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Экономика природопользования

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I?EIA?U ENIIEUeCIAAIEss YEIEIAE*ANEIE EIOI?IAOeEE A EI??AEOeEE NO?AOAAEE
I?E?IAeIIIEUeCIAAIEss E ACAEIIAeAENOAEE OIAA?II?IECAIAeEOAEAE IA ?UIEAO

AAAAeAIEA

E ia/aeo 90-o aiaeia noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi aeaeueiaeoaa yeiiiie/aneia
?acaeoea /aeiaa/anoaa, i?eaioe?iaaiiia ia ?ino aeaaininoiyiey ethaeae a
ni/aoaiee n nioeeaeueiuie aa?aioeyie noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui oieueei a
?aieao “yeieiae/anee onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey”. Niioaaonoaothuea i?aaiaua
ii?iu, a oaeaea yeiiiie/aneea eino?oiaiou, i?eiyoua eae ia
iaoeeiiaeueiii, oae e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia iiaee au iaania/eoue
?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo yeiiiie/aneei ?inoii, oaaee/aieai i?iecaiaenoaa
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e nio?aiaieai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie. E ianoiyuaio
a?aiaie iniiaiua nu?ueaaua ?ano?nu ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a (Naaa?iay
Aia?eea, Caiaaeiay Aa?iia) ia a?aie en/a?iaiey eee ca?aca?ae?iaaiu.
Cia/eoaeueiua ?acaaaeaiiua e aeinooiiua aeey eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiua
?ano?nu eiathony eeoue a ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao o?aoueaai ie?a (A?aceeey,
Eiaeey, Eeoae, Eiaeiiacey e ae?.), ?innee e ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao ia
oa??eoi?ee auaoaai NNN?. Ca aeinooi e yoei ?ano?nai eaeao ai?ueaa, a
eioi?ie eniieuecothony ?aciua n?aaenoaa, a oii /enea e “yeieiae/aneay
a?aoiaioaoeey”.

Oi, /oi yoe aniaeou noaiiayony ana aieaa aeooaeueiuie aeey
ia?niaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey caiiie oeeaeeecaoeee, iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony niaiie
aeoeaioia iiaanoee aeiy ia ano?a/ao eeaea?ia ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a –
“aieueoay naia?ea”. Ia/eiay n naiieoa a Oieei a 1979 aiaeo /eaiu
“aieueoie naia?ee” ana aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeytho aii?inai
ni?aaaaeeeaiai iaania/aiey yia?aeae e io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Aicieeoea a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey i?iaeaiu a noa?a eniieueciaaiey
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia iaoneiaeaiu iiiai/eneaiiuie oaoiieiae/aneeie
i?i?uaaie. Yoi iicaieyao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aieaa yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue oaea ?acaaaeaiiua e inaaeaaaiua aeaeu ?ano?nia, a n
ae?oaie, aeeth/aoue a i?iecaiaenoai e iio?aaeaiea iiaua, ?aiaa ia
ecaanoiua eiiiiiaiou i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. Ia iaiaa aaaeiui aniaeoii
i?iaeaiu yaeyaony ana aic?anoathuea e neaai ?aaeaiaioe?oaiua iio?aaiinoe
/aeiaaea a ?acee/iiai ?iaea aeaaao oeeaeeecaoeee. Aa?oithth ieaieo yoeo
iio?aaiinoae eae au “caeacuaatho” naiua aiaaoua no?aiu ie?a. Iaeioi?ua
ainoaea?noaa ie?a noaayo oeaeueth naiaai ?acaeoey aeinoeaeaiea eiaiii
yoiai iaoa?eaeueiiai o?iaiy aeecie. Oaeia iio?aaeoaeueneia ioiioaiea e
aoaeouaio /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee i?aaeiieaaaao iaia?aie/aiioth
yenieoaoaoeeth ?ano?nia Caiee. Ii ia?a en/a?iaiey oao eee eiuo aeaeia
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia aoaeoo i?ienoiaeeoue eiioeeeou ?acee/iiai o?iaiy:
iaae?aaeiiaeueiua, iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua, iaaeei?ii?aoeaiua.

Eniieueciaaiea eaniuo ?ano?nia

Ia ninoiyiea eania aeeyao ia oieueei oio eoi ?oaeo, ii e oio eoi
iio?aaeyao n?oaeaiiia. A “Iiaanoea XXI aaea”, au?aaeaao i?eciaiea oiai
oaeoa, /oi iniiaiay i?e/eia oooaeoaiey ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a
aeiaaeueiii ianooaaa – ionoonoaea onoie/eauo no?oeoo? iio?aaeaiey, a
/anoiinoe, iiae/a?eeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue eciaiaiey (nie?auaiey) ni?ina
ia ae?aaaniia nu?uea a i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao. Iio?aaeaiea
i?iiuoeaiiiai ae?aaaniiai nu?uey ia aeooo ianaeaiey a ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao ninoaaeyao 0,10 eoa. i, oiaaea eae a ?acaeouo – 1,04. Onoaiiaeai
i?eioeei onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey – o?aaiaaiea ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iio?aaeyaiiai nu?uey. Aaeeeia?eoaiey – iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo a ie?a
iio?aaeoaeae ae?aaaneiu ia aeooo ianaeaiey, ii ieiei 85% ni?ina ia
ae?aaanioth i?iaeoeoeeth a iae oaeiaeaoai?yaony ca n/ao eiii?oa. Oaeei
ia?acii, i?e aiaeeca onoie/eaiai eaniiai oicyenoaa neaaeoao o/eouaaoue e
aeeyiea, ieacuaaaiia, iai?eia?, Aaeeeia?eoaieae eae
no?aiie-iio?aaeoaeai, ia ninoiyiea eania a Eaiaaea, Oeieyiaeee, Oaaoeee,
A?aceeee, Eiaeiiacee. Niaeanii aeieeaaeo Einoeoooa ie?iauo ?ano?nia a
?acoeueoaoa /?acia?iiai iio?aaeaiey ae?aaaniie i?iaeoeoeee iiae oa?icie
ieacuaathony naiua ?aciiia?aciua anoanoaaiiua eana.

Nio?aiaiea eania e yienney oaeaeeneiou a NOA e ?innee. Eiay 21% anao
ie?iauo eania, ?inney aeaao a aiae (1995 a.) eeoue 7% anae ie?iaie
yiennee oaeaeeneiai aaca. NOA aua?anuaatho a aoiinoa?o Caiee ieiei
iieooi?a ieeeea?aea oiii oaeaeeneiai aaca, /oi ninoaaeyao 23% anae
yiennee NI i?e iaee/ee a NOA eeoue 4% ie?iaiai ianaeaiey e 6% anaai
eaniiai iie?uoey ieaiaou. A yoie nayce oe?iei ?aeeaie?oaiia iaia?aiea
aaeieieno?aoeee Eeeioiia iiaeaea?aeaoue ai?oeia ca nio?aiaiea eania io
au?oaee aiieia aeooaeueii aeey NOA, ii ia aeey ?innee.

Niaeaenoaea ia?aie/aieyi ?oaie eania a iaeioi?uo ?aaeiiao ?innee.
Iieeoeea i?aaiecaoeee ia ?inneeneii Naaa?a i?e?iaeiuo ia?eia aeoeaii
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony no?aiaie Neaiaeeiaaee, eioi?ua aeaaea aeeaaeuaatho a
yoe i?ia?aiiu iaeioi?ua n?aaenoaa. Oae, Oeieyiaeey auaeaeeea aeaiueae –
4 ieeeeiia oeineeo ia?ie. Oaaoeey aea eeoue iioaaeeea i?aaeoaeuenoai
Ea?aeee ca i?ae?aniia iaia?aiea nio?aieoue eana. Iieo/ea oeineea
aeaiueae, iao/iua i?aaiecaoeee noaee ?ac?aaaouaaoue i?iaeoioth
aeieoiaioaoeeth ia nicaeaiea ia?eia e ianeaaeiaaiea eania i?ea?aie/iie
iieinu. “A?eiien” e ae?oaea i?e?iaeiio?aiiua III iio?aaiaaee, /oiau
?yae ?aeiiia Ea?aeee, a o./. Eaeaaaeueneee, aaea nio?aieeinue iiiai
noa?iaic?anoiuo ?aeeeoiauo eania, auee iauyaeaiu iaoeeiiaeueiuie ia?eaie
e iieo/eee noaoon io?aiyaiuo oa??eoi?ee.

Ai?ueaa i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo III e eanicaaioiaeoaeueiuo eiiiaiee,
yenieoaoe?othueo eana. A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ia?anoaee aeanoeea
eiioeeeou iaaeaeo i?e?iaeiio?aiiuie iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, aoiaeyueie a nenoaio RAN (Rainforest astion network),
e eanicaaioiaeoaeueiuie eiiiaieyie, o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuie ei?ii?aoeeyie
(iai?eia?, Mitsubishi), i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaeioi?uo ainoaea?noa (a
/anoiinoe, Eiaeiiacee e Iaeaecee). I?ei?eoaoiui iai?aaeaieai yoeo
noaaoie ieacaeenue aeaaeiua o?iie/aneea eana.

A eanao oia?aiiiai iiyna iaeiie ec ai?y/eo oa??eoi?ee yaeyaony
A?eoaineay Eieoiaey (Eaiaaea). Ianniaua i?ioanou “caeaiuo” i?ioea
eno?aaeaiey a i?ioeanna eanicaaioiaie iineaaeieo inoaoeia nio?aieaoeony
noa?iaic?anoiuo aeaanoaaiiuo eania ia aucuaaee eaeie-eeai eiino?oeoeaiie
?aaeoeee o ianoiuo aeanoae. A 1993-94 aiaeao neooaoeey ia?aoea a
o?aco ianniauo aeoeee i?ioanoa, i?eaaaeoeo e oe?ieiianooaaiui a?anoai
(ieiei 1000 /aeiaae). Yoe niauoey anoanoaaiii oe?iei inaauaiu NIE e
ieacaee neeueiaeoaa iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia eieaeae, eae Eaiaaeu a oeaeii,
oae e aa aaaeoueo eanii?iiuoeaiiuo eiiiaiee (Iae-Ieeai Aeiaeaeue,
Eioa?oi? e ae?.)

Eiiiaiee auee auioaeaeaiu o?aoeoue cia/eoaeueiua oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa ia
eiio?i?iiaaaiaeo, ?aaioaoue a oneiaeyo iinoaiaiii oaaee/eaathueony
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ia?aie/aiee, i?eieiaaiuo iiae aeaaeaieai
i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai aeaeaeaiey. Eo eieaeaeo aue iaianai nouanoaaiiue
oaea?, /oi i?eaaei e ioeaco e?oiiaeoeo iieoiaoaeae io oneoa yoeo
ei?ii?aoeee.

Ae?oaie ciiie eiioeeeoa ia oa??eoi?ee Eaiaaeu yaeyaony i?iaeioeey
Aeueaa?oa n ?aciauaiiuie oai oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiuie caaiaeaie,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueie yiiineei eiiiaieyi “Aeaeoiaa” e “Iaeaee Iaeia?”.
Caaiaeu ?aaioatho ii iiaaeoei oaoiieiaeyi e ii yeieiae/aneei ia?aiao?ai
nianoaaiii oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iniauo i?iaeai iao.
Iaeiaei ia?iiiua iauaiu nu?uey, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey iaania/aiey ?aaiou
yoeo aeaaioia, ia?aoaiiinoue aii?inia eaniiieueciaaiey, eaii?e?iaaiea
eioa?ania ei?aiiiai eiaeaeneiai ianaeaiey, a?oaue aaeieieno?aoeaiue
iaaeei i?e eiaae?iaaiee i?iaeoia ia noaaeee no?ieoaeuenoaa caaiaeia,
i?eaaee e iaino?aieth neooaoeee. Eaiaaeneea “caeaiua” aeoeaenou
onoaiiaeee eiioaeou ni naieie yiiineeie eieeaaaie e i?aaieciaaee
eiiiaieth aieeioa oiaa?ia, i?iecaiaeeiuo yoeie eiiiaieyie.

A ?acoeueoaoa iiiaieaoiae ai?ueau, a i?ioeanna eioi?ie eia-eoi ec
aeoeaenoia aue oaieai n aanueia ?aniaeoaaaeueiie ?aaiou,
i?e?iaeiio?aiiua III iiaeaa?aaeenue noaeaaiiio i?aneaaeiaaieth ni
noi?iiu yiiineeo eiiiaiee (/oi aucaaei iiai?io aeeneonnee a iai?aaeaiee
ianoaeaeaiey i?iaeaiu i?aa /aeiaaea, iioiaea aanueia iai?eyoiie aeey
eaiaaeneeo aeanoae). Naaiaeiy ni noi?iiu yiiineeo eiiiaiee iiyaeythony
ia?aua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii ia?aaiai?ai n “caeaiuie” aeey ?aoaiey eiathueony
i?iaeai a eiino?oeoeaiii ?onea.

Caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?u e ?uii/iua iiceoeee oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae a
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneii eiiieaena.

Ia?ieeiaue yooaeo e ?uii/iua iiceoeee Aaci?iia. Neaaenoaeai ?inoa
aio?iiiaaiiiai aua?ina ia?ieeiauo aacia e, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeaoieene
oaea?iaea, eiioeaio?aoeey eioi?iai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaaee/eeanue a
aoiinoa?a ia 25% ii n?aaiaieth n aeieiaeono?eaeueiie yiioie, aoaeao
oaeaiaiea aai niaea?aeaiey e 2050-2070 aa. Yoi i?iecieaeao, anee ia
aoaeao i?eiyoi eaeeo eeai ia? ii nie?auaieth i?iiuoeaiiie yiennee.
Oneeaiea ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa iaoneiaeaii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeiieaieai a
aoiinoa?a ?yaea ia?ieeiauo aacia, aeeaaeu eioi?uo ninoaaeytho:
aeaoieenue oaea?iaea – 61%, iaoai – 23%, oei?ooi?oaea?iaeu – 12%,
caeenue acioa – 4%.

Eae ecaanoii, iaeiaiueoea oaeaeueiua aua?inu yoeo aauanoa
iaania/eaathony i?e yia?aaoe/aneii eniieueciaaiee i?e?iaeiiai aaca. A
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneii aaeaina ?innee i?e?iaeiue aac ninoaaeyao aieaa
40% n?aaee ?acee/iuo aeaeia i?aaie/aneiai oiieeaa. A ie?iaii oiieeaiii
aaeaina aac ninoaaeyao oieueei ieiei 25%. Oaeei ia?acii, no?oeoo?a
?inneeneie yia?aaoeee n oi/ee c?aiey aicaeaenoaey ia eeeiaoe/aneea
eciaiaiey, ieacuaaaony aieaa iaeo?aeueiie, ii n?aaiaieth n yia?aaoeeie
ae?oaeo no?ai.

A yoie nayce i?iaeaeaeaiea ?inneeneiai aaca a Caiaaeioth Aa?iio,
eacaeinue au, aeieaeii oieueei i?eaaonoaiaaoueny, eai yoi nieceo iauaiu
eniieueciaaiey iacooa e oaey a yia?aaoeea aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa, a
cia/eo e icaei?iaeo yeieiae/aneoth ianoaiiaeo. Ii i?ioeaiaeaenoaea
“Aaci?iio” ni noi?iiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ei?ii?aoeee a yoii ieaia i/aiue
aaeeei. A?aiy io a?aiaie aa?iiaeneoth iauanoaaiiinoue aoaei?aaeao
niiauaiey, /oi ?inneeneay aaciaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue yaeyaony enoi/ieeii
aunieiai o?iaiy iaoaiiauo yiennee, eioi?ua yeiau aeinoeaatho 7-8% io
iauaia o?ainii?oe?oaiiai a Aa?iio nu?uey. Caiaaeiua o/aiua n/eoatho, /oi
iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea iaoaia ia aeinoa?o, a 20-25 ?ac neeueiaa /ai
oaeaeeneiai aaca. E anee i?e aeiau/a eee o?ainii?oe?iaea iaoaia iioa?e
ninoaaeytho 5% io iauaia, oi a?aae io yoiai ianoieueei aaeee, /oi
yeieiae/anee aaciianiaa Aa?iia eniieueciaaoue a yia?aaoeea iacoo.

A 1997 aiaeo aua?inu a?aaeiuo aauanoa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ?AI “Aaci?ii”
ninoaaee 2 345,2 oun. o, ooa/ee a aoiinoa?o – 2 ie?ae. eoa.i.
i?e?iaeiiai aaca. Oaeei ia?acii iauea iioa?e i?e?iaeiiai aaca ia aai
i?aaei?eyoeyo ia i?aauneee 1,5% io iauaai iauaia o?ainii?oe?oaiiai
nu?uey. A neooe i ?inneeneeo o?oaii?iaiaeao, “onayiiuo aeu?eaie, eae
oaaeoea?neee nu?”, ieacaeenue ia aieaa /ai aeiiuneaie.

Ia?ieeiaue yooaeo e ?uiie aaciiioi?iiai oiieeaa. E niaeaeaieth, ?uiie
aaciiioi?iiai oiieeaa ?ac?ooaaony i?e anae aai yeiiiie/aneie e
yeieiae/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe. Oioy ia?aaiae iaeiie ouny/e aaoiiiaeeae
ia naeaoue i?e?iaeiue aac iicaieyao caianoeoue ieiei naie ouny/ oiii
aaiceia a aiae e aeaao nouanoaaiioth i?eaueue. Ia?aiai?oaeiaaiea
aaoiiiaeey a caaeneiinoe io aai oeia aeey ?aaiou ia aaca ieoiaaony io
oanoe ianyoeaa aei aeaoo eao. I?e yoii eaaeaeue aaoiiiaeeue, ?aaioathuee
ia i?e?iaeiii aaca, nie?auaao a?aaeiua aua?inu a aoiinoa?o oaeaeeneiai
aaca a iyoue ?ac, a ieeneia acioa – a 2,5 ?aca. Iaaei iiiieoue, /oi
caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu io eniieueciaaiey aaiceia e aeecaeueiiai
oiieeaa ninoaaeyao 19 ieeeeiiia oiii a?aaeiuo aua?inia a aiae ii anae
?innee. Eniieueciaaiea aea i?e?iaeiiai aaca ia aaoio?ainii?oa i?e iieiie
caa?ocea oieueei aeaenoaothuae naoe AAIEN iicaieeei au nieceoue yoe
aua?inu aieaa /ai ia 10%. Ii ?an/aoai caiaaeiuo niaoeeaeenoia, oeaia
i?e?iaeiiai aaca ia o?aoue ieaea oeaiu yeaeaaeaioiiai iauaia aaiceia, o
ian aaeieieno?aoeaiui iooai iia onoaiiaeaia ia o?iaia 50 i?ioeaioia. Ii
ia a yoii eiia/ii, aeaei. Aeieacuaaoue, /oi eniieueciaaiea aaca a
ea/anoaa iioi?iiai oiieeaa yeiiiie/anee aieaa yooaeoeaii, yeieiae/anee
/eua e a eiia/iii n/aoa oeo/oaao n?aaeo iaeoaiey iaoeo a?aaeaeai, iao
niunea – yoi i/aaeaeii.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ana eaiaeeaeaou a i?aceaeaiou Aia?eee iaauatho
ieacuaaoue iiaeaea?aeeo ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aii ii ?anoe?aieth i?eiaiaiey
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aeaeia oiieeaa, a i?aceaeaio Eeeioii aeaaea ioeoeeaeueii
cayaee, /oi iaia?ai iieacaoue ee/iue i?eia? e acaeeoue ia aaoiiiaeea n
eniieueciaaieai “aieoaiai” oiieeaa. A Aa?iia i?aeoe/anee yeieiae/anee
/enoue AIA ieacaeny ianoieueei i?anoeaeiui, /oi oeaiu ia iaai
iiaenei/eee ia 7000 ia?ie ii n?aaiaieth n iau/iui aaiceiiaui aaoiiiaeeai
yoie oe?iu. Iaeiaei ai anao no?aiao nouanoaoao ?acaeoay nenoaia
aaicieieiiie. Nicaeaiea nenoaiu aaciauo cai?aaie o?aaoao n?aaenoa, e ia
iaeuo. Iio?aaeoaeue aea eoieo aaoiiiaeeue, ?aaioathuee ia aaciaii
oiieeaa, oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee cai?aaea ia aoaeao aeinoaaeyoue aio
oeiiio, a noieiinoue aaca a ea/anoaa ai?th/aai aoaeao ieaea aaiceia.

Aaoiiiaeee ia aaca iiaoo cia/eoaeueii oeo/oeoue yeieiae/aneoth
ianoaiiaeo a Iineaa – iaeiii ec naiuo caa?yciaiiuo ai?iaeia Aa?iiu.
Oe?ia AIA aioiaa i?iaeaaaoue iaoeiu n aaciauie aeaeaaoaeyie ii
naaanoieiinoe, ie/aai ia ca?aaaouaay ia yoii, a iaiai ia aiciiaeiinoue
?aeeaiu a Iineaa. Aanue ie? ociae au, /oi Iineaa ia/aea ?aaioo ii
i/enoea ai?iaeneiai aicaeooa e ia?aoea ia aaoiiiaeee, ?aaioathuea ia
i?e?iaeiii aaca. Yoi auei au auaiaeii e aeey Iineau e aeey oe?iu AIA.
I?ia?aiia ia?aoiaea ia yeieiae/anee aieaa /enoua aaciaua aeaeaaoaee
eiiiaieae “Eaoa?ieeea?” ai iiiaii aucaaia icaai/aiiinoueth ea/anoaii
ie?oaeathuaai ian aicaeooa e ?anoiaeaie, eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony ianoe i?e
naeeaaiee i?aaie/aneeo oiieea.

?ieue ?innee a aeaiiie?iaaiee oaea?iaea aoiinoa?u. A ioeaiea ia?niaeoea
iaoaai o/anoey a inouanoaeaiee eiiaaioeeiiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa e, a
/anoiinoe, ?inneeneiai aeeaaea a aeiaaeueiia iaeiieaiea aeaoieene
oaea?iaea a aoiinoa?a, iniaia ianoi caieiatho eiathueany oieeaeueiua
i?e?iaeiua oaeoi?u ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee – niiniaiinoue eaniuo ianneaia
e aieio naycuaaoue eee “eiina?ae?iaaoue” aoiinoa?iue oaea?iae. Ec iauaai
iauaia iaoeo aua?inia a 650-700 iei. o. oaea?iaea a aiae a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy aei 30% yiennee iiaeiuaaony eanaie. Oaeei ia?acii, aeiaeaiea
n?aaenoa a eiiieaen eaniono?ieoaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee a ?innee iiaeao
ieacaoueny iaeaieaa ?aioaaaeueiui n oi/ee c?aiey eiiiainaoeee
aio?iiiaaiiuo aua?inia aeaoieene oaea?iaea.

Iaeiaei eiathony na?ueaciua i?aoaicee e eaniaiae/aneei ioeaieai
aeaiiie?iaaiey oaea?iaea, eioi?ua oaea i?aaenoaaeaiu io eiaie ?innee
aeey eniieueciaaiey a ?an/aoao acaeiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa no?ai o/anoieoe
eiiaaioeee ii aeiaaeueiiio eeeiaoo. I?e eo ?an/aoa niaoeeaeenou eaniiai
aaaeiinoaa iie?aeenue ia ioeai/ioth oi/eo c?aiey eanicaaioiaeoaeae,
niaeanii eioi?ie eanii n/eoaaony eeoue ae?aaaneia. A iieiii
niioaaonoaee n yoei oacenii aue iiaen/eoai eeoue oaea?iae
aeeoioee?iaaiiue a ae?aaaneia. I?e yoii aac aieiaiey inoaeinue
aeaiiie?iaaiea oaea?iaea a eaniii iiaaea, ia?oaie ae?aaaneia e
iiaenoeeea e aieioaie ooiae?iaie e eaniie cii. Ii ioeaieai i?io. A.A.
Caaa?ceia iiaeiuaiea aeaoieene oaea?iaea aieioiuie nenoaiaie a i?ioeanna
oi?oiia?aciaaiey iiaeao ninoaaeyoue aei 200 iei.o. oaea?iaea a aiae.
O/ao eeoue yoeo aeaoo oaeoi?ia nouanoaaiii iiauoaao ioeaieo ?iee ?innee
a aeiaaeueiii ?aaoee?iaaiee eeeiaoa. Iiaeiaiay iaa?aaeiinoue ?an/aoia
iiaeao aiineaaenoaee aei?iai (a i?yiii yeiiiie/aneii niunea) iaieoenue
no?aia. O?oaeii ?ann/eouaaoue ia iiieiaiea e aaeaeaaoiua eiiiainaoeee
ie?iaui niiauanoaii e ?acaeouie no?aiaie oneeee ?innee ii nio?aiaieth
eania, anee i?inoaeoee o/ao yoeo aeiaaeueiuo ?ano?nia aeaao iia?aoiinoe,
i?aauoathuea aaee/eio oao eiiiainaoeee, ia eioi?ua ai?aaa ?ann/eouaaoue
?inney eae eaniay aea?aeaaa a iaeaieueoae noaiaie iaania/eaathuay
iiaeaea?aeaiea aeiaaeueiie onoie/eainoe ieaiaou.

Iciiiaue neie – iioa?e e auaiaeu ioaeaeueiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae.
?ieue i?iaeaiu “iciiiauo aeu?” a i?ioeanna niaiu oeaeiai iieieaiey
oieiaeeeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey oi?ioi ecaanoia. I/aaeaeii, /oi eiiiaiee
i?iecaiaeyuea iiaia oieiaeeeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea iaieioi ia iai
ca?aaioaee. Iaeiaei naycue iaaeaeo aicieeiiaaieai “iciiiauo aeu?” e
aua?inaie o?aiiia a aoiinoa?o eae auea oae e inoaaony iao/ii ia
aeieacaiiie. Iineaaeiea enneaaeiaaiey o/aiuo aaieiae/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa
IAO eiaie I.A.Eiiiiiniaa iicaieeee aeaoue i?eioeeieaeueii iiaia
iauyniaiea i?e/ei ?ac?ooaiey iciiiaiai neiy Caiee. Niaeanii eo aeaiiui
aeiiaaou aeoaeiiua iioiee aiaei?iaea e iaoaia ec ?aceiiia
n?aaeeiii-ieaaie/aneeo o?aaoia e o?auei iaoa?eeiauo ieaooi?i. Iauai
aacia, auaeaeythueony ec yoeo enoi/ieeia, ieieioi ia /aou?a ii?yaeea
auoa iauaiia i?iiuoeaiiuo aua?inia o?aiiiauo aacia.

Ii iiaieth ioa/anoaaiiuo o/aiuo, “thaeiua eiioeu ieaaie/aneeo o?aaoia
iaeaieaa aeoeaiu ii aua?inai aacia”. Iie niaaeeiythony iaaeaeo niaie a
?aeiia Aioa?eoeaeu, /oi iauyniyao aicieeiiaaiea Aioa?eoe/aneie iciiiaie
aiiiaeee. Oaeaea auyaeaiu aua o?e iaeaieaa onoie/eaua iciiiaua aeu?u
Naaa?iiai iieooa?ey – iaae Eneaiaeeae, E?aniui ii?ai e Aaaaeneeie
ino?iaaie. Ana iie ?aniieiaeaiu eae ?ac iaae o/anoeaie iaeaieaa
aeoeaiiai auaeaeaiey aeoaeiiuo aacia. Ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee oaeeie
ianoaie yaeythony aeiaciua ianoi?iaeaeaiey sseooee, iaeanoe a ?aeiia
Aaeeaea e Aaeiai ii?y.

Oio oaeo, /oi ne?uouie ?u/aaaie a aioeo?aiiiaie eaiiaiee auee
eiiia?/aneea eioa?anu iiaeoaa?aeaeathony neaaeothuei i?eia?ii. Oae a
Einoeoooa eiaie Eo?/aoiaa ?ac?aaioaee oaoiieiaeth i?iecaiaenoaa
iciiiaaciianiie niane, eioi?ay iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny aac
ia?aiai?oaeiaaiey nouanoaothueo ono?ienoa. Iaeiaei eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u
i?aaeeaaatho aeaiueae iiae ?aeiino?oeoeeth i?aaei?eyoee, ii n
eniieueciaaieai iai?oaeiaaiey eie ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo oe?i e n aoaeoueie
iinoaaeaie oeaaeaaaioa eo ia?ee. Niioaaonoaaiii ?inney iieo/eea caai, a
o./. ia ia?aiai?oaeiaaiea i?iecaiaenoa oieiaeeeueiuo onoaiiaie. Yoi oaea
yeiiiie/aneay ai?ueaa. E yeieiae/aneee aniaeo noae i/aiue na?ueaciui
oaeoi?ii aeaaeaiey ia yeiiiie/aneii ?uiea.

ENIIEUeCIAAIEA YEIEIAE*ANEEO I?IAEAI AeEss AeINOEAEAIEss YEIIIIE*ANEEO
OeAEAE I?E IAAEAeOIA?IAeIII NIO?OAeIE*ANOAA

A Aeaeea?aoeee ii ie?oaeathuae n?aaea e ?acaeoeth, i?eiyoie a
?ei-aea-AEaiae?i, cayaeyaony, /oi ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu nio?oaeie/aoue
aeey nicaeaiee ioe?uoie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu, eioi?ay
i?eaaaeao e yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo e onoie/eaiio ?acaeoeth ai anao
no?aiao. Yeieiae/iua e ?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee ii aiciiaeiinoe
aeieaeiu auoue aeinooiiu aeey anao no?ai. Yeieiae/aneay iieeoeea ia
aeieaeia eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaii?aaaeaiiiai ia?aie/aiey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee. Iaeiaei, ii neiaai i?aaenoaaeoaey Aineiieoaoa
?O ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu A.E. Aeaieeiaa-Aeaieeueyia, ?aoaiey
eiioa?aioeee ?ei-92 ia auiieieee ie NOA, ie O?aioeey, Aiaeey e A?aoeey.
Aeaaeaiee I.I.Iienaaa eaeao a naieo ioeaieao ai?acaei aeaeueoa – ii
n/eoaao, /oi ieaiaoa i?aa?auaaony a aaeeioth yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio,
oi?aaeyaioth ?uii/iuie i?eioeeiaie o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee, o.
a. nethieiooiuie auaiaeaie. I?e yoii anaio inoaeueiiio ie?o
?aeiiaiaeothony oaeea yeiiiie/aneea i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua oaea
ai?iae?iaaiu aiaaouie ainoaea?noaaie. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, yoi ioiineony
e oaeei iiiyoeyi eae ioe?uoay eiieo?aioeey, naiaiaeiay oi?aiaey, ioeac
io ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?ioaeoeeiiecia iaoeeiiaeueiuo oiaa?ia, aeanoeea
noaiaea?ou. Iaeiaei aiaae?aiea yoeo nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia oicyenoaiaaiey,
a oii /enea e n iiceoeee nio?aiaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao iaaiciiaeii a neeo ionoonoaey aeinoaoi/iuo
oeiainiauo n?aaenoa e yeiiiie/aneiai iiuoa.

Ai?ueaa aie?oa iio?aaeaiey yia?aee e aua?inia oaeaeeneiai aaca. Oioy a
NOA ian/eouaaaony eeoue 4% aeeoaeae ieaiaou, ia eo aeieth i?eoiaeeony
25% aua?inia oaeaeeneiai aaca, a iio?aaeaiea yia?aee ia aeooo ianaeaiey
oaea iiiai eao iaecia?eii auoa, /ai a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao. Oaeaea
eniieuecoao /oaeea aiciiaeiinoe aeey naieo aaciauo iooiaeia Aa?iaiey.
Eiay eeoue 0,3% eania Caiee e 1% ie?iaiai ianaeaiey, Aa?iaiey auaeaeyao
a aoiinoa?o 4% ieene oaea?iaea i?iiuoeaiiinoueth. Ii iiaieth no?ai THaa,
eiaiii oa, eoi aieueoa ae?oaeo iiaeiai a iaaeaaii?eyoiuo eciaiaieyo
ie?iaiai eeeiaoa (oi anoue a caa?yciaiee aicaeooa e “ia?ieeiaii
yooaeoa”), aeieaeiu aeano/a ia?aie/eoue naay.

Iaeiaei a naiii iiuiii ainoaea?noaa Naaa?a NOA ioaa?aatho iiaeiaioth
eiaeeo. Aai Eiia?ann aaeeiiaeanii aunooiee i?ioea iiaeienaiey ethaiai
niaeaoaiey, eioi?ia neiaaei au ?acaeoea aia?eeaineie yia?aaoeee, aeaaay
iiaeaaeee ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai a iaeanoe ia?aie/aiey aua?inia
oaeaeeneiou a aoiinoa?o. “NOA oioyo ai /oi au oi ie noaei nio?aieoue
naia yeiiiie/aneia i?aainoiaenoai e naie ia?ac aeecie – aeaaea ca n/ao
eioa?ania ie?iaiai niiauanoaa”, – aiai?eo Oiie Aeaeoieia?,
?oeiaiaeeoaeue iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?e?iaeicaueoiiai aeaeaeaiey “Ae?ocuey
Caiee”.

?acee/iue iiaeoiae e yeieiae/aneei i?iaeaiai, e iniaaiii naycaiiui n iei
iaycaoaeuenoaai, auyaeeny ia ano?a/a “aieueoie ainueia?ee” a Aeaiaa?a e
ia iineaaeiaaaoae ca iae niaoeeaeueiie nannee Aaia?aeueiie Annaiaeae
III a Iueth-Ei?ea. A ?acoeueoaoa iaeanoi/aiiuo nii?ia, ec-ca eioi?uo
niaoeeaeueiay nanney cae?ueanue ia oeaeua nooee iicaea iaia/aiiiai
n?iea, auea i?eiyoa ?anieua/aoay ?aciethoeey, ?aoothuay ca
“cia/eoaeueiia” nie?auaiea aua?inia oaeaeeneiou. A aio oiiieiaiea i 2010
a. en/acei aiana. ?aciethoeey naiaoa NOA, i?eo?i/aiiay e aiiineie
ano?a/a, iieacaea, /oi Aaoeiaoii ia oieueei ia iaia?ai eaeoe aeaeueoa
aeiaiai?aiiinoae a ?ei-aea-AEaiae?i, ii ii nouanoao ioeacuaaaony io ieo.

I?iaeaaea eaio ia aua?inu ia?ieeiauo aacia. O ?innee iiyaeeanue
oieeaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeaaaoue aicaeoo. ssiiineia i?aaeoaeuenoai
ana?ueac ?anniao?eaaao aiciiaeiinoue aueoia o ?innee iaeniieueciaaiiie
/anoe eaiou ia aua?inu a aoiinoa?o “ia?ieeiauo aacia”, onoaiiaeaiiie
eiioa?aioeeae III ii i?iaeaiai aeiaaeueiiai iioaieaiey. Ia i?ioaaeoae a
eiioea 1997 aiaea a ssiiiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee III ii
aeiaaeueiiio iioaieaieth aia?aua auee /aoei ii?aaeaeaiu iaycaoaeuenoaa
ainoaea?noa ii nie?auaieth aua?inia a aoiinoa?o oae iacuaaaiuo
ia?ieeiauo aacia. A niioaaonoaee n i?ioieieii eiioa?aioeee ssiiiey
aeieaeia nie?aoeoue yoe aua?inu ia 6% ii n?aaiaieth n o?iaiai 1990
aiaea. Eaaeaeue i?ioeaio nieaeaiey aua?inia – yoi ia?iiiua cao?aou aeey
ainoaea?noaa, naycaiiua n nie?auaieai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
ia?aoiaeii e aieaa niaa?oaiiui oaoiieiaeyi. Aaeeinoaaiiue auoiae
i?aaeoaeuenoai ssiiiee aeaeeo oaia?ue a i?eia?aoaiee eaio,
iaaeieniieueciaaiiuo ae?oaeie no?aiaie. Iai?eia?, o ?innee, eioi?ay a
?acoeueoaoa niaaea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ieacaeanue a aieaa
auaiaeiii iieiaeaiee e aeaaea ?aniieaaaao iaeioi?ui ?aca?aii ia i?aai
caa?yciyoue ieaiaoo. Aeey ?innee yoa naeaeea noaea au i/aiue auaiaeiie:
ai-ia?auo, yiiioeu iiaeneaaeoo, eae oniaa?oainoaiaaoue ?inneeneea
oaoiieiaee e nieceoue aua?in aacia, a ai-aoi?uo, aua e caieaoyo iai ca
eceeoae eaiou. Ii iiaeii auoue oaa?aiiui, /oi a neiaeeaoaeny
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee oeiainiaua iinooieaiey ii yoei eaiaeai a?yae ee
iieaeoo ia i?e?iaeiio?aiiua ioaeaeu.

Ia?aaiae “a?yciie” i?iiuoeaiiinoe ec ?acaeouo no?ai a ?acaeaathueany. A
ia?eiae 1970-90-o aa. auee i?aaei?eiyou, i?e/ai aeiaieueii oniaoiua,
iiiuoee nicaeaiey “yeieiae/aneeo iacenia” a ioaeaeueiuo ?acaeouo no?aiao
iooai yeieiae/aneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoiaeia, aaaaeaiey aeanoeeo yeieiae/aneeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia. Yoi
i?eaaei e ia?aaiaeo iayeieiae/iie aeayoaeueiinoe a oa no?aiu, aaea oaeeo
ia? eeai ia auei, eeai iie auee iaiaa aeanoeeie. Iai?eia?, a ssiiiee
auee i?aaei?eiyou oeaeaiai?aaeaiiua ia?u ii ia?aiino ca ?oaaae
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, caa?yciythuae ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo.
I?yiua yiiineea ca?oaaaeiua eiaanoeoeee a oeie/aneoth e
iaoaeei-ia?a?aaaouaathuoth io?anee ?acaeaathueony no?ai aic?inea n 13,5%
a eiioea 1974 aei 17,9% a eiioea 1983 a. I?e/ai o?e /aoaa?oe yiiineeo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a yoe io?anee naycaiu n ?acaeaathueieny no?aiaie.
Oaia?ue aea yoe no?aiu, a eioi?uo nae/an eniieuecotho iayeieiae/iua
oaoiieiaee, iaaeiythony a oooaeoaiee yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee a ie?a,
oioy iie /anoi i?eiaiytho eiii?oiua oaoiieiaee e i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeey ia?aoiaea ia oa aea oaoiieiaee nio?aiaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu,
eioi?ua nae/an eniieuecotho ?acaeoua no?aiu ie?a, a ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao iao oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Ii aeaiiui iaiaoeeiai Einoeoooa
yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai e yeiiiieee, ia aeiaaaeaiea ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu a Ainoi/iie Aa?iaiee aei noaiaea?oia iiaiai iauaaeeiaiiiai
ainoaea?noaa iio?aaoaony 10 eao e 249-308 ie?ae. $. A Iieueoa e
*aoineiaaeee n/eoatho, /oi eaaeaeie ec ieo i?eaeaony iio?aoeoue ia
aiaeiae/iua ia?ii?eyoey aieaa 20 ie?ae. $. a oa/aiee ianeieueeeo
aeanyoeeaoee. Ii e yoe ne?iiiua n?aaenoaa aoaeao cao?oaeieoaeueii iaeoe
a neiaeeaoeony oneiaeyo. Ii caeeth/aieth eiinaeoeiaiaie oe?iu Management
Information Services, Inc. (Aaoeiaoii), a NOA a i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa
eiio?iey ca ninoiyieai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, ai?ueau n ?acee/iuie aeaeaie
caa?yciaiey e a naiie i?e?iaeiio?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe caiyoi ii/oe 3
iei. /ae., eioi?ua iaania/eaatho 98 ie?ae. $. aiaeiaiai aeioiaea. Aeey
iieo/aiey oaeeo aeioiaeia no?aiai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue
nianoaaiioth eiaeono?eth n?aaenoa caueou i?e?iaeu, eeai caiyoue aeaiaa o
aiaaouo no?ai.

?ieue ca?oaaaeiuo eiaanoeoeee a cae?aieaiee i?e?iaei?ac?ooathuae
i?eaioaoeee yeiiiieee ?innee. Nia?aiaiiay no?oeoo?a eiaanoeoeee
cae?aieyao i?e?iaeiaieee oei ?acaeoey ?innee ia ia?niaeoeao, o. e.
cia/eoaeueiay e aieaa aunieay – ii n?aaiaieth n 80-ie aa. /anoue
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee iai?aaeyaony a i?e?iaeiyenieoaoe?othuea
eiiieaenu, i?aaeaea anaai oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee e aa?ii?iiuoeaiiue.
I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu ?innee, i?aaeaea anaai iaooue, aac, ean, ?oaeu
yaeythony eiieo?aioiui oiaa?ii ia ie?iaii ?uiea e aeatho ia?iiioth
aaethoioth i?eaueue yenii?oa?ai. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai e?aaeeoia
Ie?iaiai Aaiea, eiaanoeoeee aaaeoueo caiaaeiuo eiiiaiee, iai?aaeythony
i?aaeaea anaai a oaaee/aiea aeiau/e yia?ai?ano?nia, a iniiaiii, iaooe e
aaca. Eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu iiaeaaeythuay /anoue eiaanoeoeee – ii/oe 80
i?ioeaioia – iai?aaeyaony a oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee eiiieaen. Ia eaeouea
ia aoi?ii ianoa io?anee oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey cao?a/aii ia 12
?ac iaiueoa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ioiioaiee e ?innee ana aieaa caiaoia iiiuoea
eniieueciaaoue iaoo no?aio eeoue eae nu?ueaaie i?eaeaoie ?acaeoiai
Caiaaea, i?e yoii iaeiaeea yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue yenii?oa?ia
nu?uey, aea e aioiauo oiaa?ia, aeanoeeie yeieiae/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie.
Aac cia/eoaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia iu ia a ninoiyiee auiieieoue yoe
o?aaiaaiey aac ?ac?ooaiey naieo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae. Ian
oieeatho ii aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiiio iooe auoiaea ec aeaiiie neooaoeee –
acyoeth ana iiauo e?aaeeoia.

A ?acoeueoaoa aeanoeeo o?aaiaaiee e ea/anoao e yeieiae/iinoe i?iaeoeoeee
a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia ?inneeneea i?iecaiaeeoaee auioaeaeaiu inaaeaaoue
?uiee Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu, A?aoeee e Oo?oeee. Ai-ia?auo iie oyaioatho e
?innee enoi?e/anee; ai-aoi?uo, auaiaeiu n oi/ee c?aiey o?ainii?oiie
ninoaaeythuae. Anoue aua Eeoae, ii yoi ?uiie ia noaaeeueiue: eiiaaea
caeoiatho iiiai, eiiaaea i?aeoe/anee ie/aai.

Eniieueciaaiea yeieiae/aneeo a?aoiaioia a ai?ueaa ei?ii?aoeee ca ?uiee.

Ioiioaiea oiieeaiuo eiiiaiee e yeieiae/aneiio oaeoi?o. Aeayoaeueiinoue
o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee yaeyaony iaeaieaa iiuiui nia?aiaiiui
oaeoi?ii i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeu, o.e. iia iai?aaeaia ia eioaineaiia e
ianooaaiia eniieueciaaiea iniiaiuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia caiee, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue, oaeaaiaei?iaeiiai nu?uey e ?oaeu. Aeoeaiia aiaea/aiea a
i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo (oaieue,
iaooue, aac) ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia anth ianoaiiaeo ia
ieaiaoa, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, /a?ac aeiaaeueiua eciaiaiey eeeiaoa.
Iniciaiea aaaeiinoe aeey nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee
iineaaenoaee yoiai i?ioeanna, ?aaeecaoeey i?aeoe/aneeo ia? ii
nie?auaieth aua?inia oaeaeeneiai aaca, ia/eiatho aeeyoue ia
no?aoaae/aneea ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aaaeoueo oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo
eiiiaiee ie?a. Eo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaea iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa
a?oiiu: ia?aay aeeth/aao ei?ii?aoeee, iniciaaoea aaaeiinoue aeiaaeueiuo
eciaiaiee eeeiaoa, e oao, eoi i?iaeieaeaao eaii?e?iaaoue yoo i?iaeaio.

E ia?aui iiaeii ioianoe iaooyiua OIE, aace?othueany a Aa?iia – i?aaeaea
anaai Shell, Britich Petrolium. Yoo iiceoeeth ?acaeaeytho e iaeioi?ua
yiiineea oe?iu, oaeea eae Marubeni e Mitsubishi, eioi?ua i?iyaeytho
eioa?an e i?iaeoai ii nie?auaieth aua?inia ia?ieeiauo aacia. A 1996 a.
Britich Petrolium, auaeaeioea i?ia?aiio ?acaeoey nieia/iie yia?aee eae
iaeii ec /aou?ao iai?aaeaiee no?aoaaee ii i?aaeioa?auaieth aeiaaeueiuo
eeeiaoe/aneeo eciaiaiee. Yoi auei ?anoeaiaii iiiaeie a ie?a oi?ioei
ioaaoii ia i?ecuau i?aaei?eieiaoue i?aaaioeaiua ia?u i?ioea aeiaaeueiiai
eciaiaiey eeeiaoa. E?iia oiai, iiaeiaiay yeieiae/aneay i?ia?aiia
iaaa?iyea noaiao oi?ioae ?aeeaiie e iicaieeo eiiiaiee “ioaiaaaoue” o
eiieo?aioia /anoue caeac/eeia. Oai ia iaiaa “A?eiien” n/ae i?ia?aiio
Britich Petrolium “ia?aie/aiiie”. I?aaenoaaeoaee aai a?eoaineiai
ioaeaeaiey cayaeee, /oi “aa?anneaiua” ?ac?aaioee Britich Petrolium a
Aoeaioe/aneii ieaaia e Aioa?eoeea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi eiiiaiey
ia niae?aaony i?aaeioa?auaoue iianiua eeeiaoe/aneea eciaiaiey
iin?aaenoaii iinoaiaiiiai nie?auaiey iio?aaeaiey eneiiaaiiai oiieeaa.

E aoi?ie a?oiia ei?ii?aoeee, a eiaiii, io?eoeathueo aaaeiinoue i?iaeaiu
aeiaaeueiuo eciaiaiee eeeiaoa e ia aeaiiino?e?othueo eaeeo-eeai
eiino?oeoeaiuo oaaia a yoie noa?a ioiinyony aace?othueany a NOA
Exxon-Mobil, Chevron, Texaco. Iaeaieaa “a?yciuie” a ieaia aua?inia oae
iacuaaaiuo ia?ieeiauo aacia yaeyaony oaieue. A ni/aoaiee ni
cia/eoaeueiuie aua?inaie ae?oaeo caa?ycieoaeae, nicaeathueo “eeneioiua
aeiaeaee”, yeieiae/aneay ?aiooaoeey eae naiie oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oae e aace?othueony ia eniieueciaaiee oaey yia?aaoeee,
auaeyaeyo iaeaieaa ieioi. E?iia oiai, oaieueiay io?aneue o?aaeeoeeiiii
ai anai ie?a n/eoaaony yeiiiie/anee iaei yooaeoeaiie. Yoi aaaeao e
naa?ouaaieth oaeaaeiau/e a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey a oaeeo no?aiao eae
Aa?iaiey, O?aioeey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy oaieue aoaeao yaeyoueny iniiaie yia?aaoeee oaeeo e?oiiuo
auno?i ?acaeaathueony no?ai, eae Eiaeey e Eeoae. Eo i?eaioaoeey ia
eniieueciaaiea nianoaaiiuo caiania aaaeao e aicieeiiaaieth i?ioeai?a/ee
n ?acaeouie no?aiaie ie?a a ioiioaiee e i?iaeaia aeiaaeueiuo eciaiaiee
eeeiaoa. O?aaiaaiea Eiaeee e Eeoay e ie?iaiio niiauanoao n i?eciaieai
i?aaa yoeo no?ai ia ?acaeoea eo yia?aaoeee ia iniiaa eiathueony o
ieo e?oiiuo caiania oaey oae aea eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec
iniiaiuo a?aoiaioia NOA a ii?aaaeaiee naiaai iaaeaeaiey i?eieiaoue
?aaeueiua ia?u ii nieaeaieth aua?inia ia?ieeiauo aacia.

No?aiu, eniieuecothuea oaieue a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai nu?uey aeey
yia?aaoeee, aoaeoo eiaoue ?aiooaoeeth yeieiae/anee “a?yciuo”. Ii ia?a
ia?anoaiey ino?iou i?iaeaiu aeiaaeueiuo eciaiaiee eeeiaoa, yoio “y?eue”
aoaeao ia?aiineoueny ia ethaua oiaa?u, yenii?oe?oaiua ec ainoaea?noa,
yeiiiieea eioi?uo aace?oaony ia oaieueiie oaieiyia?aaoeea.

Yeieiae/aneea a?aoiaiou e ?acaeoea aoiiiie yia?aaoeee a ?innee
(?inoianeay iaeanoue). Ia iaiaa i?iaeaiaoe/ia e “yeieiae/aneay
oa?aeoa?enoeea” aoiiiie yia?aaoeee. Iinea *a?iiaueueneie eaoano?iou ai
iiiaeo ?aaeiiao auee i?ae?auaiu no?ieoaeueiua i?iaeou AYN. A /anoiinoe,
?inoianeee iaeanoiie Niaao ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia a ethia 1990 aiaea ia
2-ie nannee 21-ai nicuaa i?eiye ?aoaiea: “… n o/aoii iiaiey aeeoaeae
iaeanoe e ii eieoeeaoeaa nannee ianoiuo Niaaoia n/eoaoue no?ieoaeuenoai
AYN ia oa??eoi?ee ?inoianeie iaeanoe ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia
iaaeiionoeiui.” Ainaiue eao ?aaeii iaoiaeeony aac AYN. ?aaeiiaeueiua
iiae?acaeaeaiey ?AI AYN ?innee ec ninaaeieo iaeanoae e ianoiua
i?iecaiaeeoaee yeaeo?iyia?aee iieo/atho i?eaueue. Nio?aieeenue iiceoeee
OYN e oaieueiuo eioaeueiuo ia ?uiea oaiei e yeaeo?iyia?aee, ii aic?inee
aua?inu a aoiinoa?o. Noieiinoue yeaeo?iyia?aee aeey ?inoianeie iaeanoe
naaiaeiy ninoaaeyao 450 ?oaeae/eAo; aei 78% iaiaoiaeeiie ae yia?aee
iaeanoue “eiii?oe?oao”. Aeey n?aaiaiey: noieiinoue yeaeo?iyia?aee io AYN
eae ieieioi a o?e ?aca iaiueoa; iaeei eeoue aeie ?iAYN iia au
au?aaioaoue 6 ie?ae. eAo a aiae. Aunieay eiioeaio?aoeey oaeaaeiauaathueo
e eniieuecothueo oaieue a ea/anoaa oiieeaa i?aaei?eyoee a ?inoianeie
iaeanoe i?eaaea e oiio, /oi o?iaaiue i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaieaaaiee
caeanue auoa n?aaeiaai ii ?innee a 4 ?aca. E yoi ia niio?y ia oi, /oi
/enei ?aaioathueo i?aaei?eyoee a iaeanoe n eaaeaeui aiaeii oiaiueoaaony.
I?e yoii eiee/anoai iieiaieueiuo a iaeanoe aic?anoaao ec aiaea a aiae:
ia naaiaeiy eo 70 oun. /aeiaae, /oi ia 7,3% aieueoa, /ai 5 eao iacaae.

YEIEIAE*ANEEA I?IAEAIU EAE YEAIAIO I?IECAIAeNOAAIIIE IIEEOEEE

Oaeanoi/aiea yeieiae/aneeo o?aaiaaiee e i?iaeoeoeee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio
i?ioeanno – ?aaeee nia?aiaiiiai ?uiea, n eioi?uie iaeuecy ia n/eoaoueny.
Iaania/eoue eo auiieiaiea iiaeii oieueei iin?aaenoaii yeieiaecaoeee
naiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aieaa oiai, ana /aua ca?oaaaeiue iieoiaoaeue
i?iaa?yao ia oieueei yeieiae/aneia ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, ii e
yeieiae/aneea oneiaey aa i?iecaiaenoaa (aeaaea nu?uey). Ca ii?aaeaieai a
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa ia aiaoiai ?uiea ana /aua neaaeoao auoaniaiea n
aioo?aiiaai. Aeey i?aaei?eyoey i?aiaa?aaeaiea yeieiaeae naaiaeiy – yoi
yeiiiie/aneee e?ao caao?a.

?ieue eiieo?aioeee a nieaeaiee yeieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.
Eeaa?aeecaoeey yeiiiieee, ii eaeaa, aeieaeia niinianoaiaaoue
i?iieeiiaaieth a i?iecaiaenoai nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee, a oii /enea e
i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo. Iaeiaei ianoiua i?iecaiaeeoaee, eiieo?e?othuea n aieaa
aeaoaaie eiii?oiie i?iaeoeoeeae, /anoi auioaeaeaiu caiaiyoue
yeieiae/anee /enoua, ii aei?iainoiyuea niiniau i?iecaiaenoaa, ia aieaa
aeaoaaua e yeieiae/anee a?yciua. I?iecaiaeeoaeyi, eioi?ua ia
eniieuecotho yenoaineaiua e ?ac?ooeoaeueiua oaoiieiaee, i?eoiaeeony
/a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy cae?uaaoue i?iecaiaenoai, aaeaeo iaaiciiaeiinoe
eiieo?e?iaaoue n aeaoaaie eiii?oiie i?iaeoeoeeae. Iaeaieaa ino?i
yeieiae/aneay a?aoiaioaoeey aiaae?yaony a ?uii/iua acaeiiaeaenoaey
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, aoiaae, auoiaie oeiee
e ae?.

Oinoaou a noe?aeueiuo ii?ioeao e “oeaaoaiea aiaeiaiia”. Iaeiei ec y?eeo
i?eia?ia “na?anuaaiey” a ?inneth onoa?aaoeo, eiathueo yeieiae/aneea
iineaaenoaey, oaoiieiaee, eioi?ua oaea ia eniieuecothony a ?acaeouo
no?aiao, yaeyaony oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa noe?aeueiuo ii?ioeia. Aieueoa
iieiaeiu noe?aeueiuo ii?ioeia, eioi?ua ?aeeaie?othony a ?innee,
niaea?aeao iniai iianiia aeey aiaeiuo yeinenoai aauanoai – o?eiieeoinoao
iao?ey (OII). Aai niaea?aeaiea a ii?ioeao eieaaeaony io 15 aei 40 %. OIO
ia oeaaeeaaaony aeaaea naiuie nia?aiaiiuie i/enoiuie nii?oaeaieyie.
Iiiaaeay a ?aee e ica?a OII ia/eiaao aeaenoaiaaoue ia aiaeioth
?anoeoaeueiinoue eae oaeia?aiea. Anaai 1 a?aii o?eiieeoinoaoa iao?ey
noeioee?oao ia?aciaaiea 5-10 ea. aiaei?ineae! O/aiua n/eoatho, /oi
nae/an ?inneyia o?aoyo aaeaaiaeii ieiei 1 iei. o. noe?aeueiiai ii?ioea.
Oaeei ia?acii, a ?inneeneea ?aee, ica?a e ii?y iiiaaeaao 300-400 ouny/
oiii o?eiieeoinoaoa iao?ey.

Ai iiiaeo no?aiao auione ii?ioeia n eniieueciaaieai oinoaoia nia/aea
ia?aie/eee, a iioii e aiana cai?aoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Aa?iaiee,
Eoaeee, Aano?ee, Ii?aaaee, Oaaeoea?ee e Ieaea?eaiaeao noe?atho oieueei
ii?ioeaie aac oinoaoia. A Aaeueaee aieaa 80% ii?ioeia aacoinoaoiua, a
Aeaiee – 54%, Oeieyiaeee e Oaaoeee – 40, O?aioeee – 30, Aaeeeia?eoaiee e
Eniaiee – 25, A?aoeee e Ii?ooaaeee – 15%. A ssiiiee oaea e 1986 aiaeo a
noe?aeueiuo ii?ioeao oinoaoia ia auei aiiaua.

Acaiai oinoaoia a noe?aeueiua ii?ioee aaiaeyo aeieiae/anee eia?oiua,
yeieiae/anee aaciianiua aauanoaa – oeaieeou. Ii oa aea oe?iu, eioi?ua a
naieo no?aiao auioneatho aanoinoaoiua ii?ioee n oeaieeoii, a ?innee iiae
oaie aea oi?aiauie ia?eaie i?iecaiaeyo ii?ioee n oinoaoaie. Oae, i/aiue
oi?ioi ecaanoiay oe?ia “I?ieoa? yiae Aaiae” o naay a NOA aua a 80-a
aiaeu i?iecaiaeeea “A?eyeue” n oiaiueoaiiui niaea?aeaieai oinoaoia e
aiiaua aac ieo. Iaeiaei aeey ?innee ia i?eiaaeeaaeauai oe?ia
“Iiaiiineianeauooeia” i?iecaiaeeony “A?eyeue”, “Oaeae”, “Oeen”, “Ieo” n
oinoaoaie.

Yeieiae/aneea oaeoi?u e i?iecaiaenoai aaoiiiaeeae. Iaeaieaa aeooaeueiie
naaiaeiy yaeyaony i?iaeaia iaania/aiey yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe
o?ainii?oa /a?ac aeaaeaiea ia i?iecaiaeeoaeae aaoiiiaeeae n oeaeueth
canoaaeoue eo i?eiaiyoue iiaua oaoiieiaee. Oae, n 1993 a. a NOA iiae
aeaaeaieai iauanoaaiiinoe e ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi o/aiuo cai?auaii
i?iecaiaenoai e i?iaeaaea aeaeaaoaeae, ?aaioathueo ia yoeee?iaaiiii
aaiceia, n 1996 a. – i?iaeaaea naiiai aaiceia, a n ieoya?y 1993 a.
cai?auaia i?iaeaaea aeecaeueiiai oiieeaa n niaea?aeaieai na?u auoa
0,05%. I?eiaiyaoeany i?e yoii yeiiiie/aneea ia?u aeaaeaiey aeeth/aee eae
oo?aou ca yenieoaoaoeeth “a?yciuo” aaoiiiaeeae, oae e nouanoaaiiua
oeiainiaua iiiu?aiey (aeioaoeee, ieceii?ioeaioiua nnoaeu, ion?i/ee a
ieaoaaeao, iaeiaiaua eueaiou e o. i.) i?e eniieueciaaiee aaoiiiaeeae,
aeaeaaoaee eioi?uo ?aaioatho ia i?e?iaeiii aaca, iaoaiiea, yoaiiea, e
ae?oaeo yeieiae/anee /enouo aeaeao oiieeaa.

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