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Биосфера и цивилизация

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?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

«Aeinoa?a e oeeaeeecaoeey.»Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

Oaiaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao

Oaeoeueoao AOI

?aoa?ao

ii aeenoeeieeia:

Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey.

Auiieieea:

nooaeaioea a?. E11:

ssoiioiaa TH.A.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue:

Enaaaa I.A.

a. Oaiaia – 1997

1. O?iaie i?aaiecaoeee aeeaie iaoa?ee.

Ana aeeaua i?aaieciu, ianaeythuea iaoo ieaiaoo, nouanoaotho ia naie ii
naaa, iie caaenyo io ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e eniuouaatho ia naaa aa
aicaeaenoaey. Yoi oi/ii niaeaniaaiiue eiiieaen iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, e i?eniiniaeaiea e iei aeeauo i?aaieciia
iaoneaaeeaaao aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey anaaiciiaeiuo oi?i i?aaieciia
e naiiai ?acee/iiai ia?aciaaiey eo aeecie.

Yeieiaey (io a?a/aneiai oikos – aeeeeua, ianoiiaeoaiea) – iaoea,
eco/athuay acaeiinayce aeeauo i?aaieciia a i?e?iaea: i?aaiecaoeeth e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iiioeyoeee, aeiaaioeaiicia e aeinoa?u a oeaeii; caeiiu
«caei?iaiai» ninoiyiey eae ii?iu e iniiau nouanoaiaaiey aeecie.[3]

AEeaay i?e?iaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeii i?aaieciaaiioth,
ea?a?oe/ioth nenoaio. Auaeaeytho ianeieueei o?iaiae i?aaiecaoeee aeeaie
iaoa?ee.

1.Iieaeoey?iue. Ethaay aeeaay nenoaia i?iyaeyaony ia o?iaia
acaeiiaeaenoaey aeieiae/aneeo iae?iiieaeoe: ioeeaeiiauo eeneio,
iieenaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea ae?oaeo aaaeiuo i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa.

2. Eeaoi/iue. Eeaoea – no?oeoo?iay e ooieoeeiiaeueiay aaeeieoea
?aciiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey anao aeeauo i?aaieciia, iaeoathueo ia Caiea.
Iaeeaoi/iuo oi?i aeecie iao, a nouanoaiaaiea ae?onia eeoue
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao yoi i?aaeei, o.e. iie iiaoo i?iyaeyoue naienoaa aeeauo
nenoai oieueei a eeaoeao.

3.I?aaieciaiiue. I?aaieci i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaeinoioth
iaeiieeaoi/ioth eee iiiaieeaoi/ioth aeeaoth nenoaio, niiniaioth e
naiinoiyoaeueiiio nouanoaiaaieth. Iiiaieeaoi/iue i?aaieci ia?aciaai
niaieoiiinoueth oeaiae e i?aaiia, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aeey auiieiaiey
?acee/iuo ooieoeee.

4.Iiioeyoeeiiii-aeaeiaie. Iiae aeaeii iiieiatho niaieoiiinoue iniaae,
noiaeiuo ii no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee, eiathueo
iaeeiaeiaue ea?eioei e aaeeiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea e caieiathueo
ii?aaeaeaiiue a?aae iaeoaiey, naiaiaeii ne?aueaathueony iaaeaeo niaie e
aeathueo ieiaeiaeoia iioiinoai, oa?aeoa?ecothueony noiaeiui iiaaaeaieai
e ii?aaeaeaiiuie acaeiiioiioaieyie n ae?oaeie aeaeaie e oaeoi?aie
iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu.

Niaieoiiinoue i?aaieciia iaeiiai e oiai aea aeaea, iauaaeeiaiiay iauei
ianoii iaeoaiey, nicaeaao iiioeyoeeth eae nenoaio iaaei?aaieciaiiiai
ii?yaeea. A yoie nenoaia inouanoaeythony i?inoaeoea, yeaiaioa?iua
yaiethoeeiiiua i?aia?aciaaiey.

5.Aeiaaioeaiioe/aneee. Aeiaaioeaiic – niiauanoai, niaieoiiinoue
i?aaieciia ?aciuo aeaeia e ?acee/iie neiaeiinoe i?aaiecaoeee ni anaie
oaeoi?aie eiie?aoiie n?aaeu eo iaeoaiey – eiiiiiaioaie aoiinoa?u,
aeae?inoa?u e eeoinoa?u.

6.Aeinoa?iue. Aeinoa?a – naiue aunieee o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee aeecie ia
iaoae ieaiaoa. A iae auaeaeytho aeeaia aauanoai – niaieoiiinoue anao
aeeauo i?aaieciia, iaaeeaia eee einiia aauanoai e aeieiniia aauanoai
(ii/aa).[3]

1.1. Iiioeyoeee, niiauanoaa, yeinenoaiu. I?eioeeiu eo i?aaiecaoeee.

Iiioeyoeeae iacuaatho a?oiio iniaae iaeiiai aeaea, iaeaaeathueo
niiniaiinoueth naiaiaeii ne?aueaaoueny e iaia?aie/aiii aeieai
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naia nouanoaiaaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiii ianoiiaeoaiee.
Iiioeyoeey – yoi iaeioi?ia aaeeinoai, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony iauiinoueth
caieiaaiie iniayie oa??eoi?ee (eee aeaaoi?ee), a oaeaea iauiinoueth eo
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, noiaenoaii no?iaiey e iiaaaeaiey. Iai?eia?: ana iniae,
iaeoathuea a iaaieueoii ica?a, eee ana aea?aauey iaeiiai aeaea a eano.

Iaeaieaa aeeceei ii cia/aieth e cia/aieth oa?ieia «iiioeyoeey» yaeyaony
iiiyoea «ieaiy». Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiioeyoeee ninoiyo ec iaeeiaeiauo
i?aaieciia, niaianoii ianaeythueo ii?aaeaeaiiua o/anoee e naycaiiuo
iaaeaeo niaie ?acee/iuie acaeiiioiioaieyie, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho ei
onoie/eaia nouanoaiaaiea a aeaiiie i?e?iaeiie n?aaea.

Neiai «iiioeyoeey» i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai «iiioethn» – ia?iae,
ianaeaiea. Yeieiae/aneoth iiioeyoeeth, oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eae ianaeaiea iaeiiai aeaea ia ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.[2]

*eaiu iaeiie iiioeyoeee ieacuaatho ae?oa ia ae?oaa ia iaiueoaa
acaeiiaeaenoaea, /ai oece/aneea oaeoi?u n?aaeu eee ae?oaea iaeoathuea
niaianoii aeaeu i?aaieciia. A iiioeyoeeyo i?iyaeythony a oie eee eiie
noaiaie ana oi?iu naycae, oa?aeoa?iua aeey iaaeaeaeiauo ioiioaiee, ii
iaeaieaa y?ei au?aaeaiu ioooaeenoe/aneea (acaeiii iieaciua) e
eiieo?aioiua. Ai anao neo/ayo a iiioeyoeeyo aeaenoaotho caeiiu,
iicaieythuea oaeei ia?acii eniieueciaaoue ia?aie/aiiua ?ano?nu n?aaeu,
/oiau iaania/eoue inoaaeaiea iioiinoaa. Aeinoeaaaony yoi a iniiaiii
/a?ac eiee/anoaaiiia eciaiaiea ianaeaiey. Iiioeyoeee iiiaeo aeaeia
iaeaaeatho naienoaaie, iicaieythueie ei ?aaoee?iaaoue naith
/eneaiiinoue.[1]

Iiaeaea?aeaiea iioeiaeueiie a aeaiiuo oneiaeyo /eneaiiinoe iacuaatho
aiiainoacii iiioeyoeee. Aiiainoaoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe iiioeyoeee
ii-?aciiio au?aaeaiu o ?acee/iuo aeaeia. Inouanoaeythony iie /a?ac
acaeiiaeaenoaey iniaae.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiioeyoeee, eae a?oiiiaua iauaaeeiaiey, iaeaaeatho ?yaeii
niaoeeoe/aneeo naienoa, eioi?ua ia i?enoue eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie iniae.
A?oiiiaua iniaaiiinoe – yoi iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iiioeyoeee. E iei
ioiinyony:

1) /eneaiiinoue – iauaa eiee/anoai iniaae ia auaeaeyaiie oa??eoi?ee;

2) ieioiinoue – n?aaeiaa /enei iniaae ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee eee iauaia ,
caieiaaiiai iiioeyoeeae i?ino?ainoaa; ieioiinoue iiioeyoeee iiaeii
au?aaeaoue oaeaea /a?ac ianno /eaiia iiioeyoeee a aaeeieoea
i?ino?ainoaa;

3) ?iaeaeaaiinoue – /enei iiauo iniaae, i?iyaeaoeony ca aaeeieoeo
a?aiaie a ?acoeueoaoa ?aciiiaeaiey;

4) nia?oiinoue – iieacaoaeue, io?aaeathuee eiee/anoai iiaeaoeo a
iiioeyoeee iniaae ca ii?aaeaeaiiue io?acie a?aiaie;

5) i?e?ino iiioeyoeee – ?acieoea iaaeaeo ?iaeaeaaiinoueth; i?e?ino
iiaeao auoue eae iieiaeeoaeueiui, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiui;

6)oaii ?inoa – n?aaeiee i?e?ino ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie.

Iiioeyoeee naienoaaiia ii?aaeaeaiiay i?aaiecaoeey. ?ani?aaeaeaiea iniaae
ii oa??eoi?ee, niioiioaiey a?oii ii iieo, aic?anoo, ii?oieiae/aneei,
oeceieiae/aneei, iiaaaeai/aneei e aaiaoe/aneei iniaaiiinoyi io?aaeatho
no?oeoo?o iiioeyoeee. Iia oi?ie?oaony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ia iniiaa iaueo
aeieiae/aneeo naienoa aeaea, a n ae?oaie – iiae aeeyieai aaeioe/aneeo
oaeoi?ia n?aaeu e iiioeyoeee ae?oaeo aeaeia. No?oeoo?a iiioeyoeee eiaao,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eniiniaeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. ?aciua iiioeyoeee iaeiiai
aeaea iaeaaeatho eae noiaeiuie iniaaiiinoyie no?oeoo?u, oae e
ioee/eoaeueiuie, oa?aeoa?ecothueie niaoeeoeeo yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee a
ianoao eo iaeoaiey.[1]

Oaeei ia?acii, e?iia aaeaioeaiuo aiciiaeiinoae ioaeaeueiuo iniaae,
ianaeaiea aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?ee oa?aeoa?ecoaony aua e
i?eniiniaeoaeueiuie /a?oaie a?oiiiaie i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua yaeythony
naienoaaie iiioeyoeee eae iaaeeiaeeaeaeoaeueiie nenoaiu. Aaeaioeaiua
aiciiaeiinoe aeaea a oeaeii eae nenoaiu iiioeyoeee cia/eoaeueii oe?a
i?eniiniaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie iniae.

Niiauanoai (aeioeaiic) – ia i?inoi noiia ia?acothueo aai aeaeia, ii e
niaieoiiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaee iaaeaeo ieie. Eae e iiioeyoeey, niiauanoai
eiaao nianoaaiiua naienoaa, i?iyaeythueany oieueei i?e eco/aiee aai
naiiai, eae, iai?eia?, aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea, no?oeoo?a ieuaaie naoe,
aeiianna, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue. Iaeia ec aeaaiuo caaea/ yeieiaee – auynieoue
acaeiinayce iaaeaeo naienoaaie e no?oeoo?ie (ninoaaii) niiauanoaa,
eioi?ua i?iyaeythony iacaaeneii io oiai, eaeea aeaeu aoiaeyo a iaai.[2]

Eaaeaeue i?aaieci aeeaao a ie?oaeaiee iiiaeanoaa ae?oaeo i?aaieciia,
anooiaao n ieie a naiua ?aciiia?aciua ioiioaiey, eae n io?eoeaoaeueiuie,
oae e n iieiaeeoaeueiuie aeey naay iineaaenoaeyie e a eiia/iii n/aoa ia
iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac yoiai aeeaiai ie?oaeaiey. Naycue n ae?oaeie
i?aaieciaie – iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea ieoaiey e ?aciiiaeaiey, aiciiaeiinoue
caueou, niya/aiey iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee n?aaeu, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu –
yoi iianiinoue oua?aa e /anoi aeaaea iaiin?aaenoaaiiay oa?ica
nouanoaiaaiey eiaeeaeaeooia. Anth noiio aicaeaenoaee, eioi?oth
ieacuaatho ae?oa ia ae?oaa aeeaua nouanoaa, iauaaeeiytho iiae iacaaieai
aeioe/aneea oaeoi?u n?aaeu.[2]

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeaia ie?oaeaiea i?aaiecia ninoaaeyao aai
aeioeaiioe/aneoth n?aaeo.[2] I?aaenoaaeoaee eaaeaeiai aeaea niiniaiu
nouanoaiaaoue eeoue a oaeii aeeaii ie?oaeaiee, aaea nayce n ae?oaeie
i?aaieciaie iaania/eaatho ei ii?iaeueiua oneiaey aeecie. Eiuie neiaaie,
iiiaiia?aciua aeeaua i?aaieciu ano?a/athony ia caiea ia a ethaii
ni/aoaiee, a ia?acotho ii?aaeaeaiiua niaeeoaeuenoaa eee niiauanoaa, a
eioi?ua aoiaeyo aeaeu, i?eniiniaeaiiua e niaianoiiio iaeoaieth.
A?oiie?iaee niaianoii iaeoathueo e acaeiii naycaiiuo i?aaieciia
iacuaatho aeioeaiicaie (io eaoeineiai bios – aeeciue, cenos – iauee).
I?eniiniaeaiiinoue /eaiia aeioeaiica e niaianoiie aeecie au?aaeaaony a
ii?aaeaeaiiii noiaenoaa o?aaiaaiee e aaaeiaeoei aaeioe/aneei oneiaeyi
n?aaeu e caeiiiia?iuo ioiioaiee ae?oa n ae?oaii.[1]

Ianooaau aeioeaiioe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie i?aaieciia i/aiue ?acee/iu, io
niiauanoa iiaeooae eeoaeieeia ia noaieao aea?aaueaa eee ?aceaaathuaainy
iiy aei ianaeaiey oeaeuo eaiaeoaooia: eania, noaiae, ionouiue e o.i.

Oa?iei «aeioeaiic» a nia?aiaiiie yeieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a /aua
oiio?aaeytho i?eiaieoaeueii e ianaeaieth oa??eoi?eaeueiuo o/anoeia,
eioi?ua ia nooa auaeaeytho ii ioiineoaeueii iaeii?iaeiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe
(iau/ii ii a?aieoeai ?anoeoaeueiuo annioeeaoeee), iai?eia?, aeioeaiic
aeueieea-eenee/ieea, aieueoiai nooiaeieueiiai eoaa, niniyea-aaeiiioieea,
aieueoie eiaueueiie noaie, ioaie/iiai iiey e o.ae. I?e yoii eiaaony a
aeaeo any niaieoiiinoue aeeauo nouanoa, ?anoaiee, aeeaioiuo
iee?ii?aaieciia, i?eniiniaeaiiuo e niaianoiiio iaeoaieth ia aeaiiie
oa??eoi?ee. A aiaeiie n?aaea ?acee/atho aeioeaiicu, niioaaonoaothuea
yeieiae/aneei iiae?acaeaeaieyi /anoae aiaeiaiia, iai?eia?, aieueoeo
i?ea?aaeiuo aaea/iuo, ian/aiuo eee eeenouo a?oioia, aaennaeueiuo aeoaei,
iaeaae/aneeo aieueoeo e?oiiuo aiaeiai?ioia aiaeiuo iann e o.i.

Ii ioiioaieth e aieaa iaeeei niiauanoaai (ianaeaieth noaieia eee eenoau
aea?aaueaa, iioiauo ei/ae ia aieioao, ii?, io?aaaeieeia e o.ae.)
i?eiaiytho ?aciiia?aciua oa?ieiu: «iee?iniiauanoaa», «aeioeaiioe/aneea
a?oiie?iaee», «aeioeaiioe/aneea eiiieaenu» e ae?.

I?eioeeieaeueiie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo aeioeaiioe/aneeie a?oiie?iaeaie ?aciuo
ianooaaia iao. Aieaa iaeeea niiauanoaa aoiaeyo ninoaaiie , oioy e
ioiinoeoaeueii aaoiiiiiie /anoueth a aieaa e?oiiua, a oa, a naith
i/a?aaeue, yaeythony /anoyie niiauanoa aua aieueoeo ianooaaia. Oae, ana
aeeaia ianaeaiea iioiauo e eeoaeieeiauo iiaeooae ia noaiea aea?aaa – yoi
/anoue aieaa e?oiiiai niiauanoaa i?aaieciia, naycaiiuo n aeaiiui
aea?aaii e aeeth/athuaai aai iiaeei?iauo e ianoaieueiuo iaeoaoaeae,
ianaeaiea e?iiu, ?ecinoa?u e o.i.

A naith i/a?aaeue yoa a?oiie?iaea – eeoue iaeia ec ninoaaiuo /anoae
eaniiai aeioeaiica. Iineaaeiee aoiaeeo a aieaa neiaeiua eiiieaenu,
ia?acothuea a eiia/iii n/aoa aanue aeeaie iie?ia Caiee. Oaeei ia?acii,
i?aaiecaoeey aeecie ia aeioeaiioe/aneii o?iaia ea?a?oe/ia.[1] N
oaaee/aieai ianooaaia niiauanoa oneeeaaaony eo neiaeiinoue e aeiey
iai?yiuo, einaaiiuo naycae iaaeaeo aeaeaie.

Yeinenoaia – yoi ethaia niiauanoai aeeauo nouanoa aianoa n aai
oece/aneie n?aaeie iaeoaiey, ooieoeeiie?othuaa eae aaeeiia oeaeia.[2]

?anniio?aiea yeinenoaiu aaaeii a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i
iioieao aauanoaa e yia?aee, oee?eoee?othueo iaaeaeo aeeauie e iaaeeauie
eiiiiiaioaie i?e?iaeu, i aeeiaieea yeaiaioia, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo
nouanoaiaaiea aeecie, ia yaiethoeee niiauanoa. Ie ioaeaeueiue i?aaieci,
ie iiioeyoeeth, ie niiauanoai a oeaeii iaeuecy eco/aoue a io?uaa io
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Yeinenoaia, ii nooe, yoi oi, /oi iu iacuaaai
i?e?iaeie.

Yeinenoaia – iiiyoea i/aiue oe?ieia e i?eiaieii eae e anoanoaaiiui
(ooiae?a, ieaai), oae e e eneonoaaiiui eiiieaenai (aeaa?eoi). Iiyoiio
aeey iaicia/aiey yeaiaioa?iie i?e?iaeiie yeinenoaiu yeieiae oaeaea
eniieuecotho oa?iei “aeiaaioeaiic”.

Aeiaaioeaiic – enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoayny niaieoiiinoue aeeauo i?aaieciia
(aeioeaiic) e aaeioe/aneie n?aaeu aianoa n caieiaaiui eie o/anoeii
caiaeueiie iiaa?oiinoe (aeioiiii). A?aieoea aeiaaioeaiica
onoaiaaeeaaaony ii a?aieoea ?anoeoaeueiiai niiauanoaa (oeoioeaiica) –
aaaeiaeoaai eiiiiiaioa aeiaaioeaiicia. Aeey eaaeaeiai aeiaaioeaiica
oa?aeoa?ai naie oei aauanoaaiii-yia?aaoe/aneiai iaiaia.

Eoae, aeiaaioeaiic – yoi ninoaaiay /anoue i?e?iaeiiai eaiaeoaooa e
yeaiaioa?iay aeioa??eoi?eaeueiay aaeeieoea aeinoa?u.[2]

Ana i?e?iaeiua yeinenoaiu naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie, e aianoa ia?acotho
aeeaoth iaiei/eo Caiee, eioi?oth iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae naioth
aieueooth yeinenoaio, eioi?ay iacuaaaony aeinoa?ie.

2. Oi?iu aeieiae/aneeo ioiioaiee a niiauanoaao.

Iniiao aicieeiiaaiey e nouanoaiaaiey aeioeaiicia i?aaenoaaeytho
ioiioaiey i?aaieciia, eo nayce, a eioi?ua iie anooiatho ae?oa n ae?oaii,
ianaeyy iaeei e oio aea aeioii (ianoiiaeoaiea aeioeaiica, io eaoeineiai
bios – aeeciue, top – ianoi). Yoe nayce ii?aaeaeytho iniiaiia oneiaea
aeecie a niiauanoaa, aiciiaeiinoue aeiauaaiey ieue e caaiaauaaiey iiaiai
i?ino?ainoaa.

AEeaua i?aaieciu iinaeythony ae?oa n ae?oaii ia neo/aeii, a ia?acotho
ii?aaeaeaiiua niiauanoaa, i?eniiniaeaiiua e niaianoiiio iaeoaieth. Ii
iai?aaeaiiinoe aeaenoaey ia i?aaieci ana aicaeaenoaey iiae?acaeaeythony
ia iiceoeaiua, iaaaoeaiua e iaeo?aeueiua.[3]

2.1. Iiceoeaiua ioiioaiey.

Neiaeic – niaeeoaeuenoai (io a?a/aneiai sym – aianoa, bios – aeeciue) –
oi?ia acaeiiioiioaiee, i?e eioi?uo iaa ia?oia?a eee iaeei ec ieo
ecaeaeaao iieueco io ae?oaiai. Anoue ianeieueei oi?i neiaeica:

Eiiia?aoeey. Iauaecaanoiia niaeeoaeuenoai ?aeia-iooaeueieeia n iyaeeie
ei?aeeiauie iieeiaie-aeoeieyie. ?ae iinaeyaony a ionoie ?aeiaeia
iieethnea e aiceo aa ia naaa aianoa n iieeiii. Oaeia niaeeoaeuenoai
acaeiiauaiaeii: ia?aiauaynue ii aeio, ?ae oaaee/eaaao i?ino?ainoai,
eniieuecoaiia aeoeieae aeey eiaee aeiau/e, /anoue eioi?ie iaaeaao ia
aeii e iiaaeaaony ?aeii.[3]

Ioooaeeci (io eaoeineiai mutuus – acaeiiue). Oi?ia acaeiiauaiaeiuo
ioiioaiee aeaeia – io a?aiaiiiai, iaiaycaoaeueiiai eiioaeoa aei neiaeica
– ia?acaeaeeiie iieaciie nayce aeaoo aeaeia. Eeoaeieee – yoi
niaeeoaeuenoai a?eaa e aiaei?inee. A eeoaeieea aeou a?eaa, iieaoay
eeaoee e ieoe aiaei?ineae, ia?acotho niaoeeaeueiua ananuaathuea
io?inoee, i?iieeathuea a eeaoee. *a?ac ieo a?ea iieo/aao i?iaeoeou
oioineioaca, ia?aciaaiiua aiaei?ineyie. Aiaei?ineue aea ec aeo a?eaa
ecaeaeaao aiaeo e ieia?aeueiua niee.[3] Anaai a i?e?iaea ian/eouaaaony
aieaa 20000 aeaeia neiaeioe/aneeo i?aaieciia. Eeoa/iua neiaeiiou
o/anoaotho a ia?a?aaioea a?oauo ?anoeoaeueiuo ei?iia o iiiaeo aeaa/iuo
aeeaioiuo. Iaiaa iaycaoaeueiu, ii /?acau/aeii nouanoaaiiu
ioooaeenoe/aneea ioiioaiey, iai?eia?, iaaeaeo neae?neie eaae?iaie niniie
e ioeoeaie – eaae?iaeie, iiiieciai e eoeoae, eioi?ua , ieoaynue naiaiaie
niniu e caianay ei?ia, niinianoaotho naiiaiciaiiaeaieth
eaae?iaieeia.[1]

Eiiainaeeci – iaoeaaie/anoai (io eaoeineiai com – aianoa, mensa –
o?aiaca). Iaeia ec oi?i neiaeica- acaeiiioiioaiey, i?e eioi?uo iaeei
aeae iieo/aao iieueco io niaeeoaeuenoaa, a ae?oaiio yoi aac?acee/ii. Yoi
iaeiinoi?iiiaa eniieueciaaiea iaeiiai aeaea ae?oaei aac i?eianaiey aio
a?aaea. Oaeiau, iai?eia?, acaeiiioiioaiey eueaia e aeai, iiaeae?athueo
inoaoee iaaeiaaeaiiie eueaaie aeiau/e. ?uau-eioeiaiu nii?iaiaeaeatho
aeoe, aeaeueoeiia, aeaeaaynue aianoa n ieie a neia aiaeu, i?eiueathuae
iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iiaa?oiinoe oaea yoeo aeeaioiuo, e ia cao?a/eaay
iiyoiio oneeee ia oaeoth aieueooth nei?inoue e ieoaynue inoaoeaie ieue,
yene?aiaioaie e ia?aceoaie nii?iaiaeaeaaiuo aeeaioiuo. A aiacaeao ioeoe,
ii?ao a?ucoiia iaeoaao ia?iiiia eiee/anoai /eaienoiiiaeo, eniieuecothueo
iee?ieeeiao aeeeeu e iaoiaeyueo oai ieuo ca n/ao ?aceaaathueony inoaoeia
eee ae?oaeo aeaeia niaeeoaeae. Iiiaea aeaeu aia ii? ia ano?a/athony
nianai. Ioiioaiey oeia eiiiainaeecia i/aiue aaaeiu a i?e?iaea,
niinianoaoy aieaa oaniiio niaeeoaeuenoao aeaeia, aieaa iieiiio inaiaieth
n?aaeu e eniieueciaaieth ieuaauo ?ano?nia.[3]

Eaa?oe?aionoai. Aeey iaeioi?uo i?aaieciia oaea aeeaioiuo ae?oaeo aeaeia
eee eo ianoiiaeoaiey (iino?ieee) neoaeao oaaaeeuaie. Iaeueee ?ua
i?y/oony iiae ciioeeaie e?oiiuo iaaeoc. A ciacaeao ioeoe, ii?ao a?ucoiia
aeeaoo /eaienoiiiaea. ?anoaiey oaeaea eniieuecotho ae?oaea aeaeu eae
ianoa iaeoaiey: yieoaou (aiaei?inee, ioe, eeoaeieee).Ae?aaaniua ?anoaiey
neoaeao ei ianoii i?ee?aieaiey. Ieoathony aea yieoaou ca n/ao
ioie?athueo oeaiae, auaeaeaiee oicyeia e ca n/ao oioineioaca.[3]

2.2. Iaaaoeaiua ioiioaiey.

Aioeaeioe/aneay oi?ia acaeiiioiioaiee, i?e eioi?ie iaa
acaeiiaeaenoaothuea iiioeyoeee eee iaeia ec ieo eniuouaatho
io?eoeaoaeueiia aeeyiea. Ioiioaiey oeuiee – aea?oaa, ia?aceo – oicyei –
yoi i?yiua ieuaaua nayce, ii nouanoao e yoiio oeio yeieiae/aneeo
acaeiiaeaenoaee iiaeii ioianoe ana aa?eaiou ieuaauo naycae.

Oeuie/anoai – iaeia ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo oi?i, eiathueo aieueoia
cia/aiea a naii?aaoeyoeee aeioeaiicia. Oeuieeaie iacuaatho aeeaioiuo (a
oaeaea iaeioi?ua ?anoaiey), ieoathueony ae?oaeie aeeaioiuie, eioi?uo iie
eiayo e oia?uaeytho. Iauaeou ioiou oeuieeia ?aciiia?aciu. Iai?eia?, eenu
iiaaeatho ieiaeu; iaaeaaaee niae?atho yaiaeu e ethayo iaae eaniuo i/ae.
Anoanoaaiiue ioai?, aeaenoaothuee a iiioeyoeee oeuieeia, oaaee/eaaao
yooaeoeaiinoue n?aaenoa iienea e eiaee aeiau/e, au?aaaouaatho neiaeiia
iiaaaeaiea, iai?eia?, niaeaniaaiiua aeaenoaey noae aieeia i?e ioioa ia
ieaiae. AEa?oau a i?ioeanna ioai?a oiaea niaa?oainoaotho n?aaenoaa
caueou e ecaaaaiey oeuieeia.[3]

Ia?aceoeci. I?aaieciu iiaoo eniieueciaaoue ae?oaea aeaeu ia oieueei eae
ianoi iaeoaiey, ii e eae iinoiyiiue enoi/iee ieoaiey. Ii nouanoao
ia?aceoe/aneee oa?aeoa? eiatho nayce ianaeiiuo-a?aaeeoaeae n ?anoaieyie.
Ecaanoii ianeieueei aeanyoeia ouny/ aeaeia ia?aceoe/aneeo oi?i, ec ieo
ieiei 500 – ia?aceou /aeiaaea, iiyoiio eco/aiea ia?aceoia iaiaoiaeeii
aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey e ea/aiey caaieaaaiee.

Oi?iu ia?aceoecia.

Ia?aceou iiaoo auoue a?aiaiiuie, eiaaea i?aaieci-oicyei iiaeaa?aaaony
iaiaaeaieth ia ei?ioeee n?ie, eeoue ia a?aiy ieoaiey. Oaeiau neaiie,
eeiiu, aeioe, iooe-aeeaaeee.

I?aaieciu, niiniaiua aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy eniieueciaaoue oicyeia, ia
i?eaiaey aai e neeoeii ?aiiae aeaaee e iaania/eaay naaa oai naiui
iaeeo/oaa nouanoaiaaiea. E /eneo iinoiyiiuo ia?aceoia ioiinyony:
i?inoaeoea (aeecaioa?eeiay aiaaa, iaey?eeiue ieaciiaeee), ieineea /a?ae
(oeaiie, ninaeueueee), e?oaeua /a?ae (aeaniaeaa, anea?eaea),
/eaienoiiiaea (/anioi/iue coaeaiue). N aeaaeueth oicyeia iiaeaaao e
ia?aceo.

Aiacaeiaie ia?aceoeci naienoaaiai iicaiii/iui aeeaioiui. Iaueiiaaiiay
eoeooea ioeeaaeuaaao naie yeoea a aiacaea aieaa 100 aeaeia ioeoe,
i?aeiouanoaaiii iaeeeo ai?iaueeiuo. Ioaioeu ia?aceoe/aneiai aeaea
aueoieeaathony auno?aa, /ai ioaioeu oicyeia. Aueoieaoeeny eoeooiiie
auoaeeeaaao yeoea e ioaioeia naieo oicyaa e iieo/aao anth ieuo io
i?eaiiuo ?iaeeoaeae.

Ia?aceoe/aneea ioiioaiey ano?a/athony e o ?anoaiee. Iniaaiii
?ani?ino?aiaiu ia?aceoe/aneea aaeoa?ee e a?eau. Iaeei ec naiuo
i?ioeaaoathueo ia?aceoia aunoeo ?anoaiee – a?ea ?iaea oeoiooi?a.
Iaeioi?ua aeaeu yoiai ?iaea ii?aaeatho ethaua ?anoaiey.[3]

Eiieo?aioeey – iaeia ec oi?i io?eoeaoaeueiuo acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo
aeaeaie. *.Aea?aei n/eoae eiieo?aioeeth iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo ninoaaiuo
/anoae ai?ueau ca nouanoaiaaiea, ea?athuae aieueooth ?ieue a yaiethoeee
aeaeia.[3] Eiieo?aioeey – yoi acaeiiioiioaiey, aicieeoea iaaeaeo aeaeaie
ni noiaeiuie yeieiae/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie. Eiaaea oaeea aeaeu iaeoatho
niaianoii, eaaeaeue ec ieo iaoiaeeony a iaauaiaeiii iieiaeaiee, o.e.
i?enoonoaea ae?oaiai oiaiueoaao aiciiaeiinoe a iaeaaeaiee ?ano?naie,
oaaaeeuaie e i?i/eie n?aaenoaaie e nouanoaiaaieth, eioi?ui ?aniieaaaao
ianoiiaeoaiea. Eiieo?aioeey – aaeeinoaaiiay oi?ia yeieiae/aneeo
ioiioaiee, io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaathuayny ia iaieo acaeiiaeaenoaothueo
ia?oia?ao. Oi?iu eiieo?aioiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iiaoo auoue naiuie
?acee/iuie: io i?yiie oece/aneie ai?ueau aei niaianoiiai nouanoaiaaiey.
Oai ia iaiaa ?aii eee iicaeii iaeei eiieo?aio auoaniyao ae?oaiai.[1]

I?e/eiu auoaniaiey iaeiiai aeaea ae?oaei iiaoo auoue ?acee/iuie. O
?anoaiee iiaeaaeaiea eiieo?aioia i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aoaaoa
ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa e ii/aaiiie aeaae ei?iaaie nenoaiie e nieia/iiai
naaoa – eenoiaui aiia?aoii, a oaeaea a ?acoeueoaoa auaeaeaiey oiene/iuo
niaaeeiaiee.

O aeeaioiuo ano?a/athony neo/ae i?yiiai iaiaaeaiey iaeiiai aeaea ia
ae?oaie a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa. Iai?eia?, ee/eiee yeoeaaaea diachasoma e
tryonhi opius humilis, ieacaaoeany a iaeiii yeoea oicyeia, anooiatho
ae?oa n ae?oaii a noaaoeo e oaeaatho niia?ieea, i?aaeaea /ai i?enooieoue
e ieoaieth.[1]

2.3. Iaeo?aeueiua ioiioaiey.

Iaeo?aeeci – oi?ia acaeiiioiioaiee, i?e eioi?uo iaeoathuea ia iaeiie
oa??eoi?ee i?aaieciu ia aeeytho ae?oa ia ae?oaa. I?e iaeo?aeecia iniae
?aciuo aeaeia ia naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii, ii, oi?ie?oy
aeioeaiic, caaenyo io ninoaaa niiauanoaa a oeaeii. Iai?eia?, aaeee e
eine, iaeoay a iaeiii eano, ia eiioaeoe?otho ae?oa n ae?oaii, iaeiaei
ninoiyiea eana neacuaaaony ia eaaeaeii ec yoeo aeaeia.[3]

I?e aiainaeecia aeey iaeiiai ec aeaoo acaeiiaeaenoaothueo aeaeia
iineaaenoaey niaianoiiai iaeoaiey io?eoeaoaeueiu, oiaaea eae ae?oaie io
ieo ia iieo/aao ie a?aaea, ie iieuecu, /oi /aua ano?a/aaony o ?anoaiee
(iai?eia?, naaoiethaeaua o?aayienoua aeaeu, ?anoouea iiae aeueth,
eniuouaatho oaiaoaiea a ?acoeueoaoa caoaiaiey, oiaaea eae aeey naiiai
aea?aaa ninaaenoai iiaeao auoue aac?acee/iui).[1]

Ana ia?a/eneaiiua oi?iu aeieiae/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo aeaeaie neoaeao
?aaeno?aoi?aie /eneaiiinoe aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee a aeioeaiica, ii?aaeaeyy
noaiaiue aai onoie/eainoe; i?e yoii /ai aieueoa aeaeiaie ninoaa
aeioeaiica, oai onoie/eaaa niiauanoai a oeaeii.

Aeaeiaie ninoaa aoiaeyueo a niiauanoai i?aaieciia e eiee/anoaaiiia
niioiioaiea aeaeiauo iiioeyoeee yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo
iieacaoaeae no?oeoo?u niiauanoaa. I?e eco/aiee niiauanoa iaeaieaa
iiiai/eneaiiui aeaeai oaeaeyaony iniiaiia aieiaiea, iaeiaei ?aaeeea
aeaeu /anoi yaeythony eo/oeie eiaeeeaoi?aie ninoiyiey n?aaeu; iauaa
/enei aeaeia yaeyaony iieacaoaeai oneiaee nouanoaiaaiey aeeauo
i?aaieciia. Aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea – i?eciae yeieiae/aneiai ?aciiia?acey:
/ai aieueoa aeaeia, oai aieueoa yeieiae/aneeo ieo, o.a. auoa aiaaonoai
n?aaeu. Aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea naycaii n onoie/eainoueth niiauanoaa ii
oie i?inoie i?e/eia, /oi /ai aieueoa ?aciiia?acea, oai oe?a aiciiaeiinoe
aaeaioaoeee niiauanoaa e eciaieaoeiny oneiaeyi, aoaeue yoi eciaiaiea
eeeiaoa eee ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.[3]

Iauyniaiea yoiai ninoieo a oii, /oi iaee/ea ?aciuo i?aaieciia n ?aciuie
o?aaiaaieyie e n?aaea iiauoaao i?eniiniaeaiiinoue niiauanoaa a oeaeii.
Oae, ?aaeeea a aeaiiue iiiaio aeaeu i?e eciaieaoeony oneiaeyo iiaoo
ieacaoueny a auea?uoiii iieiaeaiee e noaoue iiiai/eneaiiuie, e iaiai?io.
Oaeei ia?acii, ca n/ao aeaeiaiai ?aciiia?acey niiauanoai iaania/eaaao
naaa eae au ?aca?a auaeeaaaiinoe ia neo/ae iaiaeeaeaiiuo eciaiaiee
oneiaee aeecie.

3. E?oaiai?iou aauanoaa e yia?aee.

Aeaaiay ooieoeey aeinoa?u caeeth/aaony a iaania/aiee e?oaiai?ioa
oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia, eioi?ue au?aaeaaony a oee?eoeyoeee aauanoa iaaeaeo
aoiinoa?ie, ii/aie, aeae?inoa?ie e aeeauie i?aaieciaie.

Yeinenoaiu – yoi niiauanoaa i?aaieciia, naycaiiua n iai?aaie/aneie
n?aaeie oaniaeoeie iaoa?eaeueii-yia?aaoe/aneeie naycyie. ?anoaiey iiaoo
nouanoaiaaoue oieueei ca n/ao iinoiyiiiai iinooieaiey a ieo oaeaeeneiai
aaca, aiaeu, eenei?iaea, ieia?aeueiuo nieae. A ethaii eiie?aoiii
ianoiiaeoaiee caiania iai?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ianaeythueo aai i?aaieciia, oaaoeei
au iaiaaeieai, anee au yoe caianu ia aiciaiiaeyeenue. Aica?ao aeiaaiiuo
yeaiaioia a n?aaeo i?ienoiaeeo eae a oa/aiea aeecie i?aaieciia (a
?acoeueoaoa aeuoaiey, yene?aoeee, aeaoaeaoeee), oae e iinea eo nia?oe, a
?acoeueoaoa ?aceiaeaiey o?oiia e ?anoeoaeueiuo inoaoeia. Oaeei ia?acii,
niiauanoai ia?aoaao n iai?aaie/aneie n?aaeie ii?aaeaeaiioth nenoaio, a
eioi?ie iioie aoiiia, aucuaaaiue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaieciia,
eiaao oaiaeaioeeth caiueaoueny a e?oaiai?io.

Ethaoth niaieoiiinoue i?aaieciia e iai?aaie/aneeo eiiiiiaioia, a eioi?ie
iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny e?oaiai?io aauanoa, iacuaatho yeinenoaiie. Oaeie
oa?iei aue i?aaeeiaeai a 1935 aiaeo aiaeeeneei yeieiaii A.Oainee,
eioi?ue iiae/a?eeaae, /oi i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea iai?aaie/aneea e
i?aaie/aneea oaeoi?u aunooiatho eae ?aaiii?aaiua eiiiiiaiou, e iu ia
iiaeai ioaeaeeoue i?aaieciu io eiie?aoiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. A.Oainee
?anniao?eaae yeinenoaiu eae iniiaiua aaeeieoeu i?e?iaeu ia iiaa?oiinoe
Caiee, oioy iie e ia eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiiai iauaia e iiaoo ioaaouaaoue
i?ino?ainoai ethaie i?ioyaeaiiinoe.[1]

Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey e?oaiai?ioa aauanoa a neonoaia iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea
caiana iai?aaie/aneeo iieaeoe a onaiyaiie oi?ia e o?ao ooieoeeiiaeueii
?acee/iuo a?oii i?aaieciia: i?iaeooeaioia, eiinoiaioia e ?aaeooeaioia.

I?iaeooeaioaie aunooiatho aaoio?ioiua (eniieuecothuea a ea/anoaa
enoi/ieea aeey iino?iaiey naiaai oaea iai?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey)
i?aaieciu, niiniaiua no?ieoue naie oaea ca n/ao iai?aaie/aneeo
niaaeeiaiee. Eiinoiaiou – yoi aaoa?io?ioiua i?aaieciu (ana aeeaua
nouanoaa, ioaeaeathueany a ieua i?aaie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey),
iio?aaeythuea i?aaie/aneia aauanoai i?iaeooeaioia eee ae?oaeo
eiinoiaioia e o?ainoi?ie?othueo aai a iiaua oi?iu. ?aaeooeaiou aeeaoo ca
n/ao ia?oaiai i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa, ia?aaiaey aai a iai?aaie/aneea
niaaeeiaiey. ?ieue eiinoiaioia auiieiytho a i?e?iaea a iniiaiii
aeeaioiua, eo aeayoaeueiinoue ii iiaeaea?aeaieth e onei?aieth
oeeeee/aneeo iea?aoeee aoiiia a yeinenoaiao neiaeia e iiiaiia?acia. Ia
o/anoeao, aaea ooieoeeiie?otho, iai?eia?, niiauanoaa, noi?ie?iaaiiua
oieueei ec iee?ii?aaieciia, e?oaiai?io aoiiia iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny aac
eiinoiaioia, ca n/ao aeayoaeueiinoe aeaoo ae?oaeo a?oii.[1]

Ianooaau yeinenoaiu a i?e?iaea /?acau/aeii ?acee/iu. Iaiaeeiaeiaa oaeaea
noaiaiue caieiooinoe iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo a ieo e?oaiai?ioia aauanoaa, o.
a. iiiaie?aoiinoue aiaea/aiey iaeieo e oao aea aoiiia a oeeeeu. A
ea/anoaa iaeieo yeinenoai iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue, iai?eia?, iiaeooeo
eeoaeieeia ia noaiea aea?aaa e eoa, e ean, e ieaai, e ionouith, e anth
iiaa?oiinoue Caiee, caiyooth aeeciueth.

A iiaeooea eeoaeieeia iu iaeaeai ana iaiaoiaeeiua eiiiiiaiou yeinenoaiu.
I?iaeooeaiou – neiaeioe/aneea aiaei?inee, inouanoaeythuea oioineioac.
Eiinoiaiou- iaeeea /eaienoiiiaea, ieoathueany aeeauie oeaiyie eeoaeieea,
a oaeaea a?eaiua aeou, ia?aceoe?othuea ia eeaoeao aiaei?ineae.
?aaeooeaiou – a?eaiua aeou, aeeaouea ia oieueei ca n/ao aeeauo, ii e ca
n/ao iiaeaoeo eeaoie aiaei?ineae, e iaeeea aeeaioiua – nai?ioaae,
ia?a?aaaouaathuea ioia?oea neiaaeua, a ?ac?ooaiee eioi?uo ei iiiiaatho
iiiai/eneaiiua iee?ii?aaieciu. Noaiaiue caieiooinoe e?oaiai?ioa a oaeie
nenoaia i/aiue iaaaeeea: cia/eo, /anoue i?iaeoeoia ?aniaaea auiineony ca
i?aaeaeu eeoaeieea – auiuaaaony aeiaeaeaauie aiaeaie, inuiaaony aiec ni
noaiea. E?iia oiai, /anoue aeeaioiuo iea?e?oao a ae?oaia ianoi iaeoaiey.
Oai ia iaiaa /anoue aoiiia oniaaaao i?ieoe ianeieueei oeeeeia,
aeeth/aynue a oaea aeeauo i?aaieciia e inaiaiaeaeaynue ec ieo, i?aaeaea
/ai iieeiao aeaiioth yeinenoaio.

A iaeioi?uo oeiao yeinenoai auiin aauanoaa ca eo i?aaeaeu ianoieueei
aaeee, /oi eo noaaeeueiinoue iiaeaea?aeeaaaony a iniiaiii ca n/ao
i?eoiea oaeiai aea eiee/anoaa aauanoaa ecaia, oiaaea eae aioo?aiiee
e?oaiai?io iaeiyooaeoeaai. Oaeiau i?ioi/iua aiaeiaiu, ?aee, ?o/uee,
o/anoee ia e?oouo neeiiao ai?. Ae?oaea yeinenoaiu eiatho cia/eoaeueii
aieaa iieiue e?oaiai?io aauanoa e ioiineoaeueii aaoiiiiiu (eana, eoaa,
ica?a e o.i.).

Iaeiaei ie iaeia, aeaaea naiay e?oiiay, yeinenoaia Caiee ia eiaao
iieiinoueth caieiooiai e?oaiai?ioa. Iaoa?eee eioaineaii iaiaieaathony
aauanoaii n ieaaiaie, i?e/ai aieueooth ?ieue a yoeo i?ioeannao ea?aao
aoiinoa?a , e any iaoa ieaiaoa /anoue iaoa?ee iieo/aao ec einie/aneiai
i?ino?ainoaa, a /anoue ioaeaao a einiin.[1]

Yeinenoaiiay i?aaiecaoeey aeecie yaeyaony iaeiei ec iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee
aa nouanoaiaaiey. Caianu aeiaaiiuo yeaiaioia, ec eioi?uo no?iyo oaea
aeeaua i?aaieciu, ia Caiea a oeaeii e ia eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii o/anoea ia
aa iiaa?oiinoe iaaaca?aie/ia. Eeoue nenoaia e?oaiai?ioia niiaea
i?eaeaoue yoei caianai naienoai aaneiia/iinoe, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey
i?iaeieaeaiey aeecie. Iiaeaea?aeeaaoue e inouanoaeyoue e?oaiai?io iiaoo
oieueei ooieoeeiiaeueii-?acee/iua a?oiiu i?aaieciia. Oaeei ia?acii,
yeieiae/aneia ?aciiia?acea aeeauo nouanoa e i?aaiecaoeey iioiea
ecaeaeaaiuo ec ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aauanoa a oeeeeu – ae?aaiaeoaa
naienoai aeecie.[1]

Iiaeaea?aeaiea aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?aaieciia e e?oaiai?io aauanoaa a
yeinenoaiao aiciiaeiu oieueei ca n/ao iinoiyiiiai i?eoiea yia?aee. A
eiia/iii eoiaa any aeeciue ia Caiea nouanoaoao ca n/ao yia?aee
nieia/iiai eceo/aiey, eioi?ia ia?aaiaeeony oioineioace?othueie
i?aaieciaie a oeie/aneea nayce i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee. Ana aeeaua
nouanoaa yaeythony iauaeoaie ieoaiey ae?oaeo, o.a. naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie
yia?aaoe/aneeie ioiioaieyie. Ieuaaua nayce a niiauanoaao – yoi iaoaieciu
ia?aaea/e yia?aee io iaeiiai i?aaiecia e ae?oaiio. A eaaeaeii niiauanoaa
o?ioe/aneea nayce ia?aieaoaiu a neiaeioth naoue.

O?ioe/aneea nayce – yoi nayce, aicieeathuea, eiaaea iaeei aeae ieoaaony
ae?oaei – eeai aeeauie iniayie, eeai eo ia?oauie inoaoeaie, eeai eo
i?iaeoeoaie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. E no?aeicu, eiayuea ia eaoo ae?oaeo
ianaeiiuo, e aeoee-iaaicieee, ieoathueany iiiaoii e?oiiuo eiiuoiuo, e
i/aeu, niae?athuea iaeoa? ?anoaiee, anooiatho a i?yioth o?ioe/aneoth
naycue n aeaeaie, i?aaeinoaaeythueie ei ieuo. Ethaia aicaeaenoaea
iaeiiai aeaea ia iiaaeaaiinoue ae?oaiai (eee ia aeinooiiinoue aeey iaai
ieue) neaaeoao ?anoeaieaaoue eae einaaiioth o?ioe/aneoth naycue iaaeaeo
ieie. Iai?eia?, aonaieoeu aaai/ae-iiiaoae, iauaaeay oaith ninai,
iaeaa/atho ei?iaaeai aeinooi e ineaaeaiiui aea?aaueyi.[1]

I?aaieciu ethaiai aeaea yaeythony iioaioeeaeueiie ieuae iiiaeo ae?oaeo
aeaeia. A?aaaie oeae, iai?eia?, neoaeao ee/eiee e aeoee aiaeueeo
ei?iaie, ee/eiee ioo-ne?oeae, iaoee, ianaeiiiyaeiua ioeoeu e iiiaea
ae?oaea. Ca n/ao aeoaia a oe?ieieenoaaiiuo eanao iiaoo aeeoue ianeieueei
nioai oi?i ?acee/iuo /eaienoiiiaeo, oeoiiaiaoiae, ia?aceoe/aneeo a?eaeia
e o. i. Oeuieee iau/ii eaaei ia?aeeth/athony n iaeiiai aeaea aea?oa ia
ae?oaie, a iiiaea e?iia aeeaioiie ieue niiniaiu iio?aaeyoue a iaeioi?ii
eiee/anoaa e ?anoeoaeueioth. Oaeei ia?acii , o?ioe/aneea naoe a
aeioeaiicao i/aiue neiaeiua, e nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi yia?aey,
iinooiathuay a ieo, iiaeao aeieai iea?e?iaaoue io iaeiiai i?aaiecia e
ae?oaiio. Ia naiii aeaea iooue eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie ii?oeee yia?aee,
iaeiieaiiie caeaiuie ?anoaieyie, ei?ioie; iia iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny ia
aieaa, /ai /a?ac 4-6 caaiueaa ?yaea, ninoiyuaai ec iineaaeiaaoaeueii
ieoathueony ae?oa ae?oaii i?aaieciia. Oaeea ?yaeu, a eioi?uo iiaeii
i?ineaaeeoue iooe ?anoiaeiaaiey ecia/aeueiie aeicu yia?aee, iacuaatho
oeaiyie ieoaiey. Ianoi eaaeaeiai caaia a oeaie ieoaiey iacuaatho
o?ioe/aneei o?iaiai. Ia?aue o?ioe/aneee o?iaaiue – yoi anaaaea
i?iaeooeaiou, nicaeaoaee i?aaie/aneie iannu; ?anoeoaeueiua eiinoiaiou
ioiinyony ei aoi?iio o?ioe/aneiio o?iaith; ieioiyaeiua, aeeaouea ca n/ao
?anoeoaeueiiyaeiuo oi?i – e o?aoueaio; iio?aaeythuea ae?oaeo ieioiyaeiuo
– e /aoaa?oiio e o.ae. Oaeei ia?acii, ?acee/atho eiinoiaioia ia?aiai,
aoi?iai e o?aoueaai ii?yaeeia, caieiathueo ?aciua o?iaie a oeaiyo
ieoaiey. Anoanoaaiii, /oi iniiaioth ?ieue i?e yoii ea?aao ieuaaay
niaoeeaeecaoeey eiinoiaioia. Aeaeu n oe?ieei niaeo?ii ieoaiey
aeeth/athony a ieuaaua oeaie ia ?aciuo o?ioe/aneeo o?iaiyo. Oae,
iai?eia?, /aeiaae, a ?aoeeii eioi?iai aoiaeeo eae ?anoeoaeueiay ieua,
oae e iyni o?aaiyaeiuo e ieioiyaeiuo aeeaioiuo, aunooiaao a ?aciuo
ieuaauo oeaiyo a ea/anoaa eiinoiaioa ia?aiai, aoi?iai e o?aoueaai
ii?yaeeia. Aeaeu, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ia ?anoeoaeueiie ieua, iai?eia?,
caeoeaia?aciua, eiiuoiua, anaaaea yaeythony aoi?ui caaiii a oeaiyo
ieoaiey.[1]

Yia?aaoe/aneee aaeain eiinoiaioia neeaaeuaaaony neaaeothuei ia?acii.
Iiaeiuaiiay ieua iau/ii onaaeaaaony ia iieiinoueth. Iaonaiaiiay /anoue
aiiaue aica?auaaony ai aiaoithth n?aaeo (a aeaea yene?aiaioia) e a
aeaeueiaeoai iiaeao auoue aiaea/aia a ae?oaea oeaie ieoaiey. I?ioeaio
onaiyaiinoe caaeneo io ninoaaa ieue e iaai?a ieuaaa?eoaeueiuo oa?iaioia
i?aaiecia. O aeeaioiuo onaiyaiinoue ieuaauo iaoa?eaeia aa?uee?oao io
12-20% (iaeioi?ua nai?ioaae) aei 75% e aieaa (ieioiyaeiua aeaeu).
Anneieee?iaaiiay i?aaieciii ieua aianoa n caianii a iae yia?aee
?anoiaeoaony aeaiyeei ia?acii. Aieueoay /anoue yia?aee eniieuecoaony ia
iiaeaea?aeaiea ?aai/eo i?ioeannia a eeaoeao, a i?iaeoeou ?anuaieaiey
iiaeeaaeao oaeaeaieth ec i?aaiecia a ninoaaa yene?aiaioia (ii/e, iioa,
auaeaeaiee ?acee/iuo aeaeac) e oaeaeeneiai aaca, ia?acothuaainy i?e
aeuoaiee. Yia?aaoe/aneea cao?aou ia iiaeaea?aeaiea anao iaoaaiee/aneeo
i?ioeannia oneiaii iacuaaaony o?aoie ia aeuoaiea, o.e. iauea eo ianooaau
iiaeii ioeaieoue, o/eouaay auaeaeaiea oaeaeeneiai aaca i?aaieciii.
Iaiueoay /anoue onaiaiiie ieue o?ainoi?ie?oaony a oeaie naiiai
i?aaiecia, o.a. eaeao ia ?ino eee ioeeaaeuaaiea caianiuo ieoaoaeueiuo
aauanoa, oaaee/aiea iannu oaea.

Ia?aaea/a yia?aee a oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeeyo a i?aaiecia i?ienoiaeeo
niaeanii aoi?iio caeiio oa?iiaeeiaieee, n iioa?ae /anoe aa a aeaea
oaiea. Iniaaiii aaeeee yoe iioa?e i?e ?aaioa eeaoie aeeaioiuo, EIAe
eioi?uo i/aiue iecie. A eiia/iii eoiaa any yia?aey, eniieuecoaiay ia
iaoaaieeci, ia?aoiaeeo a oaieiaoth e ?annaeaaaony a ie?oaeathuai
i?ino?ainoaa.[1]

O?aou ia aeuoaiea ai iiiai ?ac aieueoa yia?aicao?ao ia oaaee/aiea iannu
naiiai i?aaiecia. Eiie?aoiua niioiioaiey caaenyo io noaaeee ?acaeoey e
oeceieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey iniaae. O iieiaeuo o?aou ia ?ino iiaoo
aeinoeaaoue cia/eoaeueiie aaee/eiu, oiaaea eae ac?ineua eniieuecotho
yia?aeth ieue ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii ia iiaeaea?aeaiea iaiaia aauanoa e
nic?aaaiea iieiauo i?iaeoeoia. Eioaineaiinoue ieoaiey nieaeaaony n
aic?anoii.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiay /anoue iio?aaeyaiie n ieuae yia?aee eaeao ia
iiaeaea?aeaiea eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e eeoue n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoay
– ia iino?iaiea oaea, ?ino e ?aciiiaeaiea. Eiuie neiaaie, aieueoay
/anoue yia?aee i?e ia?aoiaea ec iaeiiai caaia ieuaaie oeaie a ae?oaia
oa?yaony, o.e. e neaaeothuaio iio?aaeoaeth iiaeao iinooieoue eeoue oa
yia?aey, eioi?ay caeeth/aaony a ianna iiaaeaaiiai i?aaiecia. Ii a?oaui
iiaen/aoai yoe iioa?e ninoaaeytho ieiei 90% i?e eaaeaeii aeoa ia?aaea/e
yia?aee /a?ac o?ioe/aneoth oeaiue. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anee eaei?eeiinoue
?anoeoaeueiiai i?aaiecia 1000 Aeae, i?e iieiii iiaaeaiee aai o?aaiyaeiui
aeeaioiui a oaea iineaaeiaai inoaaony ec yoie ii?oeee anaai 100, a oaea
oeuieea – eeoue 10 Aeae, a anee yoio oeuiee aoaeao nuaaeai ae?oaei, oi
ia aai aeieth i?eaeaony oieueei 1 Aeae, o.a. 0,1%.[1]

Oaeei ia?acii, caian yia?aee, iaeiieaiiie caeaiuie ?anoaieyie, a oeaiyo
ieoaiey no?aieoaeueii ennyeaao. Iiyoiio ieuaaay oeaiue aeeth/aao iau/ii
anaai 4-5 caaiueaa. Iioa?yiiay a oeaiyo ieoaiey yia?aey iiaeao auoue
ainiieiaia oieueei iinooieaieai iiauo aa ii?oeee. Iiyoiio a yeinenoaiao
ia iiaeao auoue e?oaiai?ioa yia?aee, aiaeiae/iiai e?oaiai?ioo aauanoaa.
Yeinenoaia ooieoeeiie?oao oieueei ca n/ao iai?aaeaiiiai iioiea yia?aee,
iinoiyiiiai iinooieaiey aa ecaia a aeaea nieia/iiai eceo/aiey eee
aioiauo caiania i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa. O?ioe/aneea oeaie, eioi?ua
ia/eiathony n oioineioace?othueo i?aaieciia, iacuaatho oeaiyie auaaeaiey
(eee oeaiyie iio?aaeaiey, ianoaeuiuie oeaiyie), a oeaie, eioi?ua
ia/eiathony n ioia?oeo inoaoeia ?anoaiee, o?oiia e yene?aiaioia
aeeaioiuo – aeao?eoiuie oeaiyie ?aceiaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, iioie
yia?aee, aoiaeyuee a yeinenoaio, ?acaeaaaony aeaeaa eae au ia aeaa
iniiaiuo ?onea, iinooiay e eiinoiaioai /a?ac aeeaua oeaie ?anoaiee eee
caianu ia?oaiai i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa, enoi/ieeii eioi?iai oaeaea
yaeyaony oioineioac. A ?aciuo oeiao yeinenoai iiuiinoue iioieia yia?aee
/a?ac oeaie auaaeaiey e ?aceiaeaiey ?acee/ia: a aiaeiuo niiauanoaao
aieueoay /anoue yia?aee, oeene?iaaiiie iaeiieeaoi/iuie aiaei?ineyie,
iinooiaao e ieoathueiny oeoiieaieoiiii aeeaioiui e aeaeaa – e oeuieeai,
e cia/eoaeueii iaiueoay aeeth/aaony a oeaie ?aceiaeaiey. A aieueoeinoaa
yeinenoai nooe i?ioeaiiieiaeiia niioiioaiea: a eanao, iai?eia?, aieaa
90% aaeaaiaeiiai i?e?inoa ?anoeoaeueiie iannu iinooiaao /a?ac iiaae a
aeao?eoiua oeaie.[1]

4. Aeinoa?a e aa yaiethoeey, ?ano?nu, i?aaeaeu onoie/eainoe,
aeii?iaeoeoeaiinoue.

4.1. No?oeoo?a aeinoa?u.

Aeinoa?a aeeth/aao a naay: aeeaia aauanoai, ia?aciaaiiia niaieoiiinoueth
i?aaieciia; aeiaaiiia aauanoai, eioi?ia nicaeaaony a i?ioeanna
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?aaieciia (aacu aoiinoa?u, eaiaiiue oaieue,
iaooue, oi?o, ecaanoiyee e ae?.); einiia aauanoai, eioi?ia oi?ie?oaony
aac o/anoey aeeauo i?aaieciia; aeieiniia aauanoai, i?aaenoaaeythuaa
niaie niaianoiue ?acoeueoao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?aaieciia e
iaaeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia (iai?eia?, ii/au).

Einiia aauanoai aeinoa?u.

A?aieoeu aeinoa?u ii?aaeaeythony oaeoi?aie caiiie n?aaeu, eioi?ua
aeaeatho iaaiciiaeiui nouanoaiaaiea aeeauo i?aaieciia. Aa?oiyy a?aieoea
i?ioiaeeo i?eia?ii ia aunioa 20 ei io iiaa?oiinoe ieaiaou e ia?aie/aia
neiai iciia, eioi?ue caaea?aeeaaao aoaeoaeueiua aeey aeecie
ei?ioeiaieiiaoth /anoue oeueo?aoeieaoiaiai eceo/aiey Nieioea. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeeaua i?aaieciu iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue a o?iiinoa?a e ieaeieo
neiyo no?aoinoa?u. A aeae?inoa?a caiiie ei?u i?aaieciu i?iieeatho ia
anth aeoaeio Ie?iaiai ieaaia – aei 10-11 ei. A eeoinoa?a aeeciue
ano?a/aaony ia aeoaeia 3,5-7,5 ei, /oi iaoneiaeaii oaiia?aoo?ie caiiuo
iaae? e oneiaeai i?iieeiiaaiey aiaeu a aeeaeeii ninoiyiee[3].

Aoiinoa?a.

Aaciaay iaiei/ea ninoieo a iniiaiii ec acioa e eenei?iaea. A iaaieueoeo
eiee/anoaao a iae niaea?aeeony aeeieneae oaea?iaea (0,03%) e icii.
Ninoiyiea aoiinoa?u ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia oece/aneea, oeie/aneea
e aeieiae/aneea i?ioeannu ia iiaa?oiinoe Caiee e a aiaeiie n?aaea. Aeey
aeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea eiatho: eenei?iae,
eniieuecoaiue aeey aeuoaiey e ieia?aeecaoeee ia?oaiai i?aaie/aneiai
aauanoaa, aeeieneae oaea?iaea, o/anoaothuee a oioineioaca, e icii,
ye?aie?othuee caiioth iiaa?oiinoue io aeanoeiai oeueo?aoeieaoiaiai
eceo/aiey. Acio, aeeieneae oaea?iaea, ia?u aiaeu ia?aciaaeenue a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aeaaiaea?y aoeeaie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a eenei?iae
– a ?acoeueoaoa oioineioaca[3].

Aeae?inoa?a.

Aiaea – aaaeiaeoee eiiiiiaio aeinoa?u e iaeei ec iaiaoiaeeiuo oaeoi?ia
nouanoaiaaiey aeeauo i?aaieciia. Iniiaiay aa /anoue (95%) iaoiaeeony a
Ie?iaii ieaaia, eioi?ue caieiaao ieiei 70% iiaa?oiinoe caiiiai oa?a e
niaea?aeeo 1300 iei. ei3. Iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu (ica?a, ?aee) aeeth/atho
anaai 0,182 iei. ei3, a eiee/anoai aiaeu a aeeauo i?aaieciao ninoaaeyao
anaai 0,001 iei. ei3. Cia/eoaeueiua caianu aiaeu (24 iei. ei3)
niaea?aeao eaaeieee. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho aacu, ?anoai?aiiua a
aiaea: eenei?iae e aeeieneae oaea?iaea. Eo eiee/anoai oe?iei aa?uee?oao
io oaiia?aoo?u e i?enoonoaey aeeauo i?aaieciia. Aeeieneaea oaea?iaea,
niaea?aeauaainy a aiaea, a 60 ?ac aieueoa, /ai a aoiinoa?a. Aeae?inoa?a
oi?ie?iaaeanue a nayce n ?acaeoeai eeoinoa?u, eioi?ay a oa/aiea
aaieiae/aneie enoi?ee Caiee auaeaeyea aieueoia eiee/anoai aiaeyiiai
ia?a[3].

Eeoinoa?a.

Iniiaiay ianna i?aaieciia, iaeoathueo a i?aaeaeao eeoinoa?u, iaoiaeeony
a ii/aaiiii neia, aeoaeia eioi?iai ia i?aauoaao ianeieueeeo iao?ia.
Ii/aa aeeth/aao ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa, ia?acothueany i?e ?ac?ooaiee
ai?iuo ii?iae, e i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa – i?iaeoeou aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaieciia[3].

AEeaua i?aaieciu (aeeaia aauanoai).

Oioy a?aieoeu aeinoa?u aeiaieueii ocee, aeeaua i?aaieciu a eo i?aaeaeao
?ani?aaeaeaiu i/aiue ia?aaiiia?ii. Ia aieueoie aunioa e a aeoaeiao
aeae?inoa?u e eeoinoa?u i?aaieciu ano?a/athony ioiineoaeueii ?aaeei.
AEeciue nin?aaeioi/aia aeaaiui ia?acii ia iiaa?oiinoe Caiee, a ii/aa e a
i?eiiaa?oiinoiii neia ieaaia. Iauoth ianno aeeauo i?aaieciia ioeaieaatho
a 2,43o1012o. Aeiianna i?aaieciia, iaeoathueo ia nooa, ia 99,2%
i?aaenoaaeaia caeaiuie ?anoaieyie e 0,8% – aeeaioiuie e
iee?ii?aaieciaie. Iai?ioea, a ieaaia ia aeieth ?anoaiee i?eoiaeeony
6,3%, a ia aeieth aeeaioiuo e iee?ii?aaieciia – 93,7% anae aeiiannu.
AEeciue nin?aaeioi/aia aeaaiui ia?acii ia nooa. Noiia?iay aeiianna
ieaaia ninoaaeyao anaai 0,03o10 12 o, eee 0,13% aeiiannu anao nouanoa,
iaeoathueo ia Caiea.

A ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeeauo i?aaieciia ii aeaeiaiio ninoaao iaaethaeaaony
aaaeiay caeiiiia?iinoue. Ec iauaai /enea aeaeia 21% i?eoiaeeony ia
?anoaiey, ii eo aeeaae a iauoth aeiianno ninoaaeyao 99%. N?aaee
aeeaioiuo 96% aeaeia – aaniicaiii/iua e oieueei 4% – iicaiii/iua, ec
eioi?uo aeanyoay /anoue – ieaeiieoathuea. Ianna aeeaiai aauanoaa
ninoaaeyao anaai 0,01-0,02% io einiiai aauanoaa aeinoa?u, iaeiaei iia
ea?aao aaaeouoth ?ieue a aaioeie/aneeo i?ioeannao. Aauanoaa e yia?aeth,
iaiaoiaeeioth aeey iaiaia aauanoa, i?aaieciu /a?iatho ec ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu. Ia?aie/aiiua eiee/anoaa aeeaie iaoa?ee ainnicaeathony,
i?aia?acothony e ?aceaaathony. Aaeaaiaeii, aeaaiaea?y
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo, aini?iecaiaeeony ieiei 10%
aeiiannu[3].

4.2. Yaiethoeey aeinoa?u.

Ana eiiiiiaiou aeinoa?u oanii acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie, ninoaaeyy
oeaeinoioth, neiaeii i?aaieciaaiioth nenoaio, ?acaeaathuothny ii naiei
aioo?aiiei caeiiai e iiae aeaenoaeai aiaoieo nee, a oii /enea
einie/aneeo (nieia/iiai eceo/aiey, a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo nee, iaaieoiuo iieae
Nieioea, Eoiu e ae?. iaaaniuo oae)

Ii nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi, ?acaeoea aacaeeciaiiie aainoa?u, o.a.
iaiei/ee, ia?aciaaiiie .aauanoaii Caiee, i?ienoiaeeei ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo
nouanoaiaaiey iaoae ieaiaou, ieeeea?aeu eao iacaae. Eciaiaiey iaeeea
Caiee auee naycaiu n aaieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, i?ienoiaeeaoeie a
caiiie ei?a, ia iiaa?oiinoe e a aeoaeiiuo neiyo ieaiaou e iaoiaeeee
i?iyaeaiea a ecaa?aeaieyo aoeeaiia, caieao?ynaieyo, iiaeaeaeeao caiiie
ei?u, ai?iia?aciaaiee. Oaeea i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeyo e nae/an ia
aacaeeciaiiuo ieaiaoao nieia/iie nenoaiu e eo niooieeao – Ia?na, Aaia?a,
Eoia.

N aicieeiiaaieai aeecie (naii?acaeaathueony onoie/eauo oi?i) nia/aea
iaaeeaiii e neaai, caoai ana auno?aa e cia/eoaeueiaa noaei i?iyaeyoueny
aeeyiea aeeaie iaoa?ee ia aaieiae/aneea i?ioeannu Caiee.

Aeayoaeueiinoue aeeaiai aauanoaa, i?iieeoaai ai ana oaieee ieaiaou,
i?eaaea e aicieeiiaaieth iiaiai ia?aciaaiey – aeinoa?u – oanii
acaeiinaycaiiie aaeeiie nenoaiu aaieiae/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo oae e
i?ioeannia i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee e aauanoaa. ?acia?u i?aia?aciaaiee,
inouanoaeyaiuo aeeaie iaoa?eae, aeinoeaee ieaiaoa?iuo ianooaaia,
nouanoaaiii aeaeieciaiea iaeee e yaiethoeeth Caiee.

Oae, iai?eia?, a ?acoeueoaoa i?ioeanna oioineioaca – aeayoaeueiinoe
caeaiuo ?anoaiee, ia?aciaaeny nia?aiaiiue aaciaue ninoaa aoiinoa?u, a
iae iiyaeeny eenei?iae. A naith i/a?aaeue ia aeoeaiinoue oioineioaca
nouanoaaiii aeeyao eiioeaio?aoeey oaeaeeneiai aaca a aoiinoa?a, iaee/ea
aeaae e oaiea.

Ii/aa yaeyaony oeaeeeii ?acoeueoaoii aeayoaeueiinoe aeeaiai aauanoaa a
einiie (iaaeeaie) n?aaea. ?aoathuay ?ieue a yoii i?ioeanna i?eiaaeeaaeeo
eeeiaoo, oiiia?aoee, aeayoaeueiinoe iee?ii?aaieciia e ?anoaiee e
iaoa?eineei ii?iaeai. Aeinoa?a, aicieeioa e noi?ie?iaaaoenue 1-2 ie?ae.
eao iacaae (e yoiio a?aiaie ioiinyony ia?aua iaia?oaeaiiua inoaoee
aeeauo i?aaieciia), iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii aeeiaie/aneii ?aaiiaanee e
?acaeoee[2].

A aeinoa?a, eae a ethaie yeinenoaia, i?ienoiaeeo e?oaiai?io aiaeu,
ieaiaoa?iua ia?aiauaiey aicaeooiuo iann, a oaeaea aeieiae/aneee
e?oaiai?io, oa?aeoa?ecothueeny aieinoueth – eiee/anoaii oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia, iaoiaeyoeony iaeiia?aiaiii a ninoaaa aeeaiai aauanoaa a
aeaiiie yeinenoaia, e nei?inoueth – eiee/anoaii aeeaiai aauanoaa,
ia?acothuaainy e ?aceaaathuaainy a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie. A ?acoeueoaoa ia
Caiea iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aieueoie aaieiae/aneee e?oaiai?io aauanoa, aaea
aeey eaaeaeiai yeaiaioa oa?aeoa?ia naiy nei?inoue iea?aoeee a aieueoeo e
iaeuo oeeeeao. Nei?inoe anao oeeeeia ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia a aeinoa?a
oaniaeoei ia?acii nii?yaeaiu iaaeaeo niaie[1].

Onoaiiaeaoeany ca iiiaea ieeeeiiu eao e?oaiai?iou yia?aee e aauanoaa a
aeinoa?a naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathony a aeiaaeueiuo ianooaaao, oioy eieaeueiua
(ianoiua) eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u e iniaaiiinoae ioaeaeueiuo yeinenoai
(aeiaaioeaiicia), ninoaaeythueo aeinoa?o, iiaoo auoue cia/eoaeueiuie.

Aua ia ?aiieo yoaiao yaiethoeee aeeaia aauanoai ?ani?ino?aieeinue ii
aacaeeciaiiui i?ino?ainoaai ieaiaou, caieiay ana iioaioeeaeueii
aeinooiiua aeey aeecie ianoa, eciaiyy eo e i?aa?auay a ianoa iaeoaiey. E
oaea a ae?aaiea a?aiaia ?acee/iua aeeciaiiua oi?iu e aeaeu ?anoaiee,
aeeaioiuo, iee?ii?aaieciia, a?eaia caiyee anth ieaiaoo. AEeaia
i?aaie/aneia aauanoai, iiaeii iaeoe e a aeoaeiao ieaaia, e ia aa?oeiao
naiuo aunieeo ai?, e a aa/iuo niaaao I?eiiey?uey, e a ai?y/eo aiaeao
enoi/ieeia aoeeaie/aneeo ?aeiiia.

Oaeoth niiniaiinoue e ?ani?ino?aiaieth aeeaiai aauanoaa A.E.Aa?iaaeneee
iacaae «anthaeiinoueth aeecie»[2].

Yaiethoeey aeinoa?u oea ii iooe oneiaeiaiey no?oeoo?u aeieiae/aneeo
niiauanoa, oiiiaeaiey /enea aeaeia e niaa?oainoaiaaiey eo
i?eniiniaeyaiinoe. Yaiethoeeiiiue i?ioeann nii?iaiaeaeaeny oaaee/aieai
yooaeoeaiinoe i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee e aauanoaa aeieiae/aneeie
nenoaiaie: i?aaieciaie, iiioeyoeeyie, niiauanoaaie.

Aa?oeiie yaiethoeee aeeaiai ia Caiea yaeeny /aeiaae, eioi?ue eae
aeieiae/aneee aeae ia iniiaa iiiai/eneaiiuo eciaiaiee i?eia?ae ia
oieueei niciaiea (niaa?oaiioth oi?io ioia?aaeaiey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a),
ii e niiniaiinoue ecaioaaeeaaoue e eniieueciaaoue a naiae aeecie i?oaeey
o?oaea.

Iin?aaenoaii i?oaeee o?oaea /aeiaa/anoai noaei nicaeaaaoue oaeoe/anee
eneonnoaaiioth n?aaeo naiaai iaeoaiey (iinaeaiey, aeeeeua, iaeaaeaeo,
i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, iaoeiu e iiiaia ae?oaia). N yoeo ii? yaiethoeey
aeinoa?u anooieea a iiaoth oaco, aaea /aeiaa/aneee oaeoi? noae iiuiie
i?e?iaeiie aeaeaeouae neeie.

Aeinoa?a e /aeiaae. Iiinoa?a.

Oa?iei «iiinoa?a» aue i?aaeeiaeai a1927 aiaeo o?aioeocneei iaoaiaoeeii e
oeeinioii Y.Ea?oa. «Noos» – ae?aaiaa?a/aneia iacaaiea /aeiaa/aneiai
?acoia[3].

Ia?aay nicaeaiiay /aeiaaeii eoeueoo?a-iaeaieeo (eaiaiiue aae) –
i?iaeieaeaeanue i?eia?ii 20-30 ouny/ eao. Iia niaiaaeaea n aeeeoaeueiui
ia?eiaeii ieaaeaiaiey. Yeiiiie/aneie iniiaie aeecie /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa auea ioioa ia e?oiiuo aeeaioiuo: aeaai?iaeiiai e naaa?iiai
ieaiy, oa?noenoiai iini?iaa, inea, eioaaeue, iaiiioa, oo?a. Ia noiyieao
/aeiaaea eaiaiiiai aaea iaoiaeyo iiiai/eneaiiua einoe aeeeeo aeeaioiuo –
naeaeaoaeuenoai oniaoiie ioiou. Eioaineaiia eno?aaeaiea e?oiiuo
o?aaiyaeiuo aeeaioiuo i?eaaei e n?aaieoaeueii auno?iio nie?auaieth eo
/eneaiiinoe e en/aciiaaieth iiiaeo aeaeia. Anee iaeeea o?aaiyaeiua iiaee
ainiieieoue iioa?e io i?aneaaeiaaiey ioioieeaie aunieie
?iaeaeaaiinoueth, oi e?oiiua aeeaioiua a neeo yaiethoeeiiiie enoi?ee
auee eeoaiu yoie aiciiaeiinoe. Aeiiieieoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe aicieeee
aneaaenoaea eciaiaiey i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee a eiioea iaeaieeoa. 10-12 ouny/
eao iacaae ianooieei ?aceia iioaieaiea, ionooiee eaaeiee, eana
?ani?ino?aieeenue a Aa?iia, auia?ee e?oiiua aeeaioiua. Yoi nicaeaei
iiaua oneiaey aeecie, ?ac?ooeei neiaeeaoothny yeiiiie/aneoth aaco
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. Caeii/eeny ia?eiae aai ?acaeoey,
oa?aeoa?eciaaaoeeny oieueei eniieueciaaieai ieue, o.a. /enoi
iio?aaeoaeueneei ioiioaieai e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea.

A neaaeothuoth yiioo – yiioo iaieeoa (iiaue eaiaiiue aae) – ia?yaeo n
ioioie, ?uaiie eiaeae e niae?aoaeuenoaii ana aieueoaa cia/aiea
i?eia?aoaao i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa ieue. Aeaeathony ia?aua iiiuoee
iaeiiaoieaaiey aeeaioiuo e ?acaaaeaiey ?anoaiee, ca?iaeaeaaony
i?iecaiaenoai ea?aieee. Oaea 9-10 ouny/ eao iacaae nouanoaiaaee
iinaeaiey, n?aaee inoaoeia eioi?uo iaia?oaeeaatho ioaieoeo, y/iaiue,
/a/aaeoeo, einoe aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo – eic, naeiae, iaaoe. ?acaeaathony
ca/aoee caieaaeaeue/aneiai e neioiaiae/aneiai oicyenoaa. Oe?iei
eniieuecoaony iaiiue e aeey oie/oiaeaiey ?anoeoaeueiinoe a oneiaeyo
iiaena/iiai caieaaeaeey, e eae n?aaenoai ioiou. Ia/eiaaony inaiaiea
ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia, ca?iaeaeaaony iaoaeeo?aey.

Aicieeiiaaiea aio?iiioeaiicia.

?ino ianaeaiey, ea/anoaaiiue nea/ie a ?acaeoee iaoee e oaoieee ca
iineaaeiea aeaa noieaoey, e iniaaiii a iaoe aeie, i?eaaee e oiio, /oi
aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea noaea oaeoi?ii ieaiaoa?iiai ianooaaa,
iai?aaeythuae neeie aeaeueiaeoae yaiethoeee aeinoa?u. Aicieeee
aio?iiioeaiicu (io a?a/aneiai anthropos – /aeiaae, koinos – iauee,
iauiinoue) – niiauanoaa i?aaieciia, a eioi?uo /aeiaae yaeyaony
aeiieie?othuei aeaeii, a aai aeayoaeueiinoue-ii?aaeaeythuae ninoiyiea
anae nenoaiu. A.E.Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae, /oi aeeyiea iao/iie iunee e
/aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea iaoneiaeee ia?aoiae aeinoa?u a iiaia ninoiyiea –
iiinoa?o (noa?o ?acoia)[3]. Nae/an /aeiaa/anoai eniieuecoao aeey naieo
ioaeae ana aieueooth /anoue oa??eoi?ee ieaiaou e ana aieueoea eiee/anoaa
ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia.

4.3. I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu e eo eniieueciaaiea.

Aeieiae/aneea, a oii /enea ieuaaua, ?ano?nu ieaiaou iaoneaaeeaatho
aiciiaeiinoe aeecie /aeiaaea ia Caiea, a ieia?aeueiua e yia?aaoe/aneea
neoaeao iniiaie iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa.
N?aaee i?e?iaeiuo aiaaonoa ieaiaou ?acee/atho en/a?iaaiua e
iaen/a?iaaiua ?ano?nu.

Iaen/a?iaaiua ?ano?nu.

Iaen/a?iaaiua ?ano?nu iiae?acaeaeythony ia einie/aneea, eeeiaoe/aneea e
aiaeiua. Yoi yia?aey nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee, ii?neeo aiei, aao?a. N o/aoii
ia?iiiie iannu aicaeooiie e aiaeiie n?aaeu ieaiaou iaen/a?iaaiuie
n/eoatho aoiinoa?iue aicaeoo e aiaeo. Auaeaeaiea yoi ioiineoaeueii.
Iai?eia?, i?anioth aiaeo oaea iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae ?ano?n
en/a?iaaiue. iineieueeo ai iiiaeo ?aaeiiao caiiiai oa?a aiciee ino?ue
aeaoeoeeo aiaeu. Iiaeii aiai?eoue e i ia?aaiiia?iinoe aa ?ani?aaeaeaiey,
e iaaiciiaeiinoe aa eniieueciaaiey ec-ca caa?yciaiey. Oneiaii n/eoatho e
eenei?iae aoiinoa?u iaen/a?iaaiui ?ano?nii.

Nia?aiaiiua o/aiua-yeieiae iieaaatho, /oi i?e nia?aiaiiii o?iaia
oaoiieiaee eniieueciaaiey aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa e aiaeu yoei ?ano?nu
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae iaen/a?iaaiua oieueei i?e ?ac?aaioea e
?aaeecaoeee e?oiiiianooaaiuo i?ia?aii, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ainnoaiiaeaiea eo
ea/anoaa[3].

En/a?iaaiua ?ano?nu.

En/a?iaaiua ?ano?nu aeaeyony ia aiciaiiaeyaiua e iaaiciaiiaeyaiua.

E aiciaiiaeyaiui ioiinyony ?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue ie?, ieiaei?iaeea
ii/a. Ec /enea ainiieiyaiuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia aieueooth ?ieue a aeecie
/aeiaaea ea?aao ean. Ean eiaao iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea eae aaia?aoe/aneee
e yeieiae/aneee oaeoi?. Eana i?aaeioa?auatho y?iceth ii/au,
caaea?aeeaatho iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu, o.a. neoaeao aeaaiiaeiieoaeyie,
niinianoaotho iiaeaea?aeaieth o?iaiy a?oioiauo aiae. A eanao iaeoatho
aeeaioiua, i?aaenoaaeythuea iaoa?eaeueioth e ynoaoe/aneoth oeaiiinoue
aeey /aeiaaea: eiiuoiua, iooiua caa?e e aee/ue. A iaoae no?aia eana
caieiatho ieiei 30% anae aa nooe e yaeythony iaeiei ec i?e?iaeiuo
aiaaonoa.

E iaainiieieiui ?ano?nai ioiinyony iieaciua eneiiaaiua. Eo
eniieueciaaiea /aeiaaeii ia/aeinue a yiioo iaieeoa. Ia?auie iaoaeeaie,
eioi?ua iaoee i?eiaiaiea, auee naii?iaeiua cieioi e iaaeue. Aeiauaaoue
?oaeu, niaea?aeauea iaaeue, ieiai, na?aa?i, naeiaoe oiaee oaea ca 4000
eao aei i.y. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy /aeiaae aiaeae a noa?o naiae i?iiuoeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aiaeaaeathuoth /anoue ecaanoiuo ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia.
Anee ia ca?a oeeaeeecaoeee /aeiaae eniieueciaae aeey naieo ioaeae anaai
ieiei 20 oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia, a ia/aea XX aaea – ieiei 60, oi nae/an
aieaa 100 – ii/oe anth oaaeeoeo Iaiaeaeaaaa. Aaeaaiaeii aeiauaaaony
(ecaeaeaaony ec aainoa?u) ieiei 100 ie?ae. o ?oaeu, oiieeaa,
ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e enoiuaieth yoeo ?ano?nia[2]. Ec
caiiuo iaae? ecaeaeaaony ana aieueoa ?acee/iuo ?oae, eaiaiiiai oaey,
iaooe e aaca. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iiaa?oiinoe
Caiee ?aniaoaia eee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii
ieoeueoo?aiiua ianoaeua aeey aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo. ?acaeoea
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneiai oicyenoaa iio?aaiaaei aieueoeo ieiuaaeae
aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa ai?iaeia, i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ?ac?aaioee
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, nii?oaeaiey eiiioieeaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii e
ianoiyuaio a?aiaie /aeiaaeii i?aia?aciaaii ieiei 20% nooe[3].

Cia/eoaeueiua ieiuaaee iiaa?oiinoe nooe eneeth/aiu ec oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea aneaaenoaea iaeiieaiey ia iae i?iiuoeaiiuo
iooiaeia e iaaiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?aeiiia, aaea aaaeaony
?ac?aaioea e aeiau/a iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo.

*aeiaae anaaaea eniieueciaae ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo a iniiaiii eae
enoi/iee ?ano?nia, iaeiaei, a oa/aiea i/aiue aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie aai
aeayoaeueiinoue ia ieacuaaea caiaoiiai aeeyiey ia aeinoa?o. Eeoue a
eiioea i?ioeiai noieaoey eciaiaiey aeinoa?u iiae aeeyieai oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia?aoeee ia naay aieiaiea o/aiuo. Yoe eciaiaiey ia?anoaee
e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?ooeeenue ia /aeiaa/aneoth oeeaeeecaoeeth.
No?aiynue e oeo/oaieth oneiaee naiae aeecie /aeiaa/anoai iinoiyiii
ia?aueaaao oaiiu iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ia caaeoiuaaynue i
iineaaenoaeyo. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea aieueoay /anoue acyouo io i?e?iaeu
?ano?nia aica?auaaony ae a aeaea iooiaeia, /anoi yaeiaeouo eee ia
i?eaiaeiuo aeey ooeeecaoeee. Yoi i?eiineo oa?ico e nouanoaiaaieth
aeinoa?u, e naiiai /aeiaaea[2].

4.4. I?aaeaeu onoie/eainoe.

Aieueoeinoai i?ioeannia, iaiythueo a oa/aiea aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie eee
iaoae ieaiaou, ?anniao?eaaee ?aiaa eae /enoi oece/aneea, oeie/aneea eee
oece/aneea yaeaiey (?aciua, ?anoai?aiea, inaaeaeaiea, aeae?ieec e o.i.).
Aeinoa?ie A.E.Aa?iaaeneee iacaae oo iaeanoue iaoae ieaiaou, a eioi?ie
nouanoaoao eee eiaaea-ieaoaeue nouanoaiaaea aeeciue e eioi?ay iinoiyiii
iiaeaa?aaaony eee iiaeaa?aaeanue aicaeaenoaeth aeeauo i?aaieciia.[1]

O/anoea eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai i?aaiecia a aaieiae/aneie enoi?ee Caiee
ie/oiaeii iaei. Iaeiaei aeeauo nouanoa ia Caiea aaneiia/ii iiiai, iie
iaeaaeatho aunieei iioaioeeaeii ?aciiiaeaiey, aeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaotho
ni n?aaeie iaeoaiey e a eiia/iii n/aoa i?aaenoaaeytho a naiae
niaieoiiinoe iniaue, aeiaaeueiuo ianooaaia oaeoi?, i?aia?acothuee
aa?oiea iaiei/ee Caiee.

Cia/aiea i?aaieciia iaoneiaeaii eo ?aciiia?aceai, iianaianoiui
?ani?ino?aiaieai, aeeeoaeueiinoueth nouanoaiaaiey a enoi?ee Caiee,
ecae?aoaeueiui oa?aeoa?ii aeioeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e eneeth/eoaeueii
aunieie oeie/aneie aeoeaiinoueth ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie eiiiiiaioaie
i?e?iaeu.

Iniaie eaoaai?eae yaeyaony aeieiniia aauanoai. Aa?iaaeneee ienae, /oi
iii “nicaeaaony a aeinoa?a iaeiia?aiaiii aeeauie i?aaieciaie e einiuie
i?ioeannaie, i?aaenoaaeyy nenoaiu aeeiaie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney oao e
ae?oaeo”.[1] I?aaieciu a aeieiniii aauanoaa ea?atho aaaeouoth ?ieue.
Aeieiniia aauanoai ieaiaou – yoi ii/au, ei?a auaao?eaaiey, ana
i?e?iaeiua aiaeu, naienoaa, eioi?ua caaenyo io aeayoaeueiinoe ia Caiea
aeeaiai aauanoaa. Aeinoa?a – yoi oa iaeanoue Caiee, eioi?ay iiaeao
auoue ioaa/aia aeeyieai aeeaiai aauanoaa. N nia?aiaiiuo iiceoeee
aeinoa?o ?anniao?eaatho eae iaeaieaa e?oiioth yeinenoaio ieaiaou,
iiaeaea?aeeaathuoth aeiaaeueiue e?oaiai?io aauanoa.

Aeinoa?a aunooiaao eae ia?iiiay, /?acau/aeii neiaeiay yeinenoaia,
?aaioathuay a noaoeeiia?iii ?aaeeia ia iniiaa oiieie ?aaoeyoeee anao
ninoaaeythueo aa /anoae e i?ioeannia.

Noaaeeueiinoue aeinoa?u iniiauaaaony ia aunieii ?aciiia?acee aeeauo
i?aaieciia, ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu eioi?uo auiieiytho ?acee/iua ooieoeee a
iiaeaea?aeaiee iauaai iioiea aauanoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiee yia?aee, ia
oaniaeoai ia?aieaoaiee e acaeiinayce aeiaaiiuo e aaeiaaiiuo
i?ioeannia, ia niaeaniauaaiee oeeeeia ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia e
o?aaiiaaoeaaiee aieinoe ioaeaeueiuo ?aca?aoa?ia. A aeinoa?a aeaenoaotho
neiaeiua nenoaiu ia?aoiuo naycae e caaeneiinoae.

Eae iieacuaatho enneaaeiaaiey, ii e?aeiae ia?a iineaaeiea 600 iei. eao,
ia/eiay n Eaia?ey, oa?aeoa? iniiaiuo e?oaiai?ioia ia Caiea nouanoaaiii
ia iaiyeny. Inouanoaeyeenue ooiaeaiaioaeueiua aaioeie/aneea i?ioeannu,
oa?aeoa?iua e aeey nia?aiaiiie yiioe: iaeiieaiea eenei?iaea, naycuaaiea
eia?oiiai iao?ey, inaaeaeaiea eaeueoeey, ia?aciaaiea e?aiienouo
neaioeaa, ioeiaeaiea aeaeaciuo e ia?aaioeaauo ?oae, noeueoeaeiuo
ieia?aeia, iaeiieaiea oinoi?a e o. ae. Iaiyeenue eeoue nei?inoe yoeo
i?ioeannia. Ii-aeaeeiiio, ia iaiyeny nouanoaaiii e iauee iioie aoiiia,
aiaeaeaaiuo a aeeaua i?aaieciu. Anoue iniiaaiea n/eoaoue, /oi ianna
aeeaiai aauanoaa inoaaaeanue i?eaeeceoaeueii iinoiyiiie, ia/eiay n
ea?aiia, o.a. aeinoa?a n oao ii? iiaeaea?aeeaaao naay a ii?aaeaeaiiii
?aaeeia e?oaiai?ioia. Noaaeeueiia ninoiyiea aeinoa?u iaoneiaeaii a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeayoaeueiinoueth naiiai aeeaiai aauanoaa,
iaania/eaathuaai ii?aaeaeaiioth nei?inoue oeenaoeee nieia/iie yia?aee e
aeiaaiiie iea?aoeee aoiiia. Oaeei ia?acii, aeeciue ia Caiea naia
noaaeeece?oao oneiaey naiaai nouanoaiaaiey, /oi aeaao ae aiciiaeiinoue
?acaeaaoueny aaneiia/ii aeieai.[1]

Iaeiaei noaaeeueiinoue aoiinoa?u eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeaeu, e
ia?ooaiea aa ?aaoeyoi?iuo aiciiaeiinoae /?aaaoi na?ueaciuie
iineaaenoaeyie.

Aunooiay eae aaaeiaeoee aaaio naycuaaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey ia
iiaa?oiinoe Caiee einie/aneie yia?aee, aeeaia aauanoai auiieiyao oai
naiui ooieoeeth einie/aneiai cia/aiey.

Iaeiaei a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia Caiea iiyaeeanue iiaay neea, ii iiuiinoe
aicaeaenoaey ia onooiathuay noiia?iiio aeaenoaeth aeeauo i?aaieciia –
/aeiaa/anoai n aai nioeeaeueiuie caeiiaie ?acaeoey e iiuiie oaoieeie,
iicaieythuae aeeyoue ia aaeiaie oiae aeinoa?iuo i?ioeannia. Nia?aiaiiia
/aeiaa/anoai eniieuecoao ia oieueei ia?iiiua yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu
aeinoa?u, ii e iaaeinoa?iua enoi/ieee yia?aee (iai?eia?, aoiiiie),
onei?yy aaioeie/aneea i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeu. Iaeioi?ua i?ioeannu,
aucaaiiua oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea, iai?aaeaiu
i?ioeaiiieiaeii ii ioiioaieth e anoanoaaiiiio oiaeo eo a aeinoa?a
(?annaeaaiea iaoaeeia, ?oae, oaea?iaea e ae?. aeiaaiiuo yeaiaioia,
oi?iiaeaiea ieia?aeecaoeee e aoieoeeaoeee, inaiaiaeaeaiea
caeiina?ae?iaaiiiai oaea?iaea e aai ieeneaiea, ia?ooaiea
e?oiiiianooaaiuo i?ioeannia a aoiinoa?a, aeeythueo ia eeeiao e o.i.).[1]

Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae aiciiaeiui aiai?eoue aeaaea ia aaoio?ioiie ?iee
/aeiaaea, iiieiay iiae yoei aic?anoathuea ianooaau eneonnoaaiiiai
neioaca i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, /anoi aeaaea ia eiathueo aiaeiaia a aeeaie
i?e?iaea.[1]

Nia?aiaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea ai iiiaii iaianea iai?aaeaeaeaiiue
oua?a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, /oi a eiia/iii eoiaa oa?iaeaao aeaeueiaeoaio
?acaeoeth naiiai /aeiaa/anoaa. Yoe eciaiaiey ia aeaiiii yoaia aua ia
yaeythony iaiii?aaeiuie. Iiyoiio iaeia ec caaea/ nia?aiaiiie yeieiaee –
yoi eco/aiea ?aaoeyoi?iuo i?ioeannia a aeinoa?a, nicaeaiea iao/iiai
ooiaeaiaioa aa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey. Iniiaiua caeiiu
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeinoa?u oaea au?eniauaathony, ii i?aaenoieo aua
iiiaia naeaeaoue iauaaeeiaiiuie oneeeyie yeieiaia anao no?ai ie?a.

4.5. Aeii?iaeoeoeaiinoue yeinenoai.

Nei?inoue, n eioi?ie i?iaeooeaiou yeinenoaiu oeene?otho nieia/ioth
yia?aeth a oeie/aneeo naycyo neioace?oaiiai i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa,
ii?aaeaeyao i?iaeoeoeaiinoue niiauanoa. I?aaie/aneoth ianno,
nicaeaaaaioth ?anoaieyie ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie, iacuaatho ia?ae/iie
i?iaeoeoeeae niiauanoaa. I?iaeoeoeeth au?aaeatho eiee/anoaaiii a nu?ie
eee nooie ianna ?anoaiee eeai a yia?aaoe/aneeo aaeeieoeao –
yeaeaaeaioiii /enea aeaeioeae[1].

Aaeiaay ia?ae/iay i?iaeoeoeey – eiee/anoai aauanoaa, nicaeaaaaiiai
?anoaieyie ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie i?e aeaiiie nei?inoe oioineioaca. *anoue
yoie i?iaeoeoeee eaeao ia iiaeaea?aeaiea aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe naieo
?anoaiee (o?aou ia aeuoaiea). Yoa /anoue iiaeao auoue aeinoaoi/ii
aieueoie, iia ninoaaeyao io 40 aei 70% aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Inoaaoayny
/anoue nicaeaiiie i?aaie/aneie iannu oa?aeoa?ecoao /enooth ia?ae/ioth
i?iaeoeoeeth, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaee/eio i?e?inoa ?anoaiee,
yia?aaoe/aneee ?aca?a aeey eiinoiaioia e ?aaeooeaioia. Ia?a?aaaouaaynue
a oeaiyo ieoaiey, iia eaeao ia iiiieiaiea iannu aaoa?io?ioiuo
i?aaieciia. I?e?ino ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie iannu eiinoiaioia – yoi
aoi?e/iay i?iaeoeoeey niiauanoaa. Aa au/eneytho ioaeaeueii aeey
eaaeaeiai o?ioe/aneiai o?iaiy, o.e. i?e?ino iannu ia eaaeaeii ec ieo
i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao yia?aee, iinooiathuae n i?aaeuaeouaai. Aaoa?io?iou,
aeeth/aynue a o?ioe/aneea oeaie, aeeaoo a eiia/iii eoiaa ca n/ao /enoie
ia?ae/iie i?iaeoeoeee niiauanoaa. A ?aciuo yeinenoaiao iie ?anoiaeotho
a? n ?aciie iieiioie. Anee nei?inoue ia?ae/iie i?iaeoeoeee a oeaiyo
ieoaiey ionoaao io oaiiia i?e?inoa ?anoaiee, oi yoi aaaeao e
iinoaiaiiiio oaaee/aieth iauae aeiiannu i?iaeooeaioia. Iiae aeiiannie
iiieiatho noiia?ioth ianno i?aaieciia aeaiiie a?oiiu eee anaai
niiauanoaa a oeaeii. *anoi aeiianno au?aaeatho a yeaeaaeaioiuo
yia?aaoe/aneeo aaeeieoeao.

Iaaeinoaoi/iay ooeeecaoeey i?iaeoeoia iiaaea a oeaiyo ?aceiaeaiey eiaao
neaaenoaeai iaeiieaiea i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa, /oi i?ienoiaeeo,
iai?eia?, i?e caoi?oiauaaiee aieio, ca?anoaiee iaeeiaiaeiuo aiaeiaiia.
Aeiianna niiauanoaa n o?aaiiaaoaiiui e?oaiai?ioii aauanoa inoaaony
ioiineoaeueii iinoiyiiie, o.e. i?aeoe/anee any ia?ae/iay i?iaeoeoeey
o?aoeony a oeaeyo ieoaiey e ?aciiiaeaiey[1].

Aaaeiaeoei i?aeoe/aneei ?acoeueoaoii yia?aaoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea e
eco/aieth yeinenoai yaeeinue inouanoaeaiea enneaaeiaaiee ii
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeieiae/aneie i?ia?aiia, i?iaiaeeaoeony o/aiuie ?aciuo
no?ai ie?a ia/eiay n 1969 aiaea a oeaeyo eco/aiey iioaioeeaeueiie
aeieiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe Caiee.

Ie?iaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ia?ae/iie aeieiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee e?aeia
ia?aaiiia?ii. Naiue aieueoie aaniethoiue i?e?ino ?anoeoaeueiiai ie?a
aeinoeaaao a n?aaeiai 25 a a aeaiue a i/aiue aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo. Ia
aieueoeo ieiuaaeyo i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ia i?aauoaao 0,1 a/i (aea?eea
ionouie e iiey?iua ionouie). Iauay aiaeiaay i?iaeoeoeey nooiai
i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa ia Caiea ninoaaeyao 150-200 ie?ae. oiii. Ieiei
o?aoe aai ia?acoaony a ieaaiao, ieiei aeaoo o?aoae – ia nooa. Ii/oe any
/enoay ia?ae/iay i?iaeoeoeey Caiee neoaeeo aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeecie
anao aaoa?io?ioiuo i?aaieciia. Yia?aey, iaaeieniieueciaaiiay
eiinoiaioaie, caianaaony a eo oaeao, i?aaie/aneeo inaaeeao aiaeiaiia e
aoiina ii/a.

Yooaeoeaiinoue naycuaaiey ?anoeoaeueiinoueth nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee
nieaeaaony i?e iaaeinoaoea oaiea e aeaae, i?e iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oece/aneeo
e oeie/aneeo naienoaao ii/au e o.i. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue ?anoeoaeueiinoe
eciaiyaony ia oieueei i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiie eeeiaoe/aneie ciiu e
ae?oaie, ii e a i?aaeaeao eaaeaeie ciiu.

Aeey iyoe eiioeiaioia ie?a n?aaeiyy i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ?acee/aaony
n?aaieoaeueii iaei. Eneeth/aieai yaeyaony THaeiay Aia?eea, ia aieueoae
/anoe eioi?ie oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey ?anoeoaeueiinoe i/aiue
aeaaii?eyoiua.

Ieoaiea ethaeae iaania/eaaaony a iniiaiii naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie
eoeueoo?aie, caieiathueie i?eaeeceoaeueii 10% ieiuaaee nooe (ieiei 1,4
ie?ae. aa). Iauee aiaeiaie i?e?ino eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee ninoaaeyao ieiei
16% io anae i?iaeoeoeaiinoe nooe, aieueoay /anoue eioi?ie i?eoiaeeony ia
eana. I?eaeeceoaeueii 1/2 o?iaeay eaeao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ieoaiea
ethaeae, inoaeueiay /anoue – ia ei?i aeiiaoiei aeeaioiui, eniieuecoaony
a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oa?yaony a ioa?inao. Anaai /aeiaae iio?aaeyao ieiei
0,2% ia?ae/iie i?iaeoeoeee Caiee.

?anoeoaeueiay ieua iaoiaeeony aeey ethaeae yia?aaoe/anee aeaoaaea, /ai
aeeaioiay. Naeueneioicyenoaaiiua ieiuaaee i?e ?aoeeiiaeueiii
eniieueciaaiee e ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?iaeoeoeee iiaee au iaania/eoue
i?eia?ii aaeaia aieueoaa ianaeaiea Caiee, /ai nouanoaothuaa. Ii yoi
o?aaoao aieueoeo cao?ao o?oaea e eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. Iniaaiii o?oaeii
iaania/eoue ianaeaiea aoi?e/iie i?iaeoeoeeae. A ?aoeeii /aeiaaea
aeieaeii aoiaeeoue ia iaiaa 30 a aaeeia a aeaiue. Eiathueany ia Caiea
?ano?nu, aeeth/ay i?iaeoeoeeth aeeaioiiaiaenoaa e ?acoeueoaou i?iiunea
ia nooa e a ieaaia, iiaoo iaania/eoue aaeaaiaeii ieiei 50% iio?aaiinoae
nia?aiaiiiai ianaeaiey Caiee. Aieueoay /anoue ianaeaiey Caiee
iaoiaeeony, oaeei ia?acii, a ninoiyiee aaeeiaiai aieiaeaiey, a
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ethaeae no?aaeaao oaeaea e io iauaai
iaaeiaaeaiey[1].

Oaeei ia?acii, oaaee/aiea aeii?iaeoeoeaiinoe yeinenoai, e iniaaiii
aoi?e/iie i?iaeoeoeee, yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo caaea/, noiyueo
ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii.

5. Aio?iiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey ia aeinoa?o.

5.1. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.

Aeiaaeueiua i?ioeannu ia?aciaaiey e aeaeaeaiey aeeaiai aauanoaa a
aeinoa?a naycaiu e nii?iaiaeaeathony e?oaiai?ioii aauanoaa e yia?aee. A
ioee/ea io /enoi aaieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia aeiaaioeie/aneea oeeeeu n
o/anoeai aeeaiai aauanoaa eiatho cia/eoaeueii aieaa aunieea
eioaineaiinoue, nei?inoue e eiee/anoai aiaea/aiiiai a iai?io aauanoaa.

N iiyaeaieai e ?acaeoeai /aeiaa/anoaa i?ioeann yaiethoeee caiaoii
aeaeieciaieeny. Ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo oeeaeeecaoeee au?oaea e auaeeaaiea
eania aeey caieaaeaeey, auian neioa, i?iiunae e ioioa ia aeeeeo
aeeaioiuo, aieiu iionoioaee oeaeua ?aaeiiu, i?eaiaeeee e ?ac?ooaieth
?anoeoaeueiuo niiauanoa, eno?aaeaieth ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia aeeaioiuo. Ii
ia?a ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee, iniaaiii iinea i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee
eiioea n?aaeieo aaeia, /aeiaa/anoai iaeaaeaaaei ana aieueoae iiuueth,
ana aieueoae niiniaiinoueth aiaeaeaoue e eniieueciaaoue aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey naieo ?anooueo iio?aaiinoae ia?iiiua iannu aauanoaa –
eae i?aaie/aneiai, aeeaiai, oae e ieia?aeueiiai, einiiai.

Ianoiyuea naeaeae a aeinoa?iuo i?ioeannao ia/aeenue a XX aaea a
?acoeueoaoa i/a?aaeiie i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee. Ao?iia ?acaeoea
yia?aaoeee, iaoeiino?iaiey, oeiee, o?ainii?oa i?eaaei e oiio, /oi
/aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue noaea n?aaieia ii ianooaaai n anoanoaaiiuie
yia?aaoe/aneeie e iaoa?eaeueiuie i?ioeannaie, i?ienoiaeyueie a aeinoa?a.
Eioaineaiinoue iio?aaeaiey /aeiaa/anoaii yia?aee e iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia ?anoao i?iii?oeeiiaeueii /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey e aeaaea
iia?aaeaao aai i?e?ino. A.E.Aa?iaaeneee ienae: “*aeiaae noaiiaeony
aaieiae/aneie neeie, niiniaiie eciaieoue eee Caiee”. Yoi
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea i?i?i/anee ii?aaaeaeinue. Iineaaenoaey aio?iiiaaiiie
(i?aaei?eieiaaiie /aeiaaeii) aeayoaeueiinoe i?iyaeyaony a enoiuaiee
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, caa?yciaiey aeinoa?u iooiaeaie i?iecaiaenoaa,
?ac?ooaiee i?e?iaeiuo yeinenoai, eciaiaiee no?oeoo?u iiaa?oiinoe Caiee,
eciaiaiee eeeiaoa. Aio?iiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey i?eaiaeyo e ia?ooaieth
i?aeoe/anee anao i?e?iaeiuo aeiaaioeie/aneeo oeeeeia[1].

A niioaaonoaee n ieioiinoueth ianaeaiey iaiyaony e noaiaiue aicaeaenoaey
/aeiaaea ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo. I?e nia?aiaiiii o?iaia ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa
neacuaaaony ia aeinoa?a a oeaeii.

5.2. Aoiinoa?a – aiaoiyy iaiei/ea aeinoa?u. Caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?u.

Ianna aoiinoa?u iaoae ieaiaou ie/oiaeia – anaai eeoue iaeia ieeeeiiiay
iannu Caiee. Iaeiaei ?ieue aa a i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannao aeinoa?u ia?iiia:
iia ii?aaeaeyao iauee oaieiaie ?aaeei iiaa?oiinoe iaoae ieaiaou,
caueuaao aa io a?aaeiuo aicaeaenoaee einie/aneiai e oeueo?aoeieaoiaiai
eceo/aiee. Oee?eoeyoeey aoiinoa?u ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ianoiua
eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey, a /a?ac ieo – ia ?aaeei ?ae,
ii/aaiii-?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia, i?ioeannu ?aeueaoiia?aciaaiey.

Nia?aiaiiue ninoaa aoiinoa?u – ?acoeueoao aeeeoaeueiiai enoi?e/aneiai
?acaeoey caiiiai oa?a. Ninoaa aoiinoa?u – eenei?iae, acio, a?aii,
oaeaeeneue aac e eia?oiua aacu.

A i?ioeanna naiae aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaae caa?yciyao ie?oaeathuoth
n?aaeo. Iaae ai?iaeaie e i?iiuoeaiiuie ?aeiiaie a aoiinoa?a aic?anoaao
eiioeaio?aoeey aacia, eioi?ua iau/ii a naeueneie ianoiinoe niaea?aeaony
a i/aiue iaaieueoeo eiee/anoaao eee nianai ionoonoaotho. Caa?yciaiiue
aicaeoo a?aaeai aeey caei?iauey. E?iia oiai, a?aaeiua aacu, niaaeeiyynue
n aoiinoa?iie aeaaie e auiaaeay a aeaea eeneuo aeiaeaeae, oooaeoatho
ea/anoai ii/au e nieaeatho o?iaeae.

Ii aeaiiui o/aiuo aaeaaiaeii a ie?a a ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea a aoiinoa?o iinooiaao 25,5 ie?ae. o ieneaeia oaea?iaea, 190
iei. o ieneaeia na?u, 65 iei. o ieneaeia acioa, 1,4 iei. o o?aiiia,
i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey naeioea, oaeaaiaei?iaeu, a oii /enea
eaioea?iaaiiua, aieueoia eiee/anoai oaa?aeuo /anoeoe (iueue, eiiioue,
naaea)[3].

Aeiaaeueiia caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa neacuaaaony ia ninoiyiee
i?e?iaeiuo yeinenoai, iniaaiii caeaiiai iie?iaa iaoae ieaiaou.

Eeneioiua aeiaeaee, aucuaaaiua aeaaiui ia?acii aeeieneaeii na?u e
ieneaeaie acioa, iaiinyo ia?iiiue a?aae eaniui aeioeaiicai. Io ieo
no?aaeatho eana, iniaaiii oaieiua.

Iniiaiay i?e/eia caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u – naeeaaiea i?e?iaeiiai oiieeaa e
iaoaeeo?ae/aneia i?iecaiaenoai. Anee a XIX e ia/aea OO aaea iinooiathuea
a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo i?iaeoeou nai?aiey oaey e aeeaeeiai oiieeaa ii/oe
iieiinoueth anneieee?iaaeenue ?anoeoaeueiinoueth Caiee, oi a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy niaea?aeaiea i?iaeoeoia nai?aiey iaoeeiiii aic?anoaao. Ec ia/ae,
oiiie, auoeiiiuo o?oa aaoiiiaeeae a aicaeoo iiiaaeaao oeaeue ?yae
caa?yciythueo aauanoa. N?aaee ieo auaeaeyaony na?ienoue aiaeae?eae –
yaeiaeoue aac, eaaei ?anoai?eiue a aiaea. Eiioeaio?aoeey na?ienoiai aaca
a aoiinoa?a iniaaiii auniea a ie?anoiinoyo iaaeaieaaeeueiuo caaiaeia. Ii
aucuaaao ?ac?ooaiea oei?ioeeea, iaaei?acaeoea iueueoeaauo ca?ai,
canuoaiea e iiaaeaiea eenoueaa, oaie.

A ?acoeueoaoa naeeaaiey ?acee/iiai oiieeaa a aoiinoa?o aaeaaiaeii
aua?anuaaaony ieiei 20 ieeeea?aeia oiii oaeaeeneiai aaca. Aio?iiiaaiiua
aua?inu oaeaeeneiai aaca i?aauoatho anoanoaaiiua e ninoaaeytho a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueooth aeieth aai eiee/anoaa, ia?ooatho i?ic?a/iinoue
aoiinoa?u, a neaaeiaaoaeueii aa oaieiaie aaeain. Iieiaeia aeeieneaea
oaea?iaea, ia?acothuaainy i?e nai?aiee eneiiaaiiai oiieeaa, iiaeiuaaony
ieaaiii e caeaiuie ?anoaieyie, iieiaeia inoaaony a aicaeooa.
Niaea?aeaiea oaeaeeneiai aaca a aoiinoa?a iinoaiaiii aic?anoaao e ca
iineaaeiea 100 eao oaaee/eeanue aieaa /ai ia 10%. Oaeaeeneue aac
i?aiyonoaoao oaieiaiio eceo/aieth a einie/aneia i?ino?ainoai, nicaeaaay
oai oae iacuaaaiue «ia?ieeiaue yooaeo», o.a. oaaee/aiea n?aaeiae
oaiia?aoo?u aoiinoa?u ia ianeieueei a?aaeonia, /oi niiniaii aucaaoue
oayiea eaaeieeia iiey?iuo iaeanoae, iiauoaiea o?iaiy Ie?iaiai ieaaia,
eciaiaiea aai nieaiinoe, oaiia?aoo?u e ae?oaea iaaeaaii?eyoiua
iineaaenoaey. Oaeei ia?acii, eciaiaiea niaea?aeaiey oaeaeeneiai aaca a
aoiinoa?a a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aeeyao ia eeeiao Caiee[3].

5.3. Aiaea – iniiaa aeeciaiiuo i?ioeannia a aeinoa?a. Caa?yciaiea
i?e?iaeiuo aiae.

Aiaea – naiia ?ani?ino?aiaiiia iai?aaie/aneia niaaeeiaiea ia ieaiaoa;
aiaea – iniiaa anao aeeciaiiuo i?ioeannia, aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee
eenei?iaea a aeaaiii aeaeaeouai i?ioeanna ia Caiea – oioineioaca.

N iiyaeaieai aeecie ia Caiea e?oaiai?io aiaeu noae ioiineoaeueii
neiaeiui, o.e. e i?inoiio yaeaieth enia?aiey aeiaaaeeenue aieaa neiaeiua
i?ioeannu, naycaiiua n aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoueth aeeauo i?aaieciia,
iniaaiii /aeiaaea.

Ianooaau eniieueciaaiey aiaeiuo ?ano?nia auno?i oaaee/eaathony. Yoi
naycaii n ?inoii ianaeaiey e oeo/oaieai naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneeo oneiaee
aeecie /aeiaaea, ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?ioaaiiai caieaaeaeey.
Nooi/iia iio?aaeaiea aiaeu ia oicyenoaaiii-auoiaua ioaeaeu a naeueneie
ianoiinoe ninoaaeyao 50 e ia 1 /aeiaaea, a ai?iaeao – 150 e. Ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai aiaeu eniieuecoaony a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ia auieaaeo 1 o noaee
iaiaoiaeeii 200 i3. Ia i?iecaiaenoai 1 o aoiaae o?aaoaony 100 i3, ia
ecaioiaeaiea 1 o neioaoe/aneiai aieieia – io 2500 aei 5000 i3.
I?iiuoeaiiinoue iiaeiuaao 85% anae aiaeu, ?anoiaeoaiie a ai?iaeao,
inoaaeyy ia oicyenoaaiii-auoiaua oeaee ieiei 15%[3].

Aua aieueoa aiaeu iaiaoiaeeii aeey i?ioaiey. A oa/aiea aiaea ia 1 aa
iieeaiuo caiaeue ooiaeeo 12-14 i3 aiaeu. A iaoae no?aia aaeaaiaeii
?anoiaeoaony ia i?ioaiea aieaa 150 ei3, a oi a?aiy eae ia ana ae?oaea
ioaeaeu – ieiei 50 ei3.

I?e nio?aiaiee oaeeo oaiiia iio?aaeaiey e n o/aoii i?e?inoa ianaeaiey e
iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e 2100 aiaeo /aeiaa/anoai iiaeao en/a?iaoue ana
caianu i?aniie aiaeu[3].

Iinoiyiiia oaaee/aiea aiaeiiio?aaeaiey ia ieaiaoa aaaeao e iianiinoe
«aiaeyiiai aieiaea», /oi iaoneaaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee
ia?ii?eyoee ii ?aioaaaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth aiaeiuo ?ano?nia.

E?iia aunieiai o?iaiy ?anoiaea, iaoaaoee aiaeu aucuaaaony aa ?anoouaa
caa?yciaiea aneaaenoaea na?ina a ?aee iooiaeia i?iiuoeaiiinoe e iniaaiii
oeie/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa e eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo noi/iuo aiae.
Aaeoa?eaeueiia caa?yciaiea e yaeiaeoua oeie/aneea aauanoaa (iai?eia?,
oaiie) i?eaiaeyo e iia?oaaieth aiaeiaiia. A?aaeiua aauanoaa,
iinooiathuea a aiaeu: iaooue, iaooai?iaeoeou (a ?acoeueoaoa
iaooaaeiau/e, o?ainii?oe?iaee, ia?a?aaioee, eniieueciaaiey iaooe a
ea/anoaa oiieeaa e i?iiuoeaiiiai nu?uey), oiene/iua neioaoe/aneea
aauanoaa (i?eiaiythueany a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia o?ainii?oa, a
eiiioiaeueii-auoiaii oicyenoaa), iaoaeeu (?oooue, naeiaoe, oeeie,
iaaeue, o?ii, ieiai, ia?aaiaoe). A?aaeiua iineaaenoaey eiaao oaeaea
iieaaie nieaa eana ii ?aeai, eioi?ue /anoi nii?iaiaeaeaaony caoi?aie.

A ?aee e ica?a iinooiatho e auiuaaaiua ec ii/au aeiaeaeyie ieia?aeueiua
oaeia?aiey – ieo?aou e oinoaou, eioi?ua a aieueoeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo
niiniaiu ?acei eciaieoue aeae e ninoaa aiaei?iia, a oaeaea ?acee/iua
yaeioeieeaou – ianoeoeeaeu, eniieuecoaiua a naeueneii oicyenoaa aeey
ai?ueau n ianaeiiuie-a?aaeeoaeyie.

Iaeiei ec aeaeia caa?yciaiey yaeyaony oaieiaia caa?yciaiea
(yeaeo?inoaioeee, i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey /anoi na?anuaatho
iiaeia?aooth aiaeo a aiaeiai, /oi oiaiueoaao eiee/anoai eenei?iaea,
oaaee/eaaao oiene/iinoue i?eianae, ia?ooaao aeieiae/aneia ?aaiiaanea).
Na?in i?aaei?eyoeyie oaieuo aiae neoaeeo iaaeaaii?eyoiui oaeoi?ii aeey
ay?iaiuo i?aaieciia, iaeoathueo a i?aniuo aiaeao. A oaieie aiaea
eenei?iae ieioi ?anoai?yaony, e aai aeaoeoeeo ianoaie i?eaiaeeo iiiaea
i?aaieciu e aeaaee.

Caa?yciaiea Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

Cia/eoaeueiiio caa?yciaieth iiaeaa?aathony aiaeu ii?ae e ieaaiia. N
?a/iui noieii, a oaeaea io ii?neiai o?ainii?oa, a ii?y iinooiatho
aieaciaoai?iua iooiaeu, iaooai?iaeoeou, niee oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia,
yaeiaeoua i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, a o./. ianoeoeeaeu. AeAeO iaia?oaeai
aeaaea a i?aaiecia ieiaaeiia, iaeoathueo a Aioa?eoeaea. Caa?yciaiea
ii?ae e ieaaiia aeinoeaaao oaeeo ianooaaia, /oi a ?yaea neo/aaa
aueiaeaiiua ?uau e iieethnee ieacuaathony iai?eaiaeiuie aeey
oiio?aaeaiey a ieuo[3].

5.4. Ii/aa – aaaeiay ninoaaeythuay /anoue aeinoa?u. Caa?yciaiea ii/au.

Ii/aa – aa?oiee neie nooe, ia?acothueeny iiae aeeyieai ?anoaiee,
aeeaioiuo, iee?ii?aaieciia e eeeiaoa ec iaoa?eineeo ai?iuo ii?iae, ia
eioi?uo ii iaoiaeeony. Yoi aaaeiue e neiaeiue eiiiiiaio aeinoa?u, oanii
naycaiiue n ae?oaeie aa /anoyie[3].

A ii?iaeueiuo anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo ana i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a
ii/aa, iaoiaeyony a ?aaiiaanee. Ii ia?aaeei a ia?ooaiee ?aaiiaaniiai
ninoiyiey ii/au iiaeiai /aeiaae. A ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea i?ienoiaeeo caa?yciaiea, eciaiaiea ninoaaa ii/au
e aeaaea aa oie/oiaeaiea.

Ieiaei?iaeiue neie ii/au oi?ie?oaony i/aiue aeieai. A oi aea a?aiy
aaeaaiaeii aianoa n o?iaeaai ec ii/au ecuiathony aeanyoee ieeeeiiia oiii
acioa, eaeey, oinoi?a – aeaaiuo eiiiiiaioia ieoaiey ?anoaiee. Iniiaiie
oaeoi? ieiaei?iaeey ii/a – ia?aaiie (aoion) niaea?aeeony a /a?iicaiao a
eiee/anoaa iaiaa 5% io iannu iaoioiiai neiy. Ia aaaeiuo ii/aao ia?aaiiy
aua iaiueoa. I?e ionoonoaee iiiieiaiey ii/a niaaeeiaieyie acioa aai
caian iiaeao auoue ec?anoiaeiaai ca 50-100 eao. Yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo,
iineieueeo eoeueoo?a caieaaeaeey i?aaeoniao?eaaao aianaiea a ii/ao
i?aaie/aneeo e iai?aaie/aneeo (ieia?aeueiuo) oaeia?aiee.

Aianaiiua a ii/ao acioiua oaeia?aiey eniieuecothony ?anoaieyie ia
40-50%. Inoaeueiay /anoue (ieiei 20%) ainnoaiaaeeaaaony iee?ii?aaieciaie
aei aaciia?aciuo aauanoa – N2, N2O – e oeaoo/eaaaony a aoiinoa?a eee
auiuaaaony ec ii/au. Oaeei ia?acii, ieia?aeueiua acioiua oaeia?aiey ia
iaeaaeatho aeeeoaeueiui aeaenoaeai e iiyoiio eo i?eoiaeeony aiineoue
aaeaaiaeii. Iaaeaaii?eyoiua eciaiaiey a ii/aa ianooiatho e a ?acoeueoaoa
iai?aaeeueiuo naaiiai?ioia, o.a. aaeaaiaeiiai iinaaa iaeieo e oao aea
eoeueoo?, iai?eia? ea?oioaey. Aeeth/aiea aea a naaiiai?io aiaiauo
eoeueoo? iaiaauaao ii/ao acioii. Iinaau eeaaa?a e ethoea?iu ca n/ao
naycuaaiey N2 neiaeioe/aneeie eeoaaiueeiauie aaeoa?eyie iicaieytho
caaea?aeaoue a ii/aa aei 300 ea acioa ia 1 aa. Naaiiai?iou iaiaoiaeeiu e
aeey ai?ueau n ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiuie /a?ayie iaiaoiaeaie, eioi?ua
cia/eoaeueii nieaeatho o?iaeaeiinoue. Iai?eia?, eoeiae/ii-/anii/iua
iaiaoiaeu iiaoo nieceoue o?iaeae eoea ia 50%[3].

Caa?yciaiea ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa ?oooueth (n yaeioeieeaoaie e iooiaeaie
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee), naeioeii (i?e auieaaea naeioea e io
aaoio?ainii?oa), aeaeacii, iaaeueth, oeeieii, ia?aaioeai, ieeaeai,
aethieieai e ae?oaeie iaoaeeaie (aaeece e?oiiuo oeaio?ia /a?iie e
oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee), ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie yeaiaioaie (a ?acoeueoaoa
auiaaeaiey inaaeeia io aoiiiuo ac?uaia eee i?e oaeaeaiee aeeaeeeo e
oaa?aeuo iooiaeia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, aoiiiuo noaioeee eee
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo einoeoooia, naycaiiuo n eco/aieai e
eniieueciaaieai aoiiiie yia?aee), noieeeie i?aaie/aneeie niaaeeiaieyie,
i?eiaiyaiuie a ea/anoaa yaeioeieeaoia. Iie iaeaieeaathony a ii/aa e
aiaea e, aeaaiia, aeeth/athony a yeieiae/aneea ieuaaua oeaie: ia?aoiaeyo
ec ii/au e aiaeu a ?anoaiey, a aeeaioiuo, e a eoiaa ia?aoiaeyo a
i?aaieci /aeiaaea n ieuae. Iaoiaeia e aaneiio?ieueiia eniieueciaaiea
ethauo oaeia?aiee e yaeioeieeaoia i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth e?oaiai?ioa
aauanoa a aeinoa?a.

E /eneo aio?iiiaaiiuo eciaiaiee ii/a ioiineony y?icey (io eaoeineiai
erosio – ?acuaaeaoue). Oie/oiaeaiea eania e anoanoaaiiiai o?aayienoiai
iie?iaa, iiiaie?aoiay ?aniaoea caiee aac niaethaeaiey i?aaee aa?ioaoieee
i?eaiaeyo e y?icee ii/au – ?ac?ooaieth e niuao ieiaei?iaeiiai neiy
aiaeie e aao?ii. Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia e iaeaieaa ?ac?ooeoaeueiay
aiaeiay y?icey. Iia aicieeaao ia neeiiao e ?acaeaaaony i?e iai?aaeeueiie
ia?aaioea caiee. Aianoa n oaeuie e aeiaeaeaauie aiaeaie n iieae
aaeaaiaeii oiineony a ?aee e ii?y ieeeeiiu oiii ii/au.

Aao?iaay y?icey iaeaieaa neeueii i?iyaeyaony a thaeiuo noaiiuo ?aeiiao
iaoae no?aiu. Iia aicieeaao a ?aeiiao n nooie iaiaaeaiiie ii/aie, c
ec?aaeaiiui ?anoeoaeueiui iie?iaii. *?acia?iue auian neioa a noaiyo e
iieoionouiyo niinianoaoao aao?iaie y?icee e auno?iio ?ac?ooaieth
o?aayiiai iie?iaa. Aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey neiy ii/au oieueiie 1 ni a
anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo o?aaoaony 250-300 eao[3].

Cia/eoaeueiua oa??eoi?ee ni noi?ie?iaaiiuie ii/aaie ecuiathony ec
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa aneaaenoaea ioe?uoiai niiniaa ?ac?aaioee
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, caeaaathueo ia iaaieueoie aeoaeia.

5.5. Aeeyiea /aeiaaea ia ?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue ie?.

Aicaeaenoaea /aeiaaea ia aeeaoth i?e?iaeo neeaaeuaaaony ec i?yiiai
aeeyiey e einaaiiiai eciaiaiey i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. Iaeia ec oi?i i?yiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia ?anoaiey e aeeaioiuo – ?oaea eana. Ieacaaoenue aiacaiii
a oneiaeyo ioe?uoiai ianoiiaeoaiey, ?anoaiey ieaeieo y?onia eana
eniuouaatho iaaeaaii?eyoiia aeeyiea i?yiiai nieia/iiai eceo/aiey. O
oaieiethaeauo ?anoaiee o?aayienouo e eonoa?ie/eiauo y?onia ?ac?ooaaony
oei?ioeee, oaiaoaaony ?ino, iaeioi?ua aeaeu en/acatho. Ia ianoao au?oaie
iinaeythony naaoiethaeaua ?anoaiey, onoie/eaua e iiauoaiiie oaiia?aoo?a
e iaaeinoaoeo aeaae. Iaiyaony e aeeaioiue ie?: aeaeu, naycaiiua n
ae?aainoiai, en/acatho eee iea?e?otho a ae?oaea ianoa.

Iuooeiia aicaeaenoaea ia ninoiyiea ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa ieacuaatho
ianniaua iinauaiey eania ioaeuoathueie e oo?enoaie. A yoeo neo/ayo
a?aaeiia aeeyiea caeeth/aaony a auoaiouaaiee, oieioiaiee ii/au e a?
caa?yciaiee. Ae?aaaniua ?anoaiey canuoatho. I?yiia aeeyiea /aeiaaea ia
aeeaioiue ie? caeeth/aaony a eno?aaeaiee aeaeia, i?aaenoaaeythueo aeey
iaai ieuaaoth eee ae?oaoth iaoa?eaeueioth iieueco.

N/eoaaony, /oi n 1600 aiaea /aeiaaeii auei eno?aaeaii aieaa 160 aeaeia e
iiaeaeaeia ioeoe e ia iaiaa 100 aeaeia ieaeiieoathueo. A aeeeiiii nienea
en/acioaoeo aeaeia cia/eony oo? – aeeeee aue, aeeaoee ia oa??eoi?ee
Aa?iiu. A XVIII aaea auea eno?aaeaia iienaiiay ?onneei iaoo?aeenoii A.A.
Noaeea?ii ii?neay ei?iaa – aiaeiia ieaeiieoathuaa, ioiinyuaany e
?ac?yaeo ne?aiiauo. Iaiiiaei aieaa 100 eao iacaae en/acea aeeeay
eioaaeue oa?iai, iaeoaaoay ia thaa ?innee. Iiiaea aeaeu aeeaioiuo
iaoiaeyony ia a?aie auie?aiey eee nio?aieeenue oieueei a caiiaaaeieeao.
Oaeiaa noaeueaa aeciiia, aeanyoeaie ieeeeiiia ianaeyaoeo i?a?ee Naaa?iie
Aia?eee e coa?ia, i?aaeaea oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a eanao Aa?iiu. Ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea ii/oe iieiinoueth eno?aaeai iyoienoue ieaiue.
Oneeaiiue i?iiunae eeoiia?aciuo i?eaae ia a?aiue oie/oiaeaiey ianeieueei
aeaeia eeoia: na?iai, a?aieaiaeneiai, aieoaiai. Ia /eneaiiinoue
aeeaioiuo ieacuaaao aeeyiea e oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, ia
naycaiiay n i?iiuneii. ?acei nie?aoeeanue /eneaiiinoue onno?eeneiai
oea?a – a ?acoeueoaoa inaiaiey oa??eoi?ee a i?aaeaeao aai a?aaea e
nie?auaiey ei?iiaie aacu. A Oeoii ieaaia aaeaaiaeii iiaeaaao ianeieueei
aeanyoeia ouny/ aeaeueoeiia: a ia?eiae eiaa ?uau iie iiiaaeatho a naoe e
ia iiaoo ec ieo aua?aoueny[3].

En/aciiaaiea n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoiai /enea aeaeia aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee
iiaeao iieacaoueny ia i/aiue nouanoaaiiui. Iaeiaei aeaaiay oeaiiinoue
aeeaoueo iuia aeaeia caeeth/aaony ia a eo aaeeinoaaiiii cia/aiee.

Eaaeaeue aeae caieiaao ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi a aeioeaiica, a oeaie
ieoaiey, e caiaieoue aai ia iiaeao ieeoi. En/aciiaaiey oiai eee eiiai
aeaea aaaeao e oiaiueoaieth onoie/eainoe aeioeaiicia[3].

5.6. ?aaeeiaeoeaiia caa?yciaiea aeinoa?u.

I?iaeaia ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai caa?yciaiey aicieeea a 1945 aiaeo iinea ac?uaa
aoiiiuo aiia, na?ioaiiuo ia yiiineea ai?iaea Oe?ineio e Iaaanaee.
Eniuoaiey yaea?iiai i?oaeey, i?iecaiaeeiia a aoiinoa?a, aucaaee
aeiaaeueiia ?aaeeiaeoeaiia caa?yciaiea[3]. ?aaeeiaeoeaiua caa?yciaiey
eiatho nouanoaaiiia ioee/ea io ae?oaeo. ?aaeeiaeoeaiua ioeeeaeu – yoi
yae?a ianoaaeeueiuo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia, enioneathueo ca?yaeaiiua
/anoeoeu e ei?ioeiaieiiaua yeaeo?iiaaieoiua eceo/aiey. Eiaiii yoe
/anoeoeu e eceo/aiey, iiiaaeay a i?aaieci /aeiaaea, ?ac?ooatho eeaoee,
aneaaenoaea /aai iiaoo aicieeiooue ?acee/iua aieacie, a oii /enea e
eo/aaay[2]. I?e ac?uaa aoiiiie aiiau aicieeaao i/aiue neeueiia
eiiece?othuaa eceo/aiea, ?aaeeiaeoeaiua /anoeoeu ?annaeaathony ia
aieueoea ?annoiyiey, ca?aaeay ii/ao, aiaeiaiu, aeeaua i?aaieciu. Iiiaea
?aaeeiaeoeaiua ecioiiu eiatho aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae iieo?aniaaea,
inoaaaynue iianiuie a oa/aiea anaai a?aiaie naiaai nouanoaiaaiey. Ana
yoe ecioiiu aeeth/athony a e?oaiai?io aauanoa, iiiaaeatho a aeeaua
i?aaieciu e ieacuaatho aoaeoaeueiia aeaenoaea ia eeaoee. I/aiue iianai
no?iioeee, aneaaenoaea naiae aeecinoe e eaeueoeeth. Iaeaieeaaynue a
einoyo neaeaoa, ii neoaeeo iinoiyiiui enoi/ieeii iaeo/aiey i?aaiecia.
?aaeeiaeoeaiue oeacee (137Cs) noiaeai n eaeeai, aai iiiai a iuooeao
ii?aaeaiiuo aeeaioiuo. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi a i?aaiecia yneeiinia
Aeynee, ieoathueony iynii ieaiae, a cia/eoaeueiuo eiee/anoaao
niaea?aeeony oeacee 137. Oaeaoiia ioiioaiea e o?aiaieth e
o?ainii?oe?iaea ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo yeaiaioia i?eaiaeeo e na?ueaciui
?aaeeaoeeiiiui caa?yciaieyi[3].

I?e yaea?iii ac?uaa ia?acoaony a?iiaaeiia eiee/anoai iaeeie iuee,
eioi?ay aeieai aea?aeeony a aoiinoa?a e iiaeiuaao cia/eoaeueioth /anoue
nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee. ?an/aou o/aiuo iieacuaatho, /oi aeaaea i?e
ia?aie/aiiii, eieaeueiii i?eiaiaiee yaea?iiai i?oaeey ia?aciaaaoayny
iueue aoaeao caaea?aeeaaoue aieueooth /anoue nieia/iiai eceo/aiey.
Ianooieo aeeeoaeueiia iioieiaeaiea («yaea?iay ceia»), eioi?ia iaecaaaeii
i?eaaaeao e aeaaee ana aeeaia ia Caiea[3].

5.7. Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aeinoa?u.

Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aeinoa?u – yoi ia?ieeiaue yooaeo, enoiuaiea
iciiiaiai neiy, ianniaia naaaeaiea eania, eioi?ia ia?ooaao i?ioeann
e?oaiai?ioa eenei?iaea e oaea?iaea a aeinoa?a, iooiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa,
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, i?iecaiaenoai yia?aee (AYN iaiinyo o?ii i?e?iaea e
ethaeyi – caoiieaiea ia?iiiuo oa??eoi?ee iiae aiaeio?aieeeua,
iai?aiaeieeiua i?aiyonoaey ia iooyo iea?aoeee i?ioiaeiuo e
iieoi?ioiaeiuo ?ua, iiaeieiathueony ia ia?ano a aa?oiauey ?ae, canoie
aiae, caiaaeeaiea i?ioi/iinoe, /oi neacuaaaony ia aeecie anao aeeauo
nouanoa, iaeoathueo a ?aea e o ?aee; ianoiia iiauoaiea aiaeu aeeyao ia
a?oio aiaeio?aieeeua, i?eaiaeeo e iiaeoiieaieth, caaiea/eaaieth, y?icee
aa?aaia e iiieciyi; nouanoaoao iianiinoue io ieioei a ?aeiiao n aunieie
naenie/iinoueth). Ana yoi aaaeao e aeiaaeueiiio yeieiae/aneiio e?eceno e
o?aaoao iacaiaaeeeoaeueiiai ia?aoiaea e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieth.

6. Io?aia i?e?iaeu e ia?niaeoeau ?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey.

?aoeeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea – aaeeinoaaiiue auoiae ec neooaoeee.

Iauay caaea/a ?aoeeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie ninoieo a
iaoiaeaeaiee iaeeo/oeo eee iioeiaeueiuo niiniaia yenieoaoaoeee
anoanoaaiiuo e eneonnoaaiiuo (iai?eia?, a naeueneii oicyenoaa)
yeinenoai. Iiae yenieoaoaoeeae iiieiaaony nai? o?iaeay e aicaeaenoaea
oaie eee eiuie aeaeaie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oneiaey
nouanoaiaaiey aeiaaioeaiicia.

?aoaiea caaea/e ii nicaeaieth iioeiaeueiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie nouanoaaiii ineiaeiyaony iaee/eai ia iaeiiai, a
iiiaeanoaa e?eoa?eaa iioeiecaoeee. E iei ioiinyony: iieo/aiea
iaeneiaeueiiai o?iaeay, nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao, nio?aiaiea
i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia, iiaeaea?aeaiea aeaeiaiai ?aciiia?acey niiauanoa,
iaania/aiea /enoiou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, nio?aiaiea ii?iaeueiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeinenoai e eo eiiieaenia[2].

Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e caaea/e ainnoaiiaeaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia
aeieaeiu i?aaeoniao?eaaoue:

?aoeeiiaeueioth no?aoaaeth ai?ueau n a?aaeeoaeyie, ciaiea e niaethaeaiea
aa?ioaoie/aneeo i?eaiia, aeice?iaeo ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, oi?ioaa
ciaiea yeieiae/aneeo aa?ioeaiicia e i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a ieo, a
oaeaea ia eo a?aieoeao n i?e?iaeiuie nenoaiaie;

ciaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee e aeiau/e i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia;

iaeneiaeueii iieiia e eiiieaeniia ecaea/aiea ec ianoi?iaeaeaiey anao
iieaciuo eiiiiiaioia;

?aeoeueoeaaoeeth caiaeue iinea eniieueciaaiey ianoi?iaeaeaiee;

yeiiiie/iia e aaciooiaeiia eniieueciaaiea nu?uey a i?iecaiaenoaa;

aeoaieoth i/enoeo e oaoiieiaee eniieueciaaiey iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa;

aoi?e/iia eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeia iinea auoiaea ecaeaeee ec
oiio?aaeaiey;

eniieueciaaiea oaoiieiaee, iicaieythueo ecaea/aiea ?annayiiuo
ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa;

eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo e eneiiaaiuo caiaieoaeae aeaoeoeeoiuo
ieia?aeueiuo niaaeeiaiee;

caieiooua oeeeeu i?iecaiaenoaa (?ac?aaioeo e i?eiaiaiea);

i?eiaiaiea yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee;

?ac?aaioeo e eniieueciaaiea iiauo yeieiae/anee /enouo enoi/ieeia
yia?aee.

A oeaeii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e caaea/e ainnoaiiaeaiey i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia aeieaeiu i?aaeoniao?eaaoue:

eieaeueiue e aeiaaeueiue eiae/aneee iiieoi?eia, o.a. ecia?aiea e
eiio?ieue ninoiyiey aaaeiaeoeo oa?aeoa?enoee ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, eiioeaio?aoeee a?aaeiuo aauanoa a aoiinoa?a, aiaea, ii/aa;

ainnoaiiaeaiea e nio?aiaiea eania io iiaea?ia, a?aaeeoaeae, aieaciae;

?anoe?aiea e oaaee/aiea /enea caiiaaaeieeia, cii yoaeiiiuo yeinenoai,
oieeaeueiuo i?e?iaeiuo eiiieaenia;

io?aio e ?acaaaeaiea ?aaeeeo aeaeia ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo;

oe?ieia i?inaauaiea e yeieiae/aneia ia?aciaaiea ianaeaiey;

iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai a aeaea io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Oaeay aeoeaiay ?aaioa ai anao iaeanoyo /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ii
oi?ie?iaaieth ioiioaiey e i?e?iaea, ?ac?aaioea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeieniieueciaaiey, i?e?iaeinaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee aoaeouaai niiaoo
?aoaoue yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy e ia?aeoe e
aa?iiie/iiio nio?oaeie/anoao n I?e?iaeie.

A iaoe aeie iio?aaeoaeueneia ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea, ecuyoea aa ?ano?nia
aac inouanoaeaiey ia?ii?eyoee ii eo ainnoaiiaeaieth ooiaeeo a i?ioeia.
I?iaeaia ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, io?aia
i?e?iaeu io aoaeoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea i?eia?aoaao ainoaea?noaaiiia cia/aiea.

Io?aia i?e?iaeu e ?aoeeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea – i?iaeaia
eiiieaeniay, e aa ?aoaiea caaeneo eae io iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai
inouanoaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia naa?aaeaiea
yeinenoai, oae e io ?anoe?aiey iao/iuo ciaiee, eioi?ua iauanoao aeey
nianoaaiiiai aeaaiiieo/ey ?aioaaaeueii e auaiaeii oeiaine?iaaoue.

Aeey a?aaeiuo aauanoa a aoiinoa?a caeiiiaeaoaeueii onoaiiaeaiu
i?aaeaeueiua aeiionoeiua eiioeaio?aoeee, ia aucuaathuea o /aeiaaea
iuooeiuo iineaaenoaee. N oeaeueth i?aaeioa?auaiey caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u
?ac?aaioaiu ia?ii?eyoey, iaania/eaathuea i?aaeeueiia naeeaaiea oiieeaa,
ia?aoiae ia aaceoeoee?iaaiiia oeaio?aeueiia ioiieaiea, onoaiiaeo ia
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee. Iiieii i?aaeio?aiaiey
aicaeooa io caa?yciaiey, i/enoiua nii?oaeaiey iicaieytho yeiiiieoue
nu?uea e aica?auaoue a i?iecaiaenoai iiiaea oeaiiua i?iaeoeou. Iai?eia?,
oeaaeeaaiea na?u ec auaeaeythueony aacia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/eoue
auione na?iie eeneiou, oeaaeeaaiea oeaiaioa naa?aaaao i?iaeoeoeeth,
?aaioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ianeieueeeo caaiaeia. Ia aethieieaauo
caaiaeao onoaiiaea oeeueo?ia ia o?oaao i?aaeioa?auaao aua?in a aoiinoa?o
ooi?a. Iiieii no?ieoaeuenoaa i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee aaaeoony iienee
oaoiieiaee, i?e eioi?ie ia?aciaaiea iooiaeia auei au naaaeaii e
ieieioio. Yoie aea oeaee neoaeeo oeo/oaiea eiino?oeoeee aaoiiiaeeae,
ia?aoiae ia ae?oaea aeaeu oiieeaa (naeeaeaiiue aac, yoeeiaue nie?o), i?e
naeeaaiee eioi?iai ia?acoaony iaiueoa a?aaeiuo aauanoa. ?ac?aaaouaaaony
aaoiiiaeeue n yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeai aeey ia?aaeaeaeaiey a i?aaeaeao
ai?iaea. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao i?aaeeueiay ieaie?iaea ai?iaea e
caeaiuo ianaaeaeaiee. Aea?aauey i/euatho aicaeoo io acaaoaiiuo a iai
aeeaeeeo e oaa?aeuo /anoeoe (ay?icieae), iiaeiuatho a?aaeiua aacu.
Iai?eia?, na?ienoue aac oi?ioi iiaeiuaaony oiiieai, eeiie, eeaiii,
eiineei eaooaiii, oaiieu – ne?aiueth, oaeeiaeoeae, aoceiie[3].

Auoiaua e i?iiuoeaiiua noi/iua aiaeu iiaeaa?aathony iaoaie/aneie,
oece/aneie e aeieiae/aneie ia?aaioea. Aeieiae/aneay i/enoea caeeth/aaony
a ?ac?ooaiee ?anoai?aiiuo i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa iee?ii?aaieciaie. Aiaea
i?iioneaaony /a?ac niaoeeaeueiua ?aca?aoa?u, niaea?aeauea oieueei oae
iacuaaaiue aeoeaiue ee, a eioi?ue aoiaeyo iee?ii?aaieciu ieeneythuea
oaiieu, aee?iua eeneiou, nie?ou, oaeaaiaei?iaeu, e o.ae.

I/enoea noi/iuo aiae ia ?aoaao anao i?iaeai. Iiyoiio ana aieueoa
i?aaei?eyoee ia?aoiaeeo ia iiaoth oaoiieiaeth – caieiooue oeeee, i?e
eioi?ii i/euaiiay aiaea aiiaue iinooiaao a i?iecaiaenoai. Iiaua
oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu iicaieytho a aeanyoee ?ac nie?aoeoue
eiee/anoai aiaeu, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaeae.

Io?aia iaae? caeeth/aaony i?aaeaea anaai a i?aaeioa?auaiee
iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo cao?ao i?aaie/aneeo ?ano?nia a eiiieaeniii eo
eniieueciaaiee. Iai?eia?, iiiai eaiaiiiai oaey oa?yaony i?e iiaecaiiuo
iiaea?ao, ai?th/ee aac nai?aao a oaeaeao ia iaooai?iiuneao. ?ac?aaioea
oaoiieiaee eiiieaeniiai ecaea/aiey iaoaeeia ec ?oae iicaieyao iieo/aoue
aeiiieieoaeueii oaeea oeaiiua yeaiaiou, eae oeoai, eiaaeueo, aieueo?ai,
iieeaaeai e ae?.[3]

Aeey iiauoaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe naeueneiai oicyenoaa a?iiaaeiia cia/aiea
eiaao i?aaeeueiay aa?ioaoieea e inouanoaeaiea niaoeeaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee
ii io?aia ii/au. Iai?eia?, ai?ueaa n ia?aaaie oniaoii aaaeaony iooai
iinaaeee ?anoaiee – aea?aaueaa, eonoa?ieeia, o?aa. ?anoaiey caueuatho
ii/au io niuaa e oiaiueoatho nei?inoue oa/aiey aiaeu. Ieoeueoo?eaaiea
ia?aaia iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue eo a oicyenoaaiiuo oeaeyo. Iinaa
caaacaiiie ec Aia?eee aii?ou, eiathuae iiuioth ei?iaaoth nenoaio, ia
oieueei yooaeoeaii i?aaeioa?auaao niua ii/au: naii ?anoaiea aeaao aiau,
eiathuea aunieoth ei?iiaoth oeaiiinoue. ?aciiia?acea iinaaeie e iinaaia
ii ia?aao niinianoaoao ia?aciaaiea noieeeo aeioeaiicia. A ca?ineyo
iinaeythony ioeoeu, /oi eiaao iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea aeey ai?ueau n
a?aaeeoaeyie. Caueoiua eaniianaaeaeaiey a noaiyo i?aiyonoaotho aiaeiie e
aao?iaie y?icee iieae. ?acaeoea aeieiae/aneeo iaoiaeia ai?ueau n
a?aaeeoaeyie iicaieyao nie?aoeoue eniieueciaaiea a naeueneii oicyenoaa
ianoeoeeaeia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a io?aia ioaeaeathony 2000 aeaeia
?anoaiee, 236 aeaeia ieaeiieoathueo, 287 aeaeia ioeoe. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
nithcii io?aiu i?e?iaeu o/?aaeaeaia niaoeeaeueiay E?aniay eieaa, a
eioi?ie niiauathony naaaeaiey ia en/acathueo aeaeao e aeathony
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eo nio?aiaieth. Iiiaea aeaeu aeeaioiuo, iaoiaeyueany
iiae oa?icie en/aciiaaiey, nae/an ainnoaiiaeee naith /eneaiiinoue. Yoi
ioiineony e einth, naeaaeo, aaeie oeaiea, aaaa[3].

Nio?aiaieth aeeaioiiai e ?anoeoaeueiiai ie?a niinianoaoao i?aaiecaoeey
caiiaaaeieeia e caeacieeia. Iiieii io?aiu ?aaeeeo e en/acathueo aeaeia
caiiaaaeieee neoaeao aacie aeey iaeiiaoieaaiey aeeeeo aeeaioiuo,
iaeaaeathueo oeaiiuie oicyenoaaiiuie naienoaaie. Caiiaaaeieee yaeythony
oaeaea oeaio?aie ii ?annaeaieth aeeaioiuo, en/acioaoeo a aeaiiie
ianoiinoe, iiiiaatho iaiaauaieth ianoiie oaoiu. A ?innee oniaoii
i?eaeeeanue naaa?iiaia?eeaineay iiaeao?a, aeathuay oeaiiue iao. A
no?iauo oneiaeyo A?eoeee oniaoii ?aciiiaeaaony iaoeaaue, caaacaiiue ec
Eaiaaeu e Aeynee. Ainnoaiiaeaia /eneaiiinoue aia?ia, ii/oe en/acioaoeo a
ia/aea aaea[3].

Iiaeiaiua i?eia?u iiiai/eneaiiu. Iie iieacuaatho, /oi aa?aaeiia
ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea, iniiaaiiia ia aeoaieeo ciaieyo aeieiaee ?anoaiee e
aeeaioiuo, ia oieueei nio?aiyao aa, ii e aeaao cia/eoaeueiue
yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

*a?iiaa I.I., Aueiaa A.I., Yeieiaey. O/aaiia iiniaea aeey
iaaeaaiae/aneeo einoeoooia, I., I?inaauaiea, 1988;

E?eenoiia A.A., Iana/iee A.A., Neaei?ei A.I., Yeieiaey, I.,
Ecaeaoaeueneee aeii “Ae?ioa”, 1995;

Iauay aeieiaey. Ni?aai/iua iaoa?eaeu, Ninoaaeoaeue A.A.Caoa?ia, I.,
Ecaeaoaeueneee aeii «Ae?ioa», 1995.

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” 1. O?iaie i?aaiecaoeee aeeaie iaoa?ee. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc384615809 PAGEREF _Toc384615809 2

1.1. Iiioeyoeee, niiauanoaa, yeinenoaiu. I?eioeeiu eo i?aaiecaoeee.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615810 PAGEREF _Toc384615810 3

2. Oi?iu aeieiae/aneeo ioiioaiee a niiauanoaao. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc384615811 PAGEREF _Toc384615811 8

2.1. Iiceoeaiua ioiioaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615812 PAGEREF
_Toc384615812 8

2.2. Iaaaoeaiua ioiioaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615813 PAGEREF
_Toc384615813 9

2.3. Iaeo?aeueiua ioiioaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615814 PAGEREF
_Toc384615814 11

3. E?oaiai?iou aauanoaa e yia?aee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615815 PAGEREF
_Toc384615815 13

4. Aeinoa?a e aa yaiethoeey, ?ano?nu, i?aaeaeu onoie/eainoe,
aeii?iaeoeoeaiinoue. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615816 PAGEREF _Toc384615816
19

4.1. No?oeoo?a aeinoa?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615817 PAGEREF
_Toc384615817 19

4.2. Yaiethoeey aeinoa?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615818 PAGEREF
_Toc384615818 21

4.3. I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu e eo eniieueciaaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615819
PAGEREF _Toc384615819 24

4.4. I?aaeaeu onoie/eainoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615820 PAGEREF
_Toc384615820 26

4.5. Aeii?iaeoeoeaiinoue yeinenoai. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615821
PAGEREF _Toc384615821 28

5. Aio?iiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey ia aeinoa?o. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615822
PAGEREF _Toc384615822 31

5.1. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615823
PAGEREF _Toc384615823 31

5.2. Aoiinoa?a – aiaoiyy iaiei/ea aeinoa?u. Caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?u.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615824 PAGEREF _Toc384615824 32

5.3. Aiaea – iniiaa aeeciaiiuo i?ioeannia a aeinoa?a. Caa?yciaiea
i?e?iaeiuo aiae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615825 PAGEREF _Toc384615825 33

5.4. Ii/aa – aaaeiay ninoaaeythuay /anoue aeinoa?u. Caa?yciaiea ii/au.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615826 PAGEREF _Toc384615826 35

5.5. Aeeyiea /aeiaaea ia ?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue ie?. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc384615827 PAGEREF _Toc384615827 37

5.6. ?aaeeiaeoeaiia caa?yciaiea aeinoa?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615828
PAGEREF _Toc384615828 38

5.7. Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aeinoa?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615829
PAGEREF _Toc384615829 39

6. Io?aia i?e?iaeu e ia?niaeoeau ?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615830 PAGEREF _Toc384615830 40

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc384615831 PAGEREF _Toc384615831
44

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