.

Эргономика

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 2060
Скачать документ

Aaaaeaiea a eo?n

Ii ia?a ia?aoiaea e eiiieaeniie aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa aic?anoaao
?ieue /aeiaaea eae noauaeoa o?oaea e oi?aaeaiey. *aeiaae ianao
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yooaeoeaioth ?aaioo anae oaoie/aneie nenoaiu e
aeiiouaiiay ei ioeaea iiaeao i?eaanoe a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo e i/aiue
oyaeaeui iineaaenoaeyi.

Eco/aiea e i?iaeoe?iaaiea oaeeo nenoai nicaeaee iaiaoiaeeiua
i?aaeiinueee aeey iauaaeeiaiey oaoie/aneeo aeenoeeieei e iaoe i /aeiaaea
e aai o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaoneiaeee iiyaeaiea iiauo
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo caaea/. Ai-ia?auo, yoi caaea/e, naycaiiua n
iienaieai oa?aeoa?enoee /aeiaaea eae eiiiiiaioa aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie
nenoaiu. ?a/ue eaeao i i?ioeannao aini?eyoey eioi?iaoeee, iaiyoe,
i?eiyoey ?aoaiee , enneaaeiaaieyo aeaeaeaiee e ae?oaeo yooaeoi?iuo
i?ioeannao, i?iaeaiao iioeaaoeee, aioiaiinoe e aeayoaeueiinoe, no?anna,
eieeaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe iia?aoi?ia. N oi/ee c?aiey iaania/aiey
yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea aaaeiia cia/aiea eiatho oaeea
oaeoi?u, eae ooiieaiea, iiiioiiiinoue iia?aoeee, ia?oeaioeaiay e
eioaeeaeooaeueiay iaa?ocea, oneiaey ?aaiou, oece/aneea oaeoi?u
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, aeiiaoaie/aneea e oeceieiae/aneea oaeoi?u.
Ai-ia?auo, yoi caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiauo n?aaenoa aeayoaeueiinoe
,ioiinyueony i?aeiouanoaaiii e iaania/aieth acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea e
iaoeiu. E oaeei n?aaenoaai ioiinyo aecoaeueiua e neooiaua eiaeeeaoi?u,
i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey, niaoeeaeueiua aoiaeiua nenoaiu YAI, iiaua eino?oiaiou
e i?eai?u. A-o?aoueeo, yoi caaea/e nenoaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, naycaiiua n
?ani?aaeaeaieai ooieoeee iaaeaeo iia?aoi?ii e iaoeiie, n i?aaiecaoeeae
?aai/aai i?ioeanna, a oaeaea caaea/e iiaeaioiaee, o?aie?iaee e ioai?a
iia?aoi?ia.

Y?aiiiieea caieiaaony eiiieaeniui eco/aieai e i?iaeoe?iaaieai o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe n oeaeueth iioeiecaoeee i?oaeee, oneiaee e i?ioeanna
o?oaea, a oaeaea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ianoa?noaa.

Aa i?aaeiaoii yaeyaony o?oaeiaay aeayoaeueiinoue, a iauaeoii
enneaaeiaaiey – nenoaiu “/aeiaae – i?oaeea o?oaea – i?aaeiao o?oaea –
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay n?aaea”.

Y?aiiiieea ioiineony e oai iaoeai, eioi?ua iiaeii ?acee/aoue ii
i?aaeiaoo e niaoeeoe/aneiio ni/aoaieth iaoiaeia, i?eiaiyaiuo a ieo. Iia
a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a eniieuecoao iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiee, neiaeeaoeany a
ineoieiaee, oeceieiaee e aeaeaia o?oaea. I?iaeaia ninoieo a
eii?aeeiaoeee ?acee/iuo iaoiaee/aneeo i?eaiia i?e ?aoaiee oie eee eiie
y?aiiiie/aneie caaea/e, a iineaaeothuai iaiauaiee e neioace?iaaiee
iieo/aiiuo n eo iiiiuueth ?acoeueoaoia. A ?yaea neo/aaa yoio i?ioeann
i?eaiaeeo e nicaeaieth iiauo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiee a y?aiiiieea,
ioee/iuo io iaoiaeia oao aeenoeeieei, ia eioi?ua iia aicieeea.

Oa?iei “y?aiiiieea” (a?a/. ergon – ?aaioa + nomus – caeii) aue i?eiyo a
Aiaeee a 1949a., eiaaea a?oiia aiaeeeneeo o/aiuo iieiaeeee ia/aei
i?aaiecaoeee Y?aiiiie/aneiai enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai iauanoaa. A NNN? a
20-a aiaeu i?aaeeaaaeny oa?iei “y?aieiaey”, a a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eiyo
aiaeeeneee oa?iei.

A iaeioi?uo no?aiao yoa iao/iay aeenoeeieeia eiaao eiua iacaaiey:

a NOA – “enneaaeiaaiea /aeiaa/aneeo oaeoi?ia”, a O?A – “aio?iiioaoieea”
e ae?.

Y?aiiiieea oae eee eia/a naycaia ni anaie iaoeaie, i?aaeiaoii
enneaaeiaaiey eioi?uo yaeyaony /aeiaae eae noauaeo o?oaea, iiciaiey e
iauaiey. Aeeaeaeoae aeey ia? io?aneueth ineoieiaee yaeyaony eiaeaia?iay
ineoieiaey, caaea/ae eioi?ie yaeyaony eco/aiea e i?iaeoe?iaaiea aiaoieo
n?aaenoa e aioo?aiieo niiniaia o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe iia?aoi?ia.
Y?aiiiieea ia iiaeao aano?aae?iaaoueny io i?iaeai acaeiinayce ee/iinoe n
oneiaeyie, i?ioeannii e i?oaeeyie o?oaea, eioi?ua yaeythony i?aaeiaoii
eco/aiey ineoieiaee o?oaea. Iia oanii naycaia n oeceieiaeae o?oaea,
eioi?ay yaeyaony niaoeeaeueiui ?acaeaeii oeceieiaee, iinayuaiiui
eco/aieth eciaiaiee ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey i?aaiecia /aeiaaea iiae
aeeyieai aai ?aai/ae aeayoaeueiinoe e oeceieiae/aneiio iainiiaaieth
iao/iie i?aaiecaoeee aai o?oaeiaiai i?ioeanna, niinianoaothuae
aeeeoaeueiiio iiaeaea?aeaieth ?aaioiniiniaiinoe /aeiaaea ia aunieii
o?iaia. Y?aiiiieea eniieuecoao aeaiiua aeaeaiu o?oaea, eioi?ay yaeyaony
?acaeaeii aeaeaiu, eco/athuae aeeyiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie n?aaeu e
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea e ?ac?aaaouaathuae
naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey ii nicaeaieth caei?iauo oneiaee
o?oaea. Y?aiiiieea ii i?e?iaea naiae caieiaaony i?ioeeaeoeeie io?aiu
o?oaea, iiae eioi?ie iiae?acoiaaaaony eiiieaen i?aaiauo,
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo, oaoie/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo e naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneeo
ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe o?oaea e
nio?aiaiea caei?iauey ?aaioathueo.

Y?aiiiie/aneee iiaeoiae e eco/aieth o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia
aeoaee?oao enneaaeiaaiee, i?iaiaeeiuo a noa?a ineoieiaee, oeceieiaee e
aeaeaiu o?oaea, ii iie?aaony ia ieo e aeiiieiyao eo.

Eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae, oa?aeoa?iue aeey y?aiiiieee, iicaieyao iieo/eoue
ananoi?iiiaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i o?oaeiaii i?ioeanna e oai naiui ioe?uaaao
oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aai niaa?oainoaiaaiey. Eiaiii yoa noi?iia
y?aiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee i?aaenoaaeyao iniaoth oeaiiinoue aeey
iao/iie i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea, i?e eioi?ie i?aeoe/aneiio aiaae?aieth
eiie?aoiuo ia?ii?eyoee i?aaeoanoaoao ouaoaeueiue iao/iue aiaeec
o?oaeiauo i?ioeannia e oneiaee eo auiieiaiey, a naie i?aeoe/aneea ia?u
aace?othony ia aeinoeaeaiey nia?aiaiiie iaoee e ia?aaeiaie i?aeoeee.

Y?aiiiieea ?aoaao oaeaea ?yae i?iaeai, iinoaaeaiiuo a nenoaiioaoieea:
ioeaiea iaaeaaeiinoe, oi/iinoe e noaaeeueiinoe ?aaiou iia?aoi?a,
enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey ineoieiae/aneie iai?yaeaiiinoe, ooiieaiey,
yiioeeiiaeueiuo oaeoi?ia e iniaaiiinoae ia?aii-ineoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee
iia?aoi?a ia yooaeoeaiinoue aai aeayoaeueiinoe a nenoaia
“/aeiaae-iaoeia”, eco/aiea i?eniiniaeoaeueiuo e oai?/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae
/aeiaaea. A i?aeoe/aneii ioiioaiee i?iaeaia acaeiiioiioaiey y?aiiiieee e
nenoaiioaoieee – yoi i?iaeaia i?aaiecaoeee ananoi?iiiaai e
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o/aoa y?aiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao
nicaeaiey nenoai(i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ecaioiaeaiey, eniuoaiee, aiaae?aiey) e
eo yenieoaoaoeee.

Y?aiiiieea ia iiaeao yooaeoeaii ?aoaoue noiyuea ia?aae iae caaea/e aia
oaniuo naycae n i?iiuoeaiiie nioeeieiaeae e nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaeae e
ae?oaeie iauanoaaiiuie iaoeaie. Aia yoeo naycae y?aiiiieea ia iiaeao ie
iieiioeaiii ?acaeaaoueny, ie i?aaeeueii i?iaiice?iaaoue nioeeaeueiue
yooaeo io aiaae?aiey ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo ath ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Aeaiiay a?oiia
iaoe a ii?aaeaeaiiii ioiioaiee iiin?aaenoaoao acaeiinaycue y?aiiiieee n
yeiiiieeie.

Aiaae?aiea ?acoeueoaoia y?aiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a i?aeoeeo aeaao
iuooeiue nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo. Eae ioa/anoaaiiue, oae e
ca?oaaaeiue iiuo aiaae?aiey y?aiiiie/aneeo o?aaiaaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
i oii, /oi i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiiio iiauoaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea. I?e yoii a?aiioiue o/ao /aeiaa/aneiai oaeoi?a i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ia ?aciaue enoi/iee iiauoaiey, a iinoiyiiue ?aca?a oaaee/aiey
yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ineoioeceieiae/aneay nouiinoue e no?oeoo?a

o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe

N iiceoeee y?aiiiieee o?oaeiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ?anniao?eaaaony eae
i?ioeann i?aia?aciaaiey eioi?iaoeee e yia?aee, i?ienoiaeyuae a nenoaia
“/aeiaae – i?oaeea o?oaea – i?aaeiao o?oaea – ie?oaeathuay n?aaea”.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, y?aiiiie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeieaeiu
iniiauaaoueny ia auyniaiee caeiiiia?iinoae ineoe/aneeo e oeceieiae/aneee
i?ioeannia, eaaeaueo a iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe, n i?aaeiaoii o?oaea e ie?oaeathuae oeceei-oeie/aneie e
ineoieiae/aneie n?aaeie.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iiiai iiauo eaeae aicieeei n nayce n ?anniio?aieai
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe eae i?ioeanna acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea n
iaoeiie e aieaa neiaeiuie nenoaiaie oi?aaeaiey. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo eaeae
eiino?oeoeaiu a niunea ia?aoiaea io ea/anoaaiiuo e
no?oeoo?ii-eiee/anoaaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi a ?ac?aaioea oai?ee
aeayoaeueiinoe . Cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a iiieiaiea ineoioeceieiae/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe aianee enneaaeiaaiey ii oeceieiaee
o?oaea.

Aeayoaeueiinoue – yoi ?aaeecaoeey ee/iinoiuo naienoa /aeiaaea. Yoe
naienoaa eiatho oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiioth no?oeoo?o, ?anniao?eaaaioth a
oai?eyo ee/iinoe. Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea e naia aeayoaeueiinoue iiaoo
i?eaiaeeoue e eciaiaieth ninoiyiey /aeiaaea. I?ioeann aeeeoaeueiinoe
?aaoee?oaony ia oieueei aioo?aiieie, ii e aiaoieie oaeoi?aie, e eioi?ui
ioiinyony acaeiiaeaenoaothuee noauaeo (eee eieeaeoea) e nai i?aaeiao
o?oaea. A ea/anoaa acaeiiaeaenoaothuaai eiiiiiaioa aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeao
aunooiaoue e i?oaeea o?oaea, anee iii ioiineony e eeanno aaoiiaoe/aneeo
ono?ienoa.

A aieaa oi?iaeeciaaiiii aeaea o?oaeiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue eae aeeiaie/aneoth no?oeoo?o, inouanoaeythuoth
i?aia?aciaaiea eioi?iaoeee e yia?aee.

?aaioathuee /aeiaae eiaao o?oaeiaoth oeaeue, o.a. noauaeoeaioth iiaeaeue
ninoiyiey i?aaeiaoa o?oaea, a eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii ia?aaanoe yoio
i?aaeiao ec enoiaeiiai ninoiyiey iin?aaenoaii o?oaeiauo –
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e yia?aaoe/aneeo aicaeaenoaee. Yoe aicaeaenoaey /aeiaae
iiaeao inouanoaeyoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia i?aaeiao o?oaea eee /a?ac
i?iiaaeooi/iia ono?ienoai – i?oaeea o?oaea. I?e yoii /aeiaae
aini?eieiaao eioi?iaoeeth /a?ac neaiaeu io i?aaeiaoa o?oaea,
i?iiaaeooi/iiai ono?ienoaa e n?aaeu. Oeaeue o?oaea o /aeiaaea
oi?ie?oaony ia iniiaa iioeaia, iio?aaiinoae, onoaiiaie (naieo eee
iieo/aaiuo ecaia).

Aini?eieiaaiay e ecaeaeaaiay ec iaiyoe eioi?iaoeey i?aia?acoaony ii
iaeiiio ec oao oeiia ia?a?aaioea eioi?iaoeee /aeiaaeii: i?yiiai
caiueaiey (i?yiay, cae?aieaiiay annioeeaoeaiay naycue,
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia aeaenoaea), ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai iuoeaiey (i?eiyoea
?aoaiey iooai iioaaiaiai i?aia?aciaaiey eioi?iaoeee ii ecaanoiui
i?aaeeai), I?iaeoeoeaiiai (eee oai?/aneiai) iuoeaiey. N iiiiuueth yoeo
i?aia?aciaaiee oi?ie?oaony i?iaiice?oaiue ?acoeueoao o?oaeiaiai
aicaeaenoaey e i?ia?aiia (ieai, no?aoaaey) aeaenoaee aeey aai
aeinoeaeaiey.

Nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia oa?aeoa? i?ioaeaiey i?ioeannia, aini?eyoey,
iuoeaiey, aini?iecaaaeaiey naaaeaiee (yia?aii) a iaiyoe ieacuaatho
aeoeaaoeeiiiua aicaeaenoaey, iaoneiaeaiiua o?iaiai aiae?noaiaaiey,
yiioeeiiaeueiui e aieaaui iai?yaeaieyi, ooieoeeae aieiaiey. A iniiaa
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e yia?aaoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie
nooue o?oaeiaiai aicaeaenoaey ia i?aaeiao o?oaea, eaaeao
oeceei-eiae/aneea i?ioeannu. A oeaeii any iienaiiay ooieoeeiiaeueiay
no?oeoo?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio “/aeiaae – i?oaeea o?oaea –
n?aaea”.

I?aaeiaoii o?oaea ia iaycaoaeueii iiaeao auoue iauaeo aiaoiaai ie?a.
*aeiaae niiniaai inouanoaeyoue i?aia?aciaaiey eioi?iaoeee, eiathuea
niune o?oaeiaiai aicaeaenoaey, oeaeeeii a noa?a noauaeoeaiiai
io?aaeaiey, nicaeaaay “aeooiaiue i?iaeoeo”. Aeayoaeueiinoue,
iai?aaeaiioth ia iauaeou aiaoiaai ie?a, iacuaatho i?aaeiaoiie, eee
yenoa?eice?iaaiiie, a iai?aaeaiioth ia i?aia?aciaaiea e oi?ie?iaaiea
nianoaaiiuo yia?aii (o.a. i?aaenoaaeaiee, ia?acia, iiiyoee, ieaiia) –
eioa?eice?iaaiiie. A /enoii aeaea yoe oeiu aeayoaeueiinoe i?aeoe/anee ia
ano?a/athony. ?a/ue iiaeao eaeoe oieueei eeoue i nouanoaaiiii
i?aiaeaaeaiee iaeiiai ec ieo.

Niaoeeoeea acaeiiioiioaiee /aeiaaea n i?aaeiaoii o?oaea /a?ac
i?iiaaeooi/iia ono?ienoai ii?aaeaeyaony aeaaiui ia?acii oai, eaeea naie
ooieoeee eae i?aia?aciaaoaey eioi?iaoeee e yia?aee /aeiaae ia?aaeae
yoiio ono?ienoao. ?acee/atho aeaa oeia nenoai “/aeiaae – i?oaeea o?oaea
– n?aaea”: n i?iiaaeooi/iuie ono?ienoaaie a aeaea i?inouo i?oaeee
o?oaea; a aeaea iaoei.

I?e ?aaioa n i?inouie i?oaeeyie o?oaea aanue iioie eioi?iaoeee,
iaiaoiaeeiue aeey oi?aaeaiey aicaeaenoaeai ia i?aaeiao o?oaea,
i?aia?acoao /aeiaae e ii, oaeei ia?acii, ai anao ioiioaieyo e a ethaie
iiiaio inouanoaeyao e eiio?iee?oao i?ioeann aicaeaenoaey. Iaoeia a
eioa?anothuai ian aniaeoa yaeyaony i?aia?aciaaoaeai eioi?iaoeee, a ia
oieueei yia?aee, o.a. iia /anoe/ii aac o/anoey /aeiaaea oi?ie?oao
eiiaiaeiua neaiaeu e ?aaoee?oao aicaeaenoaea. A ?acoeueoaoa
i?eioeeieaeueiay iniaaiiinoue ?aaiou /aeiaaea n iaoeiie caeeth/aaony a
iaiieiii eiio?iea n aai noi?iiu ca i?ioaeathuei i?ioeannii aicaeaenoaey
ia i?aaeiao o?oaea.

Ia?aue oei nenoai, eioi?ua iiaeii iacuaaoue nenoaiaie “/aeiaae –
eino?oiaio”, aeaeeony ia /aou?a eeanna a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeoth
ooieoeeth /aeiaaea ?aaeecoao i?oaeea o?oaea.

1. N Yooaeoeaiuie i?oaeeyie (eino?oiaioaie). Ineoioeceieiae/aneay
iniaaiiinoue yoiai eeanna caeeth/aaony a eciaiaiee oa?aeoa?a
aicaeaenoaey ia i?aaeiao o?oaea ii n?aaiaieth n anoanoaaiiuie
aeaeaaoaeueiuie ?aaeoeeyie /aeiaaea.

2. N aooa?aioiuie i?oaeeyie. N iiiiuueth oaeeo i?oaeee anoanoaaiiue
ia?ac i?aaeiaoa o?oaea i?aa?auaaony a eciaiaiiue ia?ac, eioi?ue iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae i?inoaeooth eioi?iaoeeiiioth iiaeaeue i?aaeiaoa. Yoa
iiaeaeue aiiioi?oia iauaeoo. Eneonnoaaiiiai eiaea caeanue iao, a anoue
eciaiaiea ianooaaa, ?aeo?na, auiaaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo i?eciaeia e
iiyaeaiea iiauo (iai?eia?, i?e ?aaioa n iee?ineiiii). A ?acoeueoaoa
/aeiaae aeieaeai a i?ioeanna iao/aiey au?aaioaoue niaoeeaeueiue
(ioee/iue io aeeciaiiiai iiuoa) iaai? yia?aii – yoaeiiia, iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeey aini?eyoey.

3. N i?oaeeyie iaiyoe (iai?eia?, /a?oaae, oioia?aoey, caienue). A yoii
neo/aa eniieuecoaony eneonnoaaiiue eiae. Ia?aeiaee?iaaiea eae
niaoeeoe/aneee ineoe/aneee i?ioeann noaiiaeony aaaeiui eiiiiiaioii
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.

4. N i?oaeeyie i?aia?aciaaiey eioi?iaoeee (n/aou, eiaa?eoie/aneay
eeiaeea). A ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey oaeeo i?oaeee i?ienoiaeeo
eciaiaiea ineoieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. ?yae iia?aoeee
i?iaeoeoeaiiai iuoeaiey /aeiaae iiaeao i?aa?aoeoue a i?inoua iia?aoeee
i?yiiai caiueaiey, aunaiaiaeaeay oai naiui naie iica aeey oai?/aneiai
iuoeaiey.

Aoi?ie oei nenoai, eee nenoai “/aeiaae – iaoeia”, aeaeeony ia o?e
eeanna:

1. N i?inoie iaoeiie, a eioi?ie niaa?oaaony i?aia?aciaaiea eioi?iaoeee
ii yeaiaioa?iie eeiaeiie i?ia?aiia (ia?aaea/a oi /aeiaaea /anoe ?aaeoeee
i?yiiai caiueaiey). Ia?aoiay eioi?iaoeey io i?aaeiaoa o?oaea iinooiaao
ii/oe iieiinoueth e /aeiaaeo, e ii nai aiineo ei??aeoeau a i?ia?aiio
iaoeiu.

2. N ?ai?iaeoeoeaii – i?aia?acothuae iaoeiie (iau/iua YAI). A yoii
eeanna oa?aeoa?iui yaeyaony nouanoaaiiia, ii/oe iieiia io/oaeaeaiea
/aeiaaea io i?aaeiaoa o?oaea e aai i?aia?aciaaiey. Anee /aeiaaeo
iiiaaeiaeony aeeth/eoueny a ?aai/ee i?ioeann, ii aeieaeai aoaeao ii
eneonnoaaiiiio eiaeo ?aeiino?oe?iaaoue eae ninoiyiea i?aaeiaoa o?oaea,
oae e i?ioeannu, eioi?uie oi?aaeyao iaoeia.

3. N i?iaeoeoeaii – i?aia?acothuae iaoeiie (naiii?aaiecothueany
eeaa?iaoe/aneea ono?ienoaa). Acaeiiaeaenoaea /aeiaaea n oaeie iaoeiie
oaea iineo oa?aeoa? eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia iaaeaeo ioiineoaeueii
caieioouie nenoaiaie eioi?iaoeee.

*aeiaaea, ?aaioathuaai n iiiiuueth iaoeiu, aoaeai iacuaaoue iia?aoi?ii.
Aaeaeo oiai /oi eiaiii yoio oei aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony iniiaiui
i?aaeiaoii y?aiiiie/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey, ?anniio?ei aai
ineoioeceieiae/aneoth nouiinoue aieaa iiae?iaii.

Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie aeayoaeueiinoe iia?aoi?a yaeyaony oi, /oi ii
eeoai aiciiaeiinoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaethaeaoue ca oi?aaeyaiuie
iauaeoaie e auioaeaeai iieueciaaoueny eioi?iaoeeae, eioi?ay iinooiaao e
iaio ii eaiaeai nayce. Aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, niaa?oaaiay ia n
?aaeueiuie iauaeoaie, a n eo caianoeoaeyie eee eieoe?othueie eo
ia?acaie, iacuaatho aeayoaeueiinoueth n eioi?iaoeeiiiuie iiaeaeyie
?aaeueiuo iauaeoia.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue – niaieoiiinoue eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey e aiaoiae n?aaeu. Iia yaeyaony aeey
iia?aoi?a naiaia?aciui eieoaoi?ii, io?aaeathuei ana nouanoaaiii aaaeiua
aeey oi?aaeaiey naienoaa ?aaeueiuo iauaeoia, o.a. oao enoi/ieeia
eioi?iaoeee, ia iniiaa eioi?iai ii oi?ie?oao ia?ac ?aaeueiie ianoaiiaee,
i?iecaiaeeo aiaeec e ioeaieo neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee, ieaie?oao
oi?aaeythuea aicaeaenoaey, i?eieiaao ?aoaiey, iaania/eaathuea
i?aaeeueioth ?aaioo nenoaiu e auiieiaiea aiceiaeaiiuo ia iaa caaea/, a
oaeaea iaaethaeaao e ioeaieaaao ?acoeueoaou eo ?aaeecaoeee.

Iauai eioi?iaoeee, aeeth/aiiie a iiaeaeue, e i?aaeea aa i?aaiecaoeee
aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue caaea/ai e niiniaai oi?aaeaiey. Oece/anee
eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue ?aaeecoaony n iiiiuueth ono?ienoa ioia?aaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee. Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiie iniaaiiinoueth aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea n eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaeueth yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue
niioianaiuey naaaeaiee, iieo/aaiuo n iiiiuueth i?eai?ia, ye?aiia, oaaei
eae iaaeaeo niaie, oae e n ?aaeueiuie oi?aaeyaiuie iauaeoaie. Eiaiii ia
iniiaaiee niioianaiuey yoeo naaaeaiee no?ieony any aeayoaeueiinoue
iia?aoi?a. ?anniio?ei iniiaiua yoaiu aeayoaeueiinoe iia?aoi?a i?e
?aoaiee ii?aaeaeaiiie oaoiieiae/aneie caaea/e eee auiieiaiee iia?aoeee
N*I.

Ia?aue yoai – aini?eyoea eioi?iaoeee – i?ioeann, aeeth/athuee
neaaeothuea ea/anoaaiii ?acee/iua iia?aoeee: iaia?oaeaiea iauaeoa
aini?eyoey; auaeaeaiea a iauaeoa ioaeaeueiuo i?eciaeia, ioaa/athueo
noiyuae ia?aae iia?aoi?ii caaea/a; iciaeiieaiea n auaeaeaiiuie
i?eciaeaie e iiiciaaaiea iauaeoa aini?eyoey.

?acee/ey iaaeaeo iia?aoeeyie iaia?oaeaiey e auaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeaiuo
i?eciaeia ii?aaeaeythony oai, /oi yaeaiey, naycaiiua n iaia?oaeaieai
iauaeoa aini?eyoey, i?ioaeatho ia o?iaia ?aoeaioi?iuo iieae
aini?eieiathueo nenoai, a oi a?aiy eae niiniaiinoue e auaeaeaieth
eioi?iaoeaiiai niaea?aeaiey oi?ie?oaony ia iniiaa i?ioeiai iiuoa e
o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiiai iao/aiey.

A i?ioeanna iciaeiieaiey n auaeaeaiiuie i?eciaeaie iia?aoi?
onoaiaaeeaaao nayce iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie naienoaaie iauaeoa aini?eyoey,
oi?ie?oao nianoaaiiua nenoaiu yoaeiiia, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo ii iiaeao a
iineaaenoaee iiiciaoue iauaeo eee neooaoeeth. I?ioeannai iciaeiieaiey e
iiiciaaaiey niioonoaotho iau/ii oe?oiiaiea i?eciaeia, iauaaeeiythueo eo
a no?oeoo?u, eioi?ua caoai aunooiatho eae aaeeiua iia?aoeaiua aaeeieoeu
aini?eyoey.

Iia?aoeaiay aaeeieoea aini?eyoey – yoi naiaioe/anee oeaeinoiia
ia?aciaaiea, oi?ie?othuaany a ?acoeueoaoa ?aoeaioeaiiai iao/aiey e
nicaeathuaa aiciiaeiinoue i?aeoe/anee iaeiiiiiaioiiai, neioeueoaiiiai e
oeaeinoiiai aini?eyoey iauaeoia aiaoiaai ie?a, iacaaeneii io /enea
niaea?aeaueony a ieo i?eciaeia. Oi?ie?iaaiea iia?aoeaiuo aaeeieoe
aini?eyoey iaania/eaaao ia oieueei oeaeinoiinoue e i?aaeiaoiinoue
aini?eyoey, ii e aiciiaeiinoue a aeaeueiaeoai iuneaiiiai
?aeiino?oe?iaaiey ?yaea iniaaiiinoae iauaeoa, ia iaoaaeoeo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii io?aaeaiey a eioi?iaoeee, i?aaeuyaeaiiie iia?aoi?o,
?aaii eae e aiciiaeiinoue auaeaeaiey iieaciie eioi?iaoeee a iiiaoao.

Aoi?ie yoai – ioeaiea eioi?iaoeee, aa aiaeec e iaiauaiea ia iniiaa
ca?aiaa caaeaiiuo eee noi?ie?iaaiiuo e?eoa?eyo ioeaiee. Ioeaiea
i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaa niiinoaaeaiey aini?eiyoie eioi?iaoeeiiiie
iiaeaee ni neiaeeaoaeny o iia?aoi?a aioo?aiiae ia?acii-eiioeaiooaeueiie
iiaeaeueth ianoaiiaee (nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey). Eiioeaiooaeueiay iiaeaeue
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?iaeoeo iniuneeaaiey iia?aoi?ii neiaeeaoaeny
neooaoeee n o/aoii noiyueo ia?aae iei caaea/. A ioee/ee io
eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee iia ioiineony e aioo?aiiei ineoieiae/aneei
niiniaai – n?aaenoaai aeayoaeueiinoe iia?aoi?a.

Oaeoi?u aeayoaeueiinoe, aucuaathuea ooiieaiea

Iniiaiui oaeoi?ii, aucuaathuei ooiieaiea, yaeyaony eioaa?aeueiay
yenoaineaiinoiay iai?yaeaiiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe (iaa?ocea). Iiieii
aaniethoiie aaee/eiu iaa?ocee ia noaiaie ?acaeoey ooiieaiey neacuaaaony
aua ?yae oaeoi?ia, n?aaee eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea:

– noaoe/aneee eee aeeiaie/aneee oa?aeoa? iaa?ocee;

– Eioaineaiinoue iaa?ocee, o.a. aa ?ani?aaeaeaiea ai a?aiaie;

– iinoiyiiue e ?eoie/aneee oa?aeoa? iaa?ocee.

Noaoe/aneay oece/aneay iaa?ocea i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo aaaeao e
aieueoaio ?acaeoeth ooiieaiey, /ai aeeiaie/aneay, i?e/ai noauaeoeaiia
iuouaiea onoaeinoe a yoii neo/aa au?aaeaii iniaaiii io/aoeeai.

A?aiy ianooieaiey ooiieaiey e aai au?aaeaiiinoue caaenyo io noaiaie
eioaineaiinoe iaa?ocee neaaeothuei ia?acii: i?e oaaee/aiee eioaineaiinoe
iaa?ocee ooiieaiea ianooiaao ?aiueoa, i?e oiaiueoaiee eioaineaiinoe
iaa?ocee – a?aiy ianooieaiey ooiieaiey ia eciaiyaony (a iineaaeiai
neo/aa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea cia/eoaeueii nieaeaaony, /oi
iaauaiaeii). Nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay iioeiaeueiay eioaineaiinoue
iaa?ocee, i?e eioi?ie ooiieaiea ?acaeaaaony iaaeeaiiaa anaai.

Iiieii aaee/eiu iaa?ocee nouanoaoao ?yae aeiiieieoaeueiuo eee
niinianoaothueo ?acaeoeth ooiieaiey oaeoi?ia. Naie ii naaa iie ia aaaeoo
e ?acaeoeth ooiieaiey, iaeiaei, ni/aoaynue n aeaenoaeai iniiaiiai
oaeoi?a, niinianoaotho aieaa ?aiiaio e au?aaeaiiiio ianooieaieth
ooiieaiey. Yoe oaeoi?u iiaeii ?acaeoue ia o?e aieueoeo a?oiiu:

1) iee?ieeeiao 2) eniieueciaaiea oaoieee 3) ia?ooaiea ?aaeeia o?oaea
e ioaeuoa.

E ia?aie a?oiia ioiinyony: iiieaeaiiia niaea?aeaiea eenei?iaea ai
aaeuoaaiii aicaeooa, iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea oaeaeeneiai aca, aunieay
oaiia?aoo?a n?aaeu, iiauoaiiay aeaaeiinoue, eciaiaiea aa?iiao?e/aneiai
aeaaeaiey e o.i.

Iaeaieueoei ?aciiia?acea oa?aeoa?ecoaony aoi?ay o?oiia. N?aaee i?e/ei,
aoiaeyueo a yoo a?oiio, neaaeoao iacaaoue eciaiaiea ninoaaa aicaeooa –
caa?yciaiiinoue aai ?acee/iuie aacaie ( iai?eia?, i?iaeoeoaie iaiieiiai
nai?aiey oiieeaa e ae?.); aeaenoaea iaoaie/aneeo nee aaaeoueo e
aea?aoeee, o?ynea, onei?aieyi, aicaeaenoaea yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo eieaaaiee,
ooiia e oeueo?acaoea, eciaiaiea inaauaiiinoe, iaoaeianoai ?aai/ae iicu e
iiiaia ae?oaia.

Iaeiiaoe e o?aoueae a?oiia ioiinyony oaeoi?u, naycaiiua a iniiaiii n
ia?ooaieai ?aaeeia o?oaea e ioaeuoa: iaaeinoaoi/iinoue a?aiaie aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey nee iinea ooiieaiey, iai?aaeeueiia eniieueciaaiea
ia?a?uaia iaaeaeo ?aaioie, iai?iaeoiaiiia ieaie?iaaiea ?aaiou e ioaeuoa.

Ia ?acaeoea ooiieaiey neeueii aeeytho yiioeeiiaeueiua oaeoi?u.
Au?aaeaiiinoue e a?aiy ianooieaiey ooiieaiey /aeiaaea, aai iauaai e
niaoeeaeueiiai oece/aneiai ?acaeoey e o.i.

N?aaee aeaeia ooiieaiey neaaeoao niaoeeaeueii oeacaoue ia iaeei
niaoeeoe/aneee aeae, aicieeathuee i?e ionoonoaee aeayoaeueiinoe. Iii
aeiaieueii /anoi ano?a/aaony a nia?aiaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa o
niaoeeaeenoia, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo naycaia n i?eaiii ia?aaoey?ii e
iaiaeeaeaiii iinooiathuae eioi?iaoeee, o.a. ?aaioathueo a ?aaeeia
iaeeaeaiey. Yoio aeae ooiieaiey caieiaao i?iiaaeooi/iia ianoi iaaeaeo
iauei e oinoaaiiui ooiieaieai. *oanoai onoaeinoe o yoeo niaoeeaeenoia
/anoe/ii iaoneiaeaii noaoe/aneie ?aai/ae iicie, oioy a iniiaiii
ii?aaeaeyaony ?acaeoeai naini?iie iai?yaeaiiinoe.

Neacaiiia iicaieyao n/eoaoue, /oi iienaiiua oacu ii?aaeaeythony
ni/aoaieai oece/aneeo e eioi?iaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaiou. Ii
nouanoaoao aua iaeia niaoeeoe/aneay oi?ia eciaiaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
ninoiyiey iia?aoi?a, a iaiueoae noaiaie naycaiiay n oece/aneeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Yoi a iniiaiii ?aaeoeey i?aaiecia iia?aoi?a ia
eioi?iaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o nenoaiu. Oaeay oi?ia eciaiaiiiai
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey iacuaaaony niaoeeoe/aneie iai?yaeaiiinoueth.

Aeeiaieea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe, aeeiaieea ooiieaiey yaeythony
ianiaoeeoe/aneeie i?iyaeaieyie i?aaiecia, iauae ?aaeoeeae ia
eioaineaiinoue e yenoaineaiinoue ?aai/ae aeayoaeueiinoe, a oi a?aiy eae
ninoiyiea niaoeeoe/aneie iai?yaeaiiinoe caaeneo oi no?oeoo?u e
niaea?aeaiey iioiea eioi?iaoeee a N*I.

A nayce n yoei iniiaiui e?eoa?eai ioeaiea niaoeeoe/aneie iai?yaeaiiinoe,
aa?iaa, ioeaiee oa?aeoa?a ?aaeoeee i?aaiecia ia eioi?iaoeeiiioth
no?oeoo?o ?aai/aai eeanna i?ioeanna yaeyaony e?eoa?ee aaeaeaaoiinoe.
Enneaaeiaaiea auee oneiaii iacaaiu ninoiyieai aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeeae
e ninoiyieai aeeiaie/aneiai ?anniaeaniaaiey.

Ninoiyiea aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee – yoi oaeia ninoiyiea iia?aoi?a,
eioi?ia yaeyaony iioeiaeueiui eee aeeceei e iioeiaeueiiio aeey aeaiiuo
oneiaee ?aaiou /aeiaaea, aeeth/aiiiai a eiie?aoioth nenoaio oi?aaeaiey.
Neiioiiaoeea e au?aaeaiinoue yoiai ninoiyiey caaenyo i?aaeaea anaai io
iauaia eioi?iaoeee, aa ieioiinoe e yenoaineaiinoe, io naiaioe/aneie
cia/eiinoe eioi?iaoeee, oa?aeoa?a eiaee?iaaiey, iaee/ey ooia, o?aaoaiuo
i?ia?aii ?aaeecaoeee i?eiyoie eioi?iaoeee e iniaaiiinoae oi?aaeyaiie
nenoaiu. *ai aieueoa o?aaoaiia ninoiyiea ioee/aaony io ninoiyiey
iia?aoeaiiaiiieiy, oai aieueoa au?aaeaia aeoeaiay iiaeeecaoeey.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee yaeyaony aa eeiaeiinoue,
o.a. iaee/ea i?yiie caaeneiinoe io noauaeoeaiie o?oaeiinoe auiieiyaiie
?aaiou.

Ia?aui oaaii aeeaaiinoeee, eee i?iaiice?iaaiey yoiai ninoiyiey yaeyaony
eiee/anoaaiiue aiaeec eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee ?aai/aai i?ioeanna aeey
auyniaiey, eaeie yeaiaio yoie aeayoaeueiinoe a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
ii?aaeaeyao noaiaiue aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
iia?aoeaiie oi/eie aeey noaeaeaiey neoaeeo iieiaeaiea iaeaeaiiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee ia oeaea i?aaeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae /aeiaaea.

Auyaeaiea aaaeouaai yeaiaioa aeayoaeueiinoe ?aoaao aii?in i oii, eaeia
naienoai eee naienoaa iia?aoi?a ii?aaeaeytho aai auiieiaiea, a ninoiyiea
niioaaonoaothueo ooieoeee e aoaeao a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oa?aeoa?eciaaoue
noaiaiue aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee. Iaeiaei iiieii yoiai eciaiyaony e
ninoiyiea naycaiiuo n aaaeouae ooieoeeae nenoai ianiaoeeoe/aneiai
iaania/aiey e ?aaoee?othueo ia?aiuo ia?aciaaiee. Iineieueeo ninoiyiea
yoeo nenoai ia ioaeaeaao iia?aoi? oi auiieiaiey iniiaiuo iaycaiiinoae, a
naie iieacaoaee aeiaieueii oanii ei??aee?otho n o?iaiai ?aaiou iniiaiie
nenoaiu, oi i noaiaie iai?yaeaiiinoe noaeyo eiaiii ii ninoiyieth yoeo
nenoai.

Ninoiyiea aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee oa?aeoa?ecoaony ieieiaeueiui /eneii
ioeaie a ?aaioa e auai?ii iioeiaeueiiai aeai?eoia aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iiaeao aicieeiooue aii?in: iineieueeo aiaoiea i?eciaee noaaeee
aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee i/aiue aeecee e oie noaaeee ?aaioiniiniaiinoe,
eioi?ay auea iienaia eae oaca eiiiainaoeee, oi ia yaeyaony ee oaeia
?acaeaeaiea eneonnoaaiiui? Eiia/ii, yoe ninoiyiey ai iiiaii noiaeiu,
iaeiaei aeaa nouanoaaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaa iicaieytho eo ?acaeaeeoue.
Ai-ia?auo, yoi naycue ninoiyiey aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee oieueei n
eioi?iaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u ?aaiou: i?e oaaee/aiee o?oaeiinoe ?aaiou
au?aaeaiiinoue noaaeee oaaee/eaaaony, i?e oiaiueoaiee ineaaaaaao; oaca
eiiiainaoeee aieaa onoie/eaa e iaei iaiyaony i?e a?aiaiiuo eieaaaieyo
eioaineaiinoe ?aaiou. Ai-aoi?uo, iia ia naycaia ni a?aiaiai ?aaiou e
iiaeao auoue iaeeiaeiai au?aaeaia eae a ia/aea, oae e a eiioea aa.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?aaeuyaeyaiua e i?aaiecio o?aaiaaiey iaoiaeyony
ia i?aaeaea aai oeceieiae/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae eee i?aauoatho eo,
iaaethaeaaony ia?aoiae ninoiyiey aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee a ninoiyiea
aeeiaie/aneiai ?anniaeaniaaiey. Iaeiaei aeeiaie/aneia ?anniaeaniaaiea
iiaeao aicieeiooue i?e iaaieueoie eioi?iaoeeiiiie iaa?ocea, eiaaea
eiathony ?acee/iiai ?aaea yiioeeiiaeueiua naeaeae, iniaaiii naycaiiua n
iaeui iaaueii a ?aaioa.

Ninoiyiea aeeiaie/aneiai ?anniaeaniaaiey. I?e aeeiaie/aneii
?anniaeaniaaiee ia?ooaaony iniiaiay caeiiiia?iinoue i?aaeuaeouae noaaeee
– o?iaaiue ?aaiou ii aini?eyoeth eioi?iaoeee ia niioaaonoaoao
iaeeaeaaiiio oeceieiae/aneiio ninoiyieth. I oaeii ninoiyiee
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aieueoea naeaeae aaaaoaoeaiuo ?aaeoeee, iiyaeaiea
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee, a /anoiinoe iioiioaeaeaiey, ?anoe?aiea
ninoaeia eiaee, ia?ooaiea iuoa/iiai aaeaina e ae?. Yoi ninoiyiea
/a?acau/aeii aaaeii aeey ioeaiee ?aaiou niaoeeaeenoa, iineieueeo iii
nii?iaiaeaeaaony au?aaeaiiuie ia?ooaieyie ?aaioiniiniaiinoe e iiyaeaieai
aieueoiai /enea ioeaie, eeoieie aeaenoaeyie, oaaee/aieai a?aiaie ?aaiou,
aiieoue aei ioeaca io ?aaiou eee aa i?ae?auaiey.

Iaiauaiiue oa?aeoa? aeeiaie/aneiai ?anniaeaniaaiey i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi
ioeaee e iai?aaeeueiua aeaenoaey iaaethaeathony aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea
iia?aoi? aeieaeai auiieiyoue o?aaoaiua ii oiaeo ?aaiou ianeiaeiua aeey
iaai aeaenoaey, a eiii ninoiyiee auiieiyaiua aacioeacii. Ia yoii
iniiaaiee iniiaai iaeei ec i?eaiia ioeaiee ?anniaeaniaaiey, eiaaea
iia?aoi?o ii oiaeo ?aaiou i?aaeeaaatho auiieiyoue ?yae oanoia
aic?anoathuae neiaeiinoe, iau/ii oi?ioi auiieiyaiuo. *ai i?iua oano, i?e
eioi?ii iiyaeeinue cao?oaeiaiea eee ioeaea, oai aeoaaea aeeiaie/aneia
?anniaeaniaaiea.

Aeeiaie/aneia ?anniaeaniaaiea yaeyaony aieaa onoie/eaui, eiaaea
iia?aoi?u iaoiaeeeenue a ninoiyiee aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee, eie
i?iecaiaeeeinue oanoue oeeo?. A ninoiyiee aeeiaie/aneiai ?anniaeaniaaiey
iaeei ec ieo iia caiiiieoue oieueei /aou?a oeeo?u, a ae?oaie – eeoue
aeaa.

Aeeiaie/aneia ?anniaeaniaaiea yaeyaony aieaa onoie/eaui, /ai aaeaeaaoiay
iiaeeecaoeey; oiaiueoaiea eioaineaiinoe iaa?ocea ia i?eaiaeeo e
eeeaeaeaoeee yoiai ninoiyiey e iiyaeaieth aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee.
Aeieaeii i?ieoe ecaanoiia a?aiy, i?aaeaea /ai i?eciaee ?anniaeaniaaiey
en/acioo.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee iia?aoi?a

Iiae yiioeeiiaeueiuie iiieiathony ninoiyiey, aucaaiiua ia?aaeeaaieai
/aeiaaeii aai ioiioaiey e aiaoiaio ie?o e e naiiio naaa e
oa?aeoa?ecoaiua eciaiaieyie eiee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia
ioaaoia ia neaiaeu aiaoiae n?aaeu. Oaeei ia?acii, yiioeeiiaeueiia
ninoiyiea oanii naycaii n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie naiaioe/aneie cia/eiinoueth
iinooiathuae e /aeiaaeo eioi?iaoeee e yaeythony eae au ei??aeoeeae,
aiineiie /aeiaaeii a ioaao, ii?aaeaeyaiue oieueei eioi?iaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?ie ?acae?aaeeoaey. Iai?eia?, iiaeii onoaiiaeoue caeiiiia?iia
oneeaiea yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee ii ia?a aic?anoaiey oeaiu ?aoaiey.
Iieacaii, /oi i?e oeene?iaaiiie oeaia ?aoaiey eiaaony i?yiay naycue
noaiaie yiioeee io aaee/eiu yio?iiee, inoathuaeny e iiiaioo iaiaoiaeeiie
auaea/e ?aoaiey (iaaeinoaoi/iinoue eioi?iaoeee eae yiioeeiaaiiue oaeoi?
ii I.A. Neiiiiao).

Yoi iieiaeaiea aeaeaao iiiyoiui e oo naycue yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee n
iienaiiuie auoa iaueie ooieoeeiiaeueiuie ninoiyieyie, iniaaiii n
ninoiyieyie aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee e aeeiaie/aneiai ?anniaeaniaaiey e
n ?yaeii aioo?aiieo oa?aeoa?enoee ee/iinoe, iai?eia?, o?iaiai
o?aaiaeiinoe, eioi?ue neacuaaaony ia i?eaeaaaaiuo cia/aieyo
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie (noauaeoeaiie) naiaioe/aneie cia/eiinoe.

Ec neacaiiiai noaiiaeony oaeaea ynii, /oi ethaie aeae niciaoaeueiie
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe anaaaea a oie eee eiie ia?a naycai n
?acaeoeai yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee.

I?e eco/aiee yiioeeiiaeueiuo ?aaeoeee neaaeoao io/aoeeai ?acee/aoue aeaa
aai oi?iu – yiioeeiiaeueiia iai?yaeaiea e yiioeeiiaeueioth
iai?yaeaiiinoue. Yiioeeiiaeueiia iai?yaeaiea oa?aeoa?ecoao noaiaiue
iiaeeecaoeee ooieoeee i?aaiecia aeey iaeaieaa oniaoiiai auiieiaiey oie
eee eiie aeayoaeueiinoe e naycaii n aieaaui aeoii, iai?aaeaiiui ia yoo
aeayoaeueiinoue, o.a. iii oa?aeoa?ecoao oo noaiaiue yiioeeiiaeueiuo
naeaeaia, eioi?ua iaoneaaeeaatho iaeaieaa iieiia ?acaeoea ninoiyiey
aaeaeaaoiie iiaeeecaoeee.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ianooiaao aeeiaie/aneia ?anniaeaniaaiea iaaeaeo
iauaeoeaiie cia/eiinoueth neooaoeee e aa noauaeoeaiie ioeaieie e
iiyaeythony naycaiiua n yoei io?eoeaoaeueiua eciaiaiey a aeaeaaoaeueiuo
e ineoe/aneeo ooieoeeyo, ianooiaao ninoiyiea yiioeeiiaeueiie
iai?yaeaiiinoe. I?e yoii iaaethaeaaony e nieaeaiea onoie/eainoe ?yaea
ineoe/aneeo ooieoeee. Iiiaio ia?aoiaea yiioeeiiaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey a
yiioeeiiaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue ii?aaeaeyao oae iacuaaaioth
yiioeeiiaeueioth onoie/eainoue. *ai iaiueoa yiioeeiiaeueiay
onoie/eainoue, oai nei?aa i?e iaiueoeo cia/aieyo yiioeeiiaeueiiai
oaeoi?a ?acaeaaaony ninoiyiea yiioeeiiaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe.
Yiioeeiiaeueiay onoie/eainoue yaeyaony iieacaoaeai, i/aiue oanii
naycaiiui n oaeei naienoaii ee/iinoe, eae o?iaaiue o?aaiaeiinoe, iia
i/aiue iecea o eeoe n aunieei o?iaiai o?aaiaeiinoe.

Neaaeothuaa ea/anoai – yiioeeiiaeueiay aicaoaeeiinoue – ii?aaeaeyao
auno?ioo ?acaeoey oiai eee eiiai yiioeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey, o.a yoi
ea/anoai i/aiue aeecei e oiio, eioi?ia oa?aeoa?ecoao yiioeeiiaeueioth
onoie/eainoue.

Oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea ?acaeoea yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee. Ia iniiaaiee
aeaiiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i nouiinoe yiioeeiiaeueiuo ?aaeoeee noaiiaeony
yniui, /oi eo ?acaeoea ii?aaeaeytho aeaa a?oiiu oaeoi?ia – aiaoiea e
aioo?aiiea.

Aiaoiea yiioeeiaaiiua oaeoi?u. E iei ioiinyony i?aaeaea anaai oae
iacuaaaiua yeno?aiaeueiua oaeoi?u, o.a. oaeea, oece/aneea eee
eioi?iaoeeiiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee eioi?uo aaaeoo e ?acaeoeth e?aeiae
noaiaie iai?yaeaiey oeceieiae/aneeo e ineoieiae/aneeo ooieoeee n iieiui
en/a?iaieai anao oeceieiae/aneeo ?aca?aia. *ai aieaa au?aaeaia
yeno?aiaeueiinoue oaeoi?a, oai auoa aa?iyoiinoue iiyaeaiey au?aaeaiiuo
noaiaiae yiioeeiiaeueiuo naeaeaia. Oa?aeoa? yoeo naeaeaia ii?aaeaeyaony
aeaeii ?aaeoeee, ?acaeaathuaeny a ?acoeueoaoa aicaeaenoaey. A neo/aa
oi?ie?iaaiey aaeaeaaoiie ?aaeoeee, o.a. ?aaeoeee, iai?aaeaiiie ia
i?aiaeieaiea aeaenoaee oaeoi?a eee ia iiaeaea?aeaiea iaiaoiaeeiiai
o?iaiy aeayoaeueiinoe i?e i?iaeieaeaiee aeaenoaey yeno?aiaeueiinoe, eae
i?aaeei, iaaethaeaaony oa eee eiay noaiaiue yiioeeiiaeueiiai
iai?yaeaiey.

?acaeoea ?aaeoeee o?aaiae, oa?aeoa?ecothuae oaiaeaioeeth ooiaea io
yeno?aiaeueiiai oaeoi?a, i?aaeei, iaaethaeaaony oa eee eiay noaiaiue
yiioeeiiaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey.

?acaeoea ?aaeoeee o?aaiae, oa?aeoa?ecothuae oaiaeaioeeth ooiaea io
yeno?aiaeueiiai oaeoi?a, ianiiniaiinoue e iiaeeecaoeee ooieoeee aaaeoo e
iiyaeaieth ?acee/iuo noaiaiae yiioeeiiaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe iieioue aei
iiyaeaiey ?acei au?aaeaiiuo io?eoeaoaeueiuo yiioeee.

E yoie aea a?oiia oaeoi?ia ioiinyony e oa, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony
i/aiue aunieie cia/eiinoueth, oioy naie ii naaa oaeoi?u ia yaeythony
yeno?aiaeueiuie. Ciae aicieeathuae yiioeeiiaeueiie ?aaeoeee e neea aa
?acaeoey a yoii neo/aa, eae i?aaeei, ii?aaeaeyaony ni/aoaieai ?yaea
aioo?aiieo ii ioiioaieth e /aeiaaeo oaeoi?ia.

Aioo?aiiea yiioeeiaaiiua oaeoi?u. Naie ii naaa yoe oaeoi?u ia yaeythony
yiioeeiaaiiuie, iie eeoue oiio eee eiiio aiaoiaio oaeoi?o iaiaoiaeeioth
noaiaiue yiioeeiiaeueiinoe. E yoei oaeoi?ai ioiinyony oaeea, eae
oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oaiia?aiaio, o?iaaiue
o?aaiaeiinoe, ?eaeaeiinoue ee/iinoe, e o.i. – iie, eae i?aaeei,
ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue ?aaeoeee.

Oaeea oaeoi?u, eae oa?aeoa?enoeea yia?aiiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee (iniaaiiinoe
iaiyoe, aieiaiea), ioaaonoaaiiua ca noaiaiue ciaeiiinoe n aicieeathuae
neooaoeeae e auno?ioo e nei?inoue i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, ii?aaeaeytho ia
oieueei noaiaiue ?acaeoey yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee, ii e eo ciae.
Aanueia aeecea e iei e oaeay oa?aeoa?enoeea ee/iinoe, eae o?iaaiue
i?eoycaiee. Iaeiiaoe, a yoo aea a?oiio neaaeoao ioianoe e oaeea oaeoi?u,
eae iioeau, onoaiiaee e aeeceea e iei oa?aeoa?enoeee oeia eaeaaeia e
o.i. Iaeaieaa au?aaeaii eo aeeyiea ia yiioeeiiaeueioth onoie/eainoue,
eioi?ay, i?e iieiaeeoaeueiuo iioaao iiaeao auoue ianoieueei aunieie, /oi
iieiinoueth eneeth/aao iiyaeaiea yiioeeiiaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe.

Oi?aaeaiea yiioeeiiaeueiuie ninoiyieyie – iaeia ec caaea/ y?aiiiieee.
Iiaeii aeoeaii oi?aaeyoue iiaaaeaieai /aeiaaea – iia?aoi?a, aaiaey oa
eee eiua yiioeeiaaiiua oaeoi?u. Iai?eia?, aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aunieiai
o?iaiy aaeeoaeueiinoe i?e iiiioiiiie ?aaioa iia?aoi?ia iaaethaeaiey e
eiio?iey aicaeaenoaea ia yiioeeiaaiioth noa?o yaeyaony iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiui.

Anee iu eiaai aeaei n yiioeeiiaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoueth, oi caeanue
iiceoeey noaiiaeony eiie, yoi ninoiyiea yaii iaaeaaii?eyoiia, e ana
oneeey aeieaeiu auoue iai?aaeaiu ia ia?aaiae yoiai ninoiyiey a ninoiyiea
yiioeeiiaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey.

I?eia?u iieo/aiey enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee aeey auyaeaiey no?oeoo?u
aeayoaeueiinoe

Nouanoaoao aeaa iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth ineoieiae/aneeo e oeceieiae/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe: “einaaiiue”, iniiaaiiue ia
?aaeno?aoeee eciaiaiee a i?aaiecia /aeiaaea, aicieeathueo aneaaenoaea
auiieiaiey ei ?aaiou, e “i?yiie”, iniiaaiiue ia auyaeaiee ineoe/aneeo e
oeceieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, ninoaaeythueo niaea?aeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iieiay ea?oeia no?oeoo?u aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeao auoue iieo/aia oieueei
iooai ni/aoaiey “i?yiiai” e “einaaiiiai” niiniaia iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee
i o?oaeiaii i?ioeanna. E iei ioiinyony:

1) ecaea/aiea eioi?iaoeee ec aeieoiaioia (eino?oeoeee ii yenieoaoaoeee
oaoieee, ii?iaoeaia ioeaiee o?iaiy eaaeeoeeaoeee niaoeeaeenoia e o.i.;

2) eiaeaia?ii – ineoieiae/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea YN (iai?oaeiaaiey,
ono?ienoaa ?aai/aai ianoa, eiaea eioi?iaoeee, acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo
niaoeeaeenoaie e o.i.).;

3) iaaethaeaiea ca oiaeii o?oaeiaiai i?ioeanna e iiaaaeaieai
niaoeeaeenoa.;

4) aanaaea ni niaoeeaeenoaie.;

5) naiiio/ao a i?ioeanna aeayoaeueiinoe;

6) aieaoe?iaaiea e yenia?oiay ioeaiea;

7) iauaeoeaiay ?aaeno?aoeey e ecia?aiea ninoaaeythueo o?oaeiaiai
i?ioeanna (eeiinuaiea iai?aaeaiea aci?a e iieacaiee i?eai?ia, caienue
aeaeaeaiee i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey e ecia?aieai neeu aicaeaenoaey,
iaaieoioiiiay ?aaeno?aoeey eiiaiae e o.i.);

8) aiaeec ioeaie, aeiioneaaiuo a ?aaioa;

9) iauaeoeaiay ?aaeno?aoeey e ecia?aiea iieacaoaeae oaeoi?ia n?aaeu;

10) yenia?eiaio.

Ecaea/aiea eioi?iaoeee ec aeieoiaioia. N oi/ee c?aiey
ineoioeceieiae/aneiai aiaeeca aeayoaeueiinoe aeieoiaiou iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu: 1) oa?aeoa?ecothuea niaea?aeaiea e
i?aaiecaoeeth o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, ono?ienoai nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey,
iniaaiiinoe n?aaeu; 2) io?aaeathuea eoiae aeayoaeueiinoe; 3)
oa?aeoa?ecothuea ee/iinoiua iniaaiiinoe niaoeeaeenoia.

A ? o i i a 1 aeeth/aao iienaiey iauaeoia oaoieee, niaea?aeaueany a
yneeciuo, oaoie/aneeo i?iaeoao e ae?oaeo iiaeiaiuo aeieoiaioia,
ianoaaeaiey, ?oeiaiaenoai e eino?oeoeee ii yenieoaoaoeee e oaoie/aneiio
ianeoaeeaaieth e o.i.

Eco/aiea yoeo aeieoiaioia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue, i?aaeaea anaai,
iciaeiieony ni no?oeoo?ie e oaoie/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie YN, n nouanoaii
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ono?ienoaii ?aai/aai ianoa,
i?aaiecaoeee acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo niaoeeaeenoaie e niaoeeaeenoii e
oaoie/aneei ono?ienoaii.

Caoai auaeaeyaony iaeaieaa aaaeiua e neiaeiua iia?aoeee (naycaiiua n
aeaoeoeeoii a?aiaie, aaa?eeiuie neooaoeeyie e o.i.) ?aciuo iiaeo?iaiae e
i?eaioe?iai/ii ioeaieaaaony ineoioeceieiae/aneay nouiinoue auiieiaiey eo
niaoeeaeenoaie. Oaea ia iniiaaiee eino?oeoeee iiaeii ninoaaeoue
ioaeaeueiua iia?aoeeiiiua noaiu aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ec yoeo aeieoiaioia iiaeii oaeaea iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth i ?aaeeiao
o?oaea e ioaeuoa e aeeiaieee iieacaoaeae oaeoi?ia n?aaeu. Ii?iaoeaiua
aeieoiaiou aeatho aiciiaeiinoue i?eaeeceoaeueii ioeaieoue noaiaiue
niaoeeoe/aneie iai?yaeaiiinoe auiieiaiey aeayoaeueiinoe (ii o?aaoaiie
nei?inoe ?aaiou, oi/iinoe auiieiaiey iia?aoeee e o.i.).

A ? o i i a 2 aeeth/aao aeo?iaeu e aaaeiiinoe o/aoa auiouaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, io?aaioee oaoiieiae/aneeo caaea/, i?iecaiaenoaaiii –
yeiiiie/aneea io/aoiua aeieoiaiou, iaaeeoeeineea eieaeee e o.i.

Yoio iaoa?eae yaeyaony iaeiei ec enoi/ieeia iieo/aiey aeaiiuo aeey
aiaeeca i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, a?aea e ioeaie a ?aaioa
niaoeeaeenoia, caaieaaaaiinoe e o?aaiaoecia. E?iia oiai, ii iiaeao
aeaoue eioi?iaoeeth aeey ioeaiee ee/iinoiuo ea/anoa e o?iaiy
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ianoa?noaa eiie?aoiuo eeoe.

A ? o i i a 3 aeeth/aao neoaeaaiua e iaaeeoeeineea oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?aaenoaaeaiey aeey iacia/aiey ia aeieaeiinoue, eaoiua, aiaeieaciua
eieaeee e o.i.

Eiaeaia?ii – ineoieiae/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea YN. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
iciaeiieaiea n oaoieeie e ?aai/ei ianoii yaeyaony aeaeueiaeoei oaaii a
eco/aiee nouiinoe o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaeiinueeie
ia?aoiaea e i?eaiai iaaethaeaiey ca i?ioaeaieai ?aai/aai i?ioeanna.

Iai?oaeiaaiea eco/aaony auyniaieai iacia/aiey ?acee/iuo oaoie/aneeo
ono?ienoa, n eioi?uie acaeiiaeaenoaoao /aeiaae (niaoeeaeeno, iia?aoi?),
ninoaaeaiey noai iioieia eioi?iaoeee, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ia?auaiey
niaoeeaeenoa e i?eai?ai e i?aaiai oi?aaeaiey i?e ?aoaiee oeiiauo e
iaeaieaa neiaeiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caaea/. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii
iinoiyiii niiinoaaeyoue iieo/aaiua n eiaeaia?ii – ineoieiae/aneeie
o?aaiaaieyie (a /anoiinoe, n i?eioeeiaie iino?iaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
iiaeaeae ).

Iaaethaeaiea ca oiaeii o?oaeiaiai i?ioeanna e iiaaaeaieai niaoeeaeenoia.
Iaaethaeay ca oiaeii o?oaeiaiai i?ioeanna, ioaeii eiaoue aaeaeo
iieo/aiea ioaaoia ia neaaeothuea aii?inu, i?eiaieoaeueii e ii?aaeaeaiiui
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui caaea/ai.

I. Oa?aeoa?enoeea eaiaeia aeaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee:

1) /enei eioi?iaoeeiiiuo eaiaeia;

2) aeeiaieea aeaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee ai a?aiaie (iaeiiiai?aaeaiiay, n
ia?aeeth/aieai, niaiauaiiay ).

II. Oa?aeoa?enoeea neaiaeia (niiauaiee), iinooiathueo e niaoeeaeenoo:

1) iauea aeaiiua i niiauaieyo:

a) niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo niiauaiee, iinooiathueo e niaoeeaeenoo i?e
auiieiaiee ?acee/iuo caaea/; a) iooue e oa?aeoa? iinooiathueo niiauaiee
(io eiai iinooiatho; iaiin?aaenoaaiii aieinii, /a?ac ia?aaiai?ioth
o?oaeo, ii o?aineyoeee, iin?aaenoaii naaoiaie neaiaeecaoeee, ioaeii ee
eo caiiieiaoue, ia?aaeaaaoue aeaeueoa e o.i.);

2) oa?aeoa?enoeea eioi?iaoeee ii aeaeai aiaeecaoi?ia /aeiaaea (neooiaia
aini?eyoea, c?eoaeueiia, e o.ae. ):

a) e?aoeia iienaiea eaiaeia iinooieaiey eioi?iaoeee (io eoaea
iiaeaaony, anoue ee ia?aaeaoi/iua caaiuey); a) oa?aeoa?enoeea
eioi?iaoeee (oece/aneay neea, /anoioa iinooieaiey ii aeaiiiio eaiaeo,
aeeeoaeueiinoue ioaeaeueiuo eioi?iaoeee, aeeeoaeueiinoue iaoc iaaeaeo
ieie, iaee/ea eioa?oa?aioeee eioi?iaoeee (iaeiia?aiaiiiai iinooieaiey);
a) oa?aeoa?enoeea ?acee/iuo eaiaeia iinooieaiey eioi?iaoeee:
ioiineoaeueiay “caa?ocea” eaiaeia, aiciiaeiinoue “e /anoioa”)
iaeiia?aiaiiiai iinooieaiea eioi?iaoeee ii aeaoi e aieaa eaiaeai; a)
iiiaoe ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee ii aeaiiiio eaiaeo (ooiu – eo
eioaineaiinoue e oa?aeoa?, ioeaee a ia?aaeaoi/iii caaia);

3) oa?aeoa?enoeea acaeiiaeaenoaey eiiieaena aiaeecaoi?ia (/anoioa
ia?aeeth/aiey n iaeiiai aiaeeca ia ae?oaie; iaeiia?aiaiiay,
iaeiiiai?aaeaiiay e ?aciiiai?aaeaiiay ?aaiou aiaeecaoi?ia).

III. Aeaiiua i ooieoeee iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa:

1) iica i?e ?aaioa e ai a?aiy “aeoeaiiai iieiy”;

2) oa?aeoa? e /anoioa eciaiaiey iicu i?e ?acee/iuo iaieioeyoeeyo,
iaeaieaa oeie/iay iica i?e ii?aaeaeaiiii aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe;

3) oa?aeoa? ?aai/eo aeaeaeaiee ?oe (iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey, aiieeooaea,
oaii, i?eeaaaaiua oneeey);

4) iieiaeaiea aieiau, oa?aeoa? aa aeaeaeaiey;

5) aeaiiua i nei?inoe e noaiaie iuoa/iiai ooiieaiey e ia?ooaieyo
eii?aeeiaoeee aeaeaeaiee;

6) yia?aaoe/aneay caa?ocea a ia?eiae ?aai/ae aeayoaeueiinoe.

IV. Aeaiiua i i?ioeannao ia?a?aaioea eioi?iaoeee niaoeeaeenoii.

1) Oa?aeoa?enoeea iia?aoeaiie e aeieaia?aiaiiie iaiyoe:

a) eiee/anoai iia?aoeaiuo aaeeieoe eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii
caiiieiaoue ia i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie ii?aaeaeaiiie aeeeoaeueiinoe; a)
oi?ia caiiieiaiey naaaeaiee a (a oia, caienaoue ia aoiaaa, ioiaoeoue ia
i?eai?a e o.i.); a) oa?aeoa? iaoa?eaea aeey caiiieiaiey (oeeo?iaie,
ia?aciue, neiaanii-eiae/aneee e o.i.).

2) oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeannia iaania/eaathueo aiaeec eioi?iaoeee e
i?eiyoee ?aoaiee:

a) iniaaiiinoe ono?ienoa, i?eiaiyaiuo aeey aiaeeca e neioaca
iinooiathuae eioi?iaoeee e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee (oaaeeoeu, noaiu, oi?ioeu,
n/aoii-?aoathuaa ono?ienoai e o.i.); a) oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aeiouanoaaiiuo
niiniaia ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

– ?aaeoeee i?yiiai caiueaiey, aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua ?aaeoeee auai?a,
neaaeaiea e o.i.;

– i?eiyoea ?aoaiee, iuneeoaeueiua iia?aoeee: eiae/aneea,
au/eneeoaeueiua oai?/aneea.

V. Aieaaay e yiioeeiiaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue:

1) aicieeatho ee, e eae /anoi, neooaoeee, o?aaothuea aieueoeo aieaauo
oneeee (auiieiaiea ?aaio a iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo aiaoiae n?aaeu e
o.i.);

2) i?e/eiu e noaiaie yiioeeiiaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe (aaa?eeiua
neooaoeee, aieueoay ioaaonoaaiiinoue, aeaoeoeeo eee “ecauoi/iinoue”
a?aiaie e o.i.).

?ani?aaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo aini?eieiathueie eaiaeaie /aeiaaea –
iia?aoi?a

Iaaeaeo aini?eieiathueie eaiaeaie /aeiaaea – iia?aoi?a eioi?iaoeey
aeieaeia ?ani?aaeaeyony ia iniiaa ineoieiae/aneeo aini?eyoey
eioi?iaoeeee ?acee/iuie aiaeecaoi?aie. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea o/eouaaoue
acaeiiaeaenoaea e acaeiiia aeeyiea aiaeecaoi?ia, eo onoie/eainoue e
aicaeaenoaeth ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia n?aaeu: aeia?aaniiinoe e iaaaniiinoe,
aea?aoeee, aeiienaiee, eciaiaiea niiniaiinoe e aini?eyoeth eioi?iaoeee a
i?ioeanna aeeeoaeueiie ?aaiou e ae?. Aanueia nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea eiaao
aeae eioi?iaoeee, oneiaey aa i?eaia, a oaeaea oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe
iia?aoa?a.

Auai? eaiaea aini?eyoey a caaeneiinoe io aeaea eioi?iaoeee.

Ia?aaea/a eiee/anoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Aeey ia?aaea/e eiee/anoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeee eniieuecothony c?eoaeueiue, neooiaie e eiaeiue eaiaeu
aini?eyoey. Auai? eaiaea iaoneiaeeaaaony /eneia a?aaeaoeee i?eciaea.

C ? e o e ue i u e e a i a e iaania/eaaao iaeaieueooth oi/iinoue
ii?aaeaeaiea aaee/eiu i?eciaea, iniaaiii i?e eniieueciaaiee oeeo?iauo
eiaeia, oeae, eciaiaiee iieiaeaiee oeacaoaeae i?eai?ia. Ii iicaieyao
n?aaieaaoue e ecia?youe eioi?iaoeeth iaeiia?aiaiii ii ianeieueeei
i?eciaeai. Iaeiaiueoay oi/iinoue iaaethaeaaony i?e eiaee?iaaiee aaee/eiu
y?einoueth.

N e o o i a i e e a i a e iioi/iinoe aini?eyoey eiee/anoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeee iiaeao eiieo?e?iaaoue ni c?eoaeueiui oieueei i?e ia?aaea/a
eiee/anoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee a aeaea ?a/aauo niiauaiee. Oi/iinoue i?eaia
eiee/anoaaiiie eiio?iaoeee, caeiaee?iaaiiie n iiiiuueth /anoiou eee
eioaineaiinoe caoeiaiai neaiaea, iiauoaaony i?e eniieueciaaiee yoaeiia
n?aaiaiey. *aeiaae niiniaai aini?eiyoue aei 16 – 25 a?aaeaoeee
oiiaeueiuo neaiaeia, ?acee/athueony ii aunioa eee a?iieinoe.

E i ae i u e e a i a e i?e ia?aaea/e eiee/anoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee
cia/eoaeueii onooiaao c?eoaeueiiio e neooiaiio eaiaeo. N aai iiiiuueth
iiaeii ia?aaeaoue aieaa 10 a?aaeaoeee aaee/eiu ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey
/anoiou aea?ioaeoeeueiuo eee yeaeo?ieiaeiuo neaiaeia (iinea
niioaaonoaothuae o?aie?iaea).

Ia?aaea/a iiiaiia?iuo neaiaeia. Eniieueciaaiea iiiaiia?iuo neaiaeia,
?acee/athueony ii ianeieueeei i?eciaeai, niinianoaoao aieaa yeiiiiiie
ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee. N oi/ee c?aiey aiciiaeiinoe i?eaia iiiaiia?iie
eioi?iaoeee ?acee/iua aini?eieiathuea eaiaeu /aeiaaea ia yaeythony
eaeaioe/iuie.

C e o a e ue i u e e a i a e, iaeaaeathuee oi?ioi au?aaeaiiuie
aiaeeoe/aneeie naienoaaie, iicaieyao iaeiia?aiaiii eniieueciaaoue
ianeieueei i?eciaeia a neaiaea. Eioi?iaoeey aeey yoiai eaiaea aini?eyoey
iiaeao auoue caeiaee?iaaia iaeiia?aiaiii n iiiiuueth eioaineaiinoe e
oeaaoa naaoiauo ?acae?aaeeoaeae, oi?iu, ieiuaaee, i?ino?ainoaaiiiai
?aniieiaeaiey neaiaeia, ioiioaiee eo ioaeaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia.
Niiniaiinoue e iiyeaiaioiiio aiaeeco aieueoiai /enea ioaeaeueiuo
ninoaaeythueo neiaeiiai neaiaea iicaieyao aini?eieiaoue n iiiiuueth
yoiai eaiaea aieueoie iauai eioi?iaoeee, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ii
oeaee?iaaieth iaeioi?uo ec ieo (iai?eia?, eioaineaiinoe, /anoiou).
C?eoaeueiue aiaeecaoi? ia iaeaaeaao au?aaeaiiuie i?aeiouanoaaie ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie aiaeecaoi?aie.

Cia/eoaeueii iiauoaao i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue aeaiiiai eaiaea ii
ioiioaieth e iiiaiia?iui eiaeiaui neaiaeai neioac ?acee/iuo eiiiiiaioia
neaiaeia a aaeeiue c?eoaeueiue ia?ac. A yoii ioiioaiee aieueooth ?ieue
ea?aao iaee/ea aiciiaeiinoe iaeiia?aiaiiiai aini?eyoey ianeieueeeo
i?ino?ainoaaiii ?aciauaiiuo c?eoaeueiuo ia?acia.

N e o o i a i e e a i a e iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue i?e ia?aaea/a
iiiaiia?iuo caoeiauo neaiaeia eioaineaiinoue e /anoioo, oaia? e ?eoi.
?ani?aaeaeaiea /anoio ii ieoaaai e iiaeoee?iaaiea caoeiauo neaiaeia
oaeaea iiauoaao eo ?aniiciaaaaiinoue. Iaeiaei iauee iaai? neaiaeia e
aiciiaeiinoue aa?uee?iaaiey eie aeey yoio aiaeecaoi?a iaiueoa, /ai aeey
c?eoaeueiiai. Cia/eoaeueii ia?aie/eaaao eniieueciaaiea yoiai eaiaoa
o?oaeiinoue i?eaia e aiaeeca eioi?iaoeee, iinooiathuae iaeiia?aiaiii
aieaa /ai io iaeiiai enoi/ieea neaiaeia.

E i ae i u e e a i a e iaeaaeaao iaiueoeie aiciiaeiinoyie aeey i?eaia
iiiaiia?iuo neaiaeia, /ai aeaa i?aaeuaeoueo. I?e ia?aaea/a ii iaio
iiiaiia?iuo neaiaeia i?aeoe/anee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu /anoioa
neaiaeia e eo i?ino?ainoaaiiay eieaeecaoeey.

Ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee i iieiaeaiee iauaeoia a i?ino?ainoaa.

C ? e o a e ue i u e e a i a e aeaao naioth iieioth eioi?iaoeeth i
iieiaeaiee iaaethaeaaiuo iauaeoia a i?ino?ainoaa (ii o?ai eii?aeeiaoai).
Aieueoay oi/iinoue a ioeaiea i?ino?ainoaa e i?ino?ainoaaiiu ioiioaiee
iaania/eaaaony ca n/ao au?aaeaiiie aiaeeoe/aneie niiniaiinoe
c?eoaeueiiai aiaeecaoi?a, eiinoaioiinoe aini?eyoey, aecoaeecaoeee
i?aaenoaaeaiee, oe?ieie aiciiaeiinoe iia?e?iaaiey i?ino?ainoaaiiuie
c?eoaeueiuie ia?acaie.

E i ae i u e e a i a e i?e ia?aaea/a yoie eioi?iaoeee iiaeii
iinoaaeoue ia aoi?ia ianoi. Ii iaania/eaaao ii?aaeaeaiea iieiaeaiey
iauaeoa a i?ino?ainoaa ii aeaoi eii?aeeiaoai i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii
nii?eeiniiaaiee n iauaeoii e i?e aeenoaioeeiiiii ii?aaeaeaiee iieiaeaiey
aai a i?ino?ainoaa ca n/ao eneonnoaaiiuo eiaeiauo i?eciaeao. Oaeeie
eiaeiauie i?eciaeaie iiaoo auoue /anoioa aea?ioaeoeeueiuo eee
yeaeo?ieiaeiuo neaiaeao e eo eieaeecaoeey. I?eiaiaiey aeey yoiai
eciaiaiea aiieeooaeu, aaee/eiu e ieiuaaee aeaaeaiey oaeoeeueiuo neaiaeia
ia?aie/eaaaony auno?ui ?acaeoee aaeaioaoeee a oaeoeeueiii aiaeecaoi?a.

N e o o i a i e e a i a e i?e aeiao?aeueiii aini?eyoee iaania/eaaao
aunieoth oi/iinoue ii?aaeaeaiey iai?aaeaiea ia enoi/iee caoea. Eiaaea
aea i?eiaiyaony eneonnoaaiiue eiae (iau/iia eciaiaiea /anoiou
aeeonoe/aneiai neaiaea, aai oiia), oi/iinoue eieaeecaoeee ieacuaaaony
ieaea, /ai i?e eniieueciaaiee c?eoaeueiiai e eiaeiiai aiaeecaoi?ia. A
iniiaiii, a yoii neo/aa n iiiiuueth neooiaiai aiaeecaoi?a iiaeii
ii?aaeaeyoue eciaiaiea iieiaeaiey iauaeoa a i?ino?ainoaa oieueei ii
iaeiie eii?aeeiaoa.

Aini?eyoea a?aiaie. Oi/iinoue aini?eyoey a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia caaeneo io
eo aeeeoaeueiinoe, io oiai, caiieiaiu iie eee ia caiieiaiu
?acae?aaeeoaeai e io ?yaea ae?oaeo i?e/ei. Iaeaieueoay oi/iinoue
ioia/aaony i?e ioeaiee caiieiaiiuo a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeao.

N e o o i a i e e a i a e iaania/eaaao iaeaieueooth oi/iinoue a
ioeaiea a?aiaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee neaiaeia (eo aeeeoaeueiinoe, oaiia,
?eoia e o.i.). Ioeaea a aini?iecaaaeaiee 3-, 5-, 10- naeoiaeiuo
caiieiaiiuo a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia ninoaaeyao i?e eniieueciaaiee neooiaiai
aiaeecaoi?a 1.2 – 4.7 % caaeaiiuo noaiaea?oia.

E e i a n o a o e / a n e e e e a i a e oaeaea iiaeao oniaoii
eniieueciaaoueny aeey ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee ii ia?aiao?o aeeeoaeueiinoe

PAGE

PAGE 24

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Ответить

Курсовые, Дипломы, Рефераты на заказ в кратчайшие сроки
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020