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I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueeee i?nueeee iaaeaaia?/iee eieaaeae

?aoa?ao c nioe?iaeieia??

ia oaio:

“AeA?AEAAIEE CAIIA?AeIEE

AeOIAENUeE? IEAAI?”

Nooaeaioee IV eo?no

44 a?oie

Ei?ieue/oe Ienaie

Ee?a 1999

AeA?AEAAIEE CAIIA?AeIEE

AeOIAENUeE? IEAAI?

Aeoiae, ae?oaa i?ney Aieae ??/ea ca aeiaaeeiith a ?a?ii? (2850 ei) ?c
caaaeueiei ia?aiaaeii ??aiy aiaee 678 i, ooai?th? iaeio c iaea?eueoeo o
na?o? aeaeueoo ca ieiuath aeecueei 5000 ei2. Aeaeueoa ia? ?yae ?oeaa?a,
iaea?eueo? c yeeo E?e?enueeee, Noeeinueeee (aieiaiee noaeio?aeiee) oa
Aai?a??anueeee. C i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai iiaeyaeo ?aeii aeaeueoe — iaeei c
iaaaaaoueio i?e?iaeieo iaeiii?ooaieo a ?a?ii? na?aaeiaeu, yea i?e
oeueiio ? oaeiae iaeiieiaeoith aaiii?oieia?/iith oi?iaoe??th eiioeiaioo.
Ooo a?aeaoaathoueny aaeaoainueea ? aacia?a?aia o?ainoi?iaoe?y
eaiaeoaoo?a, ?aeue?oo, ??oioiaiai iie?eao, ci?ia eiio?ao?aoe?? ie?aieo
ino?ia?a, i?ioie, ica?, ??ee?a, iaieaaiiy iiaeo ino?ia?a, e?n i?ioyaii
aaaaoueio noie?oue.

O aeaeueo? ae?thoue o?e iniiai? neee, ye? ?noioii aieeaathoue ia
i?ioeane ?? oi?ioaaiiy. Oea ai?ioueaa i?ae nooiaeieii ? aiaeith, ??cieie
oiiaaie ?icaeoeo a?iaaioeaii-c?a oa ai?ioueaa i?ae oaa?eiaie ca iaai?
na?aaeiaeua. O oe?e a?aaionuee?e eaai?aoi??? i?e?iaee c i’yeei ee?iaoii,
ia yeiio iicia/a?oueny aeecuee?noue *i?iiai ii?y, a?aeaoaathoueny
iino?ei? aaniyii-e?oi? iiaai?, ye? ?iiae? o?eaathoue i?ioyaii
o?ueio-/ioe?ueio i?nyoe?a, a ??aaiue aiaee i?aei?ia?oueny ia 4 i. Aeoaea
aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? oaeiae ?cieueiaaia iieiaeaiiy oa ?io? i?e?iaei?
oaeoi?e oe??? /anoeie aeaeueoe Aeoiath, ui ni?ey? ?icaeoeo aaee/acii?
??ciiiai?oiino? oei?e ? oaoie.

Aeaeueoa Aeoiath caeaaia i?eaa?oaea oaaao a/aieo. Aeieeaaeii aea/aoe
oeae ?aa?ii ?aaeyinuee? a/ai? ii/aee c 1946 ?. Cia/ia ?ieue o oeueiio
iaeaaeeoue o/aiei Aeaaeai?? iaoe O?N?, ni?a?ia?oieeai Aeeeianueei?
a?ieia?/ii? noaioe?? oa Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoaoo. Ieoaiiy
i?i caiia?aeaiiy ae?eyiie aeaeueoe Aeoiath iinoaei c e?ioey 50-o ??.
Oaea a 1967 ?. o?yae O?N? i?iaieinea aeaeueoo Aeoiath caiia?aeiith, a a
1973 ?. Aeoiaenuee? ieaai? ?acii c i?eaa?aaeiith aeaaoi???th ii?y
caaaeueiith ieiuath 7758 aa a?aeianaii aei *i?iiii?nueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
caiia?aeieea ia i?aaao o?e?aeo.

sse naiino?eiee aea?aeaaiee caiia?aeiee Aeoiaenuee? ieaai? noai?aii 23
ea?oiy 1981 ?. Caaaeueia ieiua 14851 aa, nooiae?eueia /anoeia noaiiaeoue
9251 aa, a ia aeaaoi??th *i?iiai ii?y i?eiaaea? 5600. Aei neeaaeo
caiia?aeieea aa?eoee ino?iae Aiaoo?a, Iieoaeaiiee, o?aoeia
I/ae?anueeiai, iieiaeia ieiu? Aeoiae?iiaa, Noaiaoeuenueeiai,
Eoaainueeiai, aea? o?aoeie Eoaaio, iiai?noth Eo?eeuenueeee ? Oeeaaiea c
iiaiooai?aieie ino??aoeyie ? i?eeiaiaeaeyie ino?ia?a Eo?eeuenueeeo ?
Oeeaainueeeo. Aeoaea aaaeeeai, ui a iaaeao caiia?aeieea ? eooe — oae
iaceaathoueny iaaaeee? caoiee-ica?a, a?aeaieiaai? nooiaeieii o ii?y c
i?eeiaiaeaeyie ? einaie. Eooe — iaeoethaeai?o? ei?iia? oa?aeaey ?yaeo
aeae?a ioao?a, na?aae ieo iaea?eueo? — AEaeai-i^e, Ioiiaeee, Aiaiueeei
eoo, a oaeiae ?eaa/einuee? ieana.

Oaeei /eiii, caiia?aeiee Aeoiaenuee? ieaai? ?icoaoiaaiee ia e?aeiueiio
noiae? aeaeueoe Aeoiath, ia no?ae ? i?aaeaiiee no?ae a?ae i?noa Aeeeiaa,
o E?e?enueeiio ?aeii? Iaeanueei? iaeano?. Ca o?ceei-aaia?ao?/iei
?aeiioaaiiyi a?i ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeano? Caaei?no?ianueeiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y o na-?aaeiueinoaiia?e i?aecii? noaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie. On?
eaiaeoaooi? eiiieaene caiia?aeieea oe?eeii oa?aeoa?i? aeey an???
aeaeueoe Aeoiath, a?i aea? iiaia oyaeaiiy i?i na?e ?aa?ii.

O aaiii?oieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? ?aeii caiia?aeieea — oea i?eii?nueea
ieciaeiia ??aieia, ?ic/eaiiaaia aaeeaie, a a naiiio caiia?aeieeo
eaiaeaie-??eeaie. No/aniee eaiaeoaoo oi?ioaaany aeineoue oaeaeei,
ine?eueee iaea?eueo cieaeaia /anoeia oa?eoi??? oeueiai ?aeiio yaeyea
niaith aaeeeo caoieo-eeiai. Ooo aeeaeia a?ic?eiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy
eieeaa?oueny a i?eii?nuee?e nioc? a?ae 20 aei 50 i. I?e/iio caiia?aeiee
?icoaoiaaiee o ?aeii?, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeoii?/ia i?iaeiaiiy
(iioneaiiy). Ca ?ic?aooieaie aaieia?a oaeaee?noue oeueiai i?ioeano a
aeaeueo? Aeoiath noaiiaeoue 2—4 ii ca ??e.

Nai???aeiee oaeiae ee?iao caiia?aeieea. Oea ?aeii iaea?eueoeo oaieiaeo
?ano?n?a Aeoiaenueei-aei?no?ianueeiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, yeee ia? iaeiaioo
eiioeiaioaeuei?noue. iaeoaie?o? ceie. Ca aaaaoi??/ieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie
na?aaeiuei??/ia oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y ooo noaiiaeoue 12,5 °N.
Na?aaeiueii?ny/ia oaiia?aoo?a eeiiy +23 °N. N?/iaaa na?aaeiueii?ny/ia
oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y —1,5 °N. Aaniethoiee iaeneioi oaiia?aoo? +39 °N,
aaniethoiee i?i?ioi

—15 °N. A?ae’?ii? na?aaeiueii?ny/i? oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y
niinoa??aathoueny, e??i n?/iy, eeoa a ethoiio (—0,2 °N aei —0,5 °N).
Na?aaeiuei??/ia eieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo? aeineoue noaea ? caeaa?eueoiai
noaiiaeoue 24—25 °N. Caaaeii aacii?iciee ia??iae o?eaa? iiiaae 200
aei?a.

Oaeei /eiii, oaieia? oiiae ? oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei o caiia?aeieeo
iaaecae/aeii ni?eyoeea? aeey ?ineeiiiai ? oaa?eiiiai na?oo. Caieiaeaiiy
oa?eoi??? oaeiae o oe?eiio ni?eyoeeaa (aaaaoi i?ioie?a ? aieea naiiai
Aeoiath), aea iiaae?a o na?aaeiueiio aeiaaea? anueiai aeecueei 400 ii
i?e ??/iiio aeia?iaoaaii? aei 900 ii.

Iaeaaaeeea?oith iniaeea?noth ?aeiio caiia?aeieea ? oa, ui ceie ooo
aeineoue i’ye?, c aeoaea /anoeie a?aeeeaaie. Iino?eiee ni?aiaee iie?ea
ui?ieo ia ooai?th?oueny. Aeaaoi??y ii?y, ica?, eaiae?a ? ??ee?a caia?ca?
a na?aaeiueiio ?ac o 10—12 ?ie?a. Oaeei /eiii, ee?iao caiia?aeieea
i?eii?nueeee, ?c aea?eei o?eaaeei e?oii ? a?aeiinii ei?ioeith i’yeith
ceiith.

A?ae?ia?ao?y caiia?aeieea Aeoiaenuee? ieaai?, eiai ino?ia?a, ye?
iiai?noth aai /anoeiai caoiieththoueny i?ae /an iiaaiae, ica?ii?
aeaeueoe, i?ioie?a ? ??ee?a a iniiaiiio caeaaeeoue a?ae /ano ? ?ici???a
aaniyii-e?oi?o iiaaiae. Oei a?eueoa, ui o?eaae? iiaai? i?iieaathoue
canieai? ae?eyiee caiia?aeieea. A?oioia? aiaee caeyaathoue a?aeiinii
iaaeeaiei, /anoeia i?aecaiieo aiae cia/ii i?ia?ae?ciaaia ? canieaia.

Ia i?aeaeuaieo /anoeiao ino?ia?a caiia?aeieea a?oioe /anoeiai
neeaaeathoueny ?c nieiioeaaeo ??ciiaeaeiinoae i?aaeaiieo /i?iicai?a, ui
ooai?ththoueny caeaiith ianith nai???aeii? i?aenoeeee, u?euei? oa?e yei?
nyaathoue aei 1,8 i ? neeaaeathoueny c ia?aieaoaieo noaaae ?.aieieii
ei??iiy i/a?aoo.

Oeae a?oio ii/eia?oueny ii e?ayo ica? ? i?iaeiaaeo?oueny i?ae aiaeith. C
eiaeiei ?ieii a?i noa? u?euei?oei ? oiauei a?ae ?ineeiiiai ia?aaiith
(aoiono), a?aeeeaaeaiue oaa?eiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy ? iaiin?a ioeo a?ae
iiaaiae.

O?aieythoueny ia ino?iaao ? oaiii-eaooaiia? a?oioe, a ia iecueeeo
oa?anao ? aeaa?aaeiaai? nieii/aee. Ia ii?nueeiio ocaa?aaeae?
a?aeeeaaeaiiy i?neo caa?oo iaioe?a noai?th? i?uai? iai?eeie ? iaa?oue
aethie. I?noeyie i?uai? iaiine, cian?i ia ae?eo? aoaeue-yeith
?ineeii?noth, caoiaeyoue aaeea ieaai?a.

A?oioe caiia?aeieea noi?iiaai? ia noaeeieao ? aeeiao aiane?aeie
aea?iiai-eo/iiai ? aieioiooai?thth/eo i?ioean?a i?e ii??aiyii cia/iiio
caieiaeaii? iiaa?oiaaeie ? ??oioiaeie aiaeaie. Caaaeueiith iniaeea?noth
a?oio?a caiia?aeieea ? iaeiaoioni?noue ? aeniea i?ia?ae?caoe?y.

Oei?a aeaeueoe aeoaea ??ciiiai?oia, ui iia’ycaii c iayai?noth ooo
e?eueeio oei?enoe/ieo eiiieaen?a — ni?aaaeiueiai aiaeiiai,
eo/ii-aieioiiai, eo/iiai, nieii/aeiaiai, aetha?aeueiiai ? noaiiaiai.

O caiia?aeieeo aaaaoi aiaeai?/ieo aeae?a i?e/i?iiii?nueei-eani?enueeiai
?aa?iio. Aiaeyiee ai??o aeoiaenueeee — aocueeieieaeueiee aiaeai aeaeueoe
Aeoiath. Aiaeyiee ai??o ieaaath/ee caianaii aei *a?aiii? eieae N?N?.
Oeae naiee aeae, a oaeiae naeuea?i?y ieaao/a—aei *a?aiii? eieae
Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. O oei?? caiia?aeieea a cia/i?e e?eueeino? ? aeaee,
aeoaea ??aee?ni? aeey I?e/i?iiii?’y, oae?, ye ei?i-eeoey i?ciy, eooeaa
ea?eeeiaa, aciea iaii?ioaaeaeia ? aciea ea?ie?inueea.

O caiia?aeieeo i?aaenoaaeaia oaea ?ineeii?noue: e?niaa, i??niiaiaeia,
aieioia, i?uaia, aaeio?oia oa ii?nueea. Iioe?aia aiia aeineoue
ia??aiii??ii. E?ne, caeaa?eueoiai -o aeaeyae? nioa, ?inoooue ii aa?aaao
ino?ia?a a?ey aiaeioie?a. Caeiathoue aiie o caiia?aeieeo anueiai
aeecueei 300 aa, oiaoi 3,2 % an??? caiia?aeii? ieiu? nooiaeieo. I?oei?o?
e?nia? oa?oiiaaiiy noi?ioaaeeny a?ey ?onea Aeoiath, a a caiia?aeieeo — o
ieaei?e /anoei? ia Eo?eeuenueeeo ino?iaao.

E?niaa ? eouiaa ?ineeii?noue i?aaenoaaeaia oi?iaoe?yie aa?ae a?ei?,
aa?ae o?eoe/eieiai?, aa?ae iiiaeynoi?, a oaeiae iae?ieoe e?ooeiiaeaeii?,
aii?oe eouiai? ? oaia?eeno aaeocenoiai. Oa?oiiaaiiy aeaio inoaii?o
oi?iaoe?e iioe?ai? ia iaaaeeeeo ae?eyieao.

Aieioia ? aiaeia ?ineeii?noue o caiia?aeieeo caeiathoue iaea?eueo? ieiu?
— iiiaae 9000 aa. Aieioia ?ineeii?noue i?aaenoaaeaia oi?iaoe?yie ?iaico
aocueeieenoiai, i/a?aoo cae/aeiiai, iniee no?oiei?, iniee caaino?aii? oa
?i. Oe?oeo aeaeueoa caea?oueny nooe?eueiei i/a?aoyiei caeaiei e?nii.
I/a?ao cae/aeiee, yeee ?inoa ooo, ? aeoiaenueeith ??ciiaeaei?noth,
aeinyaa? o aenioo 4 i. Na?aae aaaaoi? ?ineeiiino? oi ooo, oi oai
aeae?eythoueny /eneaii? caaiae? (ica?a, ??eee, caoiee, eooe) c i?uaieie
iai?eeiaie oa aaieaie. Ooo /eiaei nieaaei c oa?aeoa?ieie aeey i?aaeaiieo
?aa?ii?a oa?oiiaaiiyie ?ineeiiino?.

?ineeii?noue ia i?uaieo a?oioao ? canieaieo ae?eyieao caeaa?eueoiai
?inoa ia i?eii?nueeiio aa?ac? ino?ia?a ? e?n. Caaaeueia ieiua oeeo oei?a
?ineeiiino? noaiiaeoue aeecueei 160 aa aai anueiai eeoa 1,7 % an???
ieiu? caiia?aeieea. I?uaia ?ineeii?noue iae??ciiiai?oi?oa. Aiia
i?aaenoaaeaia oi?iaoe?yie iao?aae cae/aeii?, a??/aea ia?oeaaiai
(aiaeyiee ia?aoeue), eieiniyea /i?iiii?nueeiai, iniee i?uaii?, aae?i?iie
ai?iaeaa/anoi?, oo?iaoi?oe?? nea??nueei? oa ?i. ?ineeii?noue ia i?neao
a?ae?a?a? iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeao i?ioea?ic?eio ?ieue ? caoeua? i?nee a?ae
neeueieo a?o??a.

Aaeio?oia-?ineeii?noue caeia? cian?i iaaaeee? ieiu? a caiia?aeieeo ?
i?aaenoaaeaia aeoaea i?inoeie oi?iaoe?yie — nieiioey cae/aeiiai, eo?ath
niaeiaiai ? aeayeeie ?ioeie aeaeaie nieii/aeiai? ?ineeiiino?.

I??niiaiaeia ?ineeii?noue aeineoue ??cii??aeia, a iniiaiiio oea a?oie
oi?iaoe?e ocaa?aaeii-aiaeii? ? ni?aaaeiuei? aiaeii? ?ineeiiino?. Aiia
iioe?aia ia cia/ieo ieiuao ? aea? aeineoue iiaia oyaeaiiy i?i aiaeia?/i?
oeie ?ineeiiino? anueiai noa?iaeaaiueiai Na?aaecaiiiii?’y. Naia a
caiia?aeieeo na?aae oeueiai oeio ?ineeiiino? ? oa?oiiaaiiy ??aee?nieo,
?ae?eoiaeo ? cieeath/eo aeae?a, ye? ca nai?th ieiuath a iaea?eueoeie a
?a?ii?.

Ii?nueea ?ineeii?noue caiia?aeieea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeeoociei
iioe?aiiyi ? iiiiaeii?iaioi?noth oa?oiiaaiue, oiaoi ie?ai? aeaee
caeiathoue cia/i? ieiu?. Aiia i?aaenoaaeaia oi?iaoe?yie ?oi?? ii?nueei?,
cai?eae?? ii?nueei? ? ii?nueei? o?aae cae/aeii?.

Cia/iiai iioe?aiiy, iniaeeai ca inoaii? 5—7 ?ie?a, o caiia?aeieeo iaaoee
oa?oiiaaiiy aaeaaioeaieo (caianaieo c ?ioeo ?aeii?a iioe?aiiy) aeae?a —
aciee iaii?i-oaaeaeii?, aciee ea?ie?inueei?, ?ynee iaei?, eooeae
ea?eeeiai?, iiei/ath ieyienoiai oa aeayeeo ?ioeo aeae?a.

?ineeii?noue caiia?aeieea aeeiio? aaaeeeao ooieoe?iiaeueio ?ieue o
ieaaiaaeo a?iaaioeaiicao ? ia? aaeeea ee?iaoe/ia oa a?ae?ieia?/ia
cia/aiiy. Cia/iith i??ith aiia i?aeo?eio? aeieia?/io ??aiiaaao a
aeaeueo? Aeoiath. ?ineeiiee na?o c iaoeiaiai iiaeyaeo — aeoaea aaaeeeaee
aoaeii iaeiii?ooaieo ieaaiaaeo aeinenoai aeey ?ic?iaee ieoaiue
a?aeoai?aiiy ieaaiaaeo eaiaeoaoo?a, ye? aaea a aaaaoueio aeaeueoao ??/ie
i?aaeiy ?anioae?ee caciaee cia/ieo aio?ii?/ieo ci?i.

?ineeii?noue oaeiae a?ae?a?a? aaee/acio ?ieue ye iaeei c iniiaieo
eiiiiiaio?a aeinenoai caiia?aeieea, ui caaacia/o? ei?iiao aaco aeey
/eneaiieo i?aaenoaaiee?a oaa?eiiiai na?oo, iniaeeai aeey i?i?oioaoie.

Oaa?eiiee na?o caiia?aeieea ia? nai? oa?aeoa?i? a?aei?iiino? ii??aiyii c
iaaeieeoi?ie nooiaeieueieie ae?eyieaie. Ooo iaei aeae?a nnaaoe?a, ye? ?
oeiiaeie i?aaenoaaieeaie oaoie noaiiai?, ciie. C eiieoieo o ieaaiyo
Aeoiath o?eueee aeee? naei? ii/oaathoue naaa aeia?a ? ia o?eueee ia
nooiaeie?, aiie iaa?oue aeaooiaothoueny ia iaaiee /an ia ieaao/eo
ino??aoeyo, aea aaeinoaeue ?ae?. O i?inoi?eo ca?inoyo i/a?aoo aiaeeoueny
cia/ia e?euee?noue aeae?. C ?ioeo oe?iieo ooo?iaeo nnaaoe?a o
caiia?aeieeo ? oaeiae ii?ea ?a?iiaenueea ? ai?iinoae.

O ieaai? /anoi caoiaeyoue eeneoe?. A aeoaea iae?e e?eueeino? ooo aeeeeo
eio?a ? aiae?a. Ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y a aeoiaenuee? ieaai? i?a?oaaa
?iioiaeaeiee niaaea.

C a?ecoi?a ooo /eiaei ??cieo iie?aie. Iniaeeai aaaaoi iie?aie aiaeyieo
oa iaoethe?a n??eo. C’yaeeany oaeiae iiaeao?a, yei? a aeiai?ii? ?iee a
aeaeueo? Aeoiath ia aoei.

Aeineoue /anoi cono??/athoueny i?aaenoaaieee eiiaoi?aeieo — ?aeae
cae/aeiee, caiea?eeee, e?eueea aeae?a eaaeai?a.

I?ia?aeia i?noea na?aae o?aaaoieo o caiia?aeieeo iaeaaeeoue ioaoai.
Aeaeueoa Aeoiath — iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?noeue a?aeii/eieo i?a?oth/eo
ioao?a. Naia ooo i?ieyaathoue i’youe iaeaaaeeea?oeo ia?o?oo?a ia?ae?oieo
ioao?a, oiio aaniith ? ainaie aiia noa? ni?aaaei?i oea?noaii ioao?a.

O E?e?enueeiio ae?e? aeoaea aaaaoi aeae?a i?iieneiai-ieneeanueeeo oa
?ioeo ei?enieo aeey ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ioao?a: aaaaoi c ieo
i?aaenoaaeai? cia/iith e?euee?noth iniaei. Oaea cina?aaeaeaiiy aeae?a
ioao?a a O?N? niinoa??aa?oueny eeoa ia ie?aieo ae?eyieao *i?iiii?nueeiai
caiia?aeieea.

C aiaeiieaaieo ioao?a ai?caeyoueny ? ceiothoue o ?aeii? caiia?aeieea
aaaaoi i?aaenoaaiee?a c ?yaeo aoneieo, ii/eiath/e c eaaaaey-oeioia, yeee
c??aeea ? oaia? a iaaaeee?e e?eueeino? ai?caeeoueny a iaea?eueo
aaaeeiaeinooiieo, a?aeaeaeaieo a?ae naeeu eooi/eao, ? cae?i/oth/e
/enaeueieie aeaeaie ea/ie. Aaeeea oe?ii?noue caiia?aeieea a oiio, ui ooo
a cia/i?e e?eueeino? ua ai?caeeoueny aonea n??a.

Iaea?eueo iania? na?aae i?iieneiai-ieneeanueeeo ioao?a e?eaei?, ea/ea
n??a (ia?icaiue) oa /a?iue a?eiiea (/i?iooea). Ia?icaiue—iaeiioe?ai?oee
c on?o ea/ie. Inaey?oueny iae/ano?oa ia cia/ieo a?aee?eoeo i?inoi?ao
noiy/i? aiaee ? ia ocaa?aaeae? ii?y oa nieiieo eeiai?a. O caiia?aeieeo
iaiaei eenie. Ia aeooeo aaaeeiaeinooiieo aiaeieiao o cia/i?e e?eueeino?
ai?caeeoueny i?aaenoaaiee ?yaeo ii?oe?a — ii?aoeue n??iuieee.

C eoeee?a iaeiioe?ai?o? oeeiaecueiaea, /aeee (/ea?ne), aea?eoainoe —
eo/iee ? noaiiaee. *eneaiieie ? coeee. O iaaaeee?e e?eueeino?
o?aiey?oueny oiaeoee/iee—aeae, caianaiee aei *a?aiii? eieae Oe?a?inueei?
?N?. C ia?oei?a o caiia?aeieeo aeineoue iioe?aiee ia?oei cae/aeiee,
aiaeyoueny e?y/ee: /i?iee, a?eie?eeee ? ??/eiaee.

C ae??aieo ni?ai/eo ioao?a ? neieoey aonaoa, i/a?aoyiee (8 aeae?a),
a?anyiea i/a?aoyia oa ?i. C ai?iiiaeo — aaaaoi ai?ii n??eo ? ni?ie, o
iaaaeee?e e?eueeino? e?oe.

O caiia?aeieeo ai?caeeoueny aaaaoi i?aaenoaaiee?a aie?ianoeo, ye?
aeineoue /anoi ooo ooai?ththoue i?oai? aaeee? e iae? eieii??. Iniaeeai
aaaaoi /aiaeue aaeeeeo ? iaeeo a?eeo, ./eiaei /aiaeue aeiaoeo, cae/aeieo
n??eo, ? eaae, aoaae/ee ? aoaae, ei?iaaeea. ?aeeia i?noea ai?caeoaaiiy
eieieoe? ia Oe?a?i? — oea iiieccy ae?ea Aeoiath.

C ?yaeo aaneiiiaeo ooo ai?caeyoueny aaeeaie aaeeeee ? ??aeoa iaeee.
I?ee?oathoue c ?oioinueei? /anoeie aeaeueoe ia aiae?aeth iae?eaie —
?iaeaaee ? eo/a?yaee, aea a caiia?aeieeo aiie ia ai?caeyoueny.

O aeaeueo? Aeoiath o?aieythoueny aeaye? aeaee oeaeeo ioao?a. Oaeaiue
i?eaie, eoi?, yno?oae ? ooe?ee /i?i?, e?aoe? oa aeaye? ?io?, a aii/? ?o
ci?iththoue niae. C aeae?a, caianaieo aei *a?aiii? eieae Oe?a?inueei?
?N?, ooo aoaathoue ia ai?caeoaaii? iiiaeeiie? ia?e i?eaia-a?eioainoa, a
i?ae /an ia?aeueio?a — aa?eoo, iiaeeueiee, neiia, i?aei?eee aaeeeee.

Aeaaoi??y caiia?aeieea — aaaeeeaa i?noea cei?ae? ia oa?eoi??? O?N?, a
iniiaiiio aiaeiieaaieo ioao?a. Ainaie ? aceieo ooo ia?aaoaa? aeecueei 20
aeae?a o?eueee ea/eieo ioao?a, ye? ai?caeyoueny ia o?eueee a O?N?, a e
ii an?e ?a?iiaenuee?e /anoei? Nithco ?N?. Iniaeeai aaaaoi a oeae /an
e?eaei?a, oeeioaino?a, naeu?a, /e?e?a-o??neoie?a ? /e?e?a-naenooi?a,
aeayeeo aeae?a /a?i? oa ?i.

Ia cei?ae? iiaeia iiaa/eoe aaeee? ca?a? eaaaae?a-oeioi?a,
eaaaae?a-eeeeoi?a ? iaa?oue c??aeea iiiaeeiie? iniaeie eaaaaey iaeiai,
yeee nthaee i?ee?oa? c ooiae?iai? ciie ?a?iiaenueei? /anoeie N?N?.
Ceiothoue ooo ? oae? ??aee?ni? ioaoe, ye aonea aaeeea a?eieiaa ? aonea
iaea a?eieiaa, aoiaiiee, a inoaii?i /anii o iaaaeee?e e?eueeino?
/a?aiii-aiea eaca?ea, aeae, caianaiee aei *a?aiii? eieae N?N?.

Onueiai ia cei?ae? aoaa? iiiaae 120 aeae?a ioao?a, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei 16
?yae?a. Aea iniaeeai aaaaoi ioao?a i?ae /an aaniyieo ? in?ii?o
ia?aeueio?a. O oeae /an niinoa??aa?oueny aeecueei 150 aeae?a ioao?a, ye?
iaeaaeaoue aei 18 ?yae?a.

Oa?aeoa? i?noeaaino?, aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy, ee?iaoe/i? oiiae,
??cii??aei?noue a?ioii?a ? aaaaonoai ei?iiai? aace noai?ththoue
iaaecae/aeii ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey aeeooy caiiiaiaeieo, ?o ooo 9 aeae?a.
A ??eeao, i?ioieao /eiaei o?eoii?a — cae/aeieo ? a?aa?i/anoeo. Aeia?a
ii/oaathoue naaa eoiea cae/aeia, ?iiooa caeaia. Ia i?uaieo ae?eyieao
cono??/athoueny /anie/ieoey cae/aeia, a ia eo/ieo — aeaaa aino?iii?aea.
Aeia?a ii/oaathoue naaa, a ?o ooo aaaaoi, aeaae ica?ia ? noaaeiaa.
Onthaee ia eouao ? iaa?oue ia i/a?ao? aaaaoi eaaeo.

Ieacoie i?aaenoaaeai? n?iiia aeaeaie. Aeineoue /eneaiia /a?aiaoa
aieioyia. ssu??ee a iaaaeee?e e?eueeino?. C aeaio i?aeaeae?a yu??ee
i?oaeei? iae/ano?oa cono??/a?oueny i?oaeea i?aaeaiia, aeineoue ??aeei —
yu??ea /i?iiii?nueea i?oaeea. Oeae i?aeaeae iioe?aiee ia i?uaiiio
ocaa?aaeae? ocaeiaae *i?iiai ii?y a?ae Aeoiath aei E?iao?inueei? eine,
aea i?ney inai?iiy i?uaieo ieyae?a noa? aeaaeae? ??aee?niei. Ua ??aeoa a
caiia?aeieeo iiaeia iiaa/eoe yu??eo e?einueeo. ??aee?niei, cieeath/ei
aeaeii ? i?uaia yu??ea, yea a ieioeiio aoea’ iioe?aia ii an?e aa?aaia?e
oa?eoi??? aeaeueoe Aeoiath. O cia/i?e e?eueeino? ? aoae? — cae/aeiee ?
aiaeyiee. Aeoaea ??aeei o?aieythoueny aaaethea noaiiaa e i?aeyiea.
Aaaaeathoue, ui aiie nthaee iio?aieee aeiaaeeiai, aoee caianai? a ieaai?
aiaeaie Aeoiath.

Aiaeieie a ae?e? Aeoiath, eiai /eneaii? eaiaee, ??eee, i?ioiee ? ica?a
oa any ocaa?aaeia aeaaoi??y caiia?aeieea aaaao? ia ?eao (iaeaea 100
aeae?a). Iaea?eueo oe?ii? inao?ia?. Aeaye? c ieo — inao? /i?iiii?nueeee,
naa?thaa, a?eoaa oa inao? cae/aeiee — caoiaeyoue o Aeoiae ia ia?ano,
oiae? ye noa?eyaeue aeeaa ooo iino?eii. O iaaaeee?e e?eueeino aiaeeoueny
oe?iiee aeae eininaaeo—aeoiaenueeee eininue.

I?eueeiie ieoi?a, eyu?a, ei?ii?a, ea?an?a oa ?ioeo aeae??
a?aeaiaeiaothoueny o aiaeieiao ieaai?a Aeoiath. Aaaaoi oo uoe, nii?a oa
?ioeo oeaeeo aeae?a ?ea. Aaeeeeie einy eaie eaea ia ia?ano o E?e?enueea
ae?ei inaeaaeaoeue aeoiae nueeee. O eooe caoiaeyoue ia a?aeaiae?aeth
einyee eaoae? oa aeaye? ?io? ii?nuee? ?eae. Aiaeieie aeaeueoe ia?aiiaiai
?aeiiiae?aieie, ye? ? ei?iii aeey ioao?a ? ?ea, a aeaye aeaee (?ae
??/eiaee) iathoue i?iieneiaa cia/aiiy.

?aeii caiia?aeieea, ui ia? aaaao? oaieia? ?ano?n? ? i?aeaeuaio
caieiaeai?noue, yaey? niaith iioeiaeueio c; oiiaaie oa?eoi??th ia
i?aaei? ?anioae?ee, aea aeeaooue aac o?aaaoi?, ?o iae?/o?oueny ooo
aeecueei 10 oen. aeae?a. Aeoae? aaaeeeai e oa, ui e?euee?noue iniaei
aeayeeo aeae?a aac o?aaaoieo o caiia?aeieeo a e?eueea ?ac?a ia?aaeuo?
u?eue i?noue ?o ia noi?aeieo oa?eoi??yo. Oae, e?euee?noue o?euee? aeoe?a
aeoaeaeeoeue ia ocaa?aaeieo ae?eyieao i?noeyie aeinyaa? aei 300 iniaei
ia iaeei eaaae?aoiee iao?. C aaco?aaaoieo na?aae e?eue/anoeo /a?a’ye?a
ooo aaeei neoi/aiiy ia i?eeiaiaeaeyo ooai?ththoue iie?oaoe — iniiae;
?aea aaaaoueio aeae?a eoeee?a. *eiaei aeae?a ie?aioao, i’yai? oa ?i.
Aaaaoi ooo oaeiae ??cieo iiethne?a.

Aea iaea?eueoa, cae/aeii, eiiao. Ooo ?o iae?/o?oueny aeecueei 4600
aeae?a. Iniiaio iano noaiiaeyoue aeaie?ee? iie?eoe?—17 aeae?a, iioee—5,
eoe?oeeaee—13, ?aaec?— CI, a oaeiae ?io? e?iainine. O aaee/acieo
e?eueeinoyi aeieiaeaeothoueny iaoaeeee, aaniyiee, eiia??-aeca?ioe?,
aeoee aiaeiethae oa ?io?, ui ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ei?iiai? aace
ieneeanueei-i?iieneiaeo oaa?ei.

O caiia?aeieeo iaoeia? i?aoe?aieee i?iaiaeyoue iaaio ?iaioo
a?iaaioeaiieia?/iiai oa aeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o

Caiia?aeiee Aeoiaenuee? ieaai? aoiaeeoue aei I?aeia?iae iiai Nieneo
iaeaaaeeea?oeo aiaeii-aieioieo oa?aeue, aieia iei /eiii ye i?noeue
inaeaiiy ??aee?nieo ioao?a.

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