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Химическое загрязнение окружающей среды

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AAAAeAIEA

N?aaee ae?oaeo caa?ycieoaeae aeinoa?u aeiey ieeneia acioa e naeioea
oaaee/eaaaony iinoiyiii. Aaeaaiaeii aua?in yoeo niaaeeiaiee a aoiinoa?o
Caiee aeinoea 50 iei.o.

30% ec ieo aiinyo oaieiyia?aaoe/aneea onoaiiaee, 38%-aaoiiiaeeueiue
o?ainii?o (a auoeiiiuo aacao aaoiiiaeey niaea?aeeony i?eia?ii 0,6%
ieeneia acioa) I?eaeeceoaeueii 20% iinooiaao io i?aaei?eyoee ii
i?iecaiaenoao acioiuo oaeia?aee, aieeeiiauo e?aneoaeae, aeneicu,
oeaeeoeieaea, oioiie?iee. Inoaeueiia i?iecaiaeeony naiie aeinoa?ie, a
/anoiinoe iiiaeie iee?ii?aaieciaie.

I?aaeioa?auaiea e nieaeaiea o?iaiy naeioeiaiai caa?yciaiey
?anniao?eaaaony ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao a ea/anoaa aaaeiaeoeo caaea/
yeieiae/aneie iieeoeee. Yoio aii?in ?anniao?eaaaony ia iiiaeo
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiioa?aioeeyo, neiiiceoiao (“Oyaeaeua iaoaeeu a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea”-?inney, Ioueii, ieoya?ue 1996a.;”Aicaeaenoaea oyae.
iaoaeeia ia aeaoae”-Iineaa, naioya?ue1995a.).[4]

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa a ?O yaeyaony
aaoi-

o?ainii?o eniieuecothuee naeiaoeniaea?aeauee aaicei. Anee ia
i?aaei?eiyoue n?i/iuo ia? ii nie?auaieth e i?iecaiaenoao aeaiiiai
aaiceia a ianooaaao anae no?aiu, oi i?e nouanoaothuai e i?iaiice?oaiii
?inoa aaoiiiaeeueiiai ia?ea aua?inu naeioea e acioa a ?O iiaoo
aic?anoaoue. I?aaeoaeuenoai ?O ooaa?aeeei oaaea?aeueioth oeaeaaoth
i?ia?aiio “Oiieeai e yia?aey”, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo i?ia?aiio
“?aeiino?oeoeey e iiaea?iecaoeey i?aaei?eyoee iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe”. Oaeaea aaoiiiaeee caa?yciytho aoiinoa?o ieeneaie acioa,
oaea?iaea, iciiii.[3]

Ia?iiioth ?ieue a caa?yciaiee naeioeii iaoae yeieiaee ea?atho
i?aaei?eyoey oeaaoiie iaoaeo?aee (660 o\aiae, eee ieiei 87%),
noaeieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (100 – 200 o\aiae).Ia 50-60 o\aiae
caa?yciytho iaoo aoiinoa?o iaacaee?aaaiea e ia?a?aaioea oaa?aeuo auoiauo
iooiaeia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueoay /anoue oa??eoi?ee ?innee eniuouaaao iaa?oceo
io auiaaeaiee naeioea, i?aauoathuoth e?eoe/aneoth aeey ii?iaeueiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeinenoai. Iaeaieaa aunieee o?iaaiue caa?yciaiey
aicaeooa naeioeii, i?aauoathuee a ?innee ii?iu (IAeE-0,3 iea\i ),
ioia/aeny a 1994-1995aa. A Eiiniiieuenea-ia-Aio?a, Oiaieuenea, Othiaie,
Ea?aaaoa, Aeaaeeia?a, Aeaaeeainoiea (aei 0,5iea\i ).

Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaeioa?auaiea naeioeiaiai e acioiaiai
caa?yciaiee a no?aia aiciiaeii i?e iaee/ee:

iauae eiioeaioeee yeieiae/aneie aaciianoiinoe ianaeaiey ia
iaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia n o/aoii oneiaee onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey;

nenoaiu eiiieaeniiai iiieoi?eiaa ninoiyiey i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu e ne?eieiaa
caei?iauey ianaeaiey ?innee;

aeaenoaaiiie nenoaiu i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa;

yooaeoeaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ia? ii noeioee?iaaieth aiaae?aiey
i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo oaoiieiaee.[5]

1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iaeaiu caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae c?aaeu a ?innee
ieeneaie acioa e naeioeii.

1.1. Enoi/ieee caa?yciaiey.

1.1.1. Noaoeeiia?iua enoi/ieee.

Caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu naeioeii e aai niaaeeiaieyie
i?aaei?eyoeyie iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony niaoeeoeeie
eo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe: iaiin?aaenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai
naeioea e aai niaaeeiaiee; iiiooiia ecaea/aiea naeioea ec ae?oaeo aeaeia
nu?uey, niaea?aeaueo naeiaoe a aeaea i?eiane; i/enoea iieo/aaiie
i?iaeoeoeee io i?eiane naeioea e o.ae.

A 1995a. Ec iauaai aua?ina naeioea iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth a
aoiinoa?o (671o.) ieiei 98,4% (660o.) i?eoiaeeeinue ia i?aaei?eyoey
oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee. Ec 640ea. a aiae naeioea, na?anuaaaiiai a aiaeiua
iauaeou ni noi/iuie aiaeaie, 570ea. (89%) i?eiaaeeaaeaei i?aaei?eyoeyi
, i?iecaiaeyuei oeaaoiua iaoaeeu.

99,86%aua?anuaaaiiai a aoiinoa?o naeioea i?eoiaeeony ia aeieth 11 ec 39
i?aaei?eyoee oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee, a oii /enea ieiei 94% yoiai iaoaeea
aua?anuaatho 5 i?aaei?eyoee: N?aaeiao?aeueneee iaaeaieaaeeueiue caaiae
(291o/aiae);

AI “Nayoiai?” – E?aniio?aeueneee iaaeaieaaeeueiue eiiaeiao (170o/aiae);
Ee?iaia?aaeneee iaaeaieaaeeueiue eiiaeiao (114o/aiae); AI
“Aeaeueiieeiaoaee” (28o/aiae); caaiae “Yeaeo?ioeeie” (16o/aiae).

Aiaeec enoi/ieeia aua?ina naeioea iieacae:

57% naeioea aua?anuaaaony a aoiinoa?o n aieueoeie iauaiaie caiueaiiuo
aacia io?aaeaoaeueiie ieaaee iaaeiiai (naeiaoeniaea?aeauaai) nu?uey,
eioi?ua ia anao caaiaeao, eniieuecothueo yoo oaoiieiaeth, iai?aaeytho a
aeuiiaua o?oau aac iueai/enoee;

naeioea aua?anuaaaony n eiiaa?oa?iuie aacaie ec-ca ionoonoaey eee
iaaeinoaoi/iie noaiaie i/enoee eo io aiaaoie ii niaea?aeaieth naeioea
aicaiiiie iuee;

nouanoaaiiui oaeoi?ii yaeyaony iaaeinoaoi/iay yooaeoeaiinoue
nouanoaothueo ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee n?aaenoa
iueaoeaaeeaaiey. [4]

I?iecaiaenoai aeeaioeyoi?ia a iaoeiino?iaiee eniieuecoao iieiaeio
iio?aaeyaiiai a no?aia naeioea. Noiia?iua aua?inu a aoiinoa?o 7
aeeaioeyoi?iuo caaiaeia ?innee, iauaaeeiaiiuo a AI “Yeaeo?ica?yae”,
ninoaaeee 1995a. i?eaioe?iai/ii 38,2o. a ia?an/aoa ia naeiaoe; noiia?iua
na?inu a aiaeiua iauaeou (/a?ac eaiaeecaoeeth)-35,3o.

N ia?aoiaeii ia i?eiaiaiea a i?iecaiaenoaa eaaaeae ieanoianniauo
iaoa?eaeia aeey iaiei/ae i?iecioei nieaeaiea iio?aaeaiey naeioea e aai
nieaaia eaaaeueiuie caaiaeaie. E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie iio?aaeaiea naeioea
ia caaiaeao yoie iiaeio?anee nieceeinue aei 5oun.o. Iniaaiiinoe
i?eiaiyaiie oaoiieiaee oaeiau, /oi aua?inu naeioea iacia/eoaeueiu.

A oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneii eiiieaena caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae c?aaeu
naeioeii iaoneiaeaii i?iecaiaenoaii yoeee?iaaiiuo aaiceiia e naeeaaieai
oiieeaa (i?aaeaea anaai oaey).

A1995a. Auei i?iecaaaeaii 27,4iei.o. aaoiiiaeeueiuo aaiceiia, a oii
/enea 14,5iei.o. yoeee?iaaiiuo. Niaea?aeaiea naeioea a yoeee?iaaiiuo
aaiceiao eieaaeaony io 0,15 aei 0,37a/e. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi
iayoeee?iaaiiua aaiceiu ec-ca oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e o?ainii?oe?iaee
iiaoo niaea?aeaoue naeiaoe a eiioeaio?aoeee aei 0,01a/e.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy 9 ec 25 iaooaia?a?aaaouaathueo caaiaeia auioneatho
oieueei iayoeee?iaaiiua aaiceiu,a oi a?aiy eae a 1990a. oaeeo caaiaeia
auei oieueei 6.

A ia?aii iieoaiaeee 1996a. aeiey i?iecaiaenoaa iayoeee?iaaiiuo aaiceiia
ninoaaeea 51,2% (a 1995a.-46,9%, a 1992a.-26,8%).[4]

?an/aou, naeaeaiiua ia iniiaaiee ioeoeeaeueiuo noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo i
iio?aaeaiee oiieeaa noauaeoaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a 1993a.,
iieacaee, /oi i?e naeeaaiee i?aaie/aneiai oiieeaa (oaieue, iacoo,
i?e?iaeiue aac) a aoiinoa?o ?innee iinooiaao i?eia?ii 400o. naeioea.

Aua?inu e na?inu niaaeeiaiee naeioea a oeie/aneii eiiieaena naycaiu n
i?iecaiaenoaii ieaiaioia, neeeaoeaia, niaoeeaeueiuo noaeie, niacie,
aioeaeaoiiaoeeiiiuo i?enaaeie e aaoiiiaeeueiui aaiceiai, iieeia?ecaoeeae
ieanoiann e ae?.

A ?innee yoeeiaay aeeaeeinoue ( ia iniiaa oao?ayoeenaeioea -OYN )
au?aaaouaaaony oieueei iaeiei i?aaei?eyoeai – AI
“Neioac”(a.Aeca?aeeine, Ieaeaai?iaeneay iaeanoue). I?iecaiaenoai
yoeeiaie aeeaeeinoe ia yoii i?aaei?eyoee nie?aoeeinue ii n?aaiaieth n
eiioeii 80-o aiaeia a 2 ?aca e ninoaaeei a 1995 a. 8,9 oun.o.

A eaeie?ani/iii i?iecaiaenoaa ii-i?aaeiaio (a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ai ana
iaiueoeo eie-aao) eniieuecotho naeioeiaua ieaiaiou. Ieaiaiou,
niaea?aeauea naeiaoe, aoiaeyo e a ninoaa aioeei??iceeiuo iie?uoee,
eiathueo aeaaiui ia?acii caueoiia, a ia aeaei?aoeaiia cia/aiea.Ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo ?innee a 1994 a. Auei i?iecaaaeaii anai 800 o. naeioeiaiai
no?eea, niaea?aeaaoaai nianoaaiii naeioea 725o. A ioee/ea io
o?onoaeueiuo ecaeaeee, a i?ioeanna auoiaiai eniieueciaaiey eioi?uo
aa?iyoiinoue auuaea/eaaiey naeioea e aicaeaenoaey aai ia /aeiaaea
i?aeoe/anee eneeth/aia, naeioeiaua e?anee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
cia/eoaeueioth iianoiinoue. A oeaeii aua?inu a aoiinoa?o niaaeeiaiee
naeioea i?aaei?eyoeyie eaeie?ani/iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ninoaaeytho ieiei 20
o. Yoa oeeo?a yaeyaony ioeaii/iie, ii nai ii?yaeie aaee/eiu caneoaeeaaao
oiai, /oiau i?iaanoe aeaoaeueioth eiaaioa?ecaoeeth eniieueciaaiey e
iioa?ue niaaeeiaiee naeioea a yoie iiaeio?anee.

Aua?inu naeioea noaeieueiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie a oeaeii ii ?innee
ioeaieaathony aaee/eiie ii?yaeea 100-200 o\aiae. I?iecaiaenoai
o?onoaeueiie iinoaeu, iioe/aneiai noaeea oeia “oyaeaeue oeeio”, aeaoaeae
eeianeiiia, niaoeeaeueiuo naeioeiauo noaeie aeey niaeee n iaoaeeaie e
ae?oaeie noaeeaie neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae enoi/ieee caa?yciaiey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa,
niaaeeiaieyie naeioea. Iioa?e naeioea ia oaeeo i?aaei?eyoeyo ninoaaeytho
2-8% io iannu aiaea/aiiiai a oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann yeaiaioa.
Eiioeaio?aoeey naeioea a iooiaeyueo aacao i?e aa?ea iaeinaeioeiaiai
noaeea ninoaaeyao aei 600ia/i.

A i?iecaiaenoai eiina?aia (eniieueciaaiea naeiaoeniaea?aeaueo i?eiiaa
i?e ecaioiaeaiee aeanoyiuo aaiie) ii i?eaeeaeaiiui ioeaieai ia 1988 a.
aiaea/aii io 100 aei 200 o. naeioea. Ia niio?y ia nie?auaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa eiina?ae?iaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia a 90-a aa., ianna aaeaaiaeii
iinooiathuaai a oaa?aeua auoiaua iooiaeu naeioea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iiaeao ninoaaeyoue aeanyoee oiii. Aua aieueooth iianiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao
aiciiaeiinoue iiiaaeaiey naeioea, niaea?aeauaainy a i?eiia, a i?iaeoeou
ieoaiey i?e o?aiaiee eiina?aia.

Nouanoaaiiuie enoi/ieeaie caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu naeioeii e aai
niaaeeiaieyie yaeythony i?aaei?eyoey iai?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oae
iiioaaeii-iaa/iua ?aaiou iaoneaaeeaatho yienneth naeioea e aai
iai?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee a iacaiiue neie aoiinoa?u a oeaeii ii ?innee
a iauaia 1 o/aiae. Eaeie?ani/iua i?iieoi/iua yiaee?iai/iua ?aaiou e
?aaiou n i?eiaiaieai eiiiaoiaeia iaoneiaeeaatho yienneth naeioea e aai
iai?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee 150 o/aiae aac o/aoa ninoaaia n aunieei
oaeaeueiui niaea?aeaieai naeioea, ii eiathueo ia?aie/aiiia i?eiaiaiea.
Iinooieaiea naeioea a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo i?ienoiaeeo oaeaea i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa naeiaoeniaea?aeaueo aiai?eiania, iaianaiee naeioeiauo
iie?uoee e ae?oaeo niaoeeaeueiuo ?aaioao.

Iieeaiiu oaa?aeuo auoiauo iooiaeia (OAI) i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iiuiua
ieiuaaeiua enoi/ieee caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu oyaeaeuie
iaoaeeaie, a oii /enea naeioeii.[5]

E nianoaaiii auoiaui enoi/ieeai iinooieaiey naeioea a OAI neaaeoao
ioianoe io?aaioaiiua naeioeiaua aeeaioeyoi?iua aaoa?ae, iioa?yaoea
iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa i?iaiaea e eaaaee, eaeie?ani/iua iie?uoey
(iniaaiii auiouaiiua a i?ioeua aeanyoeeaoey), ecaeaeey ec o?onoaey,
naeioeiauo noaeie, aeace?iaaiioth ea?aieeo, iayiua ecaeaeey, a oii /enea
e eiina?aiua aeanoyiua aaiee, iaeioi?ua ?aceiiaua ecaeaeey. A i?iaeoeoao
ioni?iia?a?aaioee niaea?aeaiea naeioea i?aauoaao oaeiaia a caiiie ei?a
io nioai aei ouny/ ?ac, o.a. aeinoeaaao 0,16-1,6% aaniauo.

Ii yenia?oiui ioeaieai, ia naaeeao, o?ainii?oiuo ieiuaaeeao e a ae?oaeo
ianoao ii anae oa??eoi?ee ?innee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoiaeeony aei 1
iei.o naeioea a io?aaioaiiuo arroioeyoi?ao. I?e nouanoaothuai iieiaeaiee
n eo ia?a?aaioeie yoa aaee/eia aic?anoaao ia 50-60 oun. o aaeaaiaeii.

Ii aeaiiui Aineiinoaoa ?innee, a no?aia a iineaaeiea aiaeu a nayce n
iaaeaieai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa aeeiaieea aua?inia naeioea e aai
niaaeeiaiee a aoiinoa?iue aicaeoo io noaoeeiia?iuo enoi/ieeia eiaao
onoie/eaoth oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth. Oae , a 1992a naeioea e aai
niaaeeiaiee auei aua?ioaii 1404 oiiiu, /oi ia 6,9% iaiueoa o?iaiy 1991a.
A 1993a. nieaeaiea aua?inia ninoaaeei 13,8% ii n?aaiaieth n1992a i?e
iauai aua?ina a1070o.; a 1994a.-18,1% (876 o,) e o?iaith 1993a e a1995a
– 29,8% (616o.) e o?iaith 1994a.(?en.1)

Aeeaae ?acee/iuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe a caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?iiai
aicaeooa naeioeii noaoeeiia?iuie enoi/ieeaie ioeaieaaaony, ii aeaiiui
Aineiinoaoa ?innee, neaaeothuei ia?acii :

oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey – 86,7% ;

iaoeiino?iaiea e iaoaeeiia?aaioea – 8,8% ;

/a?iay iaoaeeo?aey – 8,8% ;

oeie/aneay e iaooaoeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue – 0,5% ;

aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuay e oeaeetheicii – aoiaaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue – 0,3%
;

o?ainii?oiua i?aaei?eyoey, ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, i?iiuoeaiiinoue
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea e oiieeaiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue
– ii 0,1% ;

ae?oaea io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe – ieiei 1,8% ;

Iinooieaiea naeioea a iiaa?oiiniua aiaeiua iauaeou ni noi/iuie aiaeaie
eiaao oaeaea oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth. A 1995 a., ii aeaiiui
Aineiinoaoa ?innee, naeioea auei na?ioaii a 3,1 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai /ai a
1991 a.-50,47 o. (a ia?an/aoa ia naeiaoe). A 1995 a. ia caoeene?iaaiu
eiaaoea ianoi a 1991 a. na?inu naeioea a ?anioaeeeao Ea?aeey, Ii?aeiaey,
Ea?a/aaai-*a?eanneay e Oaeio?oey; a Oaa?neie,
Ieaeaai?iaeneie,Na?aoianeie, Oeueyiianeie e *eoeineie iaeanoyo.[4]

Ii ?O a 1995 a. ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ia?aciaaeinue 1,9 iei. o.
naeiaoeniaea?aeaueo iooiaeia, ec eioi?uo:

– eniieueciaaii ia i?aaei?eyoeyo -8,00 oun. o (0,24%);

– iieiinoueth iaaca?aaeaii – 0,96 oun.o (0,05%);

– ioi?aaeaii a ianoa i?aaieciaaiiiai caoi?iiaiey – 52 oun. o (0,02%);

I?i/ea iooiaeu inoaeenue ia i?iiieiuaaeeao i?aaei?eyoee, naacaiu ia
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiua naaeee, iieeaiiu OAI e o. i.

1.1.2. Ianoaoeeiia?iua enoi/ieee.

4,2 iei. a?ociauo aaoiiiaeeae e ieiei 0,7 iei. aaoiaonia. Oaiiu i?e?inoa
ia?ea aaoiiiaeeae ca iineaaeiee aiae ninoaaeee a n?aaeiai ii ?innee
ieiei 12%. I?e yoii a 1995 a. eiee/anoai eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae aic?inei
ia 15%, a?ociauo – ia 1,5% e aaoiaonia – ia 5,7%.

Noiia?iia iinooieaiea naeioea a aoiinoa?o io aaoio?ainii?oa ia
oa??eoi?ee ?innee a 1995 a. ioeaieaaaony aaee/eiie ieiei 4 oun. o.
I?ino?ainoaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea yoeo aua?inia, iieacuaaao, /oi
iaeneiaeueiay iaa?ocea naeioeaio aua?inia aaoio?ainii?oa i?eoiaeyony ia
Iineianeoth e Naia?neoth iaeanoe. Ca ieie neaaeotho Eaeoaeneay,
Ieaeaai?iaeneay, Aeaaeeie?neay iaeanoe e ae?oaea noauaeou Oaaea?aoeee,
?aniieiaeaiiua a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe AO? e Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca.
Iaeaieueoea aaniethoiua aua?inu naeioea ioia/athony a O?aeueneii (685
o), Iiaieaeneii (651 o.) e Caiaaeii-Neae?neii (568 o.) ?aaeiiao. 54%
iauae iannu naeioea iinooiaao a aoiinoa?o io a?ociaiai o?ainii?oa.

A aaeaoeee eniieueciaaiea yoeee?iaaiiuo aaiceiia ia?ie A-91/115,
A-100/130, A-95/130 e ae?., naiieaoaie oeia AI-2, ssE-18 e aa?oieaoaie
oeia EA-26 nii?iaaaeaeaaony aiaeiaie yienneae naeioea e aai niaaeeiaiee
a aoiinoa?o a eiee/anoaa 3,6-3,7 o/aiae (anai ia?eii aaeaoeeiiiie
oaoieee oeacaiiiai oeia).

A ?aeaoii-einie/aneie oaoieea iniiaiui enoi/ieeii naeioeiaiai
caa?yciaiey yaeythony ie?in?aaenoaa. Iaeaieueoaa i?eiaiaiea iieo/eee
ie?iiao?iiu, ?ac?uaiua aieou, o?oaee aeenoaioeeiiiiai oeia, ninoiyuea
/anoe/ii ec aceaea naeioea, noeoaiaoa naeioea. Iauay yienney oeacaiiuo
niaaeeiaiee naeioea ninoaaeyao io 200 aei 500 o/aiae.[4]

E ianoaoeeiia?iui enoi/ieeai iinooieaiey naeioea a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo
neaaeoao ioianoe oaeaea ioioie/ee i?iiunae e ethaeoaeueneoth ioioo, a
/anoiinoe caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu naeioeiaie ae?iaueth.
Ioeaii/iua ?an/aou naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi a oeaeii ii ?innee aaeaaiaeii
a aiaeii-aieioiua oaiaeuey iiiaaeaao aei 1400 o. naeioea.

A oaaeeoea 1 i?eaaaeaiu n?aaieoaeueiua aeaiiua ii enoi/ieeai caa?yciaiey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ?O naeioeii. Aieueoa anaai caa?yciyao aoiinoa?o
aaoio?ainii?o(70%).

1.2 Aiaeec caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu.

1.2.1 Aoiinoa?iue aicaeoo.

Ia iniiaaiee iiiaieaoieo (1982-1995 aa.) iaaethaeaiee nenoaiu
eiiieaeniiai iiieoi?eiaa ?inaeae?iiaoa (NEOI) n?aaeiea aiaeiaua cia/aiey
eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea a aoiinoa?a oiiiauo ?aeiiia ?innee ninoaaeytho:

– 2,5 – 16 ia/i – aeey oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Aa?iiaeneie oa??eoi?ee ?innee
(AO?);

– 0,8 – 13,2 ia/i – aeey thaeiuo ?aeiiia(AO?);

– 1,5 – 4,4 ia/i aeey Neae?e;

– 5 – 19 ia/i – aeey aeaeueiaai Ainoiea;

A ?inneeneii naeoi?a A?eoeee oiiiaay eiioeaio?aoeey naeioea a aicaeooa
ninoaaeyao 0,23 – 3,8 ia/i (n?aaeiaiany/iua cia/aiey). I?ino?ainoaaiiia
?ani?aaeaeaiea oiiiaiai niaea?aeaiey naeioea a aoiinoa?a iaiaeii?iaeii e
a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeyaony ?ani?aaeaeaieai aai aio?iiiaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee. Oiiiaia niaea?aeaiea naeioea a
aoiinoa?a (aeaiiua iaeneiaeueiuo, ?aciauo, n?aaeianooi/iuo,
n?aaeiaiany/iuo e n?aaeiaaiaeiauo eiioeaio?aoeee) ia i?aauoaao cia/aiee
i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiuo eiioeaio?aoeee (IAeE).[1]

Eae i?aaeei, iaeaieaa aunieea eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea a oiiiauo ?aeiiao
iaaethaeathony a ceiiee ia?eiae, /oi naycaii n aeiiieieoaeueiuie
aua?inaie a aoiinoa?o i?iaeoeoia naeeaaiey oiieeaa. Iaaeaaii?eyoiua
iaoai?ieiae/aneea oneiaey a yoio ia?eiae aiaea oaeaea niinianoaotho
iaeiieaieth naeioea a ieaeieo neiyo aoiinoa?u.

Ca iineaaeiea 5 eao aeey aieueoeinoaa ?aeiiia ?innee iaaethaeaaony
oiaiueoaiea niaea?aeaiey naeioea a aoiinoa?a (i?eia?u – ia ?en 2;), /oi
naycaii eae n nie?auaieai i?iecaiaenoaa e, oae e ni nieaeaieai
o?aina?aie/iiai ia?aiina naeioea aneaaenoaea nie?auaiey iio?aaeaiey
yoeee?iaaiiiai aaiceia ca ?oaaaeii.

Iaeaieaa caiaoiia nieaeaiea eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea a aicaeooa
?aaeno?e?oaony a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe AO?.

Iaeneiaeueiue o?iaaiue caa?yciaiey i?e?iaeiuo n?aae ?aaeno?e?oaony a
ai?iaeao e i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ao. Cia/aiey n?aaeieo ca 1989 – 1995 aa.
eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea a aoiinoa?a ai?iaeia ninoaaeee 0,01 – 0,5 iea/i.
Aeey aieueoeinoaa ai?iaeia ?innee n?aaeiaaiaeiaay eiioeaio?aoeey naeioea
ia i?aauoaea cia/aiee 0,1 iea/i .Iaeaieaa aunieee o?iaaiue caa?yciaiey
aicaeooa naeioeii, i?aauoathuee i?eiyoua a ?innee ii?iu (IAeE – 0,3
iea/i ), ioia/aeny a 1994 – 1995 aa. a ai?iaeao Eiiniiieuene-ia-Aio?a,
Oiaieuene, Othiaiue, Ea?aaao, Aeaaeeie?, Aeaaeeainoie (aei 0,5 iea/i ).

Niaea?aeaiea naeioea a aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeao eciaiyaony ii oa??eoi?ee
?innee io 0,05 aei 7,3 iea/e (n?aaeiaaiaeiaua cia/aiey ca 38 eao
iaaethaeaiee). Iaeaieaa aunieia caa?yciaiea inaaeeia naeioeii
iaaethaeaaony a naaa?i-caiaaeiii, oeaio?aeueiiie thaeiii ?aeiiao AO?
(4,5 – 7,3 iea/e). A iai?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiao ?anioaeeee Naoa (sseooey),
Iaaaaeaineie iaeanoe, a oaeaea a ?inneeneii naeoi?a A?eoeee
?aaeno?e?oaony naiay ieceay aeey oa??eoi?ee ?innee aaee/eia yoiai

iieacaoaey (0,05 – 0,3 iea/e). Iaeneiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea naeioea a
aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeao ?aaeno?e?oaony ceiie, /oi ii?aaeaeyaony aieaa
aunieei o?iaiai caa?yciaiey aicaeooa a yoio ia?eiae.

Iaeneiaeueiua auiaaeaiey naeioea ?aaeno?e?othony a naaa?i-caiaaeiii,
oeaio?aeueiii e thaeiuo ?aeiiao AO? (2,9 – 4,6 ea/ei), /oi a 10 – 100
?ac i?aainoiaeeo niioaaonoaothuea cia/aiey, iaaethaeaaiua a a?eoe/aneeo
?aeiiao ?innee, ?anioaeeea Naoa, Iaaaaeaineie iaeanoe.

A oeaeii ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee auiaaeaao ieiei 30 oun. o. naeioea
aaeaaiaeii, a oii /enea:

auiaaeaiey ca n/ao anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia naeioea (oiiiaua) –
i?eaioe?iai/ii 17 oun. o.;

auiaaeaiey ca n/ao o?aina?aie/iiai ia?aiina naeioea – ieiei 6000 o.;

auiaaeaiey ca n/ao ?inneeneeo enoi/ieeia – ieiei 7000 o.;

Iniaia aaniieienoai aucuaatho ieeneu acioa, aua?anuaaaiua aeaeaaoaeyie
naa?ocaoeiauo naiieaoiaia aunioa 20 -25 ei. Oi anoue eae ?ac oai, aaea
iaoiaeeony caueoiue iciiiaue neie, i?aiyonoaothuee /?acia?ii
eioaineaiiio iinooieaieth oeueo?aoeieaoiauo eceo/aiee e iiaa?oiinoe
Caiee. Iianaiey aace?othony ia oii, /oi ieenue acioa niiniaia aucuaaoue
?ac?ooaiea iciia a niioaaonoaee n ?aaeoeeae: NO + O —- NO + O ;

I?aaaea, nei?inoue e ianooaau ?ac?ooaiey aei neo ii? inoathony
i?aaeiaoii aeeneonnee: aaaeue icii ?ac?ooatho e ooi?i?aaie/aneea
niaaeeiaiey, i?iecaiaenoai eioi?uo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aauneei oaea 1
iei. o. a aiae.A eiia/iii n/aoa ana yoi ooiaeeo a aoiinoa?o,
iiaeieiaaony a aa?oiea neie e caeanue iiaeaa?aaaony ?aceiaeaieth iiae
aeaenoaeai oeueo?aoeieaoa. Aeoeaiua ineieee iieaeoe o?aiia e yaeythony
aeaaiuie ?ac?ooeoaeyie aoiinoa?iiai iciia.[3]

1.2.2.Iiaa?oiinoue aiaeu

Naeiaoe a ?a/iuo aiaeao niaea?aeeony eae ai acaanyo, oae e a ?anoai?eiie
oi?ia. Aeey aieueoeinoaa aiaeiuo iauaeoia ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
eiioeaio?aoeey naeioea ninoaaeyao 1,5 – 6,5 iia/e, /oi ia i?aauoaao
i?eiyouo a ?innee naieoa?iuo ii?i (IAeE). Aunieia niaea?aeaiea naeioea a
?a/iuo aiaeao (45 – 90 iea/e) iineo yieciaee/aneee oa?aeoa? e, eae
i?aaeei, iaaethaeaaony a oao noai?ao ?ae, aaea inouanoaeyaony na?in
naeiaoeniaea?aeaueo noi/iuo aiae i?iiuoeaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie (
iai?eia?, ai?iaeia Iaaa?aaeiua *aeiu, Oieueyooe, Naia?a, Nuc?aiue e
ae?.) ia ?. Aieaa. Iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea naeioea a aiaea
?aaeno?e?oaony a aannaeiao ?ae Aio? (10 – 90 iea/e), Oiaie, Eoei (30 –
40 iea/e). Aeaiiua nenoaiaoe/aneeo iaaethaeaiee ?inaeae?iiaoa a
aannaeiao ?ae Aeii, Naaa?iay Aeaeia, Iaaa, Aienae, Iaue, E?ouo
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia oia?aiiii o?iaia caa?yciaiey naeioeii yoeo ?ae.

Ii aa?iainy e ieeneai acioa. oaeaea, eae e na?ienoue aac, iie aeiiaaou a
caeeneaiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Aua?anuaaaiua auniei a aoiinoa?o
i?iiuoeaiiuie oeaio?aie Aa?iiu, iie ia?aiinyony ainiiaenoaothueie
thaeiuie e thai-caiaaeiuie aao?aie a Neaiaeeiaaeth.Caeanue, ano?a/aynue
n ai?enoui ?aeueaoii e iioieaie oieiaeiiai aeaaeiiai aicaeooa, iie
?anoai?ythony a inaaeeao e i?aa?auythony a acioenooth e acioioth
eeneiou. Eeneioiua aeiaeaee aucuaatho ia?iiiua ?ac?ooaiey, i?e/ai ia
oieueei a neaiaeeiaaneeo no?aiao. Io ieo no?aaeatho oeaiiaeoea iaiyoieee
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, ?eia, aeaaea Eiaeee.

1.2.3. Aaeiae/aneay N?aaea

Iiauoaiiua eiioeao?aoeee naeioea a ii/aao e ?anoaieyo /anoi iaoneiaeaiu
iaee/eai i?e?iaeiuo aaioeie/aneeo aiiiaeee a niaea?aeaiee yoiai yeaiaioa
a aauanoaa eeoinoa?u. Ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e
iaaaiaeanoe eee iaaaciiu: Aa?iiaeneay /anoue n onoaiiaeaiiui e
aiciiaeiui eioaineaiui caa?yciaieai iiaecaiiuo aiae naeioeii,
i?aeiouanoaaiii io oaoiiaaiiuo enoi/ieeia; tha Neae?e e I?eii?uey n
aiciiaeiui, ?aaea onoaiiaeaiiui, caa?yciaieai iiaecaiiuo aiae io
niaoaiiuo i?e?iaeii-oaoiiaaiiuo enoi/ieeia; naaa?i-ainoie Neae?e a
iniiaiii n i?aaeiieaaaaiui caa?yciaieai iiaecaiiuo aiae naeioeii io
i?e?iaeiuo enoi/ieeia.

Ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea caa?yciaiea aiaeicaai?ia Aa?iiaeneie /anoe
?innee, oiaaea eae e ainoieo io O?aea caa?yciaiiuo aiaeicaai?ia
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa (I?eaaeeaeuea, ai?iaea Ii?eeuene, Iiaieociaoee,
Eiiniiieuene-ia-Aio?a, Iaaaaeai, Iao?iiaaeiane- Eai/aoneee).[4]

1.2.4. Ii/au

Eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ?acoeueoaou aa?iyeieiae/aneiai iiieoi?eiaa
aa?ioeie/aneie neoaeau ?innee, noaiaiue caa?yciaiiinoe ii/a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee naeioeii ioiineoaeueii iaauniea. N?aaeiaa
niaea?aeaiea aaeiauo oi?i naeioea a ian/aiuo e noian/aiuo ii/aao
ninoaaeyao ieiei 7,0 ia/ea, a ii/aao noaeeienoiai e aeeienoiai
a?aioeiiao?e/aneiai ninoaaa, eiathueo eeneoth ?aaeoeeth aiaeu (?I< 5,5),- 9,6 - 0,5 ia/ea. Oa aea ii/au, eiathuea ?aaeoeeth n?aaeu, aeeceoth e iaeo?aeueiie (?I > 5,5),- 12,0 – 0,3 ia/ea, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaeiieaiee aaeiauo oi?i naeioea a ii/aao n
oaaee/aieai eeenoie e aeeienoie o?aeoeee. I?e oiaiueoaiee eeneioiinoe
ii/au i?ienoiaeeo oaeaea oaaee/aiea eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea.

I?aauoaiea i?eaioe?iai/ii aeiionoeiuo eiioeaio?aoeee (IAeE) naeioea
iaia?oaeaii oieueei ia iaeiii ?aia?iii o/anoea Iineianeie iaeanoe.
I?aauoaiea o?iaiy IAeE auyaeaii ia ?yaea ?aia?iuo o/anoeia?anioaeeee
Ouaa, Aieaia?aaeneie iaeanoe e Ea?a/aaai-*a?eanneie ?anioaeeee.

Niaea?aeaiea naeioea a ii/aao ianaeaiiuo ioieoia cia/eoaeueii aieaa
aunieia. Ii aeaiiui 20-eaoieo enneaaeiaaiee naoaauie eaai?aoi?eyie
?inaeae?iiaoa, iaeaieueoea o?iaie niaea?aeaiey naeioea a ii/aa
iaaethaeathony a 5-eeeiiao?iaie ciia aie?oa i?aaei?eyoee oeaaoiie
iaoaeeo?aee. Ec120 ai?iaeia ?innee a 80% neo/aaa eiathony nouanoaaiiua
i?aauoaiey IAeE niaea?aeaiey naeioea a ii/aa. Aieaa 10 iei. ai?iaeneeo
aeeoaeae eiioaeoe?otho n ii/aie, eiathuae a n?aaeiai i?aauoaiea IAeE ii
naeioeo. Ianaeaiea oeaeiai ?yaea ai?iaeia iiaeaa?aaaony aicaeaenoaeth
n?aaeieo eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea a ii/aa, aieaa /ai a 10 ?ac i?aauoathueo
IAeE: ?aaaea e Ee?iaia?aae Naa?aeeianeie iaeanoe; Aeaeueiaai?ne e
Aeaaeeainoie a I?eii?neie aieanoe; Eiiniiieuene-ia-Aio?a Oaaa?ianeiai
e?ay; Aaeiai a Eaia?ianeie aieanoe; Nae?ne, *a?aioiai a E?eooneie
aieanoe e ae?. A aieueoeinoaa ai?iaeia niaea?aeaiea naeioea eciaiyaony a
i?aaeaeao 30 – 150 iea/ea i?e n?aaeiai cia/aiee ieiei 100 iea/ea. [4]

Iiiaea ai?iaea, eiay “aeaaiiieo/ioth” n?aaeithth ea?oeio ii caa?yciaieth
naeioeii, nouanoaaiii caa?yciaiu ia cia/eoaeueiie /anoe naiae
oa??eoi?ee. Oae, a Iineaa eiioeaio?aoeey naeioea aii/aa aa?uee?oao io 8
aei 2000 ia/ea. Iaeaieaa caa?yciaiu naeioeii ii/au a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe
ai?iaea, a i?aaeaeao ie?oaeiie aeaeaciieaei?iae e aaeece aa. A
eiioeaio?aoeeyo, i?aauoathueo IAeE, caa?yciaii naeioeii aieaa 86 ei
oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea (8%). I?e yoii a oao aea ianoao, eae i?aaeei,
i?enoonoaotho e ae?oaea oiene/iua aau-aa a i?aauoathueo IAeE
eiioeaio?aoeeyo ( eaaeiee, oeeie, iaaeue, ieeneu acioa), /oi
cia/eoaeueii onoaoaeyao neooaoeeth aneaaenoaea eo neia?aecia.

1.2.5. ?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue ie?

Oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey naeioea a ii/aa, eae i?aaeei, ii ia
anaaaea,aaaeao e aai iaeiieaieth ?anoaieyie eae ia iacaa?yciaiiuo
ii/aao, oae e ii/aao anoanoaaiiuo aaioeie/aneeo aiiiaeee. A niioaaonoaee
niaea?aeaiea naeioea a ?anoaieyo, au?auaiiuo ia ii/aao eaaeiai
iaoaie/aneiai ninoaaa (ian/aiuo e noian/aiuo) eieaaeeony io0,13 aei 0,96
ie/ea; a ii/aao oyaeaeinoaeeienouo (n ?I< 5,5) 0,22 - 0,96 ie/ae; a ii/aao oyaeaeinoaeeienouo (?I > 5,5) a aieaa oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao 0,34 –
7,0 ie/ae.

Aieaa aunieea eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea (aei 1000 ie/ae) oa?aeoa?iu aeey
?anoeoaeueiinoe ia oaoiiaaiii-caa?yciaiiuo oa??eoi?eyo: a ie?aniinoyo
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee, ?oaeieeia ii aeiau/a iieeiaoaeeia e
aeaaiui ia?acii aaeieue aaoino?aae.

?acia?u ciiu aeeyiey aaoio?ainii?oa ia yeinenoaiu neeueii aa?uee?otho, e
oe?eia i?eaei?iaeiuo aiiiaeee niaea?aeaiey naeioea a ii/aa iiaeao
aeinoeaaoue 100 – 150 i. Eaniua iieinu aaeieue aei?ia caaea?aeeaatho a
naieo e?iiao iioiee naeioea io aaoio?ainii?oa. A oneiaeyo ai?iaea
?acia?u naeioeiauo aiiiaeee ii?aaeaeythony oneiaeyie cano?ieee e
no?oeoo?ie ianaaeaeaiee. A noooth iiaiaeo i?ienoiaeeo iaeiieaiea naeioea
ia iiaa?oiinoe ?anoaiee; iinea iaeeueiuo aeiaeaeae cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
(aei iieiaeiu) niuaaaony. Ia caa?yciaiiuo naeioeii ii/aao aaciianoiaa
au?aueaaoue ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u. Aicaeaeuaaiea a yoeo ciiao iaiuae,
eoeo?ocu ia neein, ei?iiauo o?aa iiaeao ieacaoueny ?eneiaaiiui.

Aeeoioeyoeey naeioea i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aeeaioiiai ie?a caaeneo io
iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io eo oaeniiiie/aneie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaia i?yiay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo o?iaiai
caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa naeioeii e noaiaiueth iaeiieaiey aai a
i?aaiecia oaieie?iaiuo aeeaioiuo, iaeoathueo ?yaeii n iaoaeeo?ae/aneeie
i?iecaiaenoaaie. O aaniicaiii/iuo aeeaioiuo, eiathueo oaa?aeua iie?iau,
naeiaoe a aieueoae noaiaie eiioeaio?e?oaony a ieo. O iicaiii/iuo
aeeaioiuo naeiaoe a iaeaieueoae noaiaie eiioeaio?e?oaony a einoiie
oeaie, o ioeoe – a ia?ueyo, a ?ua – a aiiaaeao, o ieaeiieoathueo – a
aieiaiii iicaa e ia/aie.

Inaaeee aucuaatho iiaeeeneaiea ii/au e oai naiui aoayo aanueia aaaeiuo
aa iaeoaoaeae( iai?eia?, aciooeene?othueo aaeoa?ee). A oaieiuo eanao yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai noaiiaeony i?e/eiie oieioiaiey ii/au. Ec-ca neiieaiey
ia?aceiaeeaoaeny oaie caiey ia?anoaao i?iioneaoue aeaao e aicaeoo, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ?anoaiee ia iae ?acei nieaeaaony. Ii
aeaei ia oieueei a yoii. Eeneue ii/aaiiue ?anoai? – ioee/iay n?aaea aeey
ia?aaiaea o?oaeii?anoai?eiuo nieae iaoaeeia a oi?io, aeinooiioth aeey
?anoaiee. A neeo yoiai, ?anoaiey – ia/aeueiia caaii ieuaaie oeaie –
iaeaieeaatho a naaa oiene/iuaaeey anaai aeeaiai aieueoea aeicu
iaoaeeia.[3]

Iiiaaeay a aiaeiaiu, eeneioiua aeiaeaee eciaiytho ?I aiaeu, /oi aucuaaao
ioie?aiea ianaeythueo eo i?aaieciia.I?e ?I=4,5 (iaiiiiei, /oi ?anoai?
iaeo?aeai, anee ?I=7; /ai iaiueoa yoio iieacaoaeue, oai eeneaa yoio
?anoai?) aeaioo ?uau, eyaooee eiiiaea ianaeiiua, iaeoathuea ia aeia
aiaeiaia.oae aea , eae e ii/aa, eeneiou “ioe?uaatho aeaa?e” aeey
i?iieeiiaaiey oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia a i?aaieciu. *ai aieoa eeneioiinoue, oai
aieueoa naeioea, eaaeiey, ?oooe iaeaieeaaaony a oaeao ?uau e ae?oaeo
iaeoaoaeae aiaeiaia.

*oiau iaeo?aeeciaaoue eeneiou, a ii/ao eaiaeo i?eoiaeeony ?aaoey?ii
aiineoue ia?iiiua eie-aa ecaanoe. Yoi o?aaoao iaiaeuo n?aaenoa, ii
oieueei oae oaeaaony iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aeeciue a iaeioi?uo aiaeiaiao
Oaaoeee, Eaiaaeu e ae?oaeo no?ai.

2. Aeeyiea naeioea e ieeneia acioa ia caei?iauea ianaeaiey.

2.1 Iooe iinooieaiey ieeneia acioa e naeioea a i?aaieci /aeiaaea.

Ii noaiaie aicaeaenoaey ia aeeaua i?aaieciu naeiaoe ioianai e eeanno
aunieiiianiuo aauanoa ia?yaeo n iuoueyeii, eaaeieai, ?oooueth, naeaiii,
oeeieii e ooi?ii (AINO 17.4.1.02 – 83). Iianiinoue naeioea aeey /aeiaaea
ii?aaeaeyaony aai cia/eoaeueiie oiene/iinoueth e niiniaiinoueth
iaeaieeaaoueny a i?aaiecia.

A i?aaieci /aeiaaea aieueoay /anoue naeioea iinooiaao n i?iaeoeoaie
ieoaiey (io 40 aei 70% a ?aciuo no?aiao e ii ?acee/iui aic?anoiui
a?oiiai), a oaeaea n ieoueaaie aiaeie, aoiinoa?iui aicaeooii, i?e
eo?aiee, i?e neo/aeiii iiiaaeaiee a ieuaaiae eoni/eia
naeiaoeniaea?aeauae e?anee eee caa?yciaiiie naeioeii ii/au.[5]

N aoiinoa?iui aicaeooii iinooiaao iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoaiai naeioea
– anaai 1 – 2%, ii i?e yoii aieueoay /anoue naeioea aani?ae?oaony a
i?aaiecia /aeiaaea. A aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa aieueoeinoaa ai?iaeia, aaea
?inaeae?iiaoii i?iaiaeeony eiio?ieue ca niaea?aeaieai naeioea,
n?aaeiaaiaeiaay eiioeaio?aoeey aa?uee?oao a i?aaeaeao 0,01 – 0,05 iea/i,
/oi cia/eoaeueii ieaea IAeE – 0,3 iea/i. A oaeeo oneiaeyo aeeaao ieiei
44 iei. ai?iaeai. Ieiei 10 iei. /aeiaae i?iaeeaaao a ai?iaeao n aieaa
aunieei niaea?aeaieai naeioea – io 0,1 aei 0,2 iea/i. Aieaa aunieea
eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea a aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa iaia?oaeaiu i?e
i?iaaaeaiee niaoeeaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee a ai?iaeao n e?oiiuie
i?iiuoeaiiuie enoi/ieeaie yiennee naeioea – Aaeiai, Aeaaeeeaaeac,
Aonue-O?onoaeueiue e ae?.

A ieoueaaie aiaea ?acee/iuo no?ai ie?a niaea?aeaiea naeioea eciaiyaony a
i?aaeaeao 1 – 60 iea/e e a aieueoeinoaa aa?iiaeneeo no?ai ia i?aauoaao
20 iea/e. A ?innee aeaiiua i niaea?aeaiee naeioea a ieoueaaie aiaea
e?aeia iaiiiai/eneaiiu. A iineianeie ieoueaaie aiaea aai niaea?aeaiea
aa?uee?oao a i?aaeaeao 0,7 – 4 iea/e. Aiciiaeii, /oi nouanoaoao i?iaeaia
caa?yciaiey ieoueaauo aiae a ?aeiiao ?aniieiaeaiey ieaaeeueiuo caaiaeia
eee iano neeaaee?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo iooiaeia n aunieei niaea?aeaieai
naeioea.[4]

Caa?yciaiiay naeioeii ii/aa yaeyaony enoi/ieeii aai iinooieaiey a
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiia nu?uea e iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?aaieci /aeiaaea,
iniaaiii aeaoae. Iaeaieaa aunieea eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea
iaia?oaeeaathony a ii/aa ai?iaeia, aaea ?aniieiaeaiu i?aaei?eyoey ii
auieaaea naeioea, i?iecaiaenoao naeiaoeniaea?aeaueo aeeoioeyoi?ia eee
noaeea (Aaeiai, Na?aine, Nae?ne e ?yae ae?oaeo).

A i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiia nu?uea e ieuaaua i?iaeoeou naeiaoe iiaeao
iinooiaoue ec ii/au, aiaeu, aicaeooa, ei?iia naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
aeeaioiuo ii oiaeo ieuaaie oeaie. E?iia oiai ii?aaeaeaiiia cia/aiea
eiaao e aiciiaeiinoue i?yiiai caa?yciaiey i?e i?iecaiaenoaa aioiauo
ecaeaeee. Iaeaieaa aunieea o?iaie niaea?aeaiey naeioea ioia/athony a
eiina?aao a aeanoyiie oa?a, ?uaa nu?ie e ii?iaeaiiie, ioaie/iuo io?oayo,
aeaeaoeia e ?aeiia?aciuo. Aunieia niaea?aeaiea naeioea iaaethaeaaony a
ei?iaieiaeao e ae?oaeo ?anoeoaeueiuo i?iaeoeoao, au?auaiiuo ia caieyo
aaeece i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiiae aaeieue aei?ia.

Ii aeaiiui i iio?aaeaiee i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey a ?O, ia iniiaaiee
iaoa?eaeia athaeaeaoiuo ianeaaeiaaiee naiae onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?an/aoiia
iinooieaiea naeioea ia aeooo ianaeaiey a aiae ninoaaeyao 65,25 ia eee
1,25 ia ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea a iaaeaeth. A iaeioi?uo i?iiuoeaiiuo
ai?iaeao iinooieaiea naeioea n i?iaeoeoaie ieoaiey ianeieueei auoa; o
10% ianeaaeoaiiai ianaeaiey i?aauoaao aaee/eio 2 ia//ae.a iaaeaeth. A
nooi/iii ?aoeeiia aeaoae a aic?anoa 1 – 3 aiaea iio?aaeaiea naeioea
ninoaaeyao 14 iea, a aic?anoa 4 – 6 eao – 64 iea, 7 – 14 eao – 87 iea,
o.a. iinooieaiea naeioea n i?iaeoeoaie ieoaiey aeey aeaoae aei 7 eao
eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io aic?anoa a i?aaeaeao 14 – 68
iea/noo.(oaaeeoea )

Ecauoie ieeneia acioa a i?aaiecia /aeiaaea i?eaiaeeo e iinoaiaiiiio
?ac?ooaieth eeaoie eaaeeo, aucuaaao aeaa?aaeaoeeth neecenoie iaiei/ee
a?iioia, niinianoaoao ?anoe?aieth eaai/iuo e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia, a i?e
aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee – iaeiieaieth a aeuoaoaeueiuo iooyo aeeaeeinoe.
Yoi iiaeao noaoue ?ieiaui.

2.2.A?oiiu iiauoaiiiai ?enea aicaeaenoaey naeioea n?aaee ianaeaiey

2.2.1. Ac?ineia ianaeaiea

A ?innee iinoaiaiii oaaee/eaaaony /eneaiiinoue ethaeae eiathueo,
i?ioanneiiaeueiue eiioaeo ni naeioeii. Ii aeaiiui
Aineiinaiyieaeaiiaaeci?a ?innee, neo/ae o?iie/aneie naeioeiaie
eioieneeaoeey caoeene?iaaiu a 14 io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?innee.

Aaaeoueie ii /eneo neo/aaa “naoo?iecia” yaeythony: yeaeo?ioaoie/aneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue (i?iecaiaenoai aeeoioeyoi?ia), i?eai?ino?iaiea,
iieea?aoey, oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey. A yoeo io?aneyo i?aauoaiea IAeE
naeioea a aicaeooa ?aai/ae ciiu a 20 e aieaa ?ac. Aunieee oaeaeueiue aan
naeioeiauo eioieneeaoeee a iieea?aoee aucaai eniieueciaaieai a
oeiia?aoeyo ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiia ?innee (Aio?neay iaeanoue, Iaicaineay e
ae?.) ii?aeueiionoa?aaoaai iai?oaeiaaiey, ?o/iie ioeeaee e ia?aieaaee
naeioeiauo o?eooia, ?o/iiai iaai?a i?e ianiaa?oaiiie i?eoi/ii-auoyaeiie
aaioeeyoeee.[4]

N?aaee ?aai/eo, iino?aaeaaoeo io aicaeaenoaee naeioea, ieiei 40%
ninoaaeytho aeaiueiu. Aeey aeaiuei naeiaoe i?aaenoaaeyao iniaoth
iianiinoue, o.e. yoio yeaiaio iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth i?iieeaoue /a?ac
ieaoeaioo e iaeaieeaaoueny a a?oaeiii iieiea. AIC ioia/aao aiciiaeiinoue
?enea niiioaiiuo aai?oia i?e eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea a e?iae aa?aiaiiuo
?aaioieoe 30iea/aee e oaaee/aiey /enea o?iiiniiiuo aaaa?aoeee o ?aai/eo
i?e niaea?aeaiee naeioea a e?iae nauoa 80 iea/aee.

2.2.2 Naeiaoe e caei?iauea aeaoae.

Iniiaiui iieacaoaeai aicaeaenoaey ia caei?iauea aeaoae yaeyaony o?iaaiue
aai niaea?aeaiey a e?iae, i?e/ai i?ienoiaeeo iinoiyiiue aai ia?aniio?.
?acoeueoaou ?yaea e?oiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?iaeoia
iiaeoaa?aeeee, /oi i?e oaaee/aiee eiioeaio?aoeee naeioea a e?iae ?aaaiea
n 10 aei 20 iea/aee i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea eiyooeoeeaioa oinoaaiiiai
?acaeoey (IQ) [1]

Aeiionoeiue o?iaaiue niaea?aeaiey naeioea a aieinao – 8 – 9 iea/a.
Neoaiaoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ii ii?aaeaeaieth iaeiieaiey naeioea a
aieinao ianaeaiey i?iaiaeyony a ?acee/iuo ai?iaeao ?innee n 1980a. n
eniieueciaaieai nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia.

N?aaee aeaoneiai ianaeaiey, iiaeaa?aathuaainy aicaeaenoaeth iiauoaiiuo
eiioeaio?aoeeenaeioea, iaeaieaa aunieea o?iaie aai iaeiieaiey
ioia/athony ia oa??eoi?eyo aaeece iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo e aeeoioeyoi?iuo
i?iecaiaenoa. Onoaiiaeaiii cia/eoaeueiia iaeiieaiea naeioea ia coaao
aeaoae, i?iaeeaathueo a o?aeueneeo ai?iaeao.

Iaa?ieiae/aneea yooaeou.O iaeaiueeeoaeaoae eciaiaiey ineoiiioi?iuo
?aaeoeee naycuaatho n iiauoaiiui iinooieaieai naeioea a i?aaieci i?e
iaeecuaaiee iaeueoeaa ?oe eee ea?ooae, iiauaaaoeo ia caa?yciaiiie
ii/aa.Aeey aeaoae oeieueiiai aic?anoa oa?aeoa?ii eciaiaiea iieacaoaey
IQ. Aeeyiea naeioea i?iyaeyaony oaeaea a eciaiaieyo aeaeaaoaeueiie
aeoeaiinoe, eii?aeeiaoeee aeaeaeaiee, neooiaiai aini?eyoey e iaiyoe. Yoe
eciaiaiey a ineoiiaa?ieiae/aneii noaoona ?aaaiea aiciiaeiu e a aieaa
noa?oai aic?anoa, /oi au?aaeaaony a o?oaeiinoe iao/aiey e iinooieaiey a
AOCu.

Aicaeaenoaea naeioea aucuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua eciaiaiey a
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaia.Iaoiaaiac ii?aaeaiey na?aeoea i?e
aeaenoaee naeioea naycuaaaony n ii?aaeaieai ieoioiiae?ee, a /anoiinoe n
eiaeae?iaaieai iiaeiuaiey eiiia eaeueoeey. O aeaoae n iiauoaiiui
niaea?aeaieai naeioea a e?iae (aieaa 20 iea/aee), i?iaeeaathueo aaeece
aeeoioeyoi?iiai caaiaea a N.-Iaoa?ao?aa, auyaeaiu ooieoeeiiaeueiua
eciaiaiey na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu.

Caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu naeioeii ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ninoiyiea
iiai?iaeaeaiiuo. Iiai?iaeaeaiiua a ai?iaeao Aaeiai Eaia?ianeie iaeanoe e
Ea?aaao *aeyaeineie iaeanoe eiatho aieaa ieceea iieacaoaee, /ai a
eiio?ieueiii ?aeiia.

Ia iniiaaiee eceiaeaiiiai auoa iaoa?eaea, ai?iaea ?innee (aieaa 150)
?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu:

1) n ioiineoaeueii ieceei e n?aaeiei o?iaiai;

2) n iiauoaiiui o?iaiai niaea?aeaiy naeioea a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea;

Oaaeeoea 1.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea enoi/ieeia naeioeiaiai caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
?innee a 1995 a. ii io?aneyi e aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe, o. naeioea.

Iaeiaiiaaiea enoi/ieeia aua?inu na?inu
ia?aciaaiea

a aoiin-
a aiaeiua iooiaeia

oa?o
iauaeou

noaoeeiia?iua enoi/ieee:

ii anai io?aneyi 615,5
50,5 1 864 056*

io?aneaaua aeaiiua:

iaoaeeo?aey 671
0,64

a oii /enea oeaaoiay 660
0,57 900

iaoeiino?iaiea 38,2
35 –

naeeaaiea oiieeaa 400**
– –

oeie/aneay,iaooaoeie/aneay

e iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuay

i?iiuoeaiiinoue 0,94
9,55 725**

noaeieueiia i?iecaiaenoai 100-200 15-20
100

i?iecaiaenoai eiina?aia –
– 100-200

iai?iiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue 150 –

ianoaoeeiia?iua enoi/ieee:

aaoio?ainii?o 4 000
1 000**** 60 000*****

aaeaoeey e ?aeaoii-einie/aneay

oaoieea 400
– –

ioioa –
1 400 –

i?eia/aiey

* naeiaoeniaea?aeauea iooiaeu anao io?aneae ca au/aoii eniieueciaaiiuo,
iaaca?aaeaiiuo e ?aciauaiiuo a ianoao i?aaieciaaiiiai
caoi?iiaiey e neeaaee?iaaiey

** ioeaiea ia 1993 a.

*** i?iecaiaenoai naeioeiaiai no?eea

**** ioeaiea iiiaaeaiey naeioea a ii/au e aiaeu n yeaeo?ieeoii e ianoie
ec aeeoio-

eyoi?ia i?e eo ?ac?ooaiee

***** io?aaioaiiua aeeoioeyoi?u ca au/aoii nia?aiiuo Aoi?oeaaoiaoii

Oaaeeoea 2.

Iooe iinooieaiey naeioea a i?aaieci aeaoae aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa a
ai?iaeao ?innee.

oa?aeoa?enoeea ai?iaeia /eneaiiinoue aeaoae aei 7 iei. /aeiaae

iauay n niaea?aeaieai naeioea a e?iae, iea/aee

10-19 20-44 45-69
aieaa70

Ai?iaea n ioiine-

oaeueii ieceei e

n?aaeiei o?iaiai

caa?yciaiey

Ai?iaea n iiau-

oaiiui o?iaiai

caa?yciaiey

Anaai

4,3 1,8 0,3 0,003
0,0

0,2 0,1 0,1 0,006
0,0005

4,5 1,9 0,4 0,009
0,0005

Oaaeeoea 3.

I?iaiice?oaiay /eneaiiinoue aeaoae n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai naeioea a
e?iae.

oa?aeoa?enoeea ai?iaeia iauaa iinooieaiea, iea/noo iooe iinooieaiey
naeioea a i?aaieci, %

n aicaeooii n ieoueaaie n ii/aie n i?iaeoeoaie aiaeie e
iueueth ieoaiey

Ai?iaea n ioiine-

oaeueii ieceei e n?aaeiei o?iaiai caa?yciaiey

Ai?iaea n iiau-

oaiiui o?iaiai caa?yciaiey

23-33

24-67

0,3 1,5 11,3 86,9

0,7 2,8 10,7 85,8

CAEETH*AIEA

Caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu naeioeii, aai niaaeeiaieyie e ieeneaie
acioa , aucuaathuoth aeaa?aaeaoeeth n?aaeu iaeoaiey e iaiinyuaa oua?a
caei?iaueth ianaeaiey, yaeyaony iaeiie ec iaeaieaa ino?uo yeieiae/aneeo
i?iaeai ?innee, eiathuae oaeaea i?ei?eoaoiia nioeeaeueiia e
yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea.

Aii?inu io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e caei?iauey ianaeaiey io
aicaeaenoaey naeioea e ieeneia acioa cao?aaeaathony a aeayoaeueiinoe
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie enneaaeiaaoaeueneie a?oiiu ,yaeythuaeny iaeiie ec
io?aneaauo oiaa?iuo i?aaiecaoeee, nicaeaiiuo ia aaca THIEOAAe.

Iaoa?eae ?aoa?aoa iieacuaaao, /oi, ianiio?y ia cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea
aua?inia naeioea e aai niaaeeiaiee noaoeeiia?iuie enoi/ieeaie, i?iaeaia
caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu “oeieae” ? ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aanueia aeooaeueia. Ioia/aaony, /oi iaoneiaeaiiia
iaaeaieai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa nie?auaiea aua?inia e na?inia
ieeneia acioa e naeioea a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo ca iineaaeiaa iyoeeaoea
i?aaeiieaaaao aiciiaeiia cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea yoeo iieacaoaeae i?e
iiaeuaia yeiiiieee no?aiu.

PAGE

PAGE 1

PAGE \# “‘No?: ‘#’

‘” No?: 8

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