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Экономические и социальные проблемы охраны окружающей среды

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Yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu

Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea aa ?ano?nia
a oneiaeyo ao?iiai ?inoa i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa noaea iaeiie ec
aeooaeueiaeoeo i?iaeai nia?aiaiinoe. ?acoeueoaou aicaeaenoaey /aeiaaea
ia i?e?iaeo iaiaoiaeeii ?anniao?eaaoue ia oieueei a naaoa ?acaeoey
oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e ?inoa ianaeaiey, ii e a caaeneiinoe io
nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee, a eioi?uo iie i?iyaeythony. Ioiioaiea e i?e?iaeiie
n?aaea yaeyaony ia?ie nioeeaeueiuo e oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, oa?aeoa?enoeeie o?iaiy oeeaeeecaoeee.
Nio?oaeie/anoai iaaeaeo no?aiaie a iaeanoe io?aiu i?e?iaeu
inouanoaeyaony /a?ac oaeea i?aaiecaoeee eae Aa?iiaeneee yeiiiie/aneee
nithc (AYN), I?aaiecaoeey iauaaeeiaiiuo iaoeee (III) a ?aieao “I?ia?aiiu
III ii ie?oaeathuae n?aaea” (THIAI). E aeaaiui iai?aaeaieyi
aeayoaeueiinoe THIAI ioiinyony yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu ianaeaiiuo
ioieoia, a oaeaea i?iaeaiu caei?iauey e aeaaininoiyiey /aeiaaea, io?aia
iacaiiuo yeinenoai e ai?ueaa n ?ani?ino?aiaieai ionouiue,
aeayoaeueiinoue, naycaiiay n yeieiae/aneei ia?aciaaieai e eioi?iaoeeae,
oi?aiaua,yeiiiie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea aniaeou ii caueoa i?e?iaeu,
caueoa Ie?iaiai ieaaia io caa?yciaiey, io?aia ?anoeoaeueiinoe e aeeeeo
aeeaioiuo, yeieiae/aneea aii?inu yia?aaoeee.

Yeiiiie/aneay i?iaeaia io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu caeeth/aaony a
ioeaiea oua?aa, iaianaiiiiai caa?yciaieai aoiinoa?u, aiaeiuo ?ano?nia,
?ac?aaioeie e eniieueciaaieai iaae?. Yeiiiie/aneee oua?a i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie cao?aou, aicieeathuea aneaaenoaea iiauoaiiiai (naa?o oiai o?iaiy,
i?e eioi?ii ia aicieeaao iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee) caa?yciaiey aicaeooiie
n?aaeu, aiaeiuo ?ano?nia, caiiie iiaa?oiinoe.

Caa?yciaiiay i?e?iaeiay n?aaea iiaeao io?eoeaoaeueii aicaeaenoaiaaoue
ia “?aoeeieaioia” (ethaeae, i?iiuoeaiiua , o?ainii?oiua e
aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiua iauaeou, naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey, eana,
aiaeiaiu e o.i.). Yoe io?eoeaoaeueiua aicaeaenoaey i?iyaeythony a
iniiaiii a iiauoaiee caaieaaaaiinoe ethaeae e oooaeoaiey eo aeeciaiiuo
oneiaee, a nieaeaiee i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeieiae/aneeo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia,
onei?aiey eciina caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee e iai?oaeiaaiey. A nayce n
auoaeceiaeaiiui iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea a?oiiu cao?ao: cao?aou,
iai?aaeaiiua ia i?aaeioa?auaiea a?aaeiiai aicaeaenoaey caa?yciaiiie
ie?ooathuae n?aaeu ia ?aoeeieaioia, e cao?aou, aucuaaaiua yoei
aicaeaenoaeai.

E ia?aie a?oiia ioiinyony cao?aou ia ia?aiauaiea ?aoeeieaioia ca
i?aaeaeu cii eieaeueiuo caa?yciaiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, ia icaeeiaiea
naieoa?ii-caueoiuo cii, ia nii?oaeaiea e yenieoaoaoeeth nenoai i/enoee
aicaeooa, iinooiathuaai a aeeeua iiiauaiey. Cao?aou, ioianaiiua ei
aoi?ie a?oiia, aeeth/atho ?anoiaeu ia iaaeeoeeineia ianeoaeeaaiea
caaieaaoeo io caa?yciaiiiai aicaeooa, iieaoo atheeaoaiee, eiiiainaoeeth
iioa?ue i?iaeoeoeee ec-ca iiauoaiey caaieaaaaiinoe, ia eiiiainaoeeth
nieaeaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeieiae/aneeo caiaeueiuo e aiaeiuo ?ano?nia.

Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue io ia?ii?eyoee,, i?aaeoi?aaeaeathueo
eieaeueiia caa?yyiaiea aicaeooiie N?aaeu “Y1”, iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia
ii neaaeothuaio au?aaeaieth:

Y1 = O+Ae-C ,

aaea O – ?acia?u i?aaeioa?auaaiiai aiaeiaiai oua?aa io caa?yciaiey
aicaeooiie N?aaeu, ?oa., Ae – aiaeiaie aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae io
oeo/oaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey i?e
?aaeecaoeee i?ioeaicaa?yciythueo aicaeoo ia?ii?eyoee, aeeth/ay
?aioaaaeueioth ooeeecaoeeth caa?yciythoeo aauanoa ( aeey ai?iuo
i?aaei?eyoee, a /anoiinoe iaoaia), ?oa., C – i?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou ia
i?aaeioa?auaiea eee nieaeaiea caa?yciaiey aicaeooiie n?aaeu, ?oa. I?e
“C” aieueoa eee ?aaii O+Ae i?ioeaicaa?yciythuea ia?ii?eyoey noaiiayony
yeiiiie/anee iayooaeoeaiuie, iaeiaei iie iiaoo auoue nioeeaeueii
ii?aaaeaiiuie.

Iiieoi?eia eae nenoaia iaaethaeaiey e eiio?iey i?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Iiieoi?eiaii ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iacuaaaony ?aaoey?iua, auiieiyaiua ii
caaeaiiie i?ia?aia iaaethaeaiiey i?e?iaeiuo n?aae, i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia,
?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai ie?a, iicaieythuea auaeaeeoue eo ninoiyiey e
i?ienoiaeyuea a ieo i?ioeannu iiae aeeyieai aio?iiiaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iiae yeieiae/aneei iiieoi?eiaii neaaeoao iiieiaoue i?aaieciaaiiue
iiieoi?eia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, i?e eioi?ii, ai-ia?auo, iaania/eaaaony
iinoiyiiay ioeaiea yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee n?aaeu iaeoaiey /aeiaaea e
aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoia (?anoaiee, aeeaioiuo, iee?ii?aaieciia e oae.), a
oaeaea ioeaiea ninoiyiey e ooieoeeiiaeueiie oeaiiinoe yeinenoaiu,
ai-aoi?uo, nicaeathony oneiaey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ei??aeoe?othueo
aeaenoaee a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea oeaeaaua iieacaoaee yeieiae/aneeo
oneiaee ia aeinoeaathony.

A nenoaio iiieoi?eiaa aeieaeiu aoiaeeoue neaaeothuea iniiaiua
i?ioeaaeo?u:

auaeaeaiea (ii?aaeaeaiea) iauaeoa iaaethaeaiey;

ianeaaeiaaiea auaeaeaiiiai iauaeoa iaaethaeaiey;

ninoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee aeey iauaeoa iaaethaeaiey;

ieaie?iaaiea iaaethaeaiee;

ioeaiea ninoiyiey iauaeoa iaaethaeaiey e eaeaioeoeeaoeey aai
eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee;

i?iaiice?iaaiea eciaiaiey ninoiyiey iauaeoa iaaethaeaiey;

i?aaenoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee a oaeiaiie aeey eniieueciaaiey oi?ia e
aeiaaaeaiey aa aei iio?aaeoaey.

Iniiaiua caaea/e yeieiae/aneai iiieoi?eiaa:

iaaethaeaiea ca enoi/ieeii aioiiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey;

iaaethaeaiea ca oaeoi?ii aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey;

iaaethaeaiea ca ninoiyieai i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu iiae aeeyieai oaeoi?ia
aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey e ioeaiea i?iaiice?oaiiai ninoiyiey
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.

I?e ?ac?iaioea i?iaeoa yeieiae/aneiai iiieoi?eiaa iaiaoiaeeia
neaaeothuay eioi?iaoeey:

enoi/iee iinooieaiey caa?yciythueo aauanoa a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo –
aua?inu caa?yciythueo aauanoa a aiinoa?o i?iiuoeaiiuie, yia?aeoe/aneeie,
o?ainii?oiuie e ae?oaeie iauaeoaie; na?inu noi/iuo aiae a aiaeiua
iauaeou; iiaa?oiinoiua niuau caa?yciythueo e aeiaaiiuo a iiaa?oiinoiua
aiaeu nooe e ii?y; aianaiea ia caiioth iiaa?oiinoue e(eee) a ii/aaiiue
neie caa?yciythueo e aeiaaiiuo aauanoa aianoa n oaeia?aieyie e
yaeioeieeaoaie i?e naeueneioicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;ianoa
caoi?iiaiey e neeaaee?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo e eiiioiaeueiuo
iooiaeia;oaoiiaaiiua aaa?ee, i?eaiaeyuea e aua?ino a aoiinoa?o iianiuo
aauanoa e(eee) ?aceeao aeeaeeeo caa?yciythueo e iianiuo aauanoa, e
o.ae.;

ia?aiinu caa?yciythueo aauanoa – i?ioeannu aoiinoa?iiai ia?aiina;
i?ioeannu ia?aiina e iea?aoeee a aiaeiie n?aaea;

i?ioeannu eaiaeoaooii-aaioeie/aneiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey caa?yciythueo
aauanoa – iea?aoeey caa?yciythueo aauanoa ii ii/aaiiiio i?ioeeth aei
o?iaiy a?oioiauo aiae;iea?aoeey caa?yciythueo aauanoa ii
eaiaeoaooii-aaioeie/aneiio nii?yaeaieth n o/aoii aaioeie/aneeo aa?uea?ia
e aeioeie/aneeo e?oaiai?ioia.Iaaethaeaiey ca yoeie i?ioeannaie
oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue ia?eiaee/anee ia niaoeeaeueii auaeaeaiiie
nenoaia ioieoia: eiio?ieueiua aiaeinai?u – eaoaiu – ieiuaaeee – noai?u;

aeaiiua i ninoiyiey aio?iiiaaiiuo enoi/ieeia yiennee – iiuiinoue
enoi/ieea yiennee e ianoi?aniieiaeaiea aai, aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea oneiaey
iinooieaiey yienneea ie?oaeathuoth naaeo.

Iiieoi?eia caa?yciaiey i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu aace?oaony ia naoe ioieoia
?aaeeiiuo iaaethaeaiee. I?i ninoiyieth ia 1992 a. aa iieacaoaee
oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue neaaeothueie aeaiiuie

Iaaethaeaiey ca o?iaiai caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa

i?iaiaeeeenue a 334 ai?iaeao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ec ieo ?aaoey?ii –
ia noaoeeiia?iuo iinoao a 255 ai?iaeao e iinaeeao, a aieueueinoaa ec
eioi?uo ecia?yeenue eiioeaio?aoeee io 5 aei 25 eia?aaeeaioia. Iauee
iauai ii?aaeaeaiee niaea?aeaiey a?aaeiuo aauanoa a aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa
ai?iaeia e ianaeaiiuo ioieoia ca aiae ninoaaeyao 4 iei. i?ia.

Noaiaiue caa?yciaiey ii/a ioeaieaaaony ii ?acoeueoaoai aieaa 30-50
oun. ii?aaeaeaiee e i?ia, ioae?aaiuo a ioaeaeueiua aiaeu a 300-500
oicyenoaao.

Caa?yciaiea iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae nooe eiio?iee?oaony ii anai iniiaiui
aiaeioieai e aiaeiaiai. Oae, ca 1992 aiae ioia?aii e i?iaiaeeceieaaii
ii/oe 40 oun. i?ia aiaeu, auiieiaii ieiei 950 oun. ii?aaeaeaiee ii 158
aeae?ioeie/aneei iieacaoaeyi.Aeae?iaeieiae/aneeie iaaethaeaieyie auei
ioaa/aii 218 aiaeiuo iauaeoia.

Iaaethaeaiey ca caa?yciaieai ii?neie n?aaeu ii aeae?ioeie/aneei
iieacaoaeyi i?iaiaeeo 623 ii?neea noaioeee.

Naoue noaioeee iaaethaeaiey o?ainiiioiiai ia?aiina a?aaeiuo aauanoa
i?eaioe?iaaia ia caiaaeioth a?aieoeo ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.Ia o?ao
noaioeeyo iaaethaeaiey i?iaiaeeony ioai? i?ia ia aoiinoa?iue ay?icieue,
aeeieneaeu na?u e acioa, a oaeaea ioai? i?ia aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeia.

A ianoiyuea a?aiy ian/eouaaaony ieiei 40 iinoia iaaethaeaiey nenoaiu
eiiieaeniiai iiieoi?eiaa caa?yciaiey i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu e ninoiyiey
eaniie ?anoeoaeueiinoe.

Nenoaia eiio?iey caa?yciaiey niaaeiiai iie?iaa ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
inouanoaeyaony ia 645 iaoainoaioeeyo, ioaaouaay ieiuaaeue 117 iei.ei .A
i?iaao ii?aaeaeyeenue eiiu noeueoaoa, ieo?aoa, aiiiiey, cia/aiey pH, a
oaeaea aaic(a)ie?ai e oyaeaeua iaoaeeu.

Naoue nenoaiu aeiaaeueiiai aoiinoa?iiai oiiiaiai iiieoi?eiaa (AAIIII)
ninoieo noaioeee o?ao oeiia: aaciauo, ?aaeiiaeueiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo n
?anoe?aiiie i?ia?aiiie.

Ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee oanoue noaioeee eiiieaeniiai oiiiaiai iiieoi?eiaa
(NEOI) ?aniieiaeaiu a aeinoa?iuo caiiaaaeieeao.Nicaeaia nenoaia
iiieoi?eiaa aaaeiaeoeo eiiiiiaioia aoiinoa?u: iciia, aeeieneaea
oaea?iaea, iioe/aneie ieioiinoe ay?iciey, oeie/aneiai ninoaaa inaaeeia,
aoiinoa?ii – yeaeo?e/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee. Iaaethaeaiey ca yoeie
eiiiiiaioaie aoiaeyo a iaycaoaeueioth i?ia?aiio enneaaeiaaiee a ?aieao
ANA (aeiaaeueiie neoaeau aoiinoa?u) AAIIII, a aoiaeyuea a ieo noaioeee
yaeythony /anoueth aeiaaeueiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iaaethaeaoaeueiuo
naoae.Iaaethaeaiey ca ?aaeeaoeeiiiie ianoaiiaeie ia oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneie Oaea?aoeee aaaeoony aaeaaeiaaii. Aieaa /ai ia 1300
iaoainoaioeeyo ecia?ythony o?iaie ?aaeeaoeee ia ianoiinoe, ia 300
ioieoao – o?iaie ?aaeeaoeee auiaaeaiee (ia 50 ec ieo – eiioeaio?aoeee).
E?iia oiai, i?iaiaeyony eioaineaiua ?aaiou ii ianeaaeiaaieth oa??eoi?ee,
iino?aaeaaoeo iinea aaa?ee *a?iiaueueneie AYN, a oii /enea iiaeai?iua
ianeaaeiaaiey a ianaeaiiuo ioieoao ia oa??eoi?ee n ieioiinoueth
caa?yciaiey aieaa 5 Ee/ei .

Iaoiaeu eiio?iey caa?yciythueo aauanoa a iauaeoao ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu

Nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu eiio?iey oeie/aneeo aauanoa, caa?yciythueo
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo ,-yoi ii nooe Oeceei-oeie/aneea iaoiaeu.Eiiaaea eo
iauaaeeiytho oa?ieiii “eino?oiaioaeueiua iaoiaeu aiaeeca”.Aeaiiay oaia
ia?iiia, iiyoiio iu ?anniio?ei eeoue iaeaieaa aaaeiua ec
oeceei-oeie/aneeo iaoiaeia,iioeiaeueii ni/aoathuea a naaa oeaeue ?yae
ea/anoa:aunieoth oi/iinoue e aini?iecaiaeeiinoue ?acoeueoaoia
aiaeeca,aunieoth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e ,ianiio?y ia yoe aeanoeea
o?aaiaaiey ,aeinooiiinoue aiia?aoo?u e aiciiaeiinoue auno?iai inaiaiey
aa.

Aaciaay o?iiaoia?aoey.A iniiao iaoiaea aaciaie o?iiaoia?aoee iieiaeai
neaaeothuee i?eioeei:aiaeec niane aauanoa a ?acoeueoaoa ?ani?aaeaeaiey
eiiiiiaioia iaaeaeo ianiuaathueieny oacaie,iaeia ec eioi?uo iiaeaeaeiay
– eia?oiue aac (acio,aaeee e ae?.) ,ae?oaay-iaiiaeaeaeiay (aunieieeiyuay
aeeaeeinoue eee oaa?aeay oaca).

Yoio iaoiae eiaao aeaa aa?eaioa: aaciaaeni?aoeeiiiay e aaciaeeaeeinoiay
o?iiaoia?aoey.

?acaeaeaiea eiiiiiaioia niane i?ienoiaeeo a o?iiaoia?aoe/aneie
eieiiea.O?iiaoia?aoe/aneea eieiiee:iaaeaiua (aeeeia -1-3i,aeeaiao?-ieiei
4ii,iaoa?eae-noaeei noaeue e ae?.) e eaieeey?iua (aeeeia – aei
50i,iaoa?eae-noaeei,eaa?oe).

Auai? iaiiaeaeaeiie oacu (Io).Yooaeoeaiinoue eieiiee(niiniaiinoue
?acaeaeyoue neiaeiua niane ia ioaeaeueiua eiiiiiaiou) caaeneo io ?acia?a
/anoeoe,ia eioi?ua iaianaia aeeaeeay oaca. Iia aic?anoaao i?e
eniieueciaaiee iaeii?iaeiuo /anoeoe iaeiai ?acia?a. Aeey noaiaea?oiuo
iaaeaiuo eieiiie iioeiaeueiue ?acia? /anoeoe 0,12-0,17 ii. Iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue eo aeecinoue e aiaeece?oaiui niaaeeiaieyi. Aeey aiaeeca
iiey?iuo eiiiiiaioia i?eiaiytho iiey?iua oacu, aeey aiaeeca iaiiey?iuo
eiiiiiaioia – iaiaa iiey?iua eee iieiinoueth iaiiey?iua.

Iaiiey?iua oacu aeey aaciaaeni?aoeeiiiie o?iiaoia?aoee neeeeaaaeue,
ieneae aethieiey, oeaieeou, iieeia?iua ni?aaiou ( iai?eia? , iieeni?a,
ii?iiae e ae?.).

Iaeaieaa oiio?aaeyaiua iaiiaeaeaeiua aeeaeeea oacu aeey
aaciaeeaeeinoiie o?iiaoia?aoee ea?aiaaen, neeeeiiiaua yeynoiia?u,
aieaciiu, oaa?aeue iineoaeue – o?iiaoia e ae?.

Iiaeaeaeiua oacu acio, aaeee, a?aii, ia?u aiaeu.

Aeaoaeoi?u. Enoi?ey ?acaeoey aaciaie o?iiaoia?aoee – yoi enoi?ey
iiyaeaiey e ?acaeoey aeaoaeoi?ia aeey o?iiaoia?aoee. I?eiaiyony
ianeieueei oeiia aeaoaeoi?ia.

1. Aeaoaeoi? oaieii?iaiaeiinoe (AeOI) eee eaoa?iiao?. I?eioeei aai
aeaenoaey iniiaai ia ?acee/ee oaieii?iaiaeiinoae aiaeece?oaiiai aauanoaa
e aaca-iineoaey.

2. A aeaoaeoi?a eiiecaoeeiii-ieaiaiiii (IEAe eee AeEI) eiieuecoaony
caaeneiinoue yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe i?ino?ainoaa iaaeaeo yeaeo?iaeaie io
/enea iaoiaeyueony a iai eiiece?iaaiiuo /anoeoe, eioi?ua ia?acothony a
aiaei?iaeiii ieaiaie iiae aeaenoaeai oa?ie/aneo e ieeneeoaeueiuo
i?ioeannia i?e iiiaaeaiee a iaai iieaeoe aiaeece?oaiiai
aauanoaa.Auoiaeiui neaiaeii aeaoaeoi?a yaeyaony cia/aiea neeu oiea,
i?ioaeathuaai iaaeaeo yeaeo?iaeaie iiae aeaenoaeae i?eeiaeaiiiai e iei
iai?yaeaiey.

3.Yeaeo?iiii-caoaaoiue aeaoaeoi? (YCAe),eee aeaoaeoi? ii caoaaoo
yeaeo?iiia,eae e AeEI ,iniiaai ia caaenaiinoe yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe
i?iiaaeoaeea iaaeaeo yeaeo?iaeaie e /eneei eiiia,iaoiaeyueony a yoii
i?iiaaeooea,eioi?ia naycaii n /eneii iieaeoe,iinooiathueo a
aeaoaeoi?.Iaeiaei iaoaieci e niinia ia?aciaaiey eiiia i?eioeeieaeueii
ioee/athony io oaeiaiai a neo/aa AeEI – eiiu ia?acothony a ?acoeueoaoa
acaeiiaeaenoaey iieaeoe aiaeece?oaiiai aauanoaa e iioiea yeaeo?iiia a
eaia?a aeaoaeoi?a a ?acoeueoaoa aaoa-?aniaaea ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai aauanoaa.

Iaiaoiaeei i/aiue /enoue aac-iineoaeue, iai?eia? acio “IN*”, ia
niaea?aeauee neaaeia eenei?iaea, eioi?ue nieaeae au /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
aeaoaeoi?a YCAe.

*oanoaeoaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey caaeneo io iaee/ey aaeieae-, ieo?i- e
ae?oaeo a?oii,acaeiiaeaenoaothueo n yeaeo?iiaie.

Aeeyiea aaeieaeia a iieaeoea ia /oanoaeoaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey

Aauanoai *oanoaeaoaeueiinoue,
ioi.aae

Oei?aooai
1

Oei?iaioai 2
1

Oei?aaioai
1,5

Aeeoei?aooai
15

Aeeoei?yoai
190

A?iiaooai
280

Oei?ioi?i
6 10

Aeea?iiiaoai
1.1 ?0

4. Aeaoaeoi? oa?iieiiiue (AeOE) ii i?eioeeio aeaenoaey aiaeiae/ai
AeEI. Iaeiaei aeiiieieoaeueii a aiaei?iaeiia ieaiy iai?a?uaii iinooiaao
iioie eiiia uaei/iuo iaoaeeia ( eaeee, iao?ee, oeacee ) A eo i?enoonoaee
?acei aic?anoaao yooaeoeaiinoue eiiecaoeee niaaeeiaiee, niaea?aeaueo
acio, oinoi?, oei? e ae?. AeOE i?eiaiytho aeey ii?aaeaeaiey OIN e
acioiniaea?aeaueo niaaeeiaiee.

5. Ieaiaiii-oioiiao?e/aneee aeaoaeoi? (IOAe) naeaeoeaai e iaeaaeaao
iiauoaiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth ii ioiioaieth e niaaeeiaieyi,
niaea?aeaueo na?o.

Ea/anoaaiiue aiaeec ninoieo a n?aaiaiee ia?eiaeia a?aiaieoaea?aeeaaiey
aeaiiiai aauanoaa ia o?iiaoia?aiia io iiiaioa aaiaea i?iau a enia?eoaeue
aei iiiaioa, niioaaonoaothuaai iaeneiaeueiiio cia/aieth neaiaea aeey
aeaiiiai eiiiiiaioa.

Eiee/anoaaiiue aiaeec iniiaai ia i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoe
niaea?aeaiey aauanoaa a i?iaa io ieiuaaee ieea aeaiiiai eiiiiiaioa ia
o?iiaoia?aiia. ?an/ao aaaeaony a iniiaiii o?aiy iaoiaeaie.

1. Iaoiae aaniethoiie eaeea?iaee caeeth/aaony a iino?iaiee a?aoeeia
caaeneiinoe auniou eee ieiuaaee ieea O io niaea?aeaie eiiiiiaioia a
niane. ?an/ao aaaeaon ii neaaeothuei oi?ioeai:

X= 1000 a/V

X = cV/V20,

aaea

a – niaea?aeaiea aauanoaa, ii?aaeaeaiiia ii a?aoeeo; ia

V – iauai i?iau aioaeooa, aaiaeeiiai a enia?eoaeue o?iiaoia?aoa, ie

n – eiioeaio?aoeey aauanoaa, ?an/eoaiiay ii a?aoeeo, ia/ie

V20 – iauai i?iau aicaeooa, i?iecaaaeaiiue a noaiaea?oiuo oneiaeyo.

2. Iaoiae aioo?aiiaai noaiaea?oa iniiaai ia aaaaeaiee a aiaeece?oaioth
nianue ecaanoiiai eiee/anoaa aauanoaa, i?eieiaaiiai ca noaiaea?o. Ii
naiei naienoaai iii aeieaeii auoue aeinoaoi/ii aeecei e aiaeece?oaiui
niaaeeiaieyi, ii iieiinoueth ioee/aoueny io ieo ii o?iiaoia?aiia.

3.Iaoiae ii?iaoecaoeee ieiuaaeae ieeia.I?e yoii noiio ieiuaaeae anao
ieeia n o/aoii iii?aai/iuo eiyooeoeaioia i?eiaiatho ca 100%.Aeey
au/eneaiey eiioeaio?aoeee aauanoaa (a iauaiiuo i?ioeaioao) iaiaioiaeeii
aai ieiuaaeue oiiiaeeoue ia 100 e ?acaeaeeoue ia noiio anao
ieiuaaeae.Iaoiae i?ino,ii iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai eeoue oiaaea,eiaaea
ana eiiiiiaiou ecaanoiu e iieiinoueth ?acaeaeaiu.

O?iiaoia?aou nioiyo ec iniiaiuo aeieia:Aeie iiaeaioiaee aacia,oa?iinoao
eieiiie (a oii /enea enia?eoaeue) ,aeaoaeoi? e ?aaeno?aoi? (naiiienaoe).

Aunieiyooaeoeaiay aeeaeeinoiay o?iiaoia?aoey (AYAEO)-

o?iiaoia?aoe/aneee iaoiae,iicaieythuee ?acaeaeeoue aunieieeiyuea
aeeaeeinoe e (eee) oaa?aeua aauanoaa, eioi?ua cao?oaeieoaeueii eeai
iaoeaeaniia?acii ii?aaeaeyoue iaoiae aaciaeeaeeinoiie o?iiaoia?aoee,
iai?eia? iieeoeeeee/aneea a?iiaoe/aneea oaeaaiaei?iaeu, aieiieeneiou,
IAA, ianoeoeeaeu, eaea?noaaiiua i?aia?aou, oaeaaiaeu e ae?.

O?iiaoia?ao ninoieo ec:

eieiiie ec ia?aeaaathuae noaee, oienoinoaiiiai noaeea, oaioaea eee
iaaee; aeeaiao?-1-6 ii, aeeeia -io 10- 15 ni aei 7i;

ii?enouo iineoaeae: neeeeaaaeue, o?iiini?a, aeinee e ae?. n

oaeaeueiie ieiuaaeueth aieaa 50 i/a e aeaaiao? /anoeoe 0,005-0,05 ii;

aeaoaeoi?ia:?ao?aeoiiao?e/aneie n /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth 10 a/ie,
OO-aeaoaeoi? n /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth 10 e oeoi?eiao?e/aneee n
/oanoaeoaeueiinoueth 10 a/ie, a oaeaea yeaeo?ioeie/aneee;

iiaeaeaeiie oacu:aoeaoiieo?ee, iaoaiie e ae?.

Oiieineieiay o?iiaoia?aoey (ONO).?acaeaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo ia
niaoeeaeueiuo ieanoeieao aeey oiieineieiie o?iiaoia?aoee.Iaiiaeaeaeiay
oaca a ONO:neeeeaaaeue, ieneae aethieiey, eiiiiaiaiiua niieu n
aeiaaaeaie e?aoiaea e aeina.

Aiaeece?oaioth nianue iaiinyo ia noa?oiaoth eeieth iee?ioi?eoeai eee
iee?iieiaoeie.Ieanoeieo eee aoiaao n iaianaiiie i?iaie iiiauatho a
cae?uooth eaia?o, niaea?aeauoth ?anoai?eoaeue, eioi?ie ia?aiauaaony ii
neith ni?aaioa (eee ii aoiaaa) iiae aeaenoaeai eaieeey?iuo
nee.Eiiiiiaiou niane ia?aiauathony aiaioa n ?anoai?eoaeai n ?acee/iuie
nei?inoyie.Ii ieii/aiee ?acaeaeaiey ieanoeieo eee aoiaao auieiatho ec
eaia?u, enia?ytho ?anoai?eoaeue, ia?aaaouaay no?oae oaieiai
aicaeooa.Ii?aaeaeyaiua aauanoaa iiyaeythony ia o?iiaoia?aiia a aeaea
iyoai a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aaioee niaoeeaeueiui ?aaeoeaii (iai?eia?,
ieiaeae?ei i?e aiaeeca aieiieeneio) eee iaoiaeii
oethi?anoeaioeee.Niaea?aeaiea aiaeece?oaiiai eiiiaiaioa
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ieiuaaee iyoai.Eiee/anoaaiioth ioeieo i?iaiaeyo eee
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ieanoeiea n iiiiuueth ieaieiao?a, eee iooai niyoey
ie?aoaiiiai iyoia n o?iiaoia?aiiu yeno?aeoeee aauanoaa ?anoai?eoaeai e
ii?aaeaeaiea e ii?aaeaeaiea aai niaea?aeaiea oioiiao?e/aneei iaoiaeii
eee n iiiiuueth aeaineoiiao?a.

Eiiiay o?iiaoia?aoey iauaaeeiyao i?eioeei eiiiiaiaiiie o?iiaoia?aoee,
aeeth/athuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiia eniieueciaaiea aeaoo eieiiie, n
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneei aeaoaeoe?iaaieai.A iniiaa yoiai iaoiaea-yethaioiia
eiiiiaiaiiia ?acaeaeaiea eiiia ia ia?aie (?acaeaeythuae) eieiiea n
iineaaeothuei iiaeaaeaieai oiiiaiai neaiaea yethaioa ia aoi?ie
(iiaeaaeythuae) eiiiiaiaiiie eieiiea.Eiiiaiaiiua eieiiee caiieiytho
iaiiaeaeaeiuie oacaie, niaea?aeaueie a naiae no?oeoo?a eiiiaaiiua
a?oiiu, niiniaiua e ?aaeoeee iaiaia e iaeaaeathuea aunieie i?iieeathuae
niiniaiinoueth.I?e aiaeeca eaoeiiia eieiieo aeey ?acaeaeaiey caiieiytho
noeueoe?iaaiiuie eaoeiieoaie ieceie aieinoe ,a iiaeaaeythuoth
eieiieo-aieiieoii aunieie aieinoe.A ea/anoaa yethaioia eniieuecotho
?anoai?u HCLl HNO3, aeae?ioei?eaea ie?eaeeia e ae?.A ea/anoaa
iiaeaeaeiie oacu-?anoia?a ea?aiiaoa e aeae?iea?aiiaoa iao?ey.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu ?acaeaaaony eiiiay o?iiaoia?aoey aac iiaeaaeaiey
oiiiaiai neaiaea yeaiaioa e n ?acee/iuie niiniaaie aeaoaeoe?iaaiey:
oioiiao?e/aneee, aoiiiiaani?aoeeiiiue, eiiiiao?e/aneee (eiinaeaeoeaiua
yeaeo?iaeu).

Aeinoieinoaa iaoiaea: ieceee i?aaeae ii?aaeaeaiey – 1 10

ia/ie, naeaeoeaiinoue, aiciiaeiinoue iaeiia?aiaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey
iai?aaie/aneeo e i?aaie/aneeo eiiia yeni?anniinoue,oe?ieee aeeaiacii
ii?aaeaeyaiuo eiioeaio?aoeee.

I?eiaiytho ioa/anoaaiiue o?iiaoia?ao “Oeaao-300a”, eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneee
aeaoaeoi?, iee?ii?ioeanni?. I?aaeae iaia?oaeaiey ii oei?eaeo iao?ey –
3,10 ia/ie.

O?iiaoiiann-niaeo?iiao?ey (OIN) – yoi a nouiinoe aaciaay o?iiaoia?aoey
n iann-niaeo?iiao?ii a ea/anoaa aeaoaeoi?a (iai?eia?, IE-1201). Aeaiue
iaoiae iicaieyao ?anoeo?iauaaoue ninoaa neiaeiuo nianae, niaea?aeaueo
nioie iaeaeaoeoeoee?iaaiiuo eiiiiiaioia, e ii?aaeaeyoue eo ii iaeiie
i?iaa.

Iiey?ia?aoey ( e aieueoaiia?iiao?ey). Iiey?ia?aoey – iaeii ec
yeeo?ioeie/aneeo iaoiaeia aiaeeca. Iiey?ia?aiia – caaeneiinoue neeu
oiea io aaee/eiu i?eeiaeaiiiai iai?yaeaiey ia yeaeo?iaeu.I?e yoii
iaoiaea ia i?ienoiaeeo oece/aneiai ?acaeaeaiey niane ia ioaeaeueiua
eiiiiiaiou.A ea/anoaa eaoiaea /aua anaai i?eiaiytho ?oooiue eaiathuee
yeaeo?iae (?EY), iiaa?oiinoue eioi?iai iai?a?uaia iaiiaeyaony, /oi
iicaaeyao iieo/aoue iiey?ia?aiiu e i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec n aunieie
aini?iecaiaeeiinoueth ?acoeueoaoia.

I?yiia ii?aaeaeaiea aiciiaeii eeoue i?e iaee/ea aauanoa, niiniaiuo
ainnoaiaaeeaaoueny ia ?EY: eiiu iaoaeeia, i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey,
niaea?aeauea aaeieae-, ieo?i-, ieo?icia?oiiu, ea?aiieeueiua niaaeeiaiey,
ia?ieneaeu, yiieneaeu, aeenoeueoeaeu, e o. ae.Yoi ianeieueei
ia?aie/aaaao aiciiaeiinoe iaoiaea, iaeiaei i?e ii?aaeaeaiea
iieya?ioe/aneeo aeoeaiuo niaaeeiaiee iicaieyao aeinoe/ue aunieie
neaeoeaiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey aac i?aaeai?eoaeueiiiai ?acaeaeaiey neiaeiuo
nianae ia ioaeaeueiua eiiiiiaiou.

Iniiaiua oeiu iiey?ia?aoee – iinoiyiii-oieiaay (eeanne/aneay) e
ia?aiaiii-oieiaay.I?neaaeiyy eiaao ?acee/iua iacaaiey (iiae?acaeaeu): a
caaeneiinoe io oi?iu aiieeooaeu ia?aiaiiiai oiea – eaaae?aoii-aieiiaay,
o?aiaoeaeaeaeueiay e ae?.; a caaeneiinoe io iiey?iinoe yeaeo?iaea,
eioi?ue eniieuecotho eae eiaeeeaoi?iue, – eaoiaeiay (ainnoaiiaeaiey) eee
aiiaeiay (ieeneaiey). Iineaaeithth eiiaaea iacuaatho
aieueoaiia?iiao?ey.A aiiaeiie iiey?ia?aoee a ioee/ea io eaoiaeiie
eniieuecotho oieueei oaa?aeue yeaeo?iae (iai?eia?,a?aoeoiaue).

I?eiaiytho oiiiaaue eee eiaeeooa?aioiue yeaeo?ieeo (iacuaaaiue i?inoi –
oii), o.a. ?anoai? eeneiou, niee, aooa?iue ?anoai? aieaa neiaeiiai
ninoaaa, a eioi?ii ?anoai?ytho aiaeece?oaioth i?iao.

Aiaeec aoiinoa?iiai n iiiiuueth aaciaiaeecaoi?ia (ii?aaeaeaiea
SO2,NO,CO e ae?oaeo aacia). Aaciaiieecaoi?u a ioee/ea io noaoeeiia?iuo
i?eai?ia (o?iiaoia?aou, iiey?ia?aou e ae?.) ia iicaieytho aeanoeaiooue
noieue aea auniieie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe, oi/iinoe e naeaeoeaiinoe.Iaeiaei
i?e iaiioiaeeiinoe iia?aoeaiiai eiio?iey niaea?aeaiey i?eianae
caa?yciythueo aauanoa a aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa e iniaaiii a aicaeooa
?aai/ae ciiu e a i?iiuoeaiiuo aua?inao iie iiaoo auoue iieaciu e
iaiaoiaeeiu.Oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeaieaa i?eiaiyaiuo e aeanooiiuo
ioa/anoaaiiuo aaciaiaeecaoi?ia i?eaaaeaiu a oaae.1.

Oaaeeoea 1

Oei (ia?ea) aaciaiaeecaoi?a Ecia?yaiua

eiiiiiaiou I?aaeae iaia?a-

aeaiey,ia/i

“Ieaoai-1”

“Aaiia-I”

Iaeeaaeee-I3

Iaeeaaeee-I6

AIE-3

AEI 10IA-3A

666Y303

623 EIE-03

645 OE-03

“Ieo?ii”

“Ne?aia-2”

667 OO-03 As H3

Aaicii N6H6

Aeieoei?eae C2H3Cl

Aeeoei?yoai C2H4Cl2

Icii I3

NI

NI

NI

NI

Na?iaiaei?iae H2S

CH4

ECH

nCH

NO

NO2

NOX

NO2

NH3

SO2 0-0,2

0-12

0-28

0-12

0-12

0-40

0-40

0-40

0-50

0-20

0,1

0,1

0,1

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,5

0-30

0,001

Iniaaiiinoe iiieoi?eiaa ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a caieiooii
i?ino?ainoaa

Iiieoi?eia ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a caieiooii i?ino?ainoaa yoi
nenoaia ia?ii?eyoee e n?aaenoa, iaania/eaathueo a aa?iaoe/aneie eaaeia
/einie/aneee ei?aaeue. iiaeaiaeiay eiaeea,naiieao/ iiaeaea?aeaiey
eneonnoaaiiie aaciaie n?aaeu /aicaeooa/ n iioeiaeueiuie oece/aneeie
ia?aiao?aie / aeaaeaiea,oaiia?aoo?a,aeaaeiinoue,nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey e
oeie/aneei ninoaaii. Oae a einie/aneii ei?aaea, eioi?ue yaeyaony
cae?uoie nenoaiie, i?ienoiaeeo e?oaiai?io iniiaiuo yeaiaioia e aauanoa:
eenei?iaea I, oaeaeeneiai aaca NI n aini?iecaiaenoaii ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia
ia ai?oo, ?aaaia?aoeee aiaeu, iieo/aiey eenei?iaea ia iniiaa oioineioaca
e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu e ooeeecaoeeae iooiaeia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea e aeieiiieaena.

Oai?aoe/anee caieioooth naaeaine?iaaiioth nenoaio iiaeii iino?ieoue a
niioaaonoaee ni neaaeothuei o?aaiaieai:

Yeaeo?ieec:

6I I yeaeo?e/aneay yia?aey 6I + 3I

Aeineioac, inouanoaeyaiue aiaei?iaeiuie aaeoa?eyie:

6I + 2I +NI iieo/aai NI I + 5I I

Aeuoaiea /aeiaaea:

NI I+I iieo/aai NI +I I

I?aeiouanoai oaeie nenoaiu – ieceay ianna e iaaieueoay iio?aaiinoue a
yia?aee.

Iniiaiuie no?oeoo?iuie aeieaie aaoiiaoe/aneeo nenoai iiieoi?eiaa
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu caieiooiai i?ino?ainoaa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeythony:

– aeao/eee ia?aiao?ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu oaiia?aoo?u,ninoaaa aiaeu,
nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee,eiioeaio?aoeee iniiaiuo caa?yciaiee aicaeooa ,

– aeao/eee aeieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia – ?aaaia?aoeee aiaeu e
aicaeooa,ieia?aeecaoeee iooiaeia,

– aaoiiiiiia yeaeo?iieoaiea ia iniiaa aeeoioeyoi?ia e nieia/iuo
aaoa?ae,

– nenoaiu niooieeiaie nayce,

– nia?aiaiiay au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea,

– i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea YAI

Aeaiiay nenoaia iiieoi?eiaa iicaieyao iaania/eoue ii?iaeueiua oneiaey
aeey ?aaiou yeeiaaea a caieiooii i?ino?ainoaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ioeann ieieaoth?ecaoeee yeaeo?iiiuo noai aeioae aei
iieaeoey?iiai o?iaiy, aeaeay ?aaeueiui iieiinoueth aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua ,
ni anaiauaiethuei i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai, neiaeiua iiiaioeaeaaua e a
oi aea a?aiy eiiiaeoiua, iieiinoueth aaoiiiiiua nenoaiu neaaeaiey ca
ea/anoaii ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a caieiooii i?ino?ainoaa.

Yeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu, eaaeauea a iniiaa eii-

no?oe?iaaiey,ecaioiaeaiey e yenieoaoaoeee EA.

Naiieao, eae e ethaay nenoaia, eniieuecothuay yia?aeth ieeneaiey
oaeaaiaei?iaeiiai oiieeaa, aua?anuaaao a aoiinoa?o i?iaeoeou yoiai
i?ioeanna, eioi?ua eciaiytho anoanoaaiiue ninoaa aoiinoa?u e iiyoiio
iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae e caa?ycieoaee.Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aaeaoeey,
ianiiiaiii, – enoi/iee caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u, e aii?in caeeth/aaony
eeoue a oii, ianeieueei yoe caa?yciaiey cia/eoaeueiu.

A aaeaoeee i?eiaiyaony aeaa aeaea iaooyiiai oiieeaa – ea?inei e aaicei
ianeieueei ioee/athueany ii ninoaao i?iaeoeou nai?aiey.Iniiaiia ioee/ea
ninoieo a oii, /oi yoeee?iaaiiue aaicei eniieuecoaiue ia naiieaoao n
ii?oiaauie aeaeaaoaeyie, aeaao a io?aaioaaoeo aacao naeiaoe, yaeythueeny
iaeiei ec iaaeaeaoaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia caa?yciaiey aicaeooiie n?aaeu.

?ieue naiieaoia n ii?oiaauie aeaeaaoaeyie a nia?aiaiiie aaeaoeee
iacia/eoaeueia e iinoiyiii oiaiueoaaony.Iiyoiio oeaeaniia?acii
ia?aie/eoue ?anniio?aiea caa?ycieoaeae aicaeooa aaeaoeeiiiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey oieueei i?iaeoeoia ai?aiey ea?ineia.

I?iaeoeoa ai?aiey ea?ineia, iiieii ia ioiineiuo e caa?ycieoaeyi
aeaoieene oaea?iaea, ia?ia aiaeu, acioa, a oaeaea iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
anoanoaaiiuo eiiiiiaioia aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa, niaea?aeao ieenue
oaea?iaea, ?acee/iua oaeaaiaei?iaeu(iaoai CH4, aoeaoeeai C2H6 yoai C2H4,
i?iiai C3H8, aaicie C6H6 oieoie C6H5CH3 e ae?.), aeueaeaaeaeu
(oi?iaeueaeaaeae HCHO, ae?ieaei NH2=CH-CHO, oenoniue aeueaeaaeae CH3CHO
e ae?.),ieeneu acioa (a iniaaiii NO e NO2), ieeneu na?u, oaa?aeua
/anoeoeu (iai?eia?, /anoeoeu naaee, nicaeathuea aeuiiue oeaeo ca niieii
aeaeaaoaey) e ?yae ae?oaeo ninoaaeythueo, ia?acothueony a
iacia/eoaeueiao eiee/anoaao ec eiathueony a ea?ineia i?eianae.Naiieaou
aua?anuaatho a aoiinoa?o e enoiaeiia oiieeai.Yoi ?ienoiaeeo ia oieueei a
aaa?eeiuo neooaoeeyo, ii e aoiaea ii?iaeueiie yenieoaoaoeee i?e
i?iaeoaea eee iii?aaeiaiee ae?aiaaeiuo aieinoae, iinea iaoaea/iiai
caionea aeaeaaoaey ia?aae ia/aeii iieaoa e iinea aueeth/aiey aeaeaaoaey
ii ieii/aiee iieaoa.

O?iaie niaea?aeaiey a aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa ?acee/iuo a?aaeiuo aauanoa
?aaeaiaioe?oaony niaoeeaeueiui iaua?inneeneei e ii?iaie-IAeE. IAeE
iaeioi?uo a?aaeiuo eiiiaiaioia, niaea?aeaueony a io?aaioaaoeo aacao
aaeaaeaeaaoaeae, i?eaaaeaiu a oaae.2.A aiaeiae/iuo eiino?aiiuo ii?iao
iiaeii ano?aoeoue iaeioi?ua ae?oaea eioa?aniua eiiiiiaiou.Oae
noaiaea?ouie NOA aeiionoeiue o?iaaiue eiioeaio?aoeee oaeaaiaei?iaeia
(noiia?ii) onoaiiaaeai ?aaiui 0,16 ia/i (a ia?an/aoa ia yeaeaaeaioiia
eiee/anoai iaoaia).N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaeea eiiiaiaiou oaeaaiaei?iaeiiai
?yaea, eae aaicie?ai eee ia?u enoiaeiiai oiieeaa (aaicei), a ii?iu
ae?oaeo no?ai, eae i?aaeei, ia aeeth/atho.

A aaeaoeee ii?iu i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiuo aua?inia (IAeA)
onoaiaaeeaathony a ianoiyuea a?aiy ia /aou?a a?aaeiuo eiiiiiaioa: ieenue
oaea?iaea (CO|), ianai?aaoea oaeaaiaei?iaeu (NnHm), ieeneu acioa (NIx),
/anoeoeu naaee (aeui).E?iia oiai, cai?auaaony i?aaeiaia?aiiue aua?in a
aoiinoa?o oiieeaa.

Oaaeeoea 2

IAeE, ia/i

Eiiiiiaiou Iaeneiaeueiay

?aciaay n?aaeianooi/iay

Ieenue oaea?iaea NI

Aeaoieenue acioa NO2

Na?ienoue aiaeae?ieae SO2

Oi?iaeueaeaaei HCHO

Acaaoaiiua /anoeoeu (naaea)

Aaicie?ai

Aaicei (ia?u) 3

0,085

0,5

0,035

0,50

300 1

0,085

0,05

0,03

0,05

1*10

Oiene/aneia aeaenoaea caa?yciythueo aauanoa.

Oa?aeoa? a?aaeiiai aeaenoaey caa?yciythueo aauanoa /?acau/aeii
?aciiia?acai. Ieenue oaea?iaea e aeaoieenue acioa naycuaatho aaiiaeiaei
e?iae e i?e aieueoeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo iianiu aeey aeecie. Na?ienoue
aiaeae?eae e iaeioi?ua oaeaaiaei?iaeu ieacuaatho ?acae?aaeathuaa
aeaenoaea ia neecenooth iaiei/eo aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae, a na?ienoue
aiaeae?eae, e?iia oiai, aoaeoaeai aeey iiiaeo aeaeia ?anoaiee. N?aaee
oaeaaiaei?iaeia iiaoo auoue aauanoaa, iaaeaeaiiuie eaioea?iaaiiuie
naienoaaie (iai?eia?, aaicie?ai) eee iaeaaeathuea ?aceei iai?eyoiui
caiaoii. Oaeaaiaei?iaeu iiae aeaenoaeai nieia/iiai naaoa anooiaao a
oioioeie/aneea ?aaeoeee n ieeneaie acioa, ia?acoy a ?acoeueoaoa oe?ieee
niaeo? aauanoa (ia?aeene, icii e ae?.), eioi?ua onei?ytho ei??iceth
?aceee/iuo iaoa?eaeia, a?aaeii aeaenoaotho ia ?anoeoaeueiinoue, a oaeaea
yaeythony iaeiie ec i?e/ei, ia?aciaaiey “niiaa”, niiniaiiai, iiieii
anaai i?i/aai, iaoneiaeoue ianniaua eaai/iua e ae?oaea caaieaaaiey.
Aua?in /anoeoe naaee, inaaeathueo ia eiino?oeoeeyo, nii?oaeaieyo e
?anoeoaeueiinoe, iaaeaeaoaeai, e?iia /enoi ynoaoe/aneeo i?e/ei, iioiio,
/oi caaeuieaiiinoue aicaeooa oiaiueoaao aeaeeiinoue a ?aeiia
ay?iae?iia, a iniai iaeeea /anoeoeu oaea?iaea, iiiaaeay a eaaeea,
iaiineo a?aae caei?iauea /aeiaaeo.

Na?anuaaaiua a anoanoaaiiua aiaeiaiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
oicyenoaaiii-auoiaua noiee eciaiytho eiee/anoai e ea/anoai aiaeu a ieo,
ineiaeiytho eee aiana eneeth/atho aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aiaeiaiia
aeey ieoueaauo eee i?iecaiae/oaaiii-oaoie/aneeo ioaeae.

Noaiaiue aeeyiey noi/iuo aiae ia aiaeiaiu caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a
na?anuaaaiuo caa?ycieoaeae, eo eiee/anoaaiiuo niioiiuaiee. Naia ii naaa
noi/iay ia?acaaaeaiiay aiaea anaaaea eiaao au?aaeaiiue oiene/aneee
yooaeo e io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia caei?iauea ethaeae e iiaeao
iineoaeeoue i?e/eiie aicieeiiaaiey ?acee/iiai ?iaea eioaeoeeiiiuo
caaieaaaiee. Iiiaaeay a i?aaieci ethaeae n ieoueaaie aiaeie, iiiaea
yaeiaeoua iaoaeeu e eo i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, iai?eia? naeiaoe,
iuoueye, eaaeiee, ?oooue, – niaea?aeaueany a noi/iuo aiaeao i?aaei?eyoee
iiaoo aucaaoue io?aaeaiea ethaeae, i?aeiouanoaaiii
o?iie/aneia.Iiauoaiiua eiioeaio?aoeee oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia ieacuaatho
oiene/aneia aeaenoaea ia aiaeiua i?aaieciu. Aeae?iaeiiou a oie eee
eiie ia?a ?aaae?otho ia eciaiaiea aeae?ioeie/aneiai ?aaeeia aiaeiaia,
i?ienoaaeoaai a ?acoeueoaoa nionea noi/iuo aiae. Anee oio eee eiie
i?aaieci ia iiaeao aaeaioe?iaaoueny e iiaiio oeie/aneiio ninoaao aiaeu e
aeaiao, oi i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaea a niioiioaiee iaaeaeo aeaeaie a
aeioeaiicao. Oaeea eciaiaiey iiaoo oaeaea nieceoue ieiaeiaeoinoue o
aeae?iaeiioia, oiaiueoeoue eo aeecianiiniaiinoue e yaeony oaeoi?ii,
ia?aie/eaathuei ?acaeoea e /eneaiiinoue aiaeiuo i?aaieciia. Oae,
eeneiaaoua aiaeu i?e aiaei?iaeiii iieacaoaea ?I 6,4-5,0 iianiu aeey ?ua
i?e eiioeaio?aoeeyo aeaoieene oaea?iaea auoa 20 ia/e eee i?e iiauoiiii
niaea?aeaiee nieae aeaeaca, eeneua aiaeu i?e ?I ieaea 5,0 e uaei/iua
aiaeu i?e ?I auoa 9,5 iianiu aeey ?ua anaaaea, iiaeuaei/iua aiaeu i?e ?I
8,6-9,5 iianiu aeey ?ua i?e aeeeoaeueiii aeaenoaee.

Caa?yciaiiay oeie/aneie aauanoaaie aiaea aeaaea i?e aieueoii
?acaaaeaiee aa /enoie ia?ooaao ii?iaeueiia ?acaeoea iieiaeioai?aiiie
ee?u, auno?i aoaeo yia?eii(ca?iaeuu). Caa?yciaiea aiaeiaiia ia?yaeo n
oaeoi?aie i?yiie aeaaee ?uau i?e/eiyao ?uaiui caianai a?aae e a ae?oaii
ioiioaiee: iiaeaaao ei?i – iaeeea aaniicaiii/iua aeeaioiua, eioi?ua
iiaaeatho ?uau.

Caa?yciaiea iaooai?iaeoeoaie noi/iuo aiae aucuaaao iiiaiia?aciua e
aeoaieea eciaiaiey a ninoaaa aiaeiuo aeioeaiicia e aeaaea ai anae oaoia
e oei?a aiaeiaiia. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oeceei-oeie/aneeie naienoaaie naiie
iaooe, eioi?ay aanueia neiaeia ii naiaio ninoaao e iiaeao ioaeaaaoue a
aiaeo aauanoaa a ?acee/iuo aa?aaaoiuo ninoiyieyo: oaa?aeii, aeeaeeii,
aaciia?aciii. *anoue aa eiiiiiaioia inaaeaao ia aeii, /anoue iaoiaeeony
a aeaea noniaicee e yioeuenee a oieua aiaeu. a /anoue – a iieaeoey?ii
?anoai?aiiii ninoiyiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ana nouanoaothuea aeaeu caa?yciaiee eaeea au iie ia
auee, inoaaeytho naie ioia/aoie ia ninoiyiee caei?iauey /aeiaaea,
aeeaioiuo, ia ?acaeoee i?aaieciia e yoei iiae/a?eeaatho iianiinoue
caa?ycaiey.

Aii?inu e caaea/e:

1.Oieneeieiaey yoi iaoea,- eco/athuay naienoaa e iaoaieci aeaenoaey
yaeiaeouo e iioaioeeaeueii oiene/aneeo aauanoa a iniaaiiinoe aucuaaaiuo
eie io?aaeaiee e iaoiaeu eo i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey e ea/aiey.

2.Yao?ioe?othuaa caa?yciaiea naycaii n iinooieaieai ecauoea aeiaaiiuo
yeaiaioia, eioi?ua iiaoo ia ieacuaaoue i?yiiai oiene/aneiai aeaenoaey ia
i?aaieci , aeeth/ay e aiaeiua., iau/ii yoi caa?yciaiea noeioee?oao
?acaeoea oao eee eiuo a?oii aeae?iaeiioia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ia?ooaaony
yeieiae/aneia ?aaiiaanea e i?ienoiaeeo aoi?e/iia
caa?yciaiea.Yao?ioe/aneia caa?yciaiea iau/ii aucuaaaony
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie e iooiaeaie io?aneae, ia?a?aaaouaathueo
aeieiae/aneia nu?ue?.

Oiene/aneia caa?yciaiea naycaii n iiyaeaieai a aoiinoa?a aauanoa
aio?iiiaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eioi?ua oaea a iaeuo eiioeaio?aoeeyo
yaeythony yaeaie aeey aieueoeinoaa i?aaieciia.

3.Iinooieaiea oiene/iuo aauanoa a aeeaua i?aaieciu inouanoaeyaony
?acee/iuie iooyie, a /anoiinoe /a?ac iiaa?oiinoue oaea, /a?ac
aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iue o?aeo eee /a?ac aeaa?u. Aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea ea?aao
o?ainii?o aauanoa /a?ac eeaoi/iua iaia?aiu. Ia neo/aeii eciaiaiea
i?iieoeaaiinoe eeaoi/iuo iaia?ai n/eoaaony oieaa?naeueiui
ooieoeeiiaeueiui ia?ooaieai i?e oiene/aneii aicaeaenoaee. Anee ca?yae
eiia (eee ca?yaeaiiuo iieaeoe) niaiaaeaao ii ciaeo n ca?yaeii o/anoea
iaia?aiu, oi ii iooaeeeaaaony, a anee ciaee i?ioeaieiaeiu, oi
i?ienoiaeeo oeenaoeey eiia ia yoii o/anoea.Aneaaenoaea acaeiiaeaenoaey
ca?yaeia eiia e iaia?aiu i?ioiaeaeaiea ca?yaeaiuo /anoeoe /a?ac iaia?aio
cao?oaeiyaony e ii ieacuaaao ianoiia iiaa?oiinoiia aeaenoaea.
Iaca?yaeaiiua iieaeoeu eaaei i?iieeatho /a?ac iaia?aio e ieacuaatho
aieaa aeoaieia, aioo?aiia aicaeaenoaea.Ii yoie i?e/eia, iai?eia?,
iai?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey ?oooe, niiniaiua aeennioeee?iaaoue, ia?ooatho
i?iieoeaaiinoue iaia?aiu, ieacuaay iiaa?oiinoiia aicaeaenoaea, a
iieaeoeu ?ooouei?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, i?iieeay /a?ac aiaoiea
iaia?aiu, eaaei aeinoeaatho aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, aaea auno?i i?iyaeyaony
yooaeo eo aeaenoaey.

4.Aeoeaiinoue iaeiieaiey ?acee/iuo aauanoa ec ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
au?aaeaaony niioaaonoaothueie eiyooeoeaoaie.Eiaii yoe eiyooeoeaiou a
eiacuaathony eiyooeoeioaie iaeiieaiey.

5.Aeey i?aa?auaiey aieueoeinoaa i?aaie/aneeo oiene/iuo caa?yciythueo
aauanoa nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua aeioeie/aneea iaoaieciu.I?aa?auaiea
inouanoaeyaony n o/anoeai oa?iaioia. Aeaaiui eoiaii iiaeiuaiey a oeaiyo
yaeyaony iiauoaiea eo ?anoai?eiinoe a aiaea, aeaaiaea?y /aio i?ienoiaeeo
auaaaeaiea aauanoa ec i?aaiecia.I?aa?auaiea /oaea?iaeiuo i?aaie/aneeo
niaaeeiaiee eaeao /a?ac aeaoooaciue i?ioeann: iaoaaiee/aneia i?aa?auaiea
e eiiuthaaoeeth.Iaoaaiee/aneea i?aa?auaiey aeeth/atho i?ioeannu
ieeneaiey, ainnoaiiaeaiey, ?aaeoeee aeae?ieeca, niinianoaothuea
iiyaeaieth a?oii, iiauoathueo iiey?iinoue iieaeoeu.

Eiiuthaaoeey – yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea n na?iie eeneioie, aieiieeneioaie,
iaoeeueiuie e ae?oaeie aeeee-a?oiiaie.Yoe i?aa?auaiey a eiia/iii n/aoa e
i?eaiaeyo e aic?anoaieth iiey?iinoe.Eiiuthaaoeey aaaeao oaeaea e
aeiee?iaaieth ooieoeeiiaeueiuo a?oii iieaeoe oieneeaioa (-COOH, -OH,
-NH2, -SH e ae?), nieaeay oai naiui eo oiene/iinoue.

6.I?e ?ac?ooaiee eee i?aa?auaiee /oaea?iaeiuo niaaeeiaiee a i?aaiecia
iiaoo ia?aciauaaoueny aieaa oiene/iua i?iecaiaeiua.Yoi yaeaiea
iacuaaaony eaoaeueiui neioacii. Iniaaiii iianii aeeth/aiea yoeo
i?iecaiaeiuo a ninoaa ioeeaeiiauo eeneio e aaeeiauo iieaeoe.

7.Eiaeaen oiene/iinoe niane ii?aaeaeyao niaie iieacaoaeue, eioi?ue
oa?aeoa?ecoao noaiaiue ii?aaeaiey oiene/aneei aauanoaii.

8.ssaeaiea aaeaioaoeee ninoieo a i?ioeanna i?eniiniaeaiey no?iaiey e
ooieoeee i?aaiecia e oneiaeyi n?aaeu iaeoaiey. Iaoaieci aaeaioaoee
caeeth/aaony a i?eniiniaeaiee i?aaiecia e iaiythueiny oneiaeyi n?aaeu
iooai eciaiaiey eioaineaiinoe iaiaia aauanoa a i?aaiao e oeaiyo:
I?aaieci i?eniinaaeeaaaony , i?eaueaao e niaoeeoe/aneiio ia?aco aeecie a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo aiaoiae n?aaeu.

9. Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe N?aaeu a caieiooii
i?ino?ainoaa eniieuecotho neaaeothuea oaoiieiae/aneea i?eaiu:
?aaaie?aoeeth aiaeu, iieo/aiea eenei?iaea ia iniiaa oioineioaca e
yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu, ooeeecaoeey iooiaeia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.A
caieiooii i?ino?ainoaa i?ienoiaeeo e?oaiai?io iniiaiuo yeaiaioia e
aauanoa.

E E O A ? A O O ? A

1. A.O.I?ioania, A.A.Iie/aiia – Yeieiaey,caei?iauea e
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea a ?innee

2. I.?aaaaeue, *.?aaaaeue – N?aaea iaoaai iaeoaiey

3. TH.Iaeoi – Iniiau ceieiaee

4. I.I.ssieoeeee – Yeieiae/aneay ia?niaeoeaa ai?iaea

5. Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iiae ?aae.N.A.A?ueiaa

6. Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu – ni?aai/iee

7. E?aoeay iaaeeoeeineay yioeeeeiiaaeey

8. A.A.Aiaaeaiianeee – Oeie/aneay yeieiaey

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