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?aoa?ao ii aeieiaee

ia oaio:

“Oa?iaiou”

Iineaa 1996

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \t “Caaie1;1” 1. Iauea iieiaeaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc355855980
PAGEREF _Toc355855980 3

2. Naienoaa oa?iaioia GOTOBUTTON _Toc355855981 PAGEREF
_Toc355855981 5

3. No?iaiea oa?iaioia GOTOBUTTON _Toc355855982 PAGEREF
_Toc355855982 9

4. Iiiaieeaoo?a oa?iaioia GOTOBUTTON _Toc355855983 PAGEREF
_Toc355855983 17

5. Eeanneoeeaoeey oa?iaioia e oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeioi?uo a?oii
GOTOBUTTON _Toc355855984 PAGEREF _Toc355855984 21

6. Eieaeecaoeey oa?iaioia a eeaoea GOTOBUTTON _Toc355855985 PAGEREF
_Toc355855985 24

7. Iaoiaeu auaeaeaiey e i/enoee oa?iaioia GOTOBUTTON _Toc355855986
PAGEREF _Toc355855986 26

Eeoa?aoo?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc355855987 PAGEREF _Toc355855987 30

1. Iauea iieiaeaiey

Oa?iaiou (io eao. fermentum – a?iaeaiea, caeaanea), niaoeeoe/aneea
aaeee, i?enoonoaothuea ai anao aeeauo eeaoeao e ea?athuea ?ieue
aeieiae/aneeo eaoaeecaoi?ia. *a?ac eo iin?aaenoai ?aaeecoaony
aaiaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey e inouanoaeythony ana i?ioeannu iaiaia aauanoa
e yia?aee a aeeauo i?aaieciao. Oa?iaiou auaatho i?inouie eee neiaeiuie
aaeeaie, a ninoaa eioi?uo ia?yaeo n aaeeiaui eiiiiiaioii (aiioa?iaioii)
aoiaeeo iaaaeeiaay /anoue – eioa?iaio. Yooaeoeaiinoue aeaenoaey
oa?iaioia ii?aaeaeyaony cia/eoaeueiui nieaeaieai yia?aee aeoeaaoeee
eaoaeece?oaiie ?aaeoeee a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aciaaiey i?iiaaeooi/iuo
oa?iaio-noano?aoiuo eiiieaenia. I?eniaaeeiaiea noano?aoia i?ienoiaeeo a
aeoeaiuo oeaio?ao, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho noiaenoaii oieueei n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie noano?aoaie, /ai aeinoeaaaony aunieay niaoeeoe/iinoue
(ecae?aoaeueiinoue) aeaenoaey oa?iaioia. Iaeia ec iniaaiiinoae oa?iaioia
– niiniaiinoue e iai?aaeaiiiio e ?aaoee?oaiiio aeaenoaeth. Ca n/?o yoiai
eiio?iee?oaony niaeaniaaiiinoue anao caaiueaa iaiaia aauanoa. Yoa
niiniaiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony i?ino?ainoaaiiinoue no?oeoo?iie iieaeoeu
oa?iaioia. Iia ?aaeecoaony /a?ac eciaiaiea nei?inoe aeaenoaey oa?iaioia
e caaeneo io eiioeaio?aoeee niioaaonoaothueo noano?aoia e eioaeoi?ia, ?H
n?aaeu, oaiia?aoo?u, a oaeaea io i?enoonoaey niaoeeoe/aneeo aeoeaaoi?ia
e eiaeaeoi?ia (iai?eia?, aaeaieeiauo ioeeaioeaeia, ea?aiieeueiuo,
noeueoaeae?eeueiuo niaaeeiaiee e ae?.). Iaeioi?ua oa?iaiou iiieii
aeoeaiuo oeaio?ia eiatho aeiiieieoaeueiua, o.i. aeeinoa?e/aneea
?aaoeyoi?iua oeaio?u. Aeineioac oa?iaioia iaoiaeeony iiae eiio?ieai
aaiia. ?acee/atho eiinoeoooeaiua oa?iaiou, iinoiyiii i?enoonoaothuea a
eeaoeao, e eiaeooee?oaiua oa?iaiou, aeineioac eioi?uo aeoeae?oaony iiae
aeeyieai niioaaonoaothueo noano?aoia. Iaeioi?ua ooieoeeiiaeueii
acaeiinaycaiiua oa?iaiou ia?acotho a eeaoea no?oeoo?ii i?aaieciaaiiua
iieeoa?iaioiua eiiieaenu. Iiiaea oa?iaiou e oa?iaioiua eiiieaenu i?i/ii
naycaiu n iaia?aiaie eeaoee eee a? i?aaiieaeia (ieoioiiae?ee, eecinii,
iee?inii e o.ae.) e o/anoaotho a aeoeaiii o?ainii?oa aauanoa /a?ac
iaia?aiu.

Ecaanoii aieaa 20000 ?acee/iuo oa?iaioia, ec eioi?uo iiiaea auaeaeaiu ec
aeeauo eeaoie e iieo/aiu a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ninoiyiee. Ia?aue
e?enoaeee/aneee oa?iaio (o?aaca) auaeaeai aia?eeaineei aeioeieeii
Ae.Naiia?ii a 1926 a. Aeey ?yaea oa?iaioia eco/aia iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
aieiieeneio e auyniaii ?aniieiaeaiea iieeiaioeaeiuo oeaiae a o??oia?iii
i?ino?ainoaa. A eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo inouanoaeai eneonnoaaiiue
oeie/aneee neioac oa?iaioa ?eaiioeeaacu. Oa?iaiou eniieuecotho aeey
eiee/anoaaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey e iieo/aiey ?acee/iuo aauanoa, aeey
iiaeeoeeaoeee iieaeoe ioeeaeiiauo eeneio iaoiaeaie aaiiie eiaeaia?ee,
aeeaaiinoeee e ea/aiey ?yaea caaieaaaiee, a oaeaea a ?yaea
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, i?eiaiyaiuo a e?aeie, ieuaaie e
oa?iaoeaaoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoyo.

2. Naienoaa oa?iaioia

Aoaeo/e aaeeaie, oa?iaiou iaeaaeatho anaie eo naienoaaie. Aianoa n oai
aeieaoaeecaoi?u oa?aeoa?ecothony ?yaeii niaoeeoe/aneeo ea/anoa, oiaea
auoaeathueo ec eo aaeeiaie i?e?iaeu. Yoe ea/anoaa ioee/atho oa?iaiou io
eaoaeecaoi?ia iau/iiai oeia. Nthaea ioiinyony oa?iieaaeeueiinoue
oa?iaioia, caaeneiinoue eo aeaenoaey io cia/aiey ?I n?aaeu,
niaoeeoe/iinoue e, iaeiiaoe, iiaeaa?aeaiiinoue aeeyieth aeoeaaoi?ia e
eiaeaeoi?ia.

Oa?iieaaeeueiinoue oa?iaioia iauyniyaony oai, /oi oaiia?aoo?a, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, aicaeaenoaoao ia aaeeiaoth /anoue oa?iaioa, i?eaiaey i?e
neeoeii aunieeo cia/aieyo e aeaiaoo?aoeee aaeea e nieaeaieth
eaoaeeoe/aneie ooieoeee, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia
nei?inoue ?aaeoeee ia?aciaaiey oa?iaio-noano?aoiiai eiiieaena e ia ana
iineaaeothuea yoaiu i?aia?aciaaiey noano?aoa, /oi aaaeao e oneeaieth
eaoaeeca.

Caaeneiinoue eaoaeeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioa io oaiia?aoo?u
au?aaeaaony oeie/iie e?eaie. Aei iaeioi?iai cia/aiey oaiia?aoo?u (a
n?aaeiai aei 5I°N) eaoaeeoe/aneay aeoeaiinoue ?anoao, i?e/ai ia eaaeaeua
10°N i?eia?ii a 2 ?aca iiauoaaony nei?inoue i?aia?aciaaiey noano?aoa. A
oi aea a?aiy iinoaiaiii aic?anoaao eiee/anoai eiaeoeae?iaaiiiai oa?iaioa
ca n/ao aeaiaoo?aoeee aai aaeeiaie /anoe. I?e oaiia?aoo?a auoa 50°N
aeaiaoo?aoeey oa?iaioiiai aaeea ?acei oneeeaaaony e, oioy nei?inoue
?aaeoeee i?aia?aciaaiey noano?aoa i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe, aeoeaiinoue
oa?iaioa, au?aaeathuayny eiee/anoaii i?aa?auaiiiai noano?aoa, iaaeaao.

Aeaoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ?inoa aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioia n iiauoaieai
oaiia?aoo?u, i?iaaaeaiiua a iineaaeiaa a?aiy, iieacaee aieaa neiaeiue
oa?aeoa? yoie caaeneiinoe, /ai oeacaii auoa: ai iiiaeo neo/ayo iia ia
ioaa/aao i?aaeeo oaeaiaiey aeoeaiinoe ia eaaeaeua 10°N a iniiaiii ec-ca
iinoaiaiii ia?anoathueo eiioi?iaoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee a iieaeoea oa?iaioa.

Oaiia?aoo?a, i?e eioi?ie eaoaeeoe/aneay aeoeaiinoue oa?iaioa
iaeneiaeueia, iacuaaaony aai oaiia?aoo?iui iioeioiii.

Oaiia?aoo?iue iioeioi aeey ?acee/iuo oa?iaioia iaiaeeiaeia. A iauai aeey
oa?iaioia aeeaioiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey ii eaaeeo iaaeaeo 40 e 50°N, a
?anoeoaeueiiai – iaaeaeo 50 e 60°N. Iaeiaei anoue oa?iaiou n aieaa
aunieei oaiia?aoo?iui iioeioiii, iai?eia?, o iaiaeia (oa?iaio
?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, onei?ythuee aeae?ieec aaeea) iioeioi
iaoiaeeony i?e 8I°N. A oi aea a?aiy o eaoaeacu (oa?iaio, onei?ythuee
?aniaae I2I2 aei I2I e I2) iioeiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a aeaenoaey iaoiaeeony
iaaeaeo 0 e -10°N, a i?e aieaa aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao i?ienoiaeeo
yia?ae/iia ieeneaiea oa?iaioa e aai eiaeoeaaoeey.

Caaeneiinoue aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioa io cia/aiey ?I n?aaeu auea onoaiiaeaia
nauoa 50 eao iacaae. Aeey eaaeaeiai oa?iaioa nouanoaoao iioeiaeueiia
cia/aiea ?I n?aaeu, i?e eioi?ii ii i?iyaeyao iaeneiaeueioth aeoeaiinoue.
Aieueoeinoai oa?iaioia eiaao iaeneiaeueioth aeoeaiinoue a ciia ?I
iiaeecinoe io iaeo?aeueiie oi/ee. A ?acei eeneie eee ?acei uaei/iie
n?aaea oi?ioi ?aaioatho eeoue iaeioi?ua oa?iaiou.

Ia?aoiae e aieueoae eee iaiueoae (ii n?aaiaieth n iioeiaeueiie)
eiioeaio?aoeee aiaei?iaeiuo eiiia nii?iaiaeaeaaony aieaa eee iaiaa
?aaiiia?iui iaaeaieai aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioa.

Aeeyiea eiioeaio?aoeee aiaei?iaeiuo eiiia ia eaoaeeoe/aneoth aeoeaiinoue
oa?iaioia ninoieo a aicaeaenoaee aa ia aeoeaiue oeaio?. I?e ?aciuo
cia/aieyo ?I a ?aaeoeeiiiie n?aaea aeoeaiue oeaio? iiaeao auoue neaaaa
eee neeueiaa eiiece?iaai, aieueoa eee iaiueoa ye?aie?iaai ninaaeieie n
iei o?aaiaioaie iieeiaioeaeiie oeaie aaeeiaie /anoe oa?iaioa e o.i.
E?iia oiai, ?I n?aaeu aeeyao ia noaiaiue eiiecaoeee noano?aoa,
oa?iaio-noano?aoiiai eiiieaena e i?iaeoeoia ?aaeoeee, ieacuaaao aieueoia
aeeyiea ia ninoiyiea oa?iaioa, ii?aaeaeyy niioiioaiea a iai eaoeiiiuo e
aieiiiuo oeaio?ia, /oi neacuaaaony ia o?aoe/iie no?oeoo?a aaeeiaie
iieaeoeu. Iineaaeiaa ianoiyoaeuenoai caneoaeeaaao iniaiai aieiaiey, oae
eae ii?aaeaeaiiay o?aoe/iay no?oeoo?a aaeea-oa?iaioa iaiaoiaeeia aeey
ia?aciaaiey oa?iaio-noano?aoiiai eiiieaena.

Niaoeeoe/iinoue – iaeii ec iaeaieaa auaeathueony ea/anoa oa?iaioia. Yai
naienoai eo auei ioe?uoi aua a i?ioeii noieaoee, eiaaea auei naeaeaii
iaaethaeaiea, /oi i/aiue aeeceea ii no?oeoo?a aauanoaa –
i?ino?ainoaaiiua eciia?u (a- e b-iaoeeaetheiceaeu) ?anuaieythony ii
yoe?iie nayce aeaoiy niaa?oaiii ?aciuie oa?iaioaie.

Oaeei ia?acii, oa?iaiou iiaoo ?acee/aoue oeie/aneea niaaeeiaiey,
ioee/athueany ae?oa io ae?oaa i/aiue iacia/eoaeueiuie aeaoaeyie
no?iaiey, oaeeie, iai?eia?, eae i?ino?ainoaaiiia ?aniieiaeaiea
iaoieneeueiiai ?aaeeeaea e aoiia aiaei?iaea i?e 1-i oaea?iaeiii aoiia
iieaeoeu iaoeeaetheiceaea.

Ii ia?aciiio au?aaeaieth, ia?aaeei oiio?aaeyaiiio a aeioeie/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a, oa?iaio iiaeoiaeeo e noano?aoo, eae eeth/ e caieo. Yoi
ciaiaieoia i?aaeei auei noi?ioee?iaaii Y. Oeoa?ii a 1894 a. enoiaey ec
oiai, /oi niaoeeoe/iinoue aeaenoaey oa?iaioa i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony no?iaei
niioaaonoaeai aaiiao?e/aneie no?oeoo?u noano?aoa e aeoeaiiai oeaio?a
oa?iaioa.

A 50-a aiaeu iaoaai noieaoey yoi noaoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea auei
caiaiaii aeiioacie Ae. Eioeaiaea ia eiaeooee?iaaiiii niioaaonoaee
noano?aoa e oa?iaioa. Nouiinoue aa naiaeeony e oiio, /oi
i?ino?ainoaaiiia niioaaonoaea no?oeoo?u noano?aoa e aeoeaiiai oeaio?a
oa?iaioa nicaeaaony a iiiaio eo acaeiiaeaenoaey ae?oa n ae?oaii, /oi
iiaeao auoue au?yaeaii oi?ioeie “ia?/aoea – ?oea”. I?e yoii a noano?aoa
oaea aeaoi?ie?othony iaeioi?ua aaeaioiua nayce e ii, oaeei ia?acii,
iiaeaioaaeeaaaony e aeaeueiaeoaio eaoaeeoe/aneiio aeaeieciaiaieth, a a
iieaeoea oa?iaioa i?ienoiaeyo eiioi?iaoeeiiiua ia?ano?ieee. Aeiioaca
Eioeaiaea, iniiaaiiay ia aeiiouaiee aeaeinoe aeoeaiiai oeaio?a oa?iaioa,
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii iauyniyea aeoeae?iaaiea e eiaeae?iaaiea aeaenoaey
oa?iaioia e ?aaoeyoeeth eo aeoeaiinoe i?e aicaeaenoaee ?acee/iuo
oaeoi?ia. A /anoiinoe, eiioi?iaoeeiiiua ia?ano?ieee a oa?iaioa a
i?ioeanna eciaiaiey aai aeoeaiinoe Eioeaiae n?aaieaae n eieaaaieyie
iaooeiu, eiaaea a iaa iiiaea aeiau/a (noano?ao), iiae/a?eeaay yoei
e?aeithth eaaeeueiinoue no?oeoo?u oa?iaioa a i?ioeanna eaoaeeoe/aneiai
aeoa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeiioaca Eioeaiaea iinoaiaiii auoaniyaony aeiioacie
oiiioeie/aneiai niioaaonoaey. Nio?aiyy iniiaiua iieiaeaiey aeiioacu
acaeiieiaeooee?iaaiiie iano?ieee noano?aoa e oa?iaioa, iia oeene?oao
aieiaiea ia oii, /oi niaoeeoe/iinoue aeaenoaey oa?iaioia iauyniyaony a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ociaaaieai oie /anoe noano?aoa, eioi?ay ia eciaiyaony
i?e eaoaeeca. Iaaeaeo yoie /anoueth noano?aoa e noano?aoiui oeaio?ii
oa?iaioa aicieeatho iiiai/eneaiiua oi/a/iua aeae?ioiaiua acaeiiaeaenoaey
e aiaei?iaeiua nayce.

3. No?iaiea oa?iaioia

Ii no?iaieth oa?iaiou iiaoo auoue iaeiieiiiiiaioiuie, i?inouie aaeeaie,
e aeaooeiiiiiaioiuie, neiaeiuie aaeeaie. Ai aoi?ii neo/aa a ninoaaa
oa?iaioa iaia?oaeeaaaony aeiaaai/iay a?oiia iaaaeeiaie i?e?iaeu.

A ?aciia a?aiy aicieeee ?acee/iua iaeiaiiaaiey aaeeiaie /anoe e
aeiaaai/iie a?oiiu a aeaooeiiiiiaioiuo oa?iaioao. Ana iie aei neo ii?
oiio?aaeythony a eeoa?aoo?a, iai?eia?:

Oa?iaio a oeaeii Aaeeiaay /anoue Aeiaaai/iay a?oiia

Neiieaen Oa?ii (iineoaeue) Aaii (aeoeaiay a?oiia)

Oieioa?iaio Aiioa?iaio Eioa?iaio

Aeiaaai/ioth a?oiio, i?i/ii naycaiioth, ia ioaeaeyaioth io aaeeiaie
/anoe, iacuaatho i?inoaoe/aneie a?oiiie; a ioee/ea io yoiai aeiaaai/ioth
a?oiio, eaaei ioaeaeythuothny io aiioa?iaioa e niiniaioth e
naiinoiyoaeueiiio nouanoaiaaieth, iau/ii eiaiotho eioa?iaioii.

Oeie/aneay i?e?iaea aaaeiaeoeo eioa?iaioia auea auyniaia a 30-a aiaeu
iaoaai noieaoey aeaaiaea?y o?oaeai I. Aa?ao?aa, ?. Eoia, I. Ea??a?a e
ae?. Ieacaeinue, /oi ?ieue eioa?iaioia a aeaooeiiiiiaioiuo oa?iaioao
ea?atho aieueoeinoai aeoaieiia (A, E, Q, A1, A2, A6 A12, N, I e ae?.)
eee niaaeeiaiee, iino?iaiiuo n o/anoeai aeoaieiia (eiyicei A, IAAe+ e o.
i.). E?iia oiai, ooieoeeth eioa?iaioia auiieiytho oaeea niaaeeiaiey, eae
IS-aeooaoeii, iiiai/eneaiiay a?oiia ioeeaioeaeia e eo i?iecaiaeiuo,
oinoi?iua yoe?u iaeioi?uo iiiinaoa?eaeia e ?yae ae?oaeo aauanoa.

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth aeaooeiiiiiaioiuo oa?iaioia yaeyaony oi, /oi
ie aaeeiaay /anoue, ie aeiaaai/iay a?oiia a ioaeaeueiinoe ia iaeaaeatho
caiaoiie eaoaeeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoueth. Oieueei eo eiiieaen i?iyaeyao
oa?iaioaoeaiua naienoaa. I?e yoii aaeie ?acei iiauoaao eaoaeeoe/aneoth
aeoeaiinoue aeiaaai/iie a?oiiu, i?enouoth ae a naiaiaeiii ninoiyiee a
i/aiue iaeie noaiaie; aeiaaai/iay aea a?oiia noaaeeece?oao aaeeiaoth
/anoue e aeaeaao aa iaiaa oycaeiie e aeaiaoo?e?othuei aaaioai. Oaeei
ia?acii, oioy iaiin?aaenoaaiiui eniieieoaeai eaoaeeoe/aneie ooieoeee
yaeyaony i?inoaoe/aneay a?oiia, ia?acothuay eaoaeeoe/aneee oeaio?, aa
aeaenoaea iaiuneeii aac o/anoey iieeiaioeaeiuo o?aaiaioia aaeeiaie /anoe
oa?iaioa. Aieaa oiai, a aiioa?iaioa anoue o/anoie, oa?aeoa?ecothueeny
niaoeeoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie, ecae?aoaeueii naycuaathuee eioa?iaio. Yoi oae
iacuaaaiue eioa?iaio naycuaathuee aeiiai; aai no?oeoo?a o ?acee/iuo
aiioa?iaioia, niaaeeiythueony n iaeiei e oai aea eioa?iaioii, i/aiue
noiaeia. Oaeiau, iai?eia?, i?ino?ainoaaiiua no?oeoo?u
ioeeaioeaenaycuaathueo aeiiaiia ?yaea aeaaeae?iaaiac.

Eia/a ianoieo aeaei o iaeiieiiiiiaioiuo oa?iaioia, ia eiathueo
aeiaaai/iie a?oiiu, eioi?ay iiaea au aoiaeeoue a iaiin?aaenoaaiiue
eiioaeo n i?aia?acoaiui niaaeeiaieai. Yoo ooieoeeth auiieiyao /anoue
aaeeiaie iieaeoeu, iacuaaaiay eaoaeeoe/aneei oeaio?ii. I?aaeiieaaatho,
/oi eaoaeeoe/aneee oeaio? iaeiieiiiiiaioiiai oa?iaioa i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie oieeaeueiia ni/aoaiea ianeieueeeo aieiieeneioiuo inoaoeia,
?aniieaaathueony a ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe aaeeiaie iieaeoeu.

*aua anaai a eaoaeeoe/aneeo oeaio?ao iaeiieiiiiiaioiuo oa?iaioia
ano?a/athony inoaoee na?, aen, o?e, a?a, oeen, ani, aeo e oe?. ?aaeeeaeu
ia?a/eneaiiuo aieiieeneio auiieiytho caeanue oo aea ooieoeeth, /oi e
eioa?iaio a ninoaaa aeaooeiiiiiaioiiai oa?iaioa.

Aieiieeneioiua inoaoee, ia?acothuea eaoaeeoe/aneee oeaio?
iaeiieiiiiiaioiiai oa?iaioa, ?aniieiaeaiu a ?acee/iuo oi/eao aaeeiie
iieeiaioeaeiie oeaie. Iiyoiio eaoaeeoe/aneee oeaio? aicieeaao a oio
iiiaio, eiaaea aaeeiaay iieaeoea i?eia?aoaao i?enouoth ae o?aoe/ioth
no?oeoo?o. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eciaiaiea o?aoe/iie no?oeoo?u oa?iaioa iiae
aeeyieai oao eee eiuo oaeoi?ia iiaeao i?eaanoe e aeaoi?iaoeee
eaoaeeoe/aneiai oeaio?a e eciaiaieth oa?iaioaoeaiie aeoeaiinoe.

E?iia eaoaeeoe/aneiai oeaio?a, ia?aciaaiiiai ni/aoaieai aieiieeneioiuo
?aaeeeaeia eee i?eniaaeeiaieai eioa?iaioa, o oa?iaioia ?acee/atho aua
aeaa oeaio?a: noano?aoiue e aeeinoa?e/aneee.

Iiae noano?aoiui oeaio?ii iiieiatho o/anoie iieaeoeu oa?iaioa,
ioaaonoaaiiue ca i?eniaaeeiaiea aauanoaa (noano?aoa), iiaeaa?aathuaainy
oa?iaioaoeaiiio i?aa?auaieth. *anoi yoio o/anoie iacuaatho “yei?iie
ieiuaaeeie” oa?iaioa, aaea, eae noaeii ia yei?ue, noaiiaeony noano?ao.
Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo i?ee?aieaiea noano?aoa e oa?iaioo eaeao ca n/ao
acaeiiaeaenoaey n e-aieiia?oeiie ?aaeeeaea eec, ?aniieiaeaiiiai a
noano?aoiii oeaio?a. Yoo aea ?ieue iiaeao auiieiyoue NIII-a?oiia aeo, a
oaeaea IS-a?oiia oeen. Iaeiaei ?aaiou iineaaeieo eao iieacaee, /oi
ai?acaei aieueoaa cia/aiea caeanue eiatho neeu aeae?ioiaiuo
acaeiiaeaenoaee e aiaei?iaeiua nayce, aicieeathuea iaaeaeo ?aaeeeaeaie
aieiieeneioiuo inoaoeia noano?aoiiai oeaio?a oa?iaioa e
niioaaonoaothueie a?oiie?iaeaie a iieaeoea noano?aoa.

Iiiyoea i eaoaeeoe/aneii e noano?aoiii oeaio?a ia neaaeoao
aaniethoece?iaaoue. A ?aaeueiuo oa?iaioao noano?aoiue oeaio? iiaeao
niaiaaeaoue (eee ia?ae?uaaoueny) n eaoaeeoe/aneei oeaio?ii. Aieaa oiai,
eaoaeeoe/aneee oeaio? iiaeao ieii/aoaeueii oi?ie?iaaoueny a iiiaio
i?eniaaeeiaiey noano?aoa. Iiyoiio /anoi aiai?yo ia aeoeaiii oeaio?a
oa?iaioa, i?aaenoaaeythuai ni/aoaiea ia?aiai e aoi?iai. Aeoeaiue oeaio?
o oa?iaioia ?aniieaaaaony ia aeaa uaee i?e aeaoouyaea?iie no?oeoo?a,
iai?eia? o eecioeeia e ?eaiioeeaacu, eee ia aeia aeoaieie aiaaeeiu, eae
o oeiio?eineiiaaia.

Aeeinoa?e/aneee oeaio? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o/anoie iieaeoeu oa?iaioa, a
?acoeueoaoa i?eniaaeeiaiey e eioi?iio ii?aaeaeaiiiai ieceiiieaeoey?iiai
(a eiiaaea – e aunieiiieaeoey?iiai) aauanoaa eciaiyaony o?aoe/iay
no?oeoo?a aaeeiaie iieaeoeu. Aneaaenoaea yoiai eciaiyaony eiioeao?aoeey
aeoeaiiai oeaio?a, nii?iaiaeaeathuayny eeai oaaee/aieai, eeai nieaeaieai
eaoaeeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioa. Yoi yaeaiea eaaeeo a iniiaa oae
iacuaaaiie aeeinoa?e/aneie ?aaoeyoeee eaoaeeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe
oa?iaioia.

Cia/aiey iieaeoey?iuo iann oa?iaioia eieaaethony a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao: io
ianeieueeeo ouny/ aei ianeieueeeo ieeeeiiia. A i?e?iaea ian/eouaaaony
ianeieueei aeanyoeia oa?iaioia, iaeaaeathueo n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoeie
iieaeoeaie (aei 50 oun.). Iaeiaei aieueoeinoai oa?iaioia i?aaenoaaeaii
aaeeaie aieaa aunieie iieaeoey?iie iannu, iino?iaiiuie ec noauaaeeieoe.
Oae, eaoaeaca (I=25200) niaea?aeeo a iieaeoea oanoue i?ioiia?ia n
I=42000 eaaeaeue. Iieaeoea oa?iaioa, onei?ythuaai ?aaeoeeth neioaca
?eaiioeeaeiiauo eeneio (?IE-iieeia?aca, I = 400000), ninoieo ec 6
ia?aaiuo noauaaeeieoe. Iieiay iieaeoea aeooaiaoaeaaeae?iaaiacu,
onei?ythuae i?ioeann ieeneaiey aeooaieiiaie eeneiou (I=336000),
iino?iaia ec 6 noauaaeeieoe n I=56000.

Niiniau eiiiiiiaee i?ioiia?ia a ioeueoeia?u ?aciiia?aciu. E?aeia aaaeii,
/oi aeino?iaiiue ec noauaaeeieoe oa?iaio i?iyaeyao iaeneiaeueioth
eaoaeeoe/aneoth aeoeaiinoue eiaiii a aeaea ioeueoeia?a: aeennioeeaoeey
ia i?ioiia?u ?acei nieaeaao aeoeaiinoue oa?iaioa. Ia ana
oa?iaiou-ioeueoeia?u iino?iaiu eneeth/eoaeueii ec eaoaeeoe/anee aeoeaiuo
i?ioiia?ia. Ia?yaeo n eaoaeeoe/aneeie a eo ninoaaa ioia/aiu ?aaoeyoi?iua
noauaaeeieoeu, eae, iai?eia?, o ania?oao-ea?aaieeo?ainoa?acu.

N?aaee oa?iaioia-ioeueoeia?ia aaconeiaii i?aiaeaaeatho aeeia?u e
oao?aia?u (eo ianeieueei nioai), a iaiueoae ia?a ?ani?ino?aiaiu
aaenaia?u e ieoaia?u (ianeieueei aeanyoeia) e iaiaueiiaaiii ?aaeei
ano?a/athony o?eia?u e iaioaia?u.

Iieaeoeu oa?iaioia-ioeueoeia?ia a ?yaea neo/aaa ninoaaeaiu ec
noauaaeeieoe aeaoo oeiia, iaicia/aaiuo oneiaii eae noauaaeeieoeu oeia A
e A. Iie noiaeiu ae?oa n ae?oaii, ii ioee/athony ii iaeioi?ui aeaoaeyi
ia?ae/iie e o?aoe/iie no?oeoo?. A caaeneiinoe io niioiioaiey i?ioiia?ia
oeia A e A a ioeueoeia?a iineaaeiee iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a aeaea
ianeieueeeo eciia?ia, eioi?ua iacuaatho eciceiaie. Oae, i?e /aou?ao
noauaaeeieoeao aiciiaeiu 5 eciceiia:

I II III IV V

AAAA AAAB AABB ABBB BBBB

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eioa?an e eciceiai ?acei iiauneeny. Ieacaeinue, /oi
e?iia aaiaoe/anee aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo eciceiia nouanoaoao aieueoay a?oiia
oa?iaioia, iaeaaeathuay iiiaeanoaaiiuie oi?iaie, aicieeathueie a
?acoeueoaoa eo iinoo?aineyoeeiiiie iiaeeoeeaoeee. Iiiaeanoaaiiua oi?iu
oa?iaioia e eciceiu a /anoiinoe eniieuecothony nae/an aeey aeeaaiinoeee
aieaciae a iaaeeoeeia, i?iaiice?iaaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo
iiaeai?a ?iaeeoaeueneeo ia? i?e ne?aueaaiee aeey iaania/aiey
iaeneiaeueiiai aaoa?icena a iioiinoaa e o. i.

Cia/aiea i?ino?ainoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee oa?iaioia iniaaiii y?ei
auyaeyaony i?e eco/aiee no?iaiey oae iacuaaaiuo ioeueoeyiceiia, o.a.
oa?iaioia, iaeaaeathueo niiniaiinoueth onei?youe iaeiia?aiaiii
ianeieueei oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee e inouanoaeyoue neiaeiua i?aa?auaiey
noano?aoa. I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue ioeueoeyicei, onei?ythuee ?aaeoeeth
ieeneeoaeueiiai aeaea?aieneee?iaaiey ie?iaeiia?aaeiie eeneiou. Yoio
iiiaioa?iaioiue eiiieaen n I=4500000 ninoieo ec o?ao aeaeia oa?iaioia.
Ia?aue ec ieo (E1) onei?yao ?aaeoeeth aeaea?aieneee?iaaiey
ie?iaeiia?aaeiie eeneiou. A ninoaa eiiieaena aoiaeeo 12 aeeia?iuo
iieaeoe yoiai oa?iaioa (E=19200). Aoi?ie e o?aoee oa?iaiou,
eaoaeece?othuea ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua i?ioeannu i?e ieeneaiee
ie?iaeiia?aaeiie eeneiou, nin?aaeioi/aiu aioo?e ioeueoeyiceiiiai
eiiieaena. Iaeei ec ieo (A3) i?aaenoaaeai oanoueth aeeia?iuie iieaeoeaie
(I=112 000), ae?oaie (A2) – 24 i?ioiia?aie (I=70000).

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ioeueoeyiceiiue eiiieaen ianeoaeeaaao aaeeiue,
iiiainooiai/aoue i?ioeann aeioeie/aneeo i?aa?auaiee, aai iacuaatho
iaoaaieiiii (io neiaa iaoaaieeci – iaiai aauanoa). Oaeiau iaoaaieiiu
aeeeieeca, aeineioaca ?yaea aieiieeneio, oeeeea aeeea?aiiiauo e
o?eea?aiiiauo eeneio e ae?.

A ?acoeueoaoa neaaeaiiiai ai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa aeaenoaey anao o?ao
aeaeia aoiaeyueo a aai ninoaa oa?iaioia ioeueoeyicei n ia?iiiie
nei?inoueth inouanoaeyao i?aa?auaiea ie?iaeiia?aaeiie eeneiou. Eiaiii a
eiiia?aoeaiii oa?aeoa?a eaoaeeoe/aneiai i?ioeanna e e?iaony aeaaiia
ioee/ea aeieaoaeecaoi?ia io eaoaeecaoi?ia iai?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu,
eiaiii iiyoiio eioaineaiinoue aeieaoaeeca a aeanyoee, nioie e ouny/e ?ac
i?aainoiaeeo iiuiinoue aeaenoaey iai?aaie/aneeo eaoaeecaoi?ia.

N?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii auyaeaia aua iaeia naiaia?aciay /a?oa a no?iaiee
oa?iaioia: iaeioi?ua ec ieo yaeythony iieeooieoeeiiaeueiuie, o.a.
iaeaaeatho ianeieueeeie yiceiaoe/aneeie aeoeaiinoyie, ii anaai eeoue
iaeiie iieeiaioeaeiie oeaiueth. Aeaei a oii, /oi yoa aaeeiay oeaiue i?e
oi?ie?iaaiee o?aoe/iie no?oeoo?u ia?acoao ianeieueei ooieoeeiiaeueii e
noa?e/anee iainiaeaiiuo aeiaoey?iuo o/anoeia – aeiiaiia, eaaeaeue ec
eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ecoaony naiae eaoaeeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoueth.

I?e eco/aiee ioeueoeyiceiiuo eiiieaenia e iieeooieoeeiiaeueiuo oa?iaioia
oaeaeinue iiiyoue iaeaieaa aaaeioth iniaaiiinoue oa?iaioaoeaiiai
eaoaeeca, a eiaiii – ynoaoaoioth ia?aaea/o i?iiaaeooi/iuo i?iaeoeoia
?aaeoeee io iaeiiai eiiiiiaioa eaoaeeoe/aneie nenoaiu e ae?oaiio aac eo
aunaiaiaeaeaiey.

4. Iiiaieeaoo?a oa?iaioia

Oa?iaioieiaey i/aiue aeieai ia ?aniieaaaea no?iai iao/iie iiiaieeaoo?ie
oa?iaioia. Iaeiaiiaaiey oa?iaioai aeaaaee ii neo/aeiui i?eciaeai
(o?eaeaeueiay iiiaieeaoo?a), ii iacaaieth noano?aoa (?aoeeiiaeueiay), ii
oeie/aneiio ninoaao oa?iaioa, iaeiiaoe, ii oeio eaoaeece?oaiie ?aaeoeee
e oa?aeoa?o noano?aoa.

I?eia?aie o?eaeaeueiie iiiaieeaoo?u iiaoo neoaeeoue iacaaiey oaeeo
oa?iaioia, eae iainei (io a?a/. iainen – ieuaaa?aiea), o?einei (io a?a/.
o?einen – ?acaeeaeath) e iaiaei (io iacaaiey aeuiiiai aea?aaa Carica
papaja, ec niea eioi?iai ii auaeaeai). Ii aeaenoaeth ana yoe oa?iaiou
yaeythony i?ioaieeoe/aneeie, o. a. onei?ytho aeae?ieec i?ioaeiia
(aaeeia). Oa?aeoa?iia iacaaiea auea aeaii a?oiia ie?aoaiiuo
aioo?eeeaoi/iuo oa?iaioia, onei?ythueo ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua
?aaeoeee a eeaoea, – oeeoio?iiu (io eao. citos – eeaoea e chroma –
oeaao).

Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea ?aoeeiiaeueiay iiiaieeaoo?a,
niaeanii eioi?ie iacaaiea oa?iaioa ninoaaeyaony ec iacaaiey noano?aoa
oa?aeoa?iiai ieii/aiey -aca. Iia auea i?aaeeiaeaia aieaa noieaoey oiio
iacaae, a 1883 a. Y. Aetheei – o/aieeii E. Ianoa?a. Oae, oa?iaio,
onei?ythuee ?aaeoeeth aeae?ieeca e?aoiaea, iieo/ee iacaaiea aieeaca (io
a?a/. aieeii – e?aoiae), aeae?ieeca aee?ia – eeiaca (io a?a/. eeiin –
aee?), aaeeia (i?ioaeiia) – i?ioaaca, ii/aaeiu – o?aaca (io a?a/. o?aa –
ii/aaeia) e o. i.

Eiaaea iaoiaeaie aiaeeoe/aneie oeiee auee aeinoeaioou ecaanoiua oniaoe a
?anoeo?iaea oeie/aneie i?e?iaeu i?inoaoe/aneeo a?oii, aicieeea iiaay
iiiaieeaoo?a oa?iaioia. Eo noaee eiaiiaaoue ii iacaaieth i?inoaoe/aneie
a?oiiu, iai?eia?, aaieioa?iaio (i?inoaoe/aneay a?oiia – aai),
ie?eaeienaeue-oa?iaio (i?inoaoe/aneay a?oiia – ie?eaeienaeue) e o.i.

Caoai a iacaaiee oa?iaioa noaee oeacuaaoue eae ia oa?aeoa? noano?aoa,
oae e ia oei eaoaeece?oaiie ?aaeoeee. E i?eia?o, oa?iaio, ioieiathuee
aiaei?iae io iieaeoeu yioa?iie eeneiou, iacuaatho
noeoeeiaoaeaaeae?iaaiacie, iiae/a?eeaay yoei iaeiia?aiaiii e oeie/aneoth
i?e?iaeo noano?aoa, e ioiyoea aoiiia aiaei?iaea a i?ioeanna
oa?iaioaoeaiiai aeaenoaey:

– 2I

IIIN 3/4 NH2 3/4 NI2 3/4 CIII 3/43/43/43/43/4® IIIN 3/4 NI = NI 3/4 NIII

ssioa?iay eeneioa Aeaaeae?e?iaaiea

A 1961 a. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiienney ii iiiaieeaoo?a oa?iaioia
i?aaenoaaeea V Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio aeieiae/aneiio eiia?anno i?iaeo
iiiaieeaoo?u, iino?iaiiue ia no?iai iao/iuo i?eioeeiao. I?iaeo aue
ooaa?aeaeai eiia?annii, e iiaay iiiaieeaoo?a i?i/ii aioea a
oa?iaioieiaeth. Niaeanii yoie (Iineianeie) iiiaieeaoo?a iacaaiea
oa?iaioia ninoaaeytho ec oeie/aneiai iacaaiey noano?aoa e iacaaiey oie
?aaeoeee, eioi?ay inouanoaeyaony oa?iaioii. Anee oeie/aneay ?aaeoeey,
onei?yaiay oa?iaioii, nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?aiinii a?oiie?iaee aoiiia io
noano?aoa e aeoeaioi?o, iacaaiea oa?iaioa aeeth/aao oaeaea oeie/aneia
iaeiaiiaaiea aeoeaioi?a.

Iai?eia?, ie?eaeienaeueoa?iaio, eaoaeece?othoee ?aaeoeeth
ia?aaieie?iaaiey iaaeaeo L-aeaieiii e a-eaoiaeooa?iaie eeneioie,
iacuaaaony L-aeaiei: 2-ieniaeooa?ao aieiio?ainoa?aca. A yoii iacaaiee
ioia/aiu n?aco o?e iniaaiiinoe: 1) noano?aoii yaeyaony L-aeaiei;
2) aeoeaioi?ii neoaeeo 2-ieciaeooa?iaay eeneioa; C) io noano?aoa e
aeoeaioi?o ia?aaeaaony aieiia?oiia.

Iacaaiey oa?iaioia ii iao/iie iiiaieeaoo?a iaecia?eii auea?uaatho a
oi/iinoe, ii noaiiayony a ?yaea neo/aaa ai?acaei neiaeiaa noa?uo,
o?eaeaeueiuo. Oae, o?aaca (o?eaeaeueiia iacaaiea), onei?ythuay ?aaeoeeth
aeae?ieeca – ii/aaeiu ia ieneae oaea?iaea (IV) e aiieae, ii iao/iie
iiiaieeaoo?a eiaioaony ea?aaieae – aieaeiaeae?ieacie:

I2N 3/4 NI 3/4 NI2 + I2I 3/43/43/43/43/4® 2NI3 + NI2

A yoii iacaaiee aeaii oi/iia oeie/aneia iaeiaiiaaiea noano?aoa e
oeacaii, /oi oa?iaio eaoaeece?oao ?aaeoeeth aeae?ieeca aieaeia?oiiu.
O?aaaeaca, onei?ythuay ?aaeoeeth aeae?ieeca o?aaaeicu, iacuaaaony
o?aaaeica-1-aethei-aeae?ieacie.

A nayce ni cia/eoaeueiui oneiaeiaieai iao/iuo iacaaiee a iiaie
iiiaieeaoo?a aeiioneaaony nio?aiaiea ia?yaeo n iiauie noa?uo
o?eaeaeueiuo, ?aai/eo iacaaiee oa?iaioia. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiienneae aue
ninoaaeai aeaoaeueiue nienie anao ecaanoiuo a oi a?aiy oa?iaioia,
nouanoaaiii aeiiieiaiiue a 1972 a. i?e ia?aniio?a eae eeanneoeeaoeee,
oae e iiiaieeaoo?u iaeioi?uo oa?iaioia, aaea ?yaeii n iiaui iao/iui
iacaaieai eaaeaeiai oa?iaioa i?eaaaeaii noa?ia, a oaeaea oeacai oeieci
eaoaeece?oaiie oa?iaioii ?aaeoeee e a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?e?iaea
oa?iaioa. Oaeei ia?acii, eneeth/aaony aiciiaeiinoue iooaieoeu a
iaeiaiiaaiee oa?iaioia. A 1964 a. nienie aeeth/ae 874 oa?iaioa; a
iineaaeothuaa a?aiy ii aue nouanoaaiii aeiiieiai e aic?in aei 1770
oa?iaioia a 1972 a. e aei 2003 oa?iaioia a 1979 a.

Eaaeaeiio oa?iaioo a oeacaiiii nienea i?enaiai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iiia?
(oeo?). Iai?eia?, oeo? o?aacu au?aaeaaony oeeo?aie 3.5.1.5. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi o?aaca ioiineony e 3-io eeanno (ia?aay oeeo?a) oa?iaioia,
ana i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?iai eaoaeece?otho ?aaeoeee aeae?ieeca. Aoi?ay
oeeo?a (5) aiai?eo i oii, /oi o?aaca i?eiaaeeaaeeo e 5-io iiaeeeanno
yoiai eeanna, eoaea ca/eneaiu ana oa?iaiou, onei?ythuea aeae?ieec
N – N-naycae, ia yaeythueony iaioeaeiuie. O?aouey oeeo?a oeo?a (1)
oeacuaaao ia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue o?aacu e iiaeiiaeeeanno 5-ai iiaeeeanna,
/eaiu eioi?iai onei?ytho aeae?ieec eeiaeiuo aieaeia, a iineaaeiyy oeeo?a
(5) – ii?yaeeiaue iiia? o?aacu a yoii iiaeiiaeeeanna.

Oiiieiaaoayny ?aiaa eaeoaoaeaaeae?iaaiaca eiaao oeo? 1.1.1.27, o. a.
ioiineony e 1-io eeanno oa?iaioia (ieneaei?aaeoeoacu), e 1-io iiaeeeanno
(ieneaei?aaeoeoacu, aeaenoaothuea ia NI – II-a?oiie?iaee a ea/anoaa
aeiii?ia aoiiia aiaei?iaea), e 1-io iiaeiiaeeeanno (aeoeaioi?ii aoiiia
aiaei?iaea neoaeeo ieeioeiaieaeaaeaieiaeeioeeaioeae) e caieiaao 27-a
ianoi a ia?a/ia oa?iaioia oiiiyiooiai iiaeiiaeeeanna. Oaeei ia?acii,
oeo? aaniethoii oi/ii oeacuaaao ianoi oa?iaioa a iauai nienea. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eiyoi a iao/iuo ioaeeeaoeeyo i?e ia?aii oiiieiaiee
oa?iaioa oeacuaaoue a neiaeao aai oeo?.

5. Eeanneoeeaoeey oa?iaioia

e oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeioi?uo a?oii

Ii ia?aie a enoi?ee eco/aiey oa?iaioia eeanneoeeaoeee eo aeaeeee ia aeaa
a?oiiu: aeae?ieacu, onei?ythuea aeae?ieeoe/aneea ?aaeoeee, e aeaniieacu,
onei?ythuea ?aaeoeee iaaeae?ieeoe/aneiai ?aniaaea. Caoai auea naeaeaia
iiiuoea ?acaeoue oa?iaiou ia eeannu ii /eneo noano?aoia, o/anoaothueo a
?aaeoeee. A niioaaonoaee n yoei oa?iaiou eeanneoeoee?iaaee ia o?e
a?oiiu. 1. Eaoaeece?othuea i?aa?auaiey aeaoo noano?aoia iaeiia?aiaiii a
iaieo iai?aaeaieyo: A+A)N+D. 2. Onei?ythuea i?aa?auaiey aeaoo noano?aoia
a i?yiie ?aaeoeee e iaeiiai a ia?aoiie: A+A)N. 3. Iaania/eaathuea
eaoaeeoe/aneia aeaeieciaiaiea iaeiiai noano?aoa eae a i?yiie, oae e a
ia?aoiie ?aaeoeee: A)A.

Iaeiia?aiaiii ?acaeaaeinue iai?aaeaiea, aaea a iniiao eeanneoeeaoeee
oa?iaioia aue iieiaeai oei ?aaeoeee, iiaeaa?aathuaeny eaoaeeoe/aneiio
aicaeaenoaeth. Ia?yaeo n oa?iaioaie, onei?ythueie ?aaeoeee aeae?ieeca
(aeae?ieacu), auee eco/aiu oa?iaiou, o/anoaothuea a ?aaeoeeyo ia?aiina
aoiiia e aoiiiuo a?oii (oa?acu), a eciia?ecaoeee (eciia?acu),
?anuaieaiee (eeacu), ?acee/iuo neioacao (neioaoacu) e o. ae. Yoi
iai?aaeaiea a eeanneoeeaoeee oa?iaioia ieacaeinue iaeaieaa
ieiaeioai?iui, oae eae iauaaeeiyei oa?iaiou a a?oiiu ia ii iaaeoiaiiui,
oi?iaeueiui i?eciaeai, a ii oeio aaaeiaeoeo aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia,
eaaeaueo a iniiaa aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaiai i?aaiecia. Ii yoiio
i?eioeeio ana oa?iaiou aeaeyo ia 6 eeannia.

1. Ieneaei?aaeoeoacu – onei?ytho ?aaeoeee ieeneaiey – ainnoaiiaeaiey. 2.
O?ainoa?acu – onei?ytho ?aaeoeee ia?aiina ooieoeeiiaeueiuo a?oii e
iieaeoey?iuo inoaoeia. 3. Aeae?ieacu – onei?ytho ?aaeoeee
aeae?ieeoe/aneiai ?aniaaea. 4. Eeacu – onei?ytho iaaeae?ieeoe/aneia
iouaieaiea io noano?aoia ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?oii aoiiia n ia?aciaaieai
aeaieiie nayce (eee i?eniaaeeiytho a?oiiu aoiiia ii aeaieiie nayce). 5.
Eciia?acu – onei?ytho i?ino?ainoaaiiua eee no?oeoo?iua ia?ano?ieee a
i?aaeaeao iaeiie iieaeoeu. 6. Eeaacu – onei?ytho ?aaeoeee neioaca,
nii?yaeaiiua n ?aniaaeii aiaaouo yia?aeae naycae. Yoe eeannu e iieiaeaiu
a iniiao iiaie iao/iie eeanneoeeaoeee oa?iaioia.

E eeanno ieneaei?aaeoeoac ioiinyo oa?iaiou, eaoaeece?othuea ?aaeoeee
ieeneaiey – ainnoaiiaeaiey. Ieeneaiea i?ioaeaao eae i?ioeann ioiyoey
aoiiia I (yeaeo?iiia) io noano?aoa, a ainnoaiiaeaiea – eae
i?eniaaeeiaiea aoiiia I (yeaeo?iiia) e aeoeaioi?o.

A eeann o?ainoa?ac aoiaeyo oa?iaiou, onei?ythuea ?aaeoeee ia?aiina
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo a?oii e iieaeoey?iuo inoaoeia io iaeiiai niaaeeiaiey e
ae?oaiio. Yoi iaeei ec iaeaieaa iaoe?iuo eeannia: ii ian/eouaaao ieiei
500 eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oa?iaioia. A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a ia?aiineiuo
a?oiie?iaie ?acee/atho oinoio?ainoa?acu, aieiio?ainoa?acu,
aeeeiceeo?ainoa?acu, aoeeeo?ainoa?acu, o?ainoa?acu, ia?aiinyuea
iaeiioaea?iaeiua inoaoee (iaoeeo?ainoa?acu, oi?ieeo?ainoa?acu), e ae?.
Iai?eia?, aieaeacu onei?ytho aeae?ieec aieaeia eeneio. Ec ieo aaaeioth
?ieue a aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannao a i?aaiecia ea?atho o?aaca,
ania?aaeiaca e aeooaieiaca.

O?aaca auea iaeiei ec ia?auo aaeeia-oa?iaioia, iieo/aiiui a
e?enoaeee/aneii ninoiyiee. Yoi iaeiieiiiiiaioiue oa?iaio (I=480000),
iieaeoea aai aeiaoey?ia e ninoieo ec 8 ?aaiuo noauaaeeieoe. O?aaca
onei?yao aeae?ieec ii/aaeiu aei NI3 e NI2.

Oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou aeaenoaey oa?iaioia eeanna eeaac (neioaoac) auyaeaiu
nianai iaaeaaii a nayce ni cia/eoaeueiuie oniaoaie a eco/aiee iaoaiecia
neioaca aee?ia, aaeeia e oaeaaiaeia: Ieacaeinue, /oi noa?ua
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia ia?aciaaiee yoeo niaaeeiaiee, niaeanii eioi?ui iie
aicieeatho i?e ia?auaiee ?aaeoeee aeae?ieeca, ia niioaaonoaotho
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iooe eo neioaca i?eioeeieaeueii eiua.

Aeaaiay eo iniaaiiinoue – nii?yaeaiiinoue neioaca n ?aniaaeii aauanoa,
niiniaiuo iinoaaeyoue yia?aeth aeey inouanoaeaiey aeineioaoe/aneiai
i?ioeanna. Iaeiei ec oaeeo i?e?iaeiuo niaaeeiaiee yaeyaony AOO. I?e
io?uaa io aa iieaeoeu a i?enoonoaee eeaac iaeiiai eee aeaoo eiioeaauo
inoaoeia oinoi?iie eeneiou auaeaeyaony aieueoia eiee/anoai yia?aee,
eniieuecoaiie aeey aeoeae?iaaiey ?aaae?othueo aauanoa. Eeaacu aea
eaoaeeoe/anee onei?ytho neioac i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee ec
aeoeae?iaaiiuo ca n/ao ?aniaaea AOO enoiaeiuo i?iaeoeoia. Oaeei
ia?acii, e eeaacai ioiinyony oa?iaiou, eaoaeece?othuea niaaeeiaiea ae?oa
n ae?oaii aeaoo iieaeoe, nii?yaeaiiia n aeae?ieecii ie?ioinoaoiie nayce
a iieaeoea AOO eee eiiai ioeeaiceaeo?eoinoaoa.

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey eeaac eco/ai aua iaaeinoaoi/ii, ii, ianiiiaiii, ii
aanueia neiaeai. A ?yaea neo/aaa aeieacaii, /oi iaeii ec o/anoaothueo a
iniiaiie ?aaeoeee aauanoa nia/aea aeaao i?iiaaeooi/iia niaaeeiaiea n
o?aaiaioii ?aniaaeathuaeny iieaeoeu AOO, a aneaae ca yoei oeacaiiue
i?iiaaeooi/iue i?iaeoeo acaeiiaeaenoaoao ni aoi?ui ia?oia?ii iniiaiie
oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee n ia?aciaaieai eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa.

6. Eieaeecaoeey oa?iaioia a eeaoea

Iaeiei ec i?eioeeieaeueiuo ioee/ee oa?iaioia io eaoaeecaoi?ia
iaaeieiae/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey yaeyaony eiiia?aoeaiue oa?aeoa? eo
aeaenoaey. Ia o?iaia iaeeii/iie iieaeoeu oa?iaioa eiiia?aoeaiue i?eioeei
?aaeecoaony a oiieii acaeiiaeaenoaee noano?aoiiai, aeoeaiiai e
aeeinoa?e/aneiai oeaio?ia. Iaeiaei ai?acaei aieueoaa cia/aiea eiaao
eiiia?aoeaiia inouanoaeaiea ?aaeoeee ia o?iaia ainaiaeae oa?iaioia.
Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth nenoai oa?iaioia – a aeaea ioeueoeyiceiiuo
eiiieaenia eee aua aieaa neiaeiuo ia?aciaaiee – iaoaaieiiia,
iaania/eaathueo eaoaeeoe/aneea i?aa?auaiey anao o/anoieeia aaeeiiai
iaoaaiee/aneiai oeeeea – a eeaoeao n aieueoie nei?inoueth
inouanoaeythony iiiainoaaeeeiua i?ioeannu eae ?aniaaea, oae e neioaca
i?aaie/aneeo iieaeoe. Oa?iaioaoeaiue eaoaeec a iiiainoaaeeeiuo ?aaeoeeyo
eaeao aac auaeaeaiey i?iiaaeooi/iuo i?iaeoeoia: oieueei aicieeioa, iie
ooo aea iiaeaa?aathony aeaeueiaeoei i?aia?aciaaieyi.

Yoi aiciiaeii eeoue iioiio, /oi a eeaoi/iii niaea?aeeiii oa?iaiou
?ani?aaeaeaiu ia oaioe/anee, a no?iai oii?yaei/aiii. N nia?aiaiiie oi/ee
c?aiey eeaoea i?aaenoaaeyaony aunieii?aaieciaaiiie nenoaiie, a
ioaeaeueiuo /anoyo eioi?ie inouanoaeythony no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiua
aeioeie/aneea i?ioeannu. A niioaaonoaee n i?eo?i/aiiinoueth eo e
ii?aaeaeaiiui noaeeaoi/iui /anoeoeai eee ionaeai (eiiia?oiaioai) eeaoee
a ieo eieaeeciaaiu oa eee eiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua oa?iaiou,
ioeueoeyiceiiua eiiieaenu, iieeooieoeeiiaeueiua oa?iaiou eee neiaeiaeoea
iaoaaieiiu.

?aciiia?aciua aeae?ieacu e eeacu nin?aaeioi/aiu i?aeiouanoaaiii a
eeciniiao. Aioo?e yoeo n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoeo (ianeieueei iaiiiao?ia a
aeeaiao?a) iocu?ueeia, ia?aie/aiiuo iaia?aiie io aeaeiieaciu eeaoee,
i?ioaeatho i?ioeannu aeano?oeoeee ?acee/iuo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee aei
oao i?inoaeoeo no?oeoo?iuo aaeeieoe, ec eioi?uo iie iino?iaiu. Neiaeiua
ainaiaee ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo oa?iaioia, oaeea, iai?eia?,
eae oeeoio?iiiay nenoaia, iaoiaeyony a ieoioiiae?eyo. A yoeo aea
noaeeaoi/iuo /anoeoeao eieaeeciaai iaai? oa?iaioia oeeeea aeeea?aiiiauo
e o?eea?aiiiauo eeneio. Oa?iaiou aeoeae?iaaiey aieiieeneio ?ani?aaeaeaiu
a aeaeiieacia, ii iie aea anoue e a yae?a. A aeaeiieacia i?enoonoaotho
iiiai/eneaiiua iaoaaieiiu aeeeieeca, no?oeoo?ii iauaaeeiaiiua n oaeiauie
iaioicioinoaoiiai oeeeea, /oi iaania/eaaao acaeiiia?aeeth/aiea
aeeoioiie/aneiai e aiioiie/aneiai iooae ?aniaaea oaeaaiaeia. A oi aea
a?aiy oa?iaiou, onei?ythuea ia?aiin aieiieeneioiuo inoaoeia ia ?anoouee
eiiaoe iieeiaioeaeiie oeaie e eaoaeece?othuea iaeioi?ua ae?oaea ?aaeoeee
a i?ioeanna aeineioaca aaeea, nin?aaeioi/aiu a ?eainiiaeueiii aiia?aoa
eeaoee. Ioeeaioeaeeeo?ainoa?acu, onei?ythuea ?aaeoeeth ia?aiina
ioeeaioeaeiuo inoaoeia i?e iiaiia?aciaaiee ioeeaeiiauo eeneio,
eieaeeciaaiu a iniiaiii a yaea?iii aiia?aoa eeaoee. Oaeei ia?acii,
nenoaiu oa?iaioia, nin?aaeioi/aiiua a oao eee eiuo no?oeoo?ao,
o/anoaotho a inouanoaeaiee ioaeaeueiuo oeeeeia ?aaeoeee. Aoaeo/e oiiei
eii?aeeie?iaaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii, yoe ioaeaeueiua oeeeeu ?aaeoeee
iaania/eaatho aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue eeaoie, i?aaiia, oeaiae e i?aaiecia
a oeaeii.

7. Iaoiaeu auaeaeaiey e i/enoee oa?iaioia

Aeieaia a?aiy aiieia iainiiaaiii n/eoaee, /oi ana oa?iaiou – oaea
aaeeiaie i?e?iaeu. Iaeiaei a ia/aea 80-o aiaeia auea iaiaeeaeaiii
ioe?uoa niiniaiinoue ieceiiieaeoey?iuo ?eaiioeeaeiiauo eeneio onei?youe
?aaeoeeth i?aa?auaiey i?aaeoanoaaiieeia ?IE a ooieoeeiiaeueii cia/eiue
i?iaeoeo, o. a. aicieeei i?aaenoaaeaiea i iiee?eaiioeeaioeaeiie i?e?iaea
iaeioi?uo oa?iaioia, iacaaiiuo ?eaiceiaie.

Oioy oaea inouanoaeai eaai?aoi?iue neioac ?yaea oa?iaioia –
?eaiioeeaacu, eecioeeia, oa??aaeieneia e oeeoio?iia n, o?oaeii
iaeeaeaoue, /oi neioaoe/aneia iieo/aiea oa?iaioia iieo/eo oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a aeeaeaeoea aeanyoeeaoey aaeaeo aai neiaeiinoe e
aei?iaiaeciu, iiyoiio aaeeinoaaiiue ?aaeueiue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy niinia
iieo/aiey oa?iaioia – yoi auaeaeaiea eo ec aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoia.

Auaeaeytho oa?iaiou oae aea, eae e ae?oaea aaeee, oioy anoue i?eaiu,
i?eiaiyaiua i?aeiouanoaaiii aeey oa?iaioia. Ec ieo iiaeii ioiaoeoue
yeno?aeoeeth aeeoea?eiii, a eioi?ii nio?aiythony iaoeaiua naienoaa
oa?iaioia, a oaeaea iaoiae aoeaoiiiauo ii?ioeia, ninoiyuee a inaaeaeaiee
e auno?ii iaacaiaeeaaiee i?e oaiia?aoo?a ia auoa -10°N oeaiae eee
auoyaeae ec ieo, niaea?aeaueo oa?iaiou. E eo /eneo ioiineony oaeaea
iieo/aiea oa?iaioia iooai aaeni?aoeee n iineaaeothuae yethoeeae
(niyoeai) n aaeni?aaioa. Yoio iaoiae aue aaaaeai a oeieth oa?iaioia A.
ss. Aeaieeaaneei e aeae iiuiue oie/ie ?acaeoeth oa?iaioieiaee. Nae/an
aaeni?aoeeiiiue iaoiae auaeaeaiey e i/enoee oa?iaioia ?ac?aaioai
aeaoaeueii. Ia?yaeo n iei oe?iei i?eiaiytho iaoiae eiiiiaiaiiie
o?iiaoia?aoee, iaoiae iieaeoey?iuo neo, yeaeo?ioi?ac e iniaaiii
eciyeaeo?ioieone?iaaiea. Iaeia ec iiaeeoeeaoeee aaeni?aoeeiiiiai iaoiaea
– aoeiiay o?iiaoia?aoey, aaea aaeni?aaioii neoaeeo aauanoai, n eioi?ui
oa?iaio acaeiiaeaenoaoao ecae?aoaeueii. A ?acoeueoaoa eeoue iaeei yoio
oa?iaio caaea?aeeaaaony ia eieiiea, a ana niioonoaothuea aio auoiaeyo n
oieii i?iyaeoaey. Eciaiyy oa?aeoa? i?iyaeoaey, enneaaeoaiue oa?iaio
yethe?oao n eieiiee. Yoei iaoiaeii aeinoeaatho i/enoee oa?iaioa a
ianeieueei ouny/ ?ac, i?eiaiyy anaai eeoue iaeiiyoaaeioth (aooeiiay
ni?aoeey – yethoeey) noaio auaeaeaiey.

Aeey oniaoiiai auaeaeaiey oa?iaioia ec eeaoi/iiai niaea?aeeiiai
iaiaoiaeeii i/aiue oiieia eciaeue/aiea enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea, aieioue aei
?ac?ooaiey noaeeaoi/iuo no?oeoo?: eecinii, ieoioiiae?ee, yaea? e ae?.,
eioi?ua ianoo a naiai ninoaaa iiiaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua oa?iaiou. Iniaia
aieiaiea i?e auaeaeaiee oa?iaioia oaeaeytho i?iaaaeaieth anao iia?aoeee
a oneiaeyo, eneeth/athueo aeaiaoo?aoeeth aaeea, oae eae iia anaaaea
naycaia n iioa?ae oa?iaioaoeaiie aeoeaiinoe. Yoiio niinianoaoao
i?iaaaeaiea iia?aoeee a i?enoonoaee caueoiuo aeiaaaie, a /anoiinoe
HS-niaea?aeaueo niaaeeiaiee (oeenoaeia, aeooaoeiia, ia?eaioiyoaiiea,
oeenoaaieia, aeeoeio?aeoiea e ae?.):

HS 3/4 CH2 3/4 NI2 3/4 NI HS3/4CH23/4CH(II) 3/4 NI (II) 3/4 NH2 3/4 SH

Oeenoaaiei Aeeoeio?aeoie

I/aiue aaaeii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ia anao yoaiao auaeaeaiey oa?iaioia
ieceoth oaiia?aoo?o, oae eae iaeioi?ua ec ieo aeaaea i?e -80°N oa?ytho
aeoeaiinoue.

Aeey ioeaiee aiiiaaiiinoe oa?iaioiiai i?aia?aoa i?eaaaatho e iau/iui
iaoiaeai aaeeiaie oeiee. Ia?aeiiiui iiiaioii a oniaa?oainoaiaaiee
iaoiaeia iieo/aiey aunieii/euaiiuo, aiiiaaiiuo i?aia?aoia oa?iaioia auei
ioe?uoea niiniaiinoe eo e?enoaeeeciaaoueny, inouanoaeaiiia aia?aua a
1906 a. A. Ae. ?icaioaeueaeii (ei auea iieo/aia a aeaea e?enoaeeia
ieneaeaca ec ei?iae ?aaeueee) e i?eia?aooaa n 1926 a. oe?ieoth
ecaanoiinoue iinea ?aaiou Ae. Naiia?a ii iieo/aieth e?enoaeee/aneie
o?aacu ec aiaia eaiaaaeee. Ia?aaeei i noaiaie /enoiou oa?iaioiiai
i?aia?aoa noaeyo ii aai aeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoe; anee aeoeaiinoue i?e
aeaeueiaeoae i/enoea ia aic?anoaao, i?aia?ao iiaeii n/eoaoue aiiiaaiiui.
Ec 2003 aeeth/aiiuo a nienie oa?iaioia aieaa 1500 auaeaeaii e a oie eee
eiie ia?a i/euaii, o?aouey /anoue eo cae?enoaeeeciaaia, o ianeieueeeo
nioai auyniaia ia?ae/iay, a o ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia – o?aoe/iay
no?oeoo?a.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aeaniaa C.A. Aeieiaey. Ni?aai/iee oeieueieea. I., Ana?inneeneia
neiai, 1995 a.

2. Oii/aiei A.E. Oeiey aeey iinooiathueo a AOCu. O/aaiia iiniaea. I.,
Aunoay oeiea, 1993 a.

3. Aeieiae/aneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. Iiae ?aae. Aeey?iaa I.N.
I., Niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey, 1987 a.

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