iauaeoia.
– Oaeeene, 1978. – N.68-72.

Aaicaeaoeeee I.A. Ea?no. – I.: Aaia?aoaec., 1954. – N.351.

Aaicaeaoeeee I.A. Ea?noiaua eaiaeoaoou. -I.: IAO, 1979. – N. 154

Aaeaa? ?. Iee?ieeeiao iaua?// Eeeiao i?ecaiiiai neiy aicaeooa. – I.:
Ecae-ai eiino?.eeo., 1960. – N.22-67.

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