.

Экологические проблемы развития

Язык: русский
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1445
Скачать документ

Aeaaeaiey Athaeaeaoa e Eacia/aenoaa

Ieienoa?noai Oeiainia

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

IAO*IUE AeIEEAAe

Ii aeenoeeieeia: “Yeiiiie/aneay Aaia?aoey e ?aaeiiaeenoeea”

Ia oaio:

Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey oicyenoaa Iineianeiai ?aaeiia

Nooaeaioa ia?aiai eo?na aeiaaiiai ioaeaeaiey Aannaia Aiae?ay a?oiiu 1I1

Oaeoeueoao: “Oeiainiai-o/aoiue”

Niaoeeaeueiinoue: “Oeiainu e E?aaeeo”

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeioeaio Aa?iaieiaa I. A._________

Iineaa 1997

Ieai:

1: I?e?iaeii-enoi?e/aneea i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey Iineianeiai ?aaeiia

2: Aeeyiea i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo ?aaeiia

3: Aeeyiea o?ainii?oa ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo ?aaeiia

4: Aeeyiea naeueneiai oicyenoaa ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo ?aaeiia

5: Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a Iineianeii ?aaeiia

a): Ninoiyiea enoi/ieeia aiaeiniaaaeaiey

a): Ninoiyiea aoiinoa?u

I?e?iaeii-enoi?e/aneea i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey Iineianeiai ?aaeiia

A 1147 aiaeo ai a?aiy iaaeaeioniaiuo aiei eiycae ca iaeaaeaiea Eeaaneei
eiyaeaneei i?anoieii, *a?ieaiai-Naaa?neiio eiycth Nayoineaao Ieueaiae/o
i?eoeinue aaaeaoue, nianaynue io i?aneaaeiaaiey Iaiiiaoe/ae (eee
Iaiiiaoiae/ae), ia naaa?, a canaeaiiua caiee i?e aiaaeaiee I?ioau a Ieo.
Nthaea e i?eoei i?eaeaoaiea i?eauoue a Iineao ia niaao e aai
?iaenoaaiieeo e nithcieeo Nocaeaeueneiio eiycth TH?eth Aeieai?oeiio. “E
i?eneaa Ath?ae, e ?a/a: “I?eaee ei iia, a?aoa a Iineia”. Oae aia?aua a
eaoiienyo iiyaeeinue oiiieiaiea i Iineaa, ec eioi?iai neaaeoao, /oi oaea
oiaaea yoi aue aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiue ianaeaiiue ioieo. Enoi?eee
noiaeyony ai iiaiee, /oi aeiai ?iaeaeaiey noieeoeu neaaeoao n/eoaoue
eiaiii aeaoo ia?aiai oiiieiaiey ia yoii ai?iaea – 1147 aiae. A yoii
aiaeo Iineaa ioi?acaeiiaaea naia 850-eaoea.

Iiiai/eneaiiua a?oaieiae/aneea iaiyoieee X – XI aaeia
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi oaea ei a?aiaie ia?aciaaiey ai?iaea, ia
ia/aeueiii yoaia ?annaeaiey neaayi, Oa??eoi?ey nia?aiaiiie Iineau auea
aeiaieueii aonoi canaeaia. Yoiio niinianoaiaaee auaiaeiia aaia?aoe/aneia
iieiaeaiea, aeaaii?eyoiua i?e?iaeiua oneiaey e aiaaoua i?e?iaeiua
?ano?nu.

Auaiaeiia aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea naycaii, ai-ia?auo, n o?aiceoiui
iieiaeaieai Iineau-?aee, iicaieyaoaa ia?aiauoiui ethaeyi naiaiaeii
iea?e?iaaoue e ?annaeaaoueny ii aeaaiui aiaeiui iooyi (Aieaa, Iea,
Eeycueia, Aeiai?o, e ae?.) a ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaieyo. E ai-aoi?uo,
iieiaeaiea Iineau ia “eceiia” ?aee oeaio?a aonoiai neiieaiey iaaieueoeo
?ae e ?o/ueaa iicaieyei eaaei ia?aiauaoueny e inaaeaaoue iiaua
oa??eoi?ee aeeaeiaai e aeaeueiaai Iiaeiineiauey.

Nia?aiaiiay oa??eoi?ey Iineianeie iaeanoe ninoaaeyao 46 ouny/ ea.
eeeiiao?ia. Oa??eoi?ey ai?iaea Iineau ninoaaeyao 994 ea. ei. ?annoiyiea
io oeaio?a ai?iaea (E?aniie ieiuaaee) aei aai a?aieoe ninoaaeyao io 15
aei 25 eeeiiao?ia ii ?aciui iai?aaeaieyi. Iineaa ?aniieiaeaia ii/oe a
oeaio?a Iineianeie iaeanoe, eioi?ay auoyiooa n naaa?i-caiaaea ia
thai-ainoie. ?annoiyiea io a?aieoeu Iineau aei aiaoieo a?aieoe
Iineianeie iaeanoe ninoaaeyao io 50 eeeiiao?ia a thai-caiaaeiii e
naaa?i-ainoi/iii iai?aaeaieyo aei 150 eeeiiao?ia a caiaaeiii e
thai-ainoi/iii iai?aaeaieyo.

A ia?aua aeanyoeeaoey naiaai nouanoaiaaiey ai?iae Iineaa ?aniieaaaeny ia
oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiiai E?aiey e caieiae ieiuaaeue iaiaa 10 aaeoa?. Ii
ia?a oaaee/aiey iieeoe/aneiai, yeiiiie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai cia/aiey
Iineau oaaee/eaaeanue e ieiuaaeue ai?iaea. (ni. a?aceo “Aeeiaieea ?inoa
ianaeaiey e ieiuaaee Iineau”) Iniaaiii auno?ue ?ino oa??eoi?ee ia/aeny n
eiioea i?ioeiai aaea. A 1960 aiaeo a?aieoea ai?iaea i?ioea ii Iineianeie
eieueoeaaie aaoiiiaeeueiie aei?iaa (IEAAe), aai ieiuaaeue ninoaaeea
ii/oe 900 ea. eeeiiao?ia. A 80-o aiaeao ec-ca iaoaaoee ieiuaaeae aeey
no?ieoaeuenoaa aioo?e ai?iaea ia/aeinue inaiaiea ieiuaaeae iiae
iiaino?ieee e ca i?aaeaeaie yoiai ?oaaaea. A ninoaa ai?iaea aioei aieaa
100 ea. eeeiiao?ia oa??eoi?ee ca IEAAe. (ni. a?aceo “ oa??eoi?ey ai?iaea
Iineau”)

Ai?iae Iineaa e Iineianeay iaeanoue – aeaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo noauaeoa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Aianoa Iineaa e Iineianeay iaeanoue ninoaaeytho
Iineianeee noiee/iue ?aaeii.

Aua a XVI – XVIII aaeao Iineaa e Iiaeiineiauea auee aaaeiaeoeie
oeaio?aie ?aciiia?aciuo ?aianae e iaiooaeoo?. Iiiaea ec ieo
(oaenoeeueiua, ee?ie/iua, aii/a?iua e ae?.) iieo/eee aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea, a iaeioi?ua i?ae?aoeee naia nouanoaiaaiea. A /anoiinoe,
auieaaea iaoaeeia auea cai?auaia oea?neeie oeacaie a oeaeyo nio?aiaiey
eania iiae Iineaie, oae eae aeey yoiai eniieueciaaee ae?aaaniue oaieue,
i?iecaiaenoai eioi?iai o?aaiaaei aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ae?aaaneiu.
I?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai a Iiaeiineiauea auei a iniiaiii eonoa?iui e
nin?aaeioi/aii, ca eneeth/aieai Iineau, Na?iooiaa, Aeieo?iaa, a e?oiiuo
naeao, a ia a ai?iaeao. Ai?iaea oiai a?aiaie auee aaeieieno?aoeaiuie e
oi?aiauie oeaio?aie.

Iniaaiii eioaineaii yoio i?ioeann iioae iinea ?aoi?iu 1861 a.
No?ieoaeuenoai aeaeaciuo aei?ia, oi?ie?iaaiea aaeeiie nenoaiu
o?ainii?oiuo iooae iineoaeeee aeaaii?eyoiuie oaeoi?aie aeey aeaeueiaeoae
eiioeaio?aoeee oaa?e/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?ie?iaaiey e?oiiuo
i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia. A eiioea XIX aaea i?iiuoeaiiue iiaeuai
nii?iaiaeaeaeny iiyaeaieai iiauo io?aneae oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe:
iaoeiino?iaiey, iaoaeeo?aee, yeaeo?iyia?aaoeee, – /oi iaoneiaeei
ianniaue i?eoie ianaeaiey a ao?ii ?anoouea ai?iaea. Oae, iai?eia?, ia
?oaaaea aaeia iaiueoa /ai ca aeaaaeoeaoue eao ianaeaiea Iiaeieuenea
oaaee/eeinue ii/oe a iyoue ?ac. ?acei aic?inea e iauay /eneaiiinoue
ianaeaiey a Iineianeie aoaa?iee. N?aaeiyy ieioiinoue ianaeaiey n 45
/aeiaae ia iaeei ea. ei a 1850 aiaeo aic?inea aei 75 a 1914 a.

Anoanoaaiii, aieaa cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey i?iecioee a i?e?iaeiuo
eiiieaenao a ai?iaeao. I?e/ai ei?aiiui i?aia?aciaaieyi iiaeaa?aeenue ia
oieueei eaaei eciaiyaiua eiiiiiaiou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, oaeea, eae
?anoeoaeueiinoue e aeeaioiue ie?, ii e oaeea onoie/eaua, eae ai?iua
ii?iaeu, ?aeueao, aicaeoo e aiaeu. Oae, iai?eia?, a ai?iaeao /aeiaae
au?aaieaae ?aeueao: n?uaae aa?oeiu oieiia, canuiae ia?aae e aiaaeeiu,
aueaiuaae eieiaeoeu e i?oaeu – oieueei a Iineaa a 1830 aiaeo
ian/eouaaeinue nauoa 4800 eieiaeoeaa. N XVIII aaea a Iineaa ia/aee
aeoeaii canuiaoue eee caeeth/aoue a oiiiaee ?aee e ?o/uee, a a ia?aie
iieiaeia XIX aaea i?e ono?ienoaa I?a/enoaineiai aoeueaa?a n?uee oeaeue
oiei, aunioie ia ieaea ?aniieiaeaiiie ?yaeii oea?eae, a Na?iooiaa a 30-o
aiaeao XIX aaea nii?oaeeee caieyioth aeaiao aunioie 25 iao?ia e aeeeiie
aieaa 250 i. Nouanoaaiiui ia?acii noae iaiyoueny iee?ieeeiao ia oieueei
a naieo ai?iaeao, ii e a aeeceaaeaueo ie?anoiinoyo. Oaea a XVIII – XIX
aaeao auee ioia/aiu nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey a oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa a
ai?iaeao e naeueneeo ianoiinoyo. Ia?aua iaoai?ieiae/aneea iaaethaeaiey,
i?iaaaeaiiua a Iineaa e ca aa i?aaeaeaie a 1880 – 1881 a. iieacaee, /oi
n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a a ai?iaea iinoiyiii iaiiiai auoa, /ai a
ie?anoiinoyo (i?eia?ii ia iiea?aaeona).

N ?inoii ianaeaiey e iniaaiii n ?acaeoeai oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?acei oooaeoeeinue naieoa?iia ninoiyiea ai?iaeia. Auoiaua
e i?iiuoeaiiua iooiaeu ianoieueei caa?yciyee aiaeo e aicaeoo, /oi ai
iiiaeo ai?iaeao ia?aaeei iuouaeinue ceiaiiea. ?aee, aeeth/ay
Iineao-?aeo, auee caa?yciaiu ianoieueei, /oi ethaee auioaeaeaiu auee
a?aoue aiaeo aeey ieouey ec eieiaeoeaa, ianniaia ?uouea eioi?uo eiaei
oeaeue ?yae yeieiae/aneeo iineaaenoaee. Oae, i?iecioei nieaeaiea o?iaiy
a?oioiauo (iiaeii/aaiiuo) aiae e eieiaeoeu i?eoiaeeeinue ?uoue ana
aeoaaea e aeoaaea. Oai ia iaiaa iiiaea ec ieo ia/aee ia?anuoaoue, e
ieoueaaie aiaeu noaei ia oaaoaoue. Neiaeeeanue ia?aaeienaeueiay
neooaoeey: a ai?iaeao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia ?aeao (eae i?aeoe/anee e ai
anao iiaeiineiaiuo ai?iaeao), ia/ae iuouaoueny aeaoeoeeo ieoueaaie
aiaeu. Iiyoiio ia neo/aeii a Iineaa oaea a 1804 aiaeo aioae a n?ie
ia?aue aiaeii?iaiae.

Ao?ii ?acaeaathuayny i?iiuoeaiiinoue eniuouaaea aieueoea iio?aaiinoe a
ieia?aeueiii nu?uea e oiieeaa. ?acei aic?inee ianooaau ?ac?aaioee
ianoi?iaeaeaiee no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia. Iineaa aoeaaeueii ia?inea
iiiai/eneaiiuie ea?uea?aie, ii aeiau/a ianea, a?aaey, aeeiu. A eiioea
XIX aaea ia/aeenue ?ac?aaioee oi?oyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee, iniaaiii ia
ainoiea Iineianeie aoaa?iee – a Iaua?a.

?anoouee ni?in ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou
e na?aaeeia XIX aaea i?eaae e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eioaineoeeaoeee
caieaiieueciaaiey. A caieaaeaeee i?iecioea niaia o?aoiieueiie nenoaiu ia
iiiaiiieueioth n Oaaee/aieai aeiee ea?oioaey, eeaaa?a, ai?ioa e
?acee/iuo iaiuae. I?e ieiaei-naiaiiie nenoaia ia iaeiii e oii aea iiea
no?iai /a?aaeothony Oeaaiua, ei?iaieiaeiua, o?aayiua e ae?oaea
eoeueoo?u, oi anoue aeaaea aeaa aiaea iiae?yae ia au?aueaathony iaeie e
oa aea ?anoaiey. Iai?a?uaiie aa iacuaatho iioiio, /oi iia aeiioneaao
iai?a?uaioth eoeueoo?o iieae e eneeth/aao ia?. N ia?aoiaeii e
iiiaiiieueth nie?auaaony ieiuaaeue iinaaiuo caiaeue e nieaeaaony
aio?iiiaaiiay iaa?ocea ia ii/au e eaniua ianneau. Nieaeathony iaaaoeaiua
iineaaenoaey caieaiieueciaaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy ?acei aic?inee e iaa?ocee ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
oaiaeuey, /oi naycaii, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n nouanoaaiiui eciaiaieai e
oniaa?oainoaiaaieai i?oaeee aeey ia?aaioee ii/au, iniiaiui n?aaee
eioi?uo noaiiaeony ieoa. Ia?aua iaoioiua i?oaeey: ?aei e nioa, iicaieyee
iaoaoue ia aeoaaea 10-12 naioeiao?ia e oieueei ii/au i?aeiouanoaaiii
eaaeiai iaoaie/aneiai ninoaaa: ian/aiua e eaaeinoaeeienoua. N
i?eiaiaieai ieoaa noaei aiciiaeiui ia?aaaouaaoue ii/au ethaiai
oece/aneiai ninoiyiey, Aeeth/ay oyaeaeua aeeienoua, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho
aieaa aunieei anoanoaaiiui ieiaei?iaeeai. Aeoaeia aniaoee aic?anoaao aei
20-30 ni. Ia?yaeo n iieiaeeoaeueiui yooaeoii – oeo/oaieai ea/anoaa
ia?aaioee ii/au, oie/oiaeaiea ni?iyeia; eniieueciaaiea ieoaa i?eaaei e e
?yaeo io?eoeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee. I?e oaeie aeoaeia aniaoee caiaoaiiui
ieacaeny iiaecieenoue ai?eciio – naiue aaaeiue ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie
a iiaeiineiaiuo ii/aao. Ieiaei?iaeea noaei nieaeaoueny, iiyaeeanue
iio?aaiinoue ai aianaiee aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa oaeia?aiee.
Aeoeaece?iaaeenue i?ioeannu ieineinoiiai niuaa caiaeue, iniaaiii i?e
i?iaeieueiie (aaeieue neeiiia) aniaoea, eioi?ay i?eiaiyeanue aeiaieueii
/anoi ec-ca oiai, /oi iiaeii auei iaoaoue nioneaynue n oieia, /oi
cia/eoaeueii iaeaa/aei i?ioeann aniaoee.

Oaea e na?aaeeia XIX aaea a Iineianeie aoaa?iee Aeinoeaaaony aunieay
noaiaiue niaoeeaeecaoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Aeecinoue ai?iaeneeo
?uieia i?eaaea e oiio, /oi oeaeue ?yae iiaeiineiaiuo nae e ?aeiiia noae
caieiaoueny eneeth/eoaeueii iiei/iui aeeaioiiaiaenoaii, au?aueaaieai
iaiuae, yaiaeiui e ieiaeiaui oicyenoaii. Iiyaeeenue iiiai/eneaiiua
oaieeoeu e aeaaea i?aiaea?ae. N ?acaeoeai aeeaioiiaiaenoaa aicieeatho
iiaua naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey i?iiaaeooi/iiai oa?aeoa?a: auaiiu e
iieinu ii eano, ?aaeeee ean ii naiieino e o. ae. Caiaoii oooaeoaaony
ninoiyiea eania.

A na?aaeeia – eiioea XIX a. iiauoaaony ni?in ia ae?aaaneio aeey ioaeae
aeaeaciuo aei?ia, ai?iaeia e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, /oi i?eaaei e ?aceiio
oaaee/aieth oaiiia eaniuo ?oaie. I?aaeoaeuenoai auioaeaeaii auei
ecaeaoue niaoeeaeueiue caeii “I naa?aaeaiee eania”. Ianiio?y ia yoi,
eanenoinoue Iineianeie aoaa?iee e ia/aeo XX a. caiaoii iaaeaao.

N na?aaeeiu 90-o aiaeia XIX a. aie?oa Iineau ?ac?anoathony i?iiuoeaiiua
i?eai?iaeiua iinaeee n iiiaeanoaii oaa?ee e caaiaeia. A ?acoeueoaoa,
aianoi oeoeo, caeaiue ie?aei ai?iae ieaeieyaony e?aeia iaaeaaii?eyoiui n
yeieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey aeuiiui oaa?e/iui eieueoeii (Ia?ueeia ?iua,
Aeaenaaaneia, ?inoieeii, Aiai?iaeneia e ae?.). Aicieeatho e aeeaeaeoea
niooieee Iineau, oaeea, eae Eoioeaai, Ethaeeii, Ia?iai e ae?.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. ?acaeaaaony e ai?iaeneia oicyenoai. N eiioea
60-o aiaeia inaauathony aacii aeaaiua oeeoeu ai?iaea a i?aaeaeao
Naaeiaiai eieueoea, a ca iei onoaiaaeeaathony ea?ineiiaua oiia?e. A
iineaaeiea aiaeu XIX a. no?ieony eaiaeecaoeey. Noi/iua aiaeu ii o?oaai
auee iai?aaeaiu aeey i/enoee ia niaoeeaeueiua iiey i?ioaiey. Aei yoiai
nouanoaiaaea auaiciay nenoaia oaeaeaiey ia/enoio, eioi?ay n yoei
i?aeoe/anee ia ni?aaeyeanue. Ia?aaeei aeiiiaeaaeaeueoeu, a oaeaea
oaa?eee, aaie e aieie nioneaee caa?yciaiiua aiaeu aac i/enoee i?yii a
aiaeinoi/iua o?oau eee iaiin?aaenoaaiii a anoanoaaiiua aiaeiaiu. Auee
caa?yciaiu ia oieueei Iineaa-?aea, ssoca e eo i?eoiee, ii e i?oaeu,
eieiaeoeu e aeaaea a?oaceaineea enoi/ieee, e oaeoe/anee any aiaea a
Iineaa ieacaeanue iai?eaiaeiie aeey ieouey. Oae?o/athuoth ea?oeio
yeieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey Iineau aeiiieiyee 30 ai?iaeneeo naaeie ioni?a e
neeaiuo ioieoia ia/enoio, a oaeaea aieaa 20 eeaaeaeu, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a
/a?oa ai?iaea.

?acaeoea ai?iaea nii?iaiaeaeaeinue iinoiyiiui aio?iiiaaiiui eciaiaieai
enoiaeiuo i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee e oi?ie?iaaieai niaoeeoe/aneiai ai?iaeneiai
eaiaeoaooa. Iaeaieueoei eciaiaieyi iiaeaa?any ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia. Aua
a XII a. aieueoay /anoue oa??eoi?ee Iineau auea iie?uoa eanaie. ?yae
oiiiieiia* aiai?eo i nouanoaiaaiee niniiaiai eana e ia E?aieaaneii
oieia: Ai?iaeoeeea ai?ioa, oea?eiaue Niana ia ai?o (a E?aiea).
Iooaoanoaaiieee XV a. a naieo iienaieyo Iineau oeacuaaee, /oi iia ni
anao noi?ii ie?oaeaia ae?aio/eie eanaie. Iaeiaei e XVIII a. ia
oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiie Iineau nio?aieeenue oieueei “caiiaaaeiua” (aeey
oea?neie ioiou) eana a Eciaeeiaa e ia Iiaiiii-Eineiii ino?iaa.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi, ianiio?y ia iinoiyiioth e eioaineaioth ?oaeo
eana aeey ?aciuo ioaeae, a Iineaa nouanoaiaaea onoie/eaay oaiaeaioeey e
nio?aiaieth e nicaeaieth caeaiuo ianneaia. Ai ana a?aiaia a ai?iaea
nouanoaiaaei iiiaeanoai naaeia. Oaea n XVI a. n o/?aaeaeaieai Aioaee
nouanoaiaae Aioaie/aneee (Aioaea?neee) naae. Ia/eiay n Iao?ianeeo a?aiai
a Iineaa e aeeaeaeoeo ie?anoiinoyo aicieeatho ?anieaie?iaaiiua ia?ee. A
ia/aea XIX a. ia/eiaaony iauaa aeaaiono?ienoai ai?iaea – ono?aeaaaony
ia?aue a Iineaa Oaa?neie aoeueaa?, ia eioi?ii auee aunaaeaiu aa?acu. E
niaeaeaieth, a ia/aea iaoaai aaea aea?aaueyie auei ianaaeaii ia aieaa
10% oeeoe.

Aieueoei eciaiaieyi iiaeaa?any ?aeueao Iineau. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey e
aeaaiono?ienoaa ai?iaea iinoaiaiii n?acaeenue iieiaeeoaeueiua oi?iu
?aeueaoa: ii?aiiua oieiu e inoaioeiaua aicauoaiey, aa?aaiaua aaeu e
ian/aiua aethiu. Auee aueiaeaiu nionee ia e?oouo neeiiao e Iineaa-?aea,
ssoca, Iaaeeiiie e ?yaeo ae?oaeo aiaeioieia. A ?aciua ia?eiaeu a /a?oa
ai?iaea nouanoaiaaee nioie e ouny/e ?aciiia?aciuo eiiaiuo i?oaeia, ?aia,
eaiaeia e o. ae. Auei ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ea?uea?ia ii aeiau/a ianea,
aeeiu, a?aaey e ecaanoiyea.

Ec aaea a aae oae i?ioeann noeoeeiiai iaeiaeaiey eoeueoo?iiai neiy. A
i?aaeaeao Naaeiaiai eieueoea i?aeoe/anee ia nio?aieeny anoanoaaiiue
ii/aaiiue neie – ii caiauai eoeueoo?iui, iiuiinoueth io 1 aei 6 iao?ia.
Iaeiaei ia iaeioi?uo o/anoeao, a aeaii iaaeeouo ?aeiiao ai?iaea, ii
aeinoeaaao 10 e aieaa iao?ia. ?aeueao ai?iaea noae aieaa iaeiiia?aciui e
ieineei.

Oaea e XX a. auei canuiaii ianeieueei aeanyoeia, eiaaea-oi
nouanoaiaaaoeo ?ae, ?o/ueaa e ia?aaia. ss?eee i?eia? yoiai – ?aea
Iaaeeiiay, eioi?ay a ia/aea XIX a. auea caeeth/aia a iiaecaiioth o?oao.
Aeoeaii eciaiyeenue ninoiyiea e ?aaeei ?a/iie naoe. a Caiineai?a/uea a
80-o aiaeao XVIII a. iino?ieee aiaeiioaiaeiue eaiae i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 4
ei. ia anao i?eoieao Iineau n ?aiieo a?aiai no?ieee ieioeiu e
eneonnoaaiiua aiaeiaiu. Iaeioi?ua ieioeiu ecaanoiu n XIV a., a
iaeaunoaai ?aciaoa eo no?ieoaeuenoai (aei ianeieueeeo nioai) aeinoeaei a
XVII – XVIII aa.

Iiaeiaiua i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeu a ni/aoaiee n ianniaie cano?ieeie
i?eaaee e oiio, /oi a ia/aea XX a. ia oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea auei
oie/oiaeaii aieueoeinoai i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia e Iineaa noaea
i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie aaeeiue aio?iiiaaiiue (ai?iaeneie) eaiaeoaoo. E
naaiaeiyoiaio aeith ?aeueao a /a?oa ai?iaea eciaiai iieiinoueth.

Aeeyiea i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo ?aaeiia

I?iiuoeaiiinoue a aieueoeinoaa ai?iaeia ieacuaaao iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo (oioy a Iineaa ia ia?aii ianoa ii aua?inai a
aoiinoa?o noieo ai?iaeneie aaoio?ainii?o). Neaaeoao iaeiaei ioiaoeoue,
/oi ?acee/iua io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeeytho ia i?e?iaeiua nenoaiu
ii-?aciiio.

Iai?eia?, oiieeaiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue e naycaiiay n iae yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea
aiinyo iaeaieueoee aeeaae a caa?yciaiea aicaeooa. Aeiauaathuay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue – a /anoiinoe, oa?aeoa?iay aeey Iineianeie iaeanoe
aeiau/a oi?oa eee no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia – oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia?ooaieai
ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa e eciaiaieai eaiaeoaooa a oeaeii. Oeie/aneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue e iaoaeeo?aey (/a?iay e oeaaoiay) ia?yaeo n aua?inaie a
aoiinoa?o caa?yciythueo aauanoa aeatho ia?iiiia eiee/anoai caa?yciaiiuo
noieia.

Iineianeay iaeanoue niaoeeaeece?oaony ia eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oeaaoiie
iaoaeeo?aee e iaoeiino?iaiee, a iaiueoae noaiaie – ia oeie/aneie e
iaooaoeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?ieoaeueiuo
iaoa?eaeia.

Anee aea aiaeece?iaaoue ia niaoeeaeecaoeeth, a aaee/eio iauaai
aicaeaenoaey ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, oi ieaaeaony, /oi a Iineianeie
iaeanoe iaeaieueoee a?aae ie?oaeathuae n?aaea iaiinyo a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue ?aciiia?aciia iaoeiino?iaiea e iaoaeeiia?aaioea, a oaeaea
oaieiyia?aaoeea e aeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue niaianoii n
i?iecaiaenoaii no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia. Iiaeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue
io?eoeaoaeueiia aeeyiea oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a /anoiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee (oinoi?iuo e acioiuo) ia aaca
nianoaaiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee oinoi?eoia ?aeiia ai?iaea Aine?anainea.

Iaeaieaa “a?yciua” i?iecaiaenoaa a ninoaaa iaoeiino?iaiey – eeoaeiua,
aaeueaaie/aneea e ie?ani/iua, neeueii caa?yciythuea aoiinoa?o. Iie
aua?anuaatho oaa?aeua acaaoaiiua /anoeoeu, ieneaeu e eiiu oyaeaeuo
iaoaeeia, ?acee/iua i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa e iiiaia ae?oaia.

A oeaeii iaoeiino?ieoaeueiay e iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue
?aaeiia (aeeth/ay ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iai?iiiuo e
iao/ii-yenia?eiaioaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee) ii ?aciiia?aceth io?aneae
i?iecaiaenoa, iio?aaeyaiuo iaoaeeia e iaoa?eaeia e ii naiaio
io?eoeaoaeueiiio aicaeaenoaeth ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo ia eiaao naaa
?aaiuo a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao no?aiu.

Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue yaeyaony enoi/ieeii aua?inia iiiai/eneaiiuo e
?aciiia?aciuo caa?yciythueo aauanoa eae a aicaeoo, oae e a aiaeioth
n?aaeo. Eae i?aaeei, i?aaei?eyoey e eiiaeiaou yoie io?anee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe iio?aaeytho ia?iiiia eiee/anoai nu?uey, oiieeaa e aiaeu e
/anoi caieiatho aieueoea ieiuaaee, /oi naaiaeiy a iineianeii ?aaeiia
iniaaiii iai?eaieaii.

Aeey i?aaei?eyoee i?aaie/aneie e iai?aaie/aneie oeiee, i?iecaiaeyueo a
Iineianeie iaeanoe ieanoiannu (I?aoiai-Coaai, oeie/aneea aieieia
(Na?iooia), eneonnoaaiiua aieieia (Iuoeue), A Iineaa – eao/oe,
?aceiioaoie/aneea ecaeaeey e oeiu, a oaeaea aeey iaooaia?a?aaaouaathueo
e eienioeie/aneeo caaiaeia oa?aeoa?iu aua?inu oaeaaiaei?iaeia,
niaaeeiaiee oei?a, acioa, iuoueyea e ?oooe.

Aieueoia eiee/anoai oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, aaiceiuo ia oa??eoi?eth
Iineianeie iaeanoe ec ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia, iio?aaeytho /a?iay e oeaaoiay
iaoaeeo?aey. Ii aicaeaenoaeth ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo yoe io?anee aeecee
e oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Iineieueeo a ?aaeiia ia?acoaony aieueoia eiee/anoai iooiaeia oeaaoiie
iaoaeeo?aee, a noieeoea e iaeanoe ?aciauaii ianeieueei i?aaei?eyoee
aoi?e/iie oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee. E?iia oiai, oae eae iineianeie
iaoeiino?iaiea – e?oiiaeoee iio?aaeoaeue oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia: iaaee,
aethieiey, ieiaa, naeioea, oeeiea, cieioa, na?aa?a, ieaoeiu – a Iineaa e
iaeanoe nin?aaeioi/aiu eiia/iua noaaeee oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee –
?aoeie?iaaiea iaoaeeia e i?iecaiaenoai nieaaia. Eo aeeyiea ia
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo noieue aea aaeeei, neieue e ?aciiia?acii, ii
ianooaaai iii i?aauoaao aiaeiae/iia aeeyiea aaeueaaie/aneeo oeaoia ia
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

I?aaei?eyoey eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiiai aeaea
i?iecaiaenoaa, aua?anuaatho a aoiinoa?o aeaaiui ia?acii oaa?aeua
acaaoaiiua /anoeoeu (iueue) e ia?u ?anoai?eoaeae. A aiaeiua enoi/ieee io
i?aaei?eyoee yoie io?anee iinooiaao, i?e iaaeinoaoi/iie i/enoea noieia,
iiiaeanoai oeie/aneeo aauanoa, ?anoai?eoaeae, eeneio a oaeaea aieieii.
Naiua e?oiiua nia?aiaiiua oeaio?u oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaeanoe –
I?aoiai-Coaai, Iiaeine, ?aiaineia, Na?iooia, Ica?u (i?iecaiaenoai
oeii/aoi-aoiaaeiuo oeaiae), Iiieii e Eoiaaia (i?iecaiaenoai oa?noyiuo
oeaiae).

I?aaei?eyoey ii i?iecaiaenoao no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, a caaeneiinoe io
i?ioeey i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieuecoaiiai nu?uey, aua?anuaatho a aoiinoa?o
aieueoia eiee/anoai iuee, ieene oaea?iaea (NI2), ieneaeia acioa, ia?ia
?anoai?eoaeae, iieeoeeeee/aneeo a?iiaoe/aneeo oaeaaiaei?iaeia e ae?oaeo
i?eianae. E?iia oiai ?yae iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, eniieuecoaiuo a yoie
io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iiaeao eiaoue iiauoaiioth i?e?iaeioth
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue, eae, iai?eia?, a?aieo, niaea?aeauee ?aaeeiaeoeaiue
?aaeii. A?aieoii a Iineaa e iaeanoe iaeeoeiaaiu oanaaeu aeiiia,
iaaa?aaeiua, onoaiiaeaii iiiaeanoai a?aieoiuo iaiyoieeia a naieo
ai?iaeao e ia eeaaeaeuao.

Aeeyiea o?ainii?oa ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo

E iaeiie ec naiuo “aieueiuo” i?iaeai ai?iaea Iineau y au ioian i?aaeaea
anaai yeieiae/aneoth. I?e/ei aa /?acau/aeii iiiai e iie nieaoaiu a
aaeeiue ooaie ocae, a eioi?ii i?ineaaeeaathony oaniua eo acaeiinayce.

N iiae oi/ee c?aiey ethaie ai?iae oaeiai cia/aiey e ianooaaa eae Iineaa
oaea ia?a/ai ia iaaeaaii?eyoioth yeieiae/aneoth ianoaiiaeo.

Eae ecaanoii, iaeiei ec iniiaiuo caa?ycieoaeae ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
yaeyaony aaoio?ainii?o. Noieeoea ethaiai ainoaea?noaa eae iaaieo
i?eoyaeaaao e naaa aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua, aaoio?ainii?oiua e aicaeooiua
iaaeno?aee. I?e ia?aii aea acaeyaea ia ea?oo ?innee a?inaaony a aeaca
ieioiue ocae, aoeaaeueii oeaio? o?ainii?oiie iaooeiu – ai?iae Iineaa.

Ii eiee/anoao aua?inia o?ainii?o yaeyaony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii a?aaeiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia aoiinoa?o Iineau e iaeanoe. *enei iaoei a iineaaeiea
aiaeu no?aieoaeueii ?anoao. Iiiaea eiiia?ee iiiaaeatho a Iineao oaea ia
iiauie, n eciioaiiuie aeaeaaoaeyie e iaeiio?iee?oaiie nenoaiie auoeiia
io?aaioaiiuo aacia. Eiaiii ee/iua aaoiiiaeee nouanoaaiii caa?yciytho
n?aaeo, oae eae eiio?ieue ca ninoiyieai auoeiiiuo aacia ia ieo onooiaao
eiio?ieth ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, a iiuiinoae noaioeee
na?aena iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey ianeoaeeaaiey anao ee/iuo aaoiiiaeeae.
Iinoiyiiua neiieaiey aaoiiiaeeae ia ioaeaeueiuo iaaeno?aeyo e oeeoeao
Iineau e ai?iaeia Iiaeiineiauey nicaeatho ciiu n ia?iiiuie
eiioeaio?aoeeyie oaeaeeneiai aaca, ieacuaay iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia
caei?iauea ethaeae.

*?acau/aeii iianiu aeey caei?iauey oyaeaeua iaoaeeu. Ioiineoaeueii aieaa
e?oiiua /anoeoeu naeioea, niaea?aeauaainy a aieueoeinoaa aeaeia oiieeaa
aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey aeaoiiaoeee, inaaeatho a i?aaeaeao 30 i io
aaoino?aaeu, a i?e ionoonoaee caeaiuo ianaaeaeaiee iiaoo ano?a/aoueny e
a 400-iao?iaie ciia. Iaeeea e iaeue/aeoea /anoeoeu naeioea ia?aiinyony
ia cia/eoaeueii aieueoea ?annoiyiey, caa?yciyy naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
oaiaeuey, naaeu e iai?iaeu aaeieue aei?ia. E?iia oiai, iiiaaeay a
aoiinoa?o, aua?inu aaoiiiaeeae i?aoa?iaaatho neiaeiua oioioeie/aneea (ia
naaoo) ?aaeoeee n ia?aciaaieai oioiieneaeaioia, – aauanoa,
?acae?aaeathua aeaenoaothueo ia neecenooth iaiei/eo aeac e i?aaiia
aeuoaiey.

Iaeiaei ia oieueei aeaeaaoaeue e oiieeaiay nenoaiu aaoiiiaeey yaeythony
enoi/ieeaie caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u. Eaaeaeue aaoiiiaeeue, aei iieiiai
eciina ?enoiea i?ioaeoi?a oei aua?anuaaao a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo a
n?aaeiai 14,2 ea ?aceiiaie iuee, a a?ociaie aaoiiiaeeue eee aaoiaon –
92,2 ea. A ninoaa ?aceiiaie iuee aoiaeyo a?aaeiua aauanoaa, eioi?ua
?ani?ino?aiythony a ii/aa e aoiinoa?a.

A Iineaa oaea aeaii auea ia/aoa ?aaioa ii ia?aaiaeo o?ainii?oa ia aieaa
yeieiae/anee /enoua aeaeu oiieeaa. Ia?aua aaciaaeiiiua aaoiiiaeee,
auoeiiiua aacu eioi?uo a 3-4 ?aca iaiaa oiene/iu, /ai o iaoei,
aeaeaaoaee eioi?uo ?aaioatho ia aaiceia, iiyaeeenue a Iineaa aua a 1960
a. A 1975a. aaoiiiaeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?enooieea e na?eeiiio
auioneo aaciaaeiiiuo aaoiiiaeeae, a eiioea 80-o aiaeia eo ia?e a Iineaa
ian/eouaae aieaa 18 ouny/ aaeeieoe. Iaia/aii nouanoaaiii oaaee/eoue eo
/enei.

I?aeiouanoaaiiia ?acaeoea a Iineaa eiaao yeaeo?e/aneee o?ainii?o.
Iao?iiieeoai, o?ieeaeaonu e o?aiaae ia?aaicyo 70%* iannaaee?ia,
iieuecothueony iauanoaaiiuie aeaeaie o?ainii?oa. E a aeaeueiaeoai
i?aeiouanoaaiiia ?acaeoea iieo/ao eiaiii yeaeo?e/aneea aeaeu o?ainii?oa,
iaiinyuea ai?acaei iaiueoee oua?a i?e?iaeiie n?aaea. Ia/iaony nicaeaiea
nei?inoiuo eeiee iao?iiieeoaia, aoaeoo nicaeaiu eeiee o?aiaay n
onei?aiiui aeaeaeaieai, ai aioo?eai?iaeneeo iannaaee?neeo ia?aaiceao
aic?anoao ?ieue aeaeaciuo aei?ia. Iaiaoiaeeii nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eoue e
?aeiino?oe?iaaoue oee/ii-aei?iaeioth naoue noieeoeu, eioi?ay ieacaeanue
iaiiaeaioiaeaiiie ei ana aic?anoathuaio iioieo iaoei.

Ec-ca ?inoa ia?ea aaoiiaoei a ai?iaea e ionoathueo io iaai oaiiia
?anoe?aiey e ?aeiino?oeoeee oee/ii-aei?iaeiie naoe ai?iaea nei?inoue
aeaeaeaiey aaoio?ainii?oa iaaaeeea. N?aaeiea nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey
aaoiiiaeeae ia iniiaiuo iaaeno?aeyo ai?iaea ia i?aauoatho 35 ei//an, a
n?aaeiae ciia – 45, a ia?eoa?eeiie – 50 ei//an. Oaaee/aiea nei?inoe
aeaeaeaiey aaoio?ainii?oa, nie?auaiey aai inoaiiaie niinianoaoao
nie?auaieth caaaciaaiiinoe iaaeno?aeae, oae eae iaeaieueoee aua?in
oiene/iuo aauanoa n auoeiiii i?ienoiaeeo eiaiii i?e o?iaaiee
aaoio?ainii?oa n ianoa. ?anoe?aiea oee/ii-aei?iaeiie naoe ai?iaea,
no?ieoaeuenoai iaoaoiaeiuo iiaecaiiuo ia?aoiaeia, o?ainii?oiuo ?acaycie
a ?aciuo o?iaiyo, ynoaeaae e iooai?iaiaeia iicaieeee ca iineaaeiea 10-15
eao nieceoue o?iaaiue caaaciaaiiinoe ioaeaeueiuo iaaeno?aeae e ieiuaaeae
Iineau.

E naaaeaieth:

Iineianeee iao?iiieeoai – yoi 261,4 eeeiiao?a iiaecaiiuo iaaeno?aeae
(i?e eo no?ieoaeuenoaa ec iiae caiee auei oaeaeaii ia iaiaa 3,4 ieeeeiia
eoaiiao?ia ii?iaeu), 160 noaioeee, aieaa 4 ouny/ aaeeieoe iiaeaeaeiiai
ninoaaa. Noiee/iia iao?i – yoi e naiaia?aciue ai?iae n ioeaaeaiiie
eio?ano?oeoo?ie, caiieiaiiue aa/ii niaoaueie iannaaee?aie. Aaeaaeiaaii
aieoaua aaaiiu iiaecaiee ia?aaicyo aei 9 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae.

Aeeyiea naeueneiai oicyenoaa ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo

Iiaeiineiauea – e?oiiue oeaio? i?iecaiaenoaa ?aciiia?aciie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey ninoaaeytho 39% iauae ieiuaaee caiaeue
iaeanoe.

Naeueneia oicyenoai – e?oiiue iio?aaeoaeue aiaeiuo ?ano?nia. Aiaea
eniieuecoaony aeey i?ioaiey, a oaeaea aeey ioaeae aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.
Ii?iu iio?aaeaiey aeeaioiuie aeiaieueii aaee e eieaaethony io 2 eeo?ia a
nooee ia yaiaiea aei 200 e – ia ei?iao, i?e/ai e ea/anoao ieoueaaie
aiaeu i?aaeuyaeythony aeiaieueii aeanoeea o?aaiaaiey, eia/a
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiiaiaenoaa iiaeao nieceoueny ia 40-70%.

A Iineianeie iaeanoe ?acaeoi eae i?ioaiea caiaeue (a /anoiinoe, a iieia
Iineau-?aee e Iee, aaea a iniiaiii au?aueaatho iaiue), oae e inooaiea.
Yoe aeaa iniiaiuo aeaea iaeei?aoeee caiaeue iai?aaeaiu a i?eioeeia ia
iiauoaiea i?e?iaeiiai ieiaei?iaeey ii/a aeey eniieueciaaiey eo a
naeueneii oicyenoaa. Iaeiaei i?e iai?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee eae
i?ioaiea, oae e inooaiea iiaeao i?eaanoe e io?eoeaoaeueiui
iineaaenoaeyi. Oae, iai?eia?, n ?acaeoeai i?ioaiey caiaeue oaaee/eaaaony
iauai ia?acothueony i?e yoii eieeaeoi?i?-ae?aiaaeiuo noieia. Iie
ia?acothony i?e ia?eiaee/aneeo iieeaao, eiaaea ioia/aaony ecauoi/iue
noie aiaeu, a oaeaea i?e ?annieaiee (oiaiueoaiee eiioeaio?aoeee nieae a
ii/aa) i?iiuaeie. A yoeo neo/ayo iiauoaaony ieia?aeecaoeey aiaeu a
?aeao, a eioi?ua na?anuaatho ae?aiaaeiua aiaeu, e iia noaiiaeony
iai?eaiaeiie aeey aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey.

Naeueneia oicyenoai yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia caa?yciaiey
aiae. Iniiaiuie caa?yciythueie aauanoaaie a iiaa?oiinoiii noiea n
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee yaeythony /anoeoeu ii/au, i?aaie/aneia
aauanoai (aoion), oaeia?aiey e ianoeoeeaeu, a?aaeiua iee?ii?aaieciu. Ec
anao oaeia?aiee, aiineiuo, a /anoiinoe, ia neeiiiaua caiee, auiuaaaony e
iiiaaeaao a aiaeiaiu aei 20% acioa, 2-5% oinoi?a e io 10 aei 70% eaeey.
Auiin ianoeoeeaeia n i?ioaaiuo caiaeue aeinoeaaao 4%.

Iineieueeo noiee n iieae iaaiciiaeii i?iionoeoue /a?ac i/enoiua
nii?oaeaiey, iianiinoue caa?yciaiey aiae ianoeoeeaeaie e oaeia?aieyie
i/aiue aaeeea e o?oaeiii?aiaeieeia. Aeiaaiiua aauanoaa, niuaaaiua n
iieae a aiaeiaiu, aucuaatho aao?ioeeaoeeth* aiaeiuo iauaeoia e i?eaiaeyo
e ia?ooaieth i?ioeannia eo naiii/euaiey. AEeaioiiaiae/aneea eiiieaenu e
oa?iu /anoi ?aniieaaathony ia aa?aaao aiaeiaiia e ?ae. I?e ionoonoaee
niaoeeaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey nai?a e o?aiaiey iaaica yoe
i?aaie/aneea iooiaeu niuaathony inaaeeaie e nioneathony (eiiaaea a
?acoeueoaoa aaa?ee, ia?aiieiaiey o?aieeeu) a aiaeiua iauaeou. A
?acoeueoaoa aaniie a Iineaa aiaeii?iaiaeiay aiaea eiaao niaoeeoe/aneee
caiao, ono?aieoue eioi?ue i/aiue o?oaeii. E?iia oiai, yoe noiee
niaea?aeao yeoea aaeueieioia e iaoiaaiiua ia?aceoe/aneea iee?ii?aaieciu.

Iniiaiuie caa?ycieoaeyie aicaeooa a naeueneii oicyenoaa yaeythony
aeeaioiiaiae/aneea e ioeoeaaiae/aneea oa?iu e eiiieaenu, i?aaei?eyoey ii
ia?ae/iie ia?aaioea naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea
ianoeoeeaeu, eniieuecoaiua ia iieyo (a /anoiinoe ?annaeaaaiua n
aicaeooa) e ia niaoeeaeueiuo neeaaeao, aaea eie i?io?aaeeaathony naiaia
ia?aae iinaaii.

Io ioeoeaoa?i e iiiauaiee aeey niaea?aeaiey neioa, io neeiniuo aaoai e
eiuo nii?oaeaiee aeey o?aiaiey ei?iia e iooiaeia aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ia
aieueoea ?annoiyiey ?ani?ino?aiythony oaeea caa?ycieoaee, eae aiieae,
na?iaiaei?iae e ae?oaea aeo?iiiaoiouea aauanoaa.

Niaoeeoeeie io?eoeaoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey naeueneiai oicyenoaa ia n?aaeo
yaeyaony y?icey ii/a. E ia?ooaieth ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa, iinoaiaiiiio
ia?aciaaieth ia?aaia i?eaiaeyo aicaeaeuaaiea iaoaeiaiuo aeey aaaeaiey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa caiaeue, iai?aaeeueiay ?aniaoea iieae ia neeiiao
?aeueaoa, a oaeaea au?aueaaiea oaoie/aneeo eoeueoo? (oaeeo eae eai,
naoa?iay naaea, eiiiiey), o?aaothueo iaiaeiie?aoiiai eniieueciaaiey
niaoeeaeueiie oaoieee. A Iineianeie iaeanoe iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia
i?ioeann y?icee ii/a ieacuaaao ?aniaoea aiaei?acaeaeia e eioaineaiia
eniieueciaaiea eoaiauo oaiaeee.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey ae?oaeo caieaaieeo io?aneae oicyenoaa, ?inoa ai?iaeia,
a oaeaea ?anoe?aiey cii naaeiai-iai?iaeiuo eiiia?aoeaia naeueneia
oicyenoai Iiaeiineiauey, iniaaiii aaeece Iineau e e?oiiuo ai?iaeia
iaeanoe, eniuouaaao ana aieueoea o?oaeiinoe. ?anoe?youe caiee iiae
iaoiae noaei i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea a
Iiaeiineiauea aeeaioiiaiaenoaa oaeaea cao?oaeiaii ii /enoi yeieiae/aneei
i?e/eiai, iniaaiii yoi eanaaony naeiiaiae/aneeo e ioeoeaaiae/aneeo
eiiieaenia. Yoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iecaiaenoaa ioiinyony ii o?iaith
caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e iauaeoai n aunieie noaiaiueth
a?aaeiinoe.

Eioaineaiay aea/iay cano?ieea oaeaea io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia
ninoiyiee aeeceaaeaueo i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia – eania, eoaia, ?ae, ica?.
Iiyoiio iniaaiii aaaeiui noaiiaeony yeieiae/aneia i?inaauaiea ethaeae,
ia/eiay io oeieueieeia e eii/ay iaineiia?aie, aicaeaeuaathueie naie 6
nioie.

Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a Iineianeii ?aaeiia

Ninoiyiea enoi/ieeia aiaeiniaaaeaiey

Iineianeee ?aaeii eiaao aonooth, ?acaaoaeaiioth aeae?ia?aoe/aneoth
naoue, ninoiyuoth ec aieueoeo e iaeuo ?ae, iauaa /enei eioi?uo i?aauoaao
aeaa ouny/e. Ana iie ioiinyony e aannaeio ?aee Aieae. Iniiaiay /anoue
?ae iaeanoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioiineony e aannaeio ?aee Iee – e?oiiaeoaai
eaaiai i?eoiea Aieae. Naiua e?oiiua ?aee iaeanoe – Iea, Iineaa,
Eeycueia. E?iia oiai, a iaeanoe eiaaony iiiai ica? e eneonnoaaiiuo
aiaeio?aieeeu. Iineianeay iaeanoue iaeaaeaao oaeaea e?oiiuie caianaie
iiaecaiiuo aiae a Iineianeii a?oaceaineii aannaeia. Ianiio?y ia yoi,
i?iaeaia aiaeiniaaaeaiey Iineau e ai?iaeia iaeanoe a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
noieo aeinoaoi/ii ino?i – neeoeii oae aaeeee iio?aaiinoe
iiiaiieeeeiiiiai Iineianeiai ?aaeiia a /enoie aiaea.

Caaea/a aiaeiiaania/aiey Iineau, ae?oaeo ai?iaeia iaeanoe e aa naeueneeo
?aeiiia aaeeia, aeaaea anee enoi/ieee aiaeiniaaaeaiey e nenoaiu
eaiaeecaoeee a ?aciuo ioieoao ?acee/iu. Iineaa e Iineianeay iaeanoue (eo
?aee e iiaecaiiua aannaeiu) iieo/atho aiaeo ec niaaeiuo iaeanoae,
i?aaeaea anaai Oaa?neie, Niieaineie, Eaeoaeneie, Ooeueneie. Noi/iua
aiaeu, eniieueciaaiiua a Iiaeiineiauea e Iineaa na?anuaathony a ?aee
ninaaeieo iaeanoae. Iiyoiio i?iaeaio caa?yciaiey ?ae ?aoeoue iaaiciiaeii
ia aeaiiie eieaeueiie oa??eoi?ee. Aa iaiaoiaeeii ?aoaoue oeaio?aeeciaaii
e iianaianoii.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii niaaaeaiey neoaeao iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu. Neiaeiay
aiaeioicyenoaaiiay nenoaia nicaeaia a aannaeia aa?oiaai oa/aiey
Iineau-?aee. Iia ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo iaaieueoeo aiaeio?aieeeu ia
naiie Iineaa-?aea, aa i?eoieao e ia ninaaeieo ?aeao: Eno?eineiai,
Iiaeaeneiai, ?ocneiai, Ica?eineiai, ssocneiai, Aacocneiai. Yoa nenoaia
iaania/eaaao ieiei 34% a iauai iauaia aiaeiniaaaeaiey Iineau e aa
eaniia?eiaiai iiyna.

Aieaa 58% aiaeiiaania/aiey Iineau eiaeeony ia aieaeneoth aiaeo,
iinooiathuoth ec Eaaiueeianeiai aiaeio?aieeeua ii neiaeiie nenoaia
eaiaea ei. Iineau. Yoa aiaea ionoaeaaaony e aeiiieieoaeueii i/euaaony a
Ianoianeii, O/eineii e Eeycueieineii aiaeio?aieeeuao. Ieiei 7% aiaeu
Iineaa iieo/aao ca n/ao iiaecaiiuo enoi/ieeia. A Iineianeie iaeanoe
aeiey iiaecaiiuo aiae a nenoaia aiaeiniaaaeaiey aic?anoaao a ianeieueei
?ac. Aunieay aeiey iiaecaiiiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey a ioaeaeueiuo ai?iaeao
naycaia n ionoonoaeai e?oiiuo iiaa?oiinoiuo enoi/ieeia aiae. E oaeei
ai?iaeai ioiinyony Eeei, Na?aeaa-Iinaae, Ia?i-Oiieine, Iiaeieuene,
Aai?ueaane, e ae?. A ae?oaeo ai?iaeao eniieuecothony i?aeiouanoaaiii
iiaecaiiua aiaeu, oae eae iiaa?oiinoiua ai iiiaeo ianoao caa?yciaiu e
o?aaotho aei?iainoiyuae i/enoee. N?aaee oaeeo ai?iaeia – Na?iooia,
Eaoe?a, Eieiiia, Iiaeine.

Oaeei ia?acii, ino?i noieo i?iaeaia ea/anoaa ieoueaaie aiaeu. O?aaiaaiey
e aiaea aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai eniieueciaaiey, eae i?aaeei iaiaa aunieea,
iaeiaei iauaiu iio?aaeaiey oaeaea auniee.

Ea/anoai aiaeu. Iineaa e Iineianeay iaeanoue aoiaeyo a /enei 13 ?aaeiiia
?innee n i/aiue ino?ie yeieiae/aneie neooaoeeae. Nouanoaoao o?e aeaaiuo
enoi/ieea aio?iiiaaiiuo caa?yciaiee aiae.

Ia?aue enoi/iee – i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Eiiieaeniia oicyenoaaiii-auoiaia
oaoiiaaiiia caa?yciaiea oa?aeoa?ii aeey i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia, iie?uaoeo
aonoie naoueth ana Iiaeiineiauea. Iniiaiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
oeie/aneie, iaoaeeo?ae/aneie, oaenoeeueiie, noaeieueiie e ae?oaei
io?aneyi i?iiuoeaiiinoe – i?eia?ii 200 i?iiuoeaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi. N
i?iiuoeaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii naycaii enoiuaiea e caa?yciaiea
iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae, “ia?acaai?” ieoueaaie aiaeu ia oaoiieiae/aneea
ioaeaeu, nieaeaiea o?iaiy (a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai iiaeao aicieeiooue
aeiaieueii na?ueaciia i?inaaeaiea ii/au) e caa?yciaiea iiaecaiiuo aiae,
iaeiieaiea ia ooeeece?iaaiiuo iooiaeia e ieeeeiiia oiii oiene/iiai eea
ia aeia aiaeiaiia e o. ae.

Aoi?ie enoi/iee – naeueneioicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue: niua
caa?yciythueo aauanoa n iieae e oa?i, auian neioa ia iieiao ?ae. A
Iiaeiineiauea aieaa 2 ouny/ aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo eiiieaenia e ioeoeaoa?i,
eioi?ua aaeaaiaeii aeatho 14 ieeeeiiia oiii (!) iaaica e iiiaoa; ia
iaiaa 6 ieeeeiiia oiii yoeo iooiaeia iaiin?aaenoaaiii caa?yciytho
i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo, a oii /enea iiaa?oiinoiua e a?oioiaua aiaeu. E?iia
oiai ia iiey Iiaeiineiauey aiineony a n?aaeiai io 100 aei 200 ea
oaeia?aiee e ianoeoeeaeia, aieueoay /anoue eioi?uo iiiaaeaao a ?aee.

O?aoee enoi/iee caa?yciaiey aiae – iiiai/eneaiiua ?ae?aaoeeiiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey, naaeiai-iai?iaeiua o/anoee a aiaeiio?aiiie ciia,
iai?aaieciaaiiue ioaeuo ii aa?aaai ?ae e o. ae.

Iniiaiuie aauanoaaie, caa?yciythueie aiaeu, yaeythony aeiaaiiua yeaiaiou
(oinoi?, acio), eeneioiua niaaeeiaiey, i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa,
aeeieneiu, iaooai?iaeoeou e oyaeaeua iaoaeeu.

E ciiai iaeaieueoaai eiiieaeniiai caa?yciaiey iiaa?oiinoiuo e iiaecaiiuo
aiae ioiinyony i?aaeaea anaai Iineaa, a oaeaea ai?iaea, ieaeieythuea aa
n ainoiea e naaa?i-ainoiea – Iuoeue, Eaeeieia?aae, Aaeaoeoa, Ethaa?oeu,
Euoea?eii, AEoeianeee. E oai aea ciiai ioiinyony ai?iaea: Na?iooia n
ie?anoiinoyie, Nooieii, Eaoe?a, Eieiiia, Aine?anaine. Ii Iineaa-?aea,
Eeycueia, Iea caa?yciythuea aauanoaa io yoeo oeaio?ia ia?aiauathony aiec
ii oa/aieth. Iiyoiio, iai?eia?, a Iineaa-?aea ea/anoai aiaeu ieaea ii
oa/aieth ai?iaea Iineau ia iicaieytho eniieueciaaoue aa aeey
aiaeiniaaaeaiey; ia ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeao iia iiania e aeey eoiaiey.
Iianii caa?yciaiiua o/anoee auyaeaiu ia ?aea Iea – a ?aeiiao Na?iooiaa,
Nooieii, Eaoe?u e io Eieiiiu aei a?aieoeu iaeanoe; ia ?aea Eeycueia – io
Iooeeii aei ainoi/iie a?aieoeu iaeanoe, ia ?aea Iao?a e ae?oaeo
iaaieueoeo ?a/eao.

?acia?u cii iaeaieueoaai caa?yciaiey iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae ii?aaeaeythony,
eae i?aaeei, iauaiaie noi/iuo aiae, na?anuaaaiuo a ?aee ai?iaea. A
Iineaa iauai noi/iuo aiae ninoaaeyao aieaa 2 ieeeeiiia eoa. i/nooee. A
Eieiiia, Na?iooiaa, Iiaeieuenea, Iiaeinea, Eeeia, Aine?anainea iauaiu
noi/iuo aiae ninoaaeytho io 100 aei 200 oun. eoa. i/nooee.

Iaeiaiueoaa eiiieaeniia caa?yciaiea iiaa?oiinoiuo e iiaecaiiuo aiae
ioia/aaony a ?aeiiao caiaaeiiai Iiaeiineiauey e naaa?iuo ?aeiiao
iaeanoe, ioeoaea iinooiaao iniiaiay /anoue aiaeu aeey aiaeiniaaaeaiey
Iineau.

Aeey iaania/aiey aani?iaeaiiiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey Iineau e ae?oaeo
ai?iaeia iaeanoe a aeeaeaeoae ia?niaeoeaa iaiaoiaeei oeaeue ?yae
ia?ii?eyoee. Ai-ia?auo, ?ano?nu /enoie aiaeu a Iineianeie iaeanoe ia
aaneiia/iu, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeei ia?aoiae ia aiaeinaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee
a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e eiiioiaeueiii oicyenoaa. Ai-aoi?uo, iaiaoiaeeii
aiaae?youe aieaa niaa?oaiiua nenoaiu i/enoee noi/iuo aiae i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee e eiiioiaeueii-auoiauo noieia. A o?aoueeo, iaaei
iianaianoii i?iaiaeeoue yeieiae/aneia iaono?ienoai naeueneiai
eaiaeoaooa. Anee noiee i?aaei?eyoee e ai?iaeia eiatho eieaeueiue
enoi/iee na?ina (noi/iua eaiaeu, o?oau e o. ae.) e iiaeaeathony
eiio?ieth, oi caa?yciaiey, iiiaaeathuea a aiaeiaiu n iieae eiatho
ieiuaaeiie oa?aeoa? (noie ?ani?aaeaeai ii aieueoie ieiuaaee). Iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii iiauoaoue iauoth yeieiae/aneoth onoie/eainoue
aa?ieaiaeoaooa, aiaae?youe ii/aicaueoiua naaiiai?io, aieaa oe?iei
i?eiaiyoue nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee a caieaaeaeee, o?aaothuea iaiueoaai
eiee/anoaa ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, e o. ae.

A oeaeii, aiaeiniaaaeaiea ec iiaecaiiuo enoi/ieeia yaeyaony yeieiae/anee
aieaa aaciianiui, /ai ec iiaa?oiinoiuo, ai?acaei iaiaa caueuaiiuo io
caa?yciaiee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeiey iiaecaiiiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey Iineau e
ai?iaeia iaeanoe, aa?iyoii, aoaeao ?anoe. Oaea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
iaeanoe ecuneeaathony ia?niaeoeaiua o/anoee n aieueoeie caianaie
iaii?iuo a?oaceaineeo aiae aeey aiaeiniaaaeaiey Iineau e ae?oaeo e?oiiuo
ai?iaeia.

Iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu ai?iaea neoaeao ia oieueei aeey auoiauo e
oicyenoaaiiuo oeaeae. Iie ana oe?a eniieuecothony aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee e
na?ina ?aciiai ?iaea ia/enoio. A Iineaa aaeanooi/ii ia?acoaony ieiei 6
iei. eoa. i caa?yciaiiuo, oae iacuaaaiuo noi/iuo aiae. 3/4 ec ieo
ninoaaeytho auoiaua noi/iua aiaeu. Ana noi/iua aiaeu iinooiatho a
eaiaeecaoeeiiioth naoue e ionthaea iinooiatho ia noaioeee ay?aoeee, aaea
yoe aiaeu niaoeeaeueii iaiaauatho aicaeooii, aeey onei?aiey i?ioeannia
ieeneaiey i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa i?e eo acaeiiaeaenoaee n eenei?iaeii
aicaeooa e n iiiiuueth iee?ii?aaieciia-naieoa?ia.

I?aeoe/anee ana i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiey e aeeeeua Iineau
ianeoaeeaathony oeaio?aeueiie eaiaeecaoeeae (a 1994 aiaeo ath auei
ioaa/aii 99,6% aeeeie ieiuaaee).

Eaiaeecaoeeiiiay naoue a niioaaonoaee n iniiaiuie iniaaiiinoyie ?aeueaoa
ai?iaea Iineau eiaao iauaa iai?aaeaiea oeeiia ia tha e thai-ainoie a
?aeii ieaeiaai oa/aiey Iineau-?aee. Naiie e?oiiie noaioeeae ay?aoeee
yaeyaony Eo?ueyiianeay, eoaea iinooiaao ii/oe 56% anao noi/iuo aiae
ai?iaea (ia Ethaa?aoeeoth – 37; e Ethaeeineoth – 7%). Ia 846
i?aaei?eyoeyo ai?iaea eiathony nianoaaiiua i/enoiua nii?oaeaiey,
inoaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey na?anuaatho naie i?iiuoeaiiua noiee a
ai?iaeneoth eaiaeecaoeeth.

Eo?ueyiianeay noaioeey ay?aoeee yaeyaony iaeiie ec naiuo e?oiiuo ia
oieueei a ?innee, ii e a Aa?iia. Eaiaeecaoeeiiiua aiaeu i?ioiaeyo
caeanue ianeieueei noaaeee i/enoee. I?e yoii noaiaiue i/enoee aeinoeaaao
96%. Oae, anee ia aoiaea noi/iua aiaeu niaea?aeao ieiei 185 ia/e
acaanae, i?e auoiaea, iinea i/enoee – ieiei 10 ia/e. Ia aoiaea – iooiua
oaiiua iioiee; ia auoiaea – i?ic?a/iua aieoaiaaoua no?oe. Iinea i/enoee,
ii niaoeeaeueiiio na?iniiio eaiaeo i/euaiiua aiaeu na?anuaathony a
Iineao-?aeo, aaea iie ?acaaaeythony anoanoaaiiie aiaeie. Ieaea ai?iaea
i/euaiiua iioiee ninoaaeytho aieaa iieiaeiu io iauaai iauaia aiaeu a
?aea.

Iinea i/enoee noi/iuo aiae ia noaioeee ia?acothony aeanyoee ouny/
eoaiiao?ia eeenouo inaaeeia. A oa/aiea 2-3 eao iie nooaony ia eeiauo
iieyo. Iinea nooee iauai eeia oiaiueoaaony a 7 ?ac. Iiae eeiauie
ieiuaaeeaie caiyou ia?iiiua ieiuaaee ai?iaeneeo caiaeue. Aeey oiai,
/oiau ia oaaee/eaaoue eo oa??eoi?ee, i?iecaiaeeony eneonnoaaiiue
iiaenooea eeia n iiiiuueth iiaeia?aaa. Aeey ?aaiou yia?aaoe/aneeo
onoaiiaie noaioeee eniieuecoaony i?e?iaeiue aeiaac – iaoai, eioi?ue
niae?aaony a iniaua ?aca?aoa?u – iaoaioaiee.

Eaiaeecaoeeiiiua aiaeu i?ioiaeyo i/enoeo ia noaioeeyo ay?aoeee e
caaiaeneeo noaioeeyo i/enoee noi/iuo aiae. Ii a ?aeo iiiaaeaao oaeaea
aieueoia eiee/anoai caa?ycieoaeae a ?acoeueoaoa iiaa?oiinoiiai noiea n
oeeoe ai?iaea. Yoe noiee ia?acothony ca n/ao oayiey niaaia, aeiaeaeaauo
e iieeaii-iia/iuo aiae. Oee/iua noiee iiea ieeae ia i/euathony e ianoo
iiiai a?yce a Iineao-?aeo. Ii yoie i?e/eia ?aea a ai?iaea, e iniaaiii a
ieaeiai aa oa/aiee, i/aiue neeueii caa?yciaia.

Aeey oiaiueoaiey na?ina aoi?e/iie aiaeu ia?aoii a ?aeo aa iiaeii
iiaeaaaoue a nenoaio i?iiuoeaiiiai aiaeii?iaiaea aeey eniieueciaaiey a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannao.

Oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii aieaa eioaineaii aiaae?youe caieiooua oeeeeu
aiaeiniaaaeaiey, i?e eioi?uo a?yciay aiaea iinea i?ioiaeaeaiey i/enoee
i?yii ia i?aaei?eyoee aiiaue iiaeaaony a i?iecaiaenoai.

Ninoiyiea aoiinoa?u

A Iineaa, oae aea, eae e a ae?oaeo e?oiiuo ai?iaeao ie?a, a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie eciaiaiu anoanoaaiiua iiaiaeii-eeeiaoe/aneea
oneiaey. Iau/ii a aa oeaio?aeueiie /anoe auaaao oaieaa, /ai ia ie?aeiao
e a i?eai?iaea. Iai?eia? a oeaio?a n?aaeiyy aiaeiaay oaiia?aoo?a ia 3 –
4° auoa, /ai a i?eai?iaeao, a i?e aioeoeeeeiiao a aeie ni neaauie aao?ai
yoa ?acieoea iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 10°. Caii?icee a oeaio?a Iineau
i?ae?auathony aaniie ia 8 – 10 aeia ?aiueoa, a inaiueth ia/eiathony ia
ianyoe iicaea, /ai a i?eai?iaea. E oiio aea ca ai?aeii e ia ie?aeiao
caii?icee ia ii/aa auaatho aaniie e inaiueth iaiiiai /aua, /ai a oeaio?a
ai?aea, iiyoiio e oeaaou ia ie?aeiao ?anioneathony ia 8 – 10 aeiae
iicaea.

I?e/eiu iiauoaiiie eiioeaio?aoeee oaiea a ai?iaeao i/aiue iiiaiia?aciu.
*ai e?oiiaa ai?iae, oai aieueoae aaee/eiu a iai aeinoeaaao iio?aaeaiea
yia?aee. A yoi nii?iaiaeaeaaony eioaineaiie oaieiioaea/ae, ?aciiai ?iaea
iioa?yie oaiea i?e ioiieaiee caeaiee, ?aaioa aaoio?ainii?oa e
i?iiuoeaiiuo onoaiiaie. Nicaeaieth ai?iaeneeo ino?iaia oaiea e
aic?anoaieth eiioeiaioaeueiinoe niinianoaotho e iiiai/eneaiiua
nii?oaeaiey: eaiaiiua aeiia, aaoiiiua caeaiey, aieueoea ieiuaaee
aeaeaciuo e?uo, ia?iiiua oa??eoi?ee, iie?uoua anoaeueoii. Ia neo/aeii
ai?iaea iacuaatho eaiaiiuie ionouiyie n caeaiuie iacenaie neaa?ia,
naaeia e ia?eia. Oae, a ethea a Iineaa a iineaiieoaeaiiia a?aiy anoaeueo
iiaeao i?ia?aaaoueny aei oaiia?aoo?u 45 – 50°, noaiu ec e?aniiai ee?ie/a
– aei 41°, aaeua noaiu – aei 33°. A oi aea a?aiy ia iiaa?oiinoe aaciiia
oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa ?aaia 25°. Yoe ?acee/ey aucaaiu ioee/eyie a
iiaeioeoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ?aciuo iiaa?oiinoae. Iaeiaei ieiuaaee
caiyoua ?anoeoaeueiinoueth a ai?iaea ioiineoaeueii iaaaeeee e ia
ieacuaatho cia/eoaeueiiai aeeyiey ia ai?iaeneie eeeiao a oeaeii.
Caa?yciaiiue aicaeoo ai?iaea oaeaea i?aiyonoaoao oaieiioaea/a n
iiaa?oiinoe caiee, /oi niinianoaoao eiioeaio?aoeee oaiea a ieieicaiiuo
neiyo aoiinoa?u.

Iiauoaiiua oaiia?aoo?u i?ecaiiuo neiaa aicaeooa a oieiaeiia a?aiy aiaea
aeeytho ia aeae aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeia. Oae, a oeeeeiie/aneoth iiaiaeo
i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aicaeooa, aeeceeo e 0°, aianoi iau/iiai a i?eai?iaeao
niaaa a Iineaa /anoi eaeao aeiaeaeue.

Aeaaiaea?y iiauoaiiiio niaea?aeaieth a aoiinoa?a yaea? eiiaeainaoeee
(/anoe/ae iuee e o. ae.) a Iineaa auiaaeaao a n?aaeiai ia 25% aieueoa
niaaa, /ai a Iiaeiineiauea. Oaeaea eiee/anoai ianio?iuo aeiae a ai?iaea
a 3 – 4 ?aca auoa, /ai a ioaeaeaiiuo ?aeiiao iaeanoe. A Iineaa a oa/aiea
aiaea auaaao a n?aaeiai eeoue 24 – 27 yniuo aaciaea/iuo aeiae.

Aneaaenoaea oneeaiiiai iaa?aaa oa??eoi?ee ai?aea eaoii iaae iei
iaaethaeathony iiuiua ainoiaeyuea iioiee oaieiai aicaeooa. A ?acoeueoaoa
eioaineaii ia?acothony eo/aaua e eo/aai-aeiaeaeaaua iaeaea. Iiyoiio
eiee/anoai eaoieo eeaiae a oeaeii iaae Iineaie oaaee/aii ia 9 – 27%, a
/enei a?ic – aeiaea ia 47%. Oi?ie?othony iie oaeaea ceiie iaae aunieeie
aeuiiauie o?oaaie OYOe e caaiaeia, aua?anuaathueo a aoiinoa?o iaa?aoue
aicaeoo n aieueoei niaea?aeaieai caa?yciaiee – yaea? eiiaeainaoeee. I?e
aai inouaaiee ia?acothony eo/aaua iaeaea, eioi?ua iiaeii aeaeaoue a
?acee/iuo /anoyo ai?iaea a yniue ii?iciue aeaiue.

Cia/eoaeueioth /anoue aiaea, iniaaiii i?e aacaao?aiiie iiaiaea iaae
ai?iaeii aeneo neie caa?yciythueo aauanoa, ia?acoy oae iacuaaaioth
ai?iaeneoth iaeo. Ec-ca iaa ai?iae iieo/aao i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 14%
iaiueoa nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee ii n?aaiaieth n Iiaeiineiaueai. Nieia/iua
eo/e oaeaatho iiiaea aieaciaoai?iua iee?ii?aaieciu, a i?e nieaeaiee
nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee /eneaiiinoue oaeeo iee?ii?aaieciia ?acei
oaaee/eaaaony e aic?anoaao iianiinoue yieaeaie/aneeo caaieaaaiee.

Aoiinoa?a yaeyaony iaeaieaa aeeiaie/iui, iiaeaeaeiui eiiiiiaioii
i?e?iaeiie N?aaeu, iiyoiio ia?aie i?eieiaao ana caa?yciythuea aauanoaa e
i?eiane, auaeaeyaiua i?iiuoeaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie, o?ainii?oii,
yia?aaoe/aneeie iauaeoaie, naeueneei oicyenoaii e o. ae. Ea/anoaaiiue
ninoaa aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa ieacuaaao i?yiia, iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
aicaeaenoaea ia caei?iauea /aeiaaea e aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue i?e?iaeu.

Aoiinoa?iue aicaeoo, a i?eioeeia, ieeiaaea ia auaaao /enoui. Iaae
ieaiaoie a aicaeooa iinoiyiii iaoiaeeony i?eia?ii 10 iei. oiii
caa?yciythueo aauanoa eae i?e?iaeiiai, oae e aio?iiiaaiiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Anoanoaaiiia caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?u a Iineianeie iaeanoe
i?ienoiaeeo, a iniiaiii ca n/ao iueueiuo ao?ue, eaniuo e oi?oyiuo
iiaea?ia, i?ioeannia auaao?eaaiey e aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aeeaioiuo e
?anoaiee (aeuoaiea). Iaeiaei aauanoaa i?e?iaeiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey
yaeythony ninoaaiie /anoueth anoanoaaiiiai aaeaina oeie/aneiai ninoaaa
aicaeooa, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue ia?ooai eeoue aio?iiiaaiiuie enoi/ieeaie.

oieueei a aoiinoa?o Iineau aaeaaiaeii aua?anuaaaony aieaa 1,2 iei. oiii
caa?yciythueo aauanoa, iiieii yoiai io i?aaei?eyoee e o?ainii?oa
Iineianeie iaeanoe a aicaeoo iinooiaao aieaa 0,5 iei. oiii
caa?ycieoaeae. Caa?yciythuea aauanoaa iiiaaeatho a aoiinoa?o i?aaeaea
anaai a oi?ia: a?aaeiuo aacia (ieneae oaea?iaea, aeeieneae oaea?iaea,
ieneae acioa, na?ienoue aiaeae?eae, aiieae e o. ae.); niaaeeiaiee
oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia (naeiaoe, ?oooue, iaaeue, eiaaeueo e o. ae.); ay?iciea
e iueaaaouo /anoeoe; naaee anaanoa e ae?oaeo oaa?aeuo aauanoa.

Eaaeaeia eo yoeo aauanoa eiaao aeiaieueii oe?ieee niaeo? aicaeaenoaey ia
i?aaieci /aeiaae, ia ?anoaiey e aeeaioiuo. Anee oyaeaeua iaoaeeu e
oaa?aeua /anoeoeu ca n/ao aoiinoa?iuo i?ioeannia auno?i iiiaaeatho a
ae?oaea i?e?iaeiua N?aaeu, oi aaciia?aciua aua?inu i?enoonoaotho a
aoiinoa?a iinoiyiii.

N ai?oa naiieaoa a aeiaaiia a?aiy iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi Iineaa ieooaia
aonoie aeuieie, oeaeo caa?yciaiiiai aicaeooa io ai?iaea oyiaony ia
aeanyoee eeeiiao?ia. A iauai, yoi iaoaeeaeoaeueii, aaaeue a Iineaa
?aniieiaeaii ieiei 25 ouny/ i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, a oii /enea
aieaa 2 ouny/ i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, 14 OYOe, aieaa nioie ?aeiiiuo e
eaa?oaeueiuo oaieiauo noaioeee, ieiei 2 oun. iaaieueoeo ianoiuo
ioiieoaeueiuo e i?iiuoeaiiuo eioaeueiuo, ia iaaeno?aee auacaeatho nioie
ouny/ aaoiiiaeeae (1995 aiae).

Aieueoa anaai caa?yciyao aicaeoo Iineau aaoio?ainii?o. Ia aai aeieth
i?eoiaeeony 77% aua?inia caa?yciythueo aauanoa. A 1992 aiaeo aaoiiiaeee
aua?ineee a aoiinoa?o ai?iaea aieaa 900 oun. oiii yaeiaeouo aacia.
N?aaee ieo aieueoay /anoue i?eoiaeeony ia ieneae oaea?iaea – aieaa 700
ouny/ oiii a aiae. Eiee/anoai aua?ioaiiiai ieneaea acioa ninoaaeei ieiei
38 ouny/ oiii, oaeaaiaei?iaeia – 162 ouny/e oiii.

Ana yoe aauanoaa iianiu aeey caei?iauey ethaeae. E?iia oiai, ieneae
oaea?iaea iiaeao auoue einaaiiie i?e/eiie iiiai/eneaiiuo aaa?ee ia
aei?iaao. Aai aeaenoaea ia aiaeeoaey aeaaea a iaaieueoeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo
noiaeii n aeaenoaeai aeeiaiey eee onoaeinoe. A aa?aaeao, a oiiiaeyo e
aeaaea ia cai?oaeaiiuo aaoiiiaeeyie ieioi i?iaeoaaaiuo iaaeno?aeyo
niaea?aeaiea ieneaea oaea?iaea /anoi aeinoeaaao oiene/iuo o?iaiae.
Iniaaiii aaeeea eiioeaio?aoeey auoeiiiuo aacia aaoiiiaeeae a i?ecaiiii
neia aicaeooa, aunioie aei 1 iao?a. Iiyoiio iaeaiueeea aeaoe a ieceeo
eieyneao aeuoao aicaeooii, ea/anoai eioi?iai i/aiue ieioia. Ac?ineua a
oii aea ianoa aeuoao aicaeooii cia/eoaeueii iaiaa caa?yciaiiui.
Iineieueeo aaoiiiaeee yaeythony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth Iineau,
aoiinoa?iue aicaeoo ai?iaea iianaianoii caa?yciai ieneaeaie acioa,
eiioeaio?aoeey eioi?uo a n?aaeiai a 2 ?aca i?aauoaao aaee/eiu
aeiionoeiua ii naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneei ii?iaoeaai. Cia/eoaeueiua aua?inu
niaaeeiaiee acioa i?iecaiaeyony oaeaea yia?aaoe/aneeie iauaeoaie
ai?iaea, e i?aaeaea anaai e?oiiuie OYOe. Ia?aaiae aaoiiiaeeae n aaiceia
ia aeecaeueiia oiieeai eee aac nii?iaiaeaeaaony nieaeaieai niaea?aeaiey
ieneaea oaea?iaea a auoeiiiuo aacao, ii i?e yoii ia oiaiueoathony
aua?inu ieneaeia acioa. Aeecaeueiua aeaeaaoaee aeatho aua e
aeiiieieoaeueiua aua?inu a aoiinoa?o naaee, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo a naaa
eaioea?iaaiiua aauanoaa.

Ieiei /aoaa?oe anao caa?ycieoaeae ai?iaeneiai aicaeooa aeatho
noaoeeiia?iua enoi/ieee. A eo aua?inao niaea?aeeony aieueoa anaai
ieneaeia acioa (41%), na?ienoiai aiaeae?eaea (19%), eaoo/eo i?aaie/aneeo
niaaeeiaiee (18%), a oaeaea ieneaea oaea?iaea (14%). E?iia oiai, a
aua?inao i?aaei?eyoee niaea?aeeony aei 9% iuee. Aua aieueoa iuee
iiiaaeaao a aicaeoo n ai?iaeneeo iaaeno?aeae. N iioieaie aicaeooa iueue
ionthaea ?ani?ino?aiyaony iianaianoii. Aei 30% ninoaaa iuee
i?eiaaeeaaeeo eaa?oeo, io 10 aei 30% – oeaiaioo e aeino. Ia iaiaa 10%
iannu iuee iau/ii ninoaaeyao naaea. I?e aeuoaiee iueue iiiaaeaao a
eaaeea, aucuaay aieacie aa?oieo aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae, a?iioeou, ieaa?eou
e ae?. caaieaaaiey. Iie?uaay eenouey ?anoaiee, iueue caaeaaao onoueeoea,
e i?ienoiaeeo canuoaiea eenoueaa e aeaaeue ?anoaiee. E?iia oiai, a iuee
niaea?aeaony oei?eaeu, /anoeoeu na?u, iaoaeeia, ?aceiu, ieanoiann e
iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo aauanoa.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey a Iineaa ia/aeanue ?aaioa ii ianniaiio
iniauaieth i?aaei?eyoee iueaaacioeaaeeaathueie onoaiiaeaie a oaeaea ii
eeeaeaeaoeee iaeeeo eioaeueiuo. Iaeiaei aua aeaeaei ia ana i?aaei?eyoey
eiatho iueaaacii/enoiua nii?oaeaiey e onoaiiaee. Noieiinoue aaci- e iuea
i/enoee ninoaaeyao 10% a a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo aeaaea aei 30% e aieaa
noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia i?aaei?eyoey. Oai ia iaiaa aei iineaaeiaai
a?aiaie ia ?yaea i?aaei?eyoee oaeea onoaiiaee eniieueciaaeenue ia a
iieiie ia?a. Iayooaeoeaiay yenieoaoaoeey iueaaacioeaaeeaathuaai
iai?oaeiaaiey i?ienoiaeeei a iniiaiii ec-ca ionoonoaey ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
?aiiioiuo neoaea e ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea, e naiaa?aiaiiiai iao/aiey
?aai/eo e neoaeaueo i?aaeeai yenieoaoaoeee onoaiiaie, ia?aaoey?iua
i?iaa?ee yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee.

Yenia?ou n/eoatho, /oi a ai?iaeao ?innee ia iaiaa 25% iinooieaiey iauaai
iauaia caa?ycieoaeae aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa iauyniyaony eiaiii
iaeni?aaiinoueth eiathueony ia i?aaei?eyoeyo i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee, a
oaeaea ieioie io?aaoee?iaaiiinoueth aaoiiiaeeueiuo aeaeaaoaeae.

A Iineaa, a aaia?aeueiii ieaia aa ?acaeoey (1971 aiae), auei cai?auaii
no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo e ?anoe?aiea aeaenoaothueo i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, a oaeaea iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e i?iaeoiuo
einoeoooia, aocia e oaoieeoiia, ca eneeth/aieai i?aaiecaoeee e
i?iecaiaenoa, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaaaoue aeey ianeoaeeaaiey
ianoiiai ianaeaiey e ioaeae aeeeeuii-ai?iaeneiai oicyenoaa; aae
i?aaeoniio?ai auaiae ec ai?iaea eee eciaiaiea i?ioeey a?aaeiuo a
naieoa?iii e iianiuo a iiaea?iii ioiioaiee i?iecaiaenoa, a oaeaea
i?aaiecaoeee, ia i?ioeeueiuo Iineaa. Ii aaia?aeueiiio ieaio iaia/aeinue
auaanoe ec Iineau 356 iauaeoia, ia aeaea auaaee anaai 113, ec ieo 91 a
niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeiaeaieyie aaia?aeueiiai ieaia.

Eaeay auaanoe ec Iineau yeieiae/anee iaaeaaii?eyoiua i?aaei?eyoey
auaeyaeeo caiai/eaie e aeaaea iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ?aaeecaoeee. Aaaeue
i?eia?ii 1/4 anao ?aai/eo iano a Iineaa ioiineony e yeieiae/anee e
nioeeaeueii iianiui i?iecaiaenoaai. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai iai?ioeeueiua
aeey noieeoeu i?aaei?eyoey oeie/aneie, iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea. Ii anee iaaeaeaoaeueii nio?aiyoue eo a iaeciaiiii
aeaea a Iineaa, oi iie iaioaeiu e a ae?oaeo ianoao, aaea oiaea ioaeii
caaioeoueny ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Aio ii/aio oaeea i?iecaiaenoaa a
noieeoea a i?eioeeia ioaeii eeeaeaee?iaaoue e aic?iaeeoue eo ia iiaie
oaoiieiae/aneie iniiaa a eaeii-oi eiii ?aeiia; oiaaea iieueca aoaeao
aeaieiay. A a naiie Iineaa ioaeii nin?aaeioi/eoue aieiaiea ia aiaae?aiee
iaeiiooiaeiuo e aaciooiaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa, aacoei?eciaiiuo n
yeieiae/aneeo iiceoeee.

Aeecinoue i?iiuoeaiiuo oa??eoi?ee ieacuaaao iaaeaeaoaeueiia aeeyiea ia
aeeeua ?aeiiu. Caaieaaaaiinoue ianaeaiey, i?iaeeaathueo a ciia
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ii n?aaiaieth n ?aeiiaie, aaea ii/oe iao
i?iiuoeaiiinoe auoa ii a?eiio e aiaeia – ii/oe a 3 ?aca, ii
eiiuthieoeaeoo (aieacie aeac) e ii iaa?icai – ii/oe a 2 ?aca, ii eiaeiui
caaieaaaieyi – a 9 ?ac. Yoi ii?aaeaeyao no?aieaiea neiioeaio?e?iaaoue
i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey a iaiiiai/eneaiiuo ?aeiiao, ioaeaeaiiuo io
aeeeie cano?ieee caeaiuie naieoa?ii-caueoiuie ciiaie. A Iineaa
ioiineoaeueii ?aaiiia?ii ii oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea nicaeathony 68 e?oiiuo
iiiaii?ioeeueiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cii, a eioi?uo aeieaeii auoue
neiioeaio?e?iaaii iiaeaaeythuaa /enei i?aaei?eyoee. Oi?ie?iaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cii nii?iaiaeaeaaony oaeaea i?aaiecaoeeae aie?oa ieo
naieoa?ii-caueoiuo cii, a a i?aaeaeao naieo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cii –
iaeneiaeueiui nie?auaieai a?aaeiuo aua?inia. Iaeiaei iiea ?aaioa ii
nicaeaieth e aeaaiono?ienoao oaeeo cii a ai?iaea aaaeaony
iaaeinoaoi/iuie oaiiaie. Aieaa 260 i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
ioaeaeathony a i?aaiecaoeee e aeaaiono?ienoaa naieoa?ii-caueoiuo cii.
Aei neo ii? ieiei 100 i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
?aniieiaeaiiuo n ciia aeeeie cano?ieee, yaeythony enoi/ieeii caa?yciaiey
aicaeooa e eioaineaiiai ooia. Oi?iiceony eeeaeaeaoeey a ai?iaea iaeeeo,
oaoie/anee ionoaeuo i?iecaiaenoa, /anoi eiaiii iie e ?aniieiaeaiu n?aaee
aeeeuo caeaiee.

Iauaeou oaieiyia?aaoeee aiinyo nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a caa?yciaiea
ai?iaeneie n?aaeu. Neaaeoao, iaeiaei, ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaaii?eyoiay
no?oeoo?a oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai aaeaina niinianoaoao nio?aiaieth
ea/anoaa aicaeooiiai aannaeia ai?iaea.

Nae/an aeiey aacia a oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneii aaeaina Iineau i?aauoaao
85%, inoaeueiay /anoue iio?aaiinoe ai?iaea a oiieeaa iaania/eaaaony
iacooii e oaeai, a oaeaea a iacia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa naeeaeaiiui
aacii. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?aaiaea aieueoeinoaa iineianeeo OYOe ia aac
caiueaiiinoue e caa?yciaiiinoue aicaeooa na?ienoui aacii cia/eoaeueii
nieceeanue.

Aunieee o?iaaiue oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oaieiniaaaeaiey – aaaeiia oneiaea
nio?aiaiey /enoiou a ai?iaea. Oaieiniaaaeaiea Iineau iaania/eaaaony
iiuiuie OYOe, ?aeiiiuie oaieiauie noaioeeyie (?ON) e
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuie enoi/ieeaie oaiea (iaaieueoea eioaeueiua
onoaiiaee). Nae/an 90% anao iio?aaeoaeae iaania/eaathony oaieii
oeaio?aeeciaaiii io OYOe e ?ON. I?aeoe/anee aanue aeeeeuiue oiiae
iaania/ai oeaio?aeeciaaiiui ioiieaieai.

A Iineaa ana OYOe iniauaiu iiuiuie iueaoeaaeeaathueie e aacii/enoiuie
onoaiiaeaie, /oi nouanoaaiii nieaeaao iaaaoeaiia eo aicaeaenoaea ia
ea/anoai aicaeooa a ai?iaea. No?ieoaeuenoai e?oiiuo OYOe niinianoaoao
yeiiiiee ai?iaeneeo caiaeue e iaania/eaaao oaieii e yeaeo?iyia?aeae
aieueoie /enei i?iiuoeaiiuo e eiiioiaeueiuo iauaeoia, a oaeaea aeeeua
aeiia. Oeaio?aeeciaaiiui ioiieaieai e oaieiniaaaeaieai iaania/aii 99,9%
anae aeeeie ieiuaaee ai?iaea.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

O/aaiee “Iineaiaaaeaiea: Yeieiaey Iineianeiai ?aaeiia 8-9 eeann” I:.
Ecae. “Yeii?in” 1995 aiae.

O/aaiee “Iineaiaaaeaiea: Oicyenoai Iineau e Iineianeiai ?aaeiia” I:.
Ecae. “Yeii?in” 1995 aiae.

?AI “Aiae ieaiaou” Ecae. “?anioaeeea” I:. 1997

AEo?iae “?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey” ? 16’95

AEo?iae “Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo” ? 3’96

Aacaoa “Yeiiiieea e AEeciue” ?? 1’95, 6’95, 8’95, 11’95 ,13’95, 36’97

O/aaiee “Yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay aaia?aoey ?innee” A. O. O?ouaa
I:. Ecae. “E?ii-i?ann” 1997 aiae

* oiiiiei – iacaaiea iaeioi?ie ianoiinoe, aeaiiia ii aa oa?aeoa?iui
i?eciaeai (aaia?aoe/aneei, nioeeaeueiui e o. ae.) – Aao.

* – ii aeaiiui ia 1993 aiae. – Aao.

* – io a?a/aneiai eutrophos (oi?ioi oieoaiiue, ?ac?inoeeny) – i?ioeann
iaiaauaiey aiaeiaiia ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie. A ?acoeueoaoa ao?ii
?aciiiaeathony aiaei?inee e ea/anoai aiaeu ?acei nieaeaaony

Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu Iineau e Iineianeiai ?aaeiia
– PAGE 2 –

Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey oicyenoaa Iineianeiai ?aaeiia
– PAGE 3 –

Aaoi? Aannai Aiae?ae 1I1 1997

Aaoi? Aannai Aiae?ae 1I1 1997

Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey oicyenoaa Iineianeiai ?aaeiia
– PAGE 6 –

Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey oicyenoaa Iineianeiai ?aaeiia
– PAGE 8 –

Aaoi? Aannai Aiae?ae 1I1 1997

Aaoi? Aannai Aiae?ae 1I1 1997

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020