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Ieai.

I. Oa?aeoa?enoeea e ninoaa aeinoa?u. no?.2

II. A.E.Aa?iaaeneee i aeinoa?a e “aeeaii aauanoaa”. no?.4

III. Aeiaaiiay iea?aoeey oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia e aeiaaioeie/aneea
i?eioeeiu. no?.7

IV. Aeinoa?a e /aeiaae. Iiinoa?a. no?.11

V. ?ieue /aeiaa/aneiai oaeoi?a a ?acaeoee aeinoa?u. no?.15

oaaeeoea no?.12

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a no?.17

I. Oa?aeoa?enoeea e ninoaa aeinoa?u.

A aoeaaeueiii ia?aaiaea oa?iei “aeinoa?a” iaicia/ao noa?o aeecie e a
oaeii niunea ii aia?aua aue aaaaeai a iaoeo a 1875 a. aano?eeneei
aaieiaii e iaeaiioieiaii Yaeoa?aeii Cthnnii (1831 – 1914). Iaeiaei
caaeieai aei yoiai iiae ae?oaeie iacaaieyie, a /anoiinoe “i?ino?ainoai
aeecie”, “ea?oeia i?e?iaeu”, “aeeaay iaiei/ea Caiee” e o.i., aai
niaea?aeaiea ?anniao?eaaeinue iiiaeie ae?oaeie anoanoaieniuoaoaeyie.

Ia?aiia/aeueii iiae anaie yoeie oa?ieiaie iiae?acoiaaaeanue oieueei
niaieoiiinoue aeeauo i?aaieciia, iaeoathueo ia iaoae ieaiaoa, oioy
eiiaaea e oeacuaaeanue eo naycue n aaia?aoe/aneeie, aaieiae/aneeie e
einie/aneeie i?ioeannaie, ii i?e yoii nei?aa ia?auaeinue aieiaiea ia
caaeneiinoue aeeaie i?e?iaeu io nee e aauanoa iai?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu.
Aeaaea aaoi? naiiai oa?ieia “aeinoa?a” Y.Cthnn a naiae eieaa “Eee
Caiee”, iioaeeeiaaiiie nionoy ii/oe o?eaeoeaoue eao iinea aaaaeaiey
oa?ieia (1909 a.), ia caia/ae ia?aoiiai aicaeaenoaey aeinoa?u e
ii?aaeaeye aa eae “niaieoiiinoue i?aaieciia, ia?aie/aiioth a
i?ino?ainoaa e ai a?aiaie e iaeoathooth ia iiaa?oiinoe Caiee”.

Ia?aui ec aeieiaia, eioi?ue ynii oeacae ia ia?iiioth ?ieue aeeauo
i?aaieciia a ia?aciaaiee caiiie ei?u, aue AE.A.Eaia?e (1744 – 1829). Ii
iiae/a?eeaae, /oi ana aauanoaa, iaoiaeyueany ia iiaa?oiinoe caiiiai oa?a
e ia?acothuea aai ei?o, noi?ie?iaaeenue aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe aeeauo
i?aaieciia.

Oaeou e iieiaeaiey i aeinoa?a iaeaieeaaeenue iinoaiaiii a nayce n
?acaeoeai aioaieee, ii/aiaaaeaiey, aaia?aoee ?anoaiee e ae?oaeo
i?aeiouanoaaiii aeieiae/aneeo iaoe, a oaeaea aaieiae/aneeo aeenoeeieei.
Oa yeaiaiou ciaiey, eioi?ua noaee iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey iiieiaiey aeinoa?u
a oeaeii, ieacaeenue naycaiiuie n aicieeiiaaieai yeieiaee, iaoee,
eioi?ay eco/aao acaeiiioiioaiey i?aaieciia e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.
Aeinoa?a yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiie i?e?iaeiie nenoaiie, a aa nouanoaiaaiea
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue au?aaeaaony a e?oaiai?ioa yia?aee e aauanoa i?e
o/anoee aeeauo i?aaieciia.

I/aiue aaaeiui aeey iiieiaiey aeinoa?u auei onoaiiaeaiea iaiaoeeei
oeceieiaii Ioaoa?ii (1845 – 1920) o?ao niiniaia ieoaiey aeeauo
i?aaieciia:

aaoio?ioiia – iino?iaiea i?aaiecia ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey aauanoa
iai?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu;

aaoa?io?ioiia – no?iaiea i?aaiecia ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey
ieceiiieaeoey?iuo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee;

ieenio?ioiia – niaoaiiue oei iino?iaiey i?aaiecia
(aaoio?ioii-aaoa?io?ioiue).

Aeinoa?a (a nia?aiaiiii iiieiaiee) – naiaia?aciay iaiei/ea Caiee,
niaea?aeauay anth niaieoiiinoue aeeauo i?aaieciia e oo /anoue aauanoaa
ieaiaou, eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a iai?a?uaiii iaiaia n yoeie i?aaieciaie.

Aeinoa?a ioaaouaaao ieaeithth /anoue aoiinoa?u, aeae?inoa?o e aa?oithth
/anoue eeoinoa?u.

Aoiinoa?a – iaeaieaa eaaeay iaiei/ea Caiee, eioi?ay a?aie/eo n
einie/aneei i?ino?ainoaii; /a?ac aoiinoa?o inouanoaeyaony iaiai aauanoaa
e yia?aee n einiinii.

Aoiinoa?a eiaao ianeieueei neiaa:

o?iiinoa?a – ieaeiee neie, i?eiueathuee e iiaa?oiinoe Caiee (aunioa 9–17
ei). A iai nino?aaeioi/aii ieiei 80% aaciaiai ninoaaa aoiinoa?u e aanue
aiaeyiie ia?;

no?aoinoa?a;

iiiinoa?a – oai “aeeaia aauanoai” ionoonoaoao.

I?aiaeaaeathuea yeaiaiou oeie/aneiai ninoaaa aoiinoa?u: N2 (78%), O2
(21%), CO2 (0,03%).

Aeae?inoa?a – aiaeiay iaiei/ea Caiee. A neaaenoaea aunieie iiaeaeaeiinoe
aiaea i?iieeaao iianaianoii a ?acee/iua i?e?iaeiua ia?aciaaiey, aeaaea
iaeaieaa /enoua aoiinoa?iua aiaeu niaea?aeao io 10 aei 50 ia?/e
?anoai?eiuo aauanoa.

I?aiaeaaeathuea yeaiaiou oeie/aneiai ninoaaa aeae?inoa?u: Na+, Mg2+,
Ca2+, Cl–, S, C. Eiioeaio?aoeey oiai eee eiiai yeaiaioa a aiaea aua
ie/aai ia aiai?eo i oii, ianeieueei ii aaaeai aeey ?anoeoaeueiuo e
aeeaioiuo i?aaieciia, iaeoathueo a iae. A yoii ioiioaiee aaaeouay ?ieue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo N, P, Si, eioi?ua onaaeaathony aeeauie i?aaieciaie.
Aeaaiie iniaaiiinoueth ieaaie/aneie aiaeu yaeyaony oi, /oi iniiaiua eiiu
oa?aeoa?ecothony iinoiyiiui niioiioaieai ai anai iauaia ie?iaiai ieaaia.

Eeoinoa?a – aiaoiyy oaa?aeay iaiei/ea Caiee, ninoiyuay ec inaaei/iuo e
iaaiaoe/aneeo ii?iae. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy caiiie ei?ie i?eiyoi n/eoaoue
aa?oiee neie oaa?aeiai oaea ieaiaou, ?aniieiaeaiiue auoa naenie/aneie
a?aieoeu Iioi?iae/e/a. Iiaa?oiinoiue neie eeoinoa?u, a eioi?ii
inouanoaeyaony acaeiiaeaenoaea aeeaie iaoa?ee n ieia?aeueiie
(iai?aaie/aneie), i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii/ao. Inoaoee i?aaieciia iinea
?aceiaeaiey ia?aoiaeyo a aoion (ieiaei?iaeioth /anoue ii/au). Ninoaaiuie
/anoyie ii/au neoaeao ieia?aeu, i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa, aeeaua i?aaieciu,
aiaea, aacu.

I?aiaeaaeathuea yeaiaiou oeie/aneiai ninoaaa eeoinoa?u: O, Si, Al, Fe,
Ca, Mg, Na, K.

Aaaeouoth ?ieue auiieiyao eenei?iae, ia aeieth eioi?iai i?eoiaeeony
iieiaeia iannu caiiie ei?u e 92% aa iauaia, iaeiaei eenei?iae i?i/ii
naycai n ae?oaeie yeaiaioaie a aeaaiuo ii?iaeiia?acothueo ieia?aeao.
O.i. a eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee caiiay ei?a – yoi “oea?noai” eenei?iaea,
oeie/anee naycaiiiai a oiaea aaieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey caiiie ei?u.

Iinoaiaiii eaeay i oaniie acaeiinayce iaaeaeo aeeaie e iaaeeaie
i?e?iaeie, ia ia?aoiii aicaeaenoaee aeeauo i?aaieciia e eo nenoai ia
ie?oaeathuea eo oece/aneea, oeie/aneea e aaieiae/aneea oaeoi?u ana
ianoie/eaaa i?iieeaea a niciaiea o/aiuo e iaoiaeeea ?aaeecaoeeth a eo
eiie?aoiuo enneaaeiaaieyo. Yoiio niinianoaiaaee e ia?aiaiu,
i?iecioaaeoea a iauai iiaeoiaea anoanoaieniuoaoaeae e eco/aieth
i?e?iaeu. Iie ana aieueoa oaaaeaeaeenue a oii, /oi iainiaeaiiia
enneaaeiaaiea yaeaiee e i?ioeannia i?e?iaeu n iiceoeee ioaeaeueiuo
iao/iuo aeenoeeieei ieacuaaaony iaaaeaeaaoiui. Iiyoiio ia ?oaaaea OIO –
OO aa. a iaoeo ana oe?a i?iieeatho eaeae oieenoe/aneiai, eee
oeaeinoiiai, iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth i?e?iaeu, eioi?ua a iaoa a?aiy
noi?ie?iaaeenue a nenoaiiue iaoiae aa eco/aiey.

?acoeueoaou oaeiai iiaeoiaea iacaiaaeeeoaeueii neacaeenue i?e
enneaaeiaaiee iaueo i?iaeai aicaeaenoaey aeioe/aneeo, eee aeeauo,
oaeoi?ia ia aaeioe/aneea, eee oece/aneea, oneiaey. Oae, ieacaeinue,
iai?eia?, /oi ninoaa ii?neie aiaeu ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony aeoeaiinoueth
ii?neeo i?aaieciia. ?anoaiey, aeeaouea ia ian/aiie ii/aa, cia/eoaeueii
eciaiytho aa no?oeoo?o. AEeaua i?aaieciu eiio?iee?otho aeaaea ninoaa
iaoae aoiinoa?u. *enei iiaeiaiuo i?eia?ia eaaei oaaee/eoue, e ana iie
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iaee/ee ia?aoiie nayce iaaeaeo aeeaie e iaaeeaie
i?e?iaeie, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie aeeaia aauanoai a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
iaiyao eee iaoae Caiee. Oaeei ia?acii, aeinoa?o iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue a
io?uaa io iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu, io eioi?ie iia, n iaeiie noi?iiu caaeneo, a
n ae?oaie – naia aicaeaenoaoao ia iaa. Iiyoiio ia?aae
anoanoaieniuoaoaeyie aicieeaao caaea/a – eiie?aoii enneaaeiaaoue, eaeei
ia?acii e a eaeie ia?a aeeaia aauanoai aeeyao ia oeceei-oeie/aneea e
aaieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea ia iiaa?oiinoe Caiee e a caiiie
ei?a. Oieueei iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae iiaeao aeaoue yniia e aeoaieia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i eiioeaioeee aeinoa?u. Oaeoth caaea/o eae ?ac e iinoaaee
ia?aae niaie auaeathueeny ?inneeneee o/aiue Aeaaeeie? Eaaiiae/
Aa?iaaeneee (1863 – 1945).

II. A.E.Aa?iaaeneee i aeinoa?a e “aeeaii aauanoaa”.

Oeaio?aeueiui a yoie eiioeaioeee yaeyaony iiiyoea i aeeaii aauanoaa,
eioi?ia A.E.Aa?iaaeneee ii?aaeaeyao eae niaieoiiinoue aeeauo i?aaieciia.
E?iia ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo, A.E.Aa?iaaeneee aeeth/aao nthaea e
/aeiaa/anoai, aeeyiea eioi?iai ia aaioeie/aneea i?ioeannu ioee/aaony io
aicaeaenoaey inoaeueiuo aeeauo nouanoa, ai-ia?auo, naiae
eioaineaiinoueth, oaaee/eaathuaeny n oiaeii aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie;
ai-aoi?uo, oai aicaeaenoaeai, eaeia aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae ieacuaaao ia
inoaeueiia aeeaia aauanoai.

Yoi aicaeaenoaea neacuaaaony i?aaeaea anaai a nicaeaiee iiiai/eneaiiuo
iiauo aeaeia eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee e aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo. Oaeea aeaeu ia
nouanoaiaaee ?aiueoa e aac iiiiue /aeiaaea eeai iiaeaatho, eeai
i?aa?auathony a aeeeea ii?iaeu. Iiyoiio Aa?iaaeneee ?anniao?eaaao
aaioeie/aneoth ?aaioo aeeaiai aauanoaa a ia?ac?uaiie nayce aeeaioiiai,
?anoeoaeueiiai oea?noaa e eoeueoo?iiai /aeiaa/anoaa eae ?aaioo aaeeiiai
oeaeiai.

Ii iiaieth A.E.Aa?iaaeneiai, a i?ioeii ia i?eaeaaaee cia/aiey aeaoi
aaaeiui oaeoi?ai, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho aeeaua oaea e i?iaeoeou eo
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe:

ioe?uoeth Ianoa?a i i?aiaeaaeaiee iioe/anee aeoeaiuo niaaeeiaiee,
naycaiiuo n aeeneiiao?e/iinoueth i?ino?ainoaaiiie no?oeoo?u iieaeoe, eae
ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoe aeeauo oae;

yaii iaaeiioeaieaaeny aeeaae aeeauo i?aaieciia a yia?aaoeeo aeinoa?u e
eo aeeyiea ia iaaeeaua oaea. Aaaeue a ninoaa aeinoa?u aoiaeeo ia oieueei
aeeaia aauanoai, ii e ?aciiia?aciua iaaeeaua oaea, eioi?ua
A.E.Aa?iaaeneee iacuaaao einiuie (aoiinoa?a, ai?iua ii?iaeu, ieia?aeu e
o. ae.), a oaeaea e aeieiniua oaea, ia?aciaaiiua ec ?acii?iaeiuo aeeauo
e einiuo oae (ii/au, iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu e o. i.). Oioy aeeaia aauanoai
ii iauaio e aano ninoaaeyao iacia/eoaeueioth /anoue aeinoa?u, ii iii
ea?aao iniiaioth ?ieue a aaieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao, naycaiiuo n
eciaiaieai iaeeea iaoae ieaiaou.

Iineieueeo aeeaia aauanoai yaeyaony ii?aaeaeythuei eiiiiiaioii
aeinoa?u, iinoieueeo iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iii iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue
e ?acaeaaoueny oieueei a ?aieao oeaeinoiie nenoaiu aeinoa?u. Ia neo/aeii
iiyoiio A.E.Aa?iaaeneee n/eoaao, /oi aeeaua i?aaieciu yaeythony
ooieoeeae aeinoa?u e oaniaeoei ia?acii iaoa?eaeueii e yia?aaoe/anee n
iae naycaiu, yaeythony ia?iiiie aaieiae/aneie neeie, aa ii?aaeaeythuae.

Enoiaeiie iniiaie nouanoaiaaiey aeinoa?u e i?ienoiaeyueo a iae
aeiaaioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia yaeyaony ano?iiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea iaoae
ieaiaou e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aa ?annoiyiea io Nieioea e iaeeii caiiie
ine e yeeeioeea, eee e ieineinoe caiiie i?aeou. Yoi i?ino?ainoaaiiia
?aniieiaeaiea Caiee ii?aaeaeyao a iniiaiii eeeiao ia ieaiaoa, a
iineaaeiee a naith i/a?aaeue – aeeciaiiua oeeeeu anao nouanoaothueo ia
iae i?aaieciia. Nieioea yaeyaony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii yia?aee aeinoa?u e
?aaoeyoi?ii anao aaieiae/aneeo, oeie/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia ia
iaoae ieaiaoa. Yoo aa ?ieue ia?acii au?acee iaeei ec aaoi?ia caeiia
nio?aiaiey e i?aa?auaiey yia?aee THeeon Iaea? (1814 – 1878), ioiaoeaoee,
/oi aeeciue anoue nicaeaiea nieia/iiai eo/a.

?aoathuaa ioee/ea aeeaiai aauanoaa io einiiai caeeth/aaony a
neaaeothuai:

eciaiaiey e i?ioeannu a aeeaii aauanoaa i?ienoiaeyo cia/eoaeueii
auno?aa, /ai a einiuo oaeao. Iiyoiio aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee eciaiaiee a
aeeaii aauanoaa eniieuecoaony iiiyoea enoi?e/aneiai, a a einiuo oaeao –
aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie. Aeey n?aaiaiey ioiaoei, /oi naeoiaea
aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie niioaaonoaoao i?eia?ii noa ouny/ai eao
enoi?e/aneiai;

a oiaea aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie aic?anoatho iiuue aeeaiai aauanoaa e aai
aicaeaenoaea ia einiia aauanoai aeinoa?u. Yoi aicaeaenoaea, oeacuaaao
A.E. Aa?iaaeneee, i?iyaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai “a iai?a?uaiii aeiaaiiii
oiea aoiiia ec aeeaiai aauanoaa a einiia aauanoai aeinoa?u e ia?aoii”;

oieueei a aeeaii aauanoaa i?ienoiaeyo ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?aaieciia
a oiaea aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie. I?ioeann e iaoaieciu yoeo eciaiaiee
aia?aua iaoee iauyniaiea a oai?ee i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeaeia iooai
anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a *.Aea?aeia (1859 a.);

aeeaua i?aaieciu eciaiythony a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, aaeaioe?othony e iae e, niaeanii oai?ee Aea?aeia, eiaiii
iinoaiaiiia iaeiieaiea oaeeo eciaiaiee neoaeeo enoi/ieeii yaiethoeee.

A.E.Aa?iaaeneee auneacuaaao i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi aeeaia aauanoai,
aiciiaeii, eiaao e naie i?ioeann yaiethoeee, i?iyaeythueeny a eciaiaiee
n oiaeii aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie, aia caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey n?aaeu.

Aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey naiae iunee ii nnueaaony ia iai?a?uaiue ?ino
oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu aeeaioiuo e aa cia/aiea a aeinoa?a, a
oaeaea ia iniaoth i?aaieciaaiiinoue naiie aeinoa?u. Ii aai iiaieth, a
oi?iuaiiie iiaeaee yoo i?aaieciaaiiinoue iiaeii au?aceoue oae, /oi ie
iaeia ec oi/ae aeinoa?u “ia iiiaaeaao a oi aea ianoi, a oo aea oi/eo
aeinoa?u, a eaeie eiaaea-ieaoaeue auea ?aiueoa” . A nia?aiaiiuo oa?ieiao
yoi yaeaiea iiaeii iienaoue eae iaia?aoeiinoue eciaiaiee, eioi?ua
i?enoue ethaiio i?ioeanno yaiethoeee e ?acaeoey.

Iai?a?uaiue i?ioeann yaiethoeee, nii?iaiaeaeathueeny iiyaeaieai iiauo
aeaeia i?aaieciia, ieacuaaao aicaeaenoaea ia anth aeinoa?o a oeaeii, a
oii /enea e ia i?e?iaeiua aeieiniua oaea, iai?eia?, ii/au, iacaiiua e
iiaecaiiua aiaeu e o. ae. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oai, /oi ii/au e ?aee
aeaaiia nianai ae?oaea, /ai o?aoe/iie e oai aieaa iaoae yiioe. Oaeei
ia?acii, yaiethoeey aeaeia iinoaiaiii ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia?aoiaeeo ia
anth aeinoa?o.

Iineieueeo yaiethoeey e aicieeiiaaiea iiauo aeaeia i?aaeiieaaatho
nouanoaiaaiea naiaai ia/aea, iinoieueeo caeiiiia?ii aicieeaao aii?in: a
anoue ee oaeia ia/aei o aeecie? Anee anoue, oi aaea aai eneaoue – ia
Caiea eee a Einiina? Iiaeao ee aicieeiooue aeeaia ec iaaeeaiai?

Iaae yoeie aii?inaie ia i?ioyaeaiee noieaoee caaeoiuaaeenue iiiaea
?aeeaeiciua aeayoaee, i?aaenoaaeoaee eneonnoaa, oeeiniou e o/aiua.
A.E.Aa?iaaeneee iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaao iaeaieaa eioa?aniua oi/ee
c?aiey, eioi?ua auaeaeaaeenue auaeathueieny iuneeoaeyie ?aciuo yiio, e
i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi ieeaeiai oaaaeeoaeueiiai ioaaoa ia yoe aii?inu
iiea ia nouanoaoao. Nai ii eae o/aiue aia/aea i?eaea?aeeaaeny
yiie?e/aneiai iiaeoiaea e ?aoaieth oeacaiiuo aii?inia, eiaaea
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iiiai/eneaiiua iiiuoee iaia?oaeeoue a ae?aaieo
aaieiae/aneeo neiyo Caiee neaaeu i?enoonoaey eaeeo-eeai ia?aoiaeiuo oi?i
aeecie ia oaai/aeenue oniaoii. Ai anyeii neo/aa iaeioi?ua inoaiee aeecie
auee iaia?oaeaiu aeaaea a aeieaia?eeneeo neiyo, ian/eouaathueo 600
ieeeeiiia eao. Yoe io?eoeaoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou, ii iiaieth
A.E.Aa?iaaeneiai, aeatho aiciiaeiinoue auneacaoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi
aeeciue eae iaoa?ey e yia?aey nouanoaoao ai Anaeaiiie aa/ii e iiyoiio ia
eiaao naiaai ia/aea. Ii oaeia i?aaeiieiaeaiea anoue ia aieueoa, /ai
yiie?e/aneia iaiauaiea, iniiaaiiia ia oii, /oi neaaeu aeeaiai aauanoaa
aei neo ii? ia iaia?oaeaiu a caiiuo neiyo. *oiau noaoue iao/iie
aeiioacie, iii aeieaeii auoue niaeaniaaii n ae?oaeie ?acoeueoaoaie
iao/iiai iiciaiey, a oii /enea e n aieaa oe?ieeie eiioeaioeeyie
anoanoaiciaiey e oeeinioee. Ai anyeii neo/aa iaeuecy ia n/eoaoueny ni
acaeyaeaie oao iaoo?aeenoia e oeeinioia, eioi?ua caueuaee oacen i
aicieeiiaaiee aeeaie iaoa?ee ec iaaeeaie, a a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaaea
auaeaeaatho aeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiiua aeiioacu e iiaeaee i?ienoiaeaeaiey
aeecie.

I?aaeiieiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii aaeiaaiiiai, eee iai?aaie/aneiai,
i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie aeaeaeenue iaiaeiie?aoii aua a aioe/ioth yiioo,
iai?eia?, A?enoioaeai, eioi?ue aeiioneae aiciiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey
iaeeeo i?aaieciia ec iai?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa. N aicieeiiaaieai
yenia?eiaioaeueiiai anoanoaiciaiey e iiyaeaieai oaeeo iaoe, eae
aaieiaey, iaeaiioieiaey e aeieiaey, oaeay oi/ea c?aiey iiaeaa?aeanue
e?eoeea eae ia iainiiaaiiay yiie?e/aneeie oaeoaie. Aua ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XVII a. oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee i?eioeei,
i?iaicaeaoaiiue ecaanoiui oei?aioeeneei a?a/ii e iaoo?aeenoii O.?aaee,
/oi ana aeeaia aicieeaao ec aeeaiai. Ooaa?aeaeaieth yoiai i?eioeeia
niaeaenoaiaaee enneaaeiaaiey ciaiaieoiai aiaeeeneiai oeceieiaa Oeeueyia
Aa?aay (1578 – 1657), eioi?ue n/eoae, /oi anyeia aeeaioiia i?ienoiaeeo
ec yeoea, oioy ii e aeiioneae aiciiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey aeecie
aaeiaaiiui iooai.

A aeaeueiaeoai, ii ia?a i?iieeiiaaiey oeceei-oeie/aneeo iaoiaeia a
aeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey niiaa e ana ianoie/eaaa noaee auaeaeaaoueny
aeiioacu ia aaeiaaiiii i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie. Auoa iu oaea aiai?eee i
oeie/aneie yaiethoeee eae i?aaeiinueea aicieeiiaaiey i?aaeaeioe/aneie,
eee i?aaeaeieiae/aneie, noaaeee aicieeiiaaiey aeecie. N oeacaiiuie
?acoeueoaoaie ia iia ia n/eoaoueny A.E. Aa?iaaeneee, e iiyoiio aai
acaeyaeu ii yoei aii?inai ia inoaaaeenue iaeciaiiuie, ii, iie?aynue ia
ii/ao oi/ii onoaiiaeaiiuo oaeoia, ii ia aeiioneae ie aiaeanoaaiiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa, ie caiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie. Ii ia?aian
aicieeiiaaiea aeecie ca i?aaeaeu Caiee, a oaeaea aeiioneae aiciiaeiinoue
aa iiyaeaiee a aeinoa?a i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo. Ii ienae: “I?eioeei
?aaee… ia oeacuaaao ia iaaiciiaeiinoue aaeiaaiaca aia aeinoa?u eee i?e
onoaiiaeaiee iaee/ey a aeinoa?a (oaia?ue eee ?aiueoa) oeceei-oeie/aneeo
yaeaiee, ia i?eiyouo i?e iao/iii ii?aaeaeaiee yoie oi?iu
i?aaieciaaiiinoe caiiie iaiei/ee.”

Ianiio?y ia iaeioi?ua i?ioeai?a/ey, o/aiea Aa?iaaeneiai i aeinoa?a
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaue e?oiiue oaa a iiieiaiee ia oieueei aeeaie
i?e?iaeu, ii e aa ia?ac?uaiie nayce n enoi?e/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth
/aeiaa/anoaa.

III. Aeiaaiiay iea?aoeey oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia e aeiaaioeie/aneea
i?eioeeiu.

Ii Aa?iaaeneiio, ?aaioa aeeaiai aauanoaa a aeinoa?a iiaeao i?iyaeyoueny
a aeaoo iniiaiuo oi?iao:

oeie/aneie (aeioeie/aneie) – I ?iae aaieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

iaoaie/aneie – II ?iae oaeie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aaieiae/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue I ?iaea – iino?iaiea oaea i?aaieciia e
ia?aaa?eaaiea ieue, – eiia/ii, yaeyaony aieaa cia/eoaeueiie.
Eeanne/aneei noaei ooieoeeiiaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeecie, aeaiiia
O?eae?eoii Yiaaeuenii: “aeeciue anoue niinia nouanoaiaaiey aaeeiauo oae,
nouanoaaiiui iiiaioii eioi?iai yaeyaony iinoiyiiue iaiai aauanoa n
ie?oaeathuae eo aiaoiae i?e?iaeie, i?e/ai n i?ae?auaieai yoiai iaiaia
aauanoa i?ie?auaaony e aeeciue” .

Nae/an iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue au/eneeoue nei?inoue yoiai iaiaia. Oae,
ii aeaiiui E.I.Oth?theaiiaa, a ioaieoea, iai?eia?, iieiay niaia aoiiia
i?ienoiaeeo aeey oinoi?a ca 15 nooie, a aeey eaeueoeey – a 10 ?ac
auno?aa: ca 1,5 nooie! Nianoaaiii aiai?y, iinoiyiiue iaiai aauanoa
iaaeaeo aeeaui i?aaieciii e aiaoiae n?aaeie e iaoneiaeeaaao i?iyaeaiea
aieueoeinoaa ooieoeee aeeaiai aauanoaa a aeinoa?a, eioi?ua iu ?anniio?ei
e yoie /anoe eieae. Ii iiaen/aoai aeieiaa I.A.Aioiaia-Eaaeioieeiaa, a
oa/aiea aeecie /aeiaaea /a?ac aai oaei i?ioiaeeo 75 o aiaeu, 17 o
oaea?iaeia, 2,5 o aaeeia, 1,3 o aee?ia. Iaaeaeo oai ii aaioeie/aneiio
yooaeoo naiae oeceieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaae ioithaeue ia naiue
aaaeiue aeae ?acii?iaeiiai aeeaiai aauanoaa aeinoa?u. Aaioeie/aneee
yooaeo oeceieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaieciia ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeai
eo ?acia?ai, e iaeaieaa cia/eiie ieacuaaaony aeayoaeueiinoue i?iea?eioia
– aaeoa?ee e oeeaiiaaeoa?ee.

Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oaeaea eiee/anoai i?iioneaaiiai /a?ac i?aaieci
aauanoaa. A yoii ioiioaiee iaeneiaeueiue aaioeie/aneee yooaeo ia nooa
eiatho a?oioiaaeu, a a ieaaia – eeiaaeu e oeeueo?aoi?u. Aua *a?ec
Aea?aei iiaen/eoae, /oi neie yene?aiaioia, auaeaeyaiuo aeiaeaeaauie
/a?ayie ia ieiaei?iaeiuo ii/aao Aiaeee, ninoaaeyao ieiei 5 ii a aiae!
Oaeei ia?acii, ii/aaiiue ieano iiuiinoueth a 1 i aeiaeaeaaua /a?ae
iieiinoueth i?iionetho /a?ac naie eeoa/iee ca 200 eao. A ieaaia n
aeiaeaeaauie /a?ayie ii “i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe” iiaoo eiieo?e?iaaoue eo
aeeceea ?iaenoaaiieee, i?aaenoaaeoaee oiai aea oeia eieue/aouo /a?aae –
iieeoaou, a oaeaea ?aeiia?aciua. Aeinoaoi/ii 40 yecaiiey?ia iieeoao ia 1
i2, /oiau iiaa?oiinoiue neie aeiiiuo inaaeeia iiuiinoueth a 20 – 30 ni
aaeaaiaeii i?ioiaeee /a?ac eo eeoa/iee. Noano?ao i?e yoii nouanoaaiii
iaiaauaaony eaeueoeeai, aeaeacii, iaaieai, eaeeai e oinoi?ii ii
n?aaiaieth n enoiaeiuie eeaie.

Eii?ieeou (eneiiaaiua inoaoee yene?aiaioia) ecaanoiu a aaieiae/aneeo
ioeiaeaieyo, ia/eiay n i?aeiaeea, iaeiaei aannii?ii, /oi aieueoeinoai eo
i?e aaieiae/aneeo iienaieyo ia o/eouaaaony. I?ienoiaeeo yoi ec-ca neaaie
eco/aiiinoe aii?ina e ec-ca ionoonoaey aeeaaiinoe/aneeo i?eciaeia aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey eii?ieeoia.

Iaaeaeo oai a aeiiiuo ioeiaeaieye nia?aiaiiuo aiaeiaiia oaeaeueiua
eiii/ee aaniicaiii/iuo ?ani?ino?aiaiu i/aiue oe?iei e ia?aaeei yaeythony
iniiaiie /anoueth inaaeea. A thaeiie Aoeaioeea, iai?eia?, eeu ii/oe
iaoeaei neaaathony oaeaeeyie ieaieoiiiuo ?aeiia?aciuo, a ii aa?aaai
Naaa?iiai ii?y aeiiiua inaaeee, ia?aciaaiiua oaeaeeyie ieaeee, eiatho
iiuiinoue aei 8 i.

Aeiaaiiay iea?aoeey aoiiia II ?iaea – iaoaie/aneay – io/aoeeai
i?iyaeyaony a iacaiiuo yeinenoaiao n oi?ioi ?acaeoui ii/aaiiui iie?iaii,
iicaieythuei aeeaioiui nicaeaaaoue aeoaieea oe?uoey (aiacaeiaua eaia?u
oa?ieoia, iai?eia?, ?aniieiaeaiu ia aeoaeia 2 – 4 i io iiaa?oiinoe).
Aeaaiaea?y aua?inai caiea?iaa, a aa?oiea neie ii/au iiiaaeatho ia?ae/iua
iaauaao?eaoeany ieia?aeu, eioi?ua, ?aceaaaynue, aiaeaeathony a
aeieiae/aneee e?oaiai?io. Iaaea?ii ecaanoiue aaieia A.O.Ie?/eie (1889 –
1942) iacuaae no?ea-oa?aaaaia “eo/oei aaieiaii Caaaeeaeuey” – aai ii?u
ie?oaeaiu “eieeaeoeeyie” ai?iuo ii?iae, aeiauouo n aeoaeiu ianeieueeeo
iao?ia!

Iiiyoea “ii?a” e “aiacaei” iau/ii annioeee?othony o ian n a?ucoiaie e
ioeoeaie. Iaaeaeo oai aeiaaiiay iea?aoeey aoiiia II ?iaea ?ani?ino?aiaia
ia oieueei a iacaiiuo, ii e a ii?neeo yeinenoaiao, e caeanue aa ?ieue,
iiaeao auoue, aua aieaa cia/eoaeueia. E ia aeia ii?y i?aaieciu no?iyo
naaa oe?uoey, i?e/ai ia oieueei a iyaeii, ii e a neaeueiii a?oioa.
Ieeaioaou e iieeoaou oaeoaeythony a a?oio ia 40 ni e aieaa.
Aeaonoai?/aoua iieethnee ca?uaathony iau/ii iaaeoaiei, ii iaeioi?ua ec
ieo – nieaieaeu e iea – ?itho ii?u, eioi?ui iicaaeaeoao e no?ie: iie
aeinoeaatho aeoaeiu ianeieueeeo iao?ia. A ciia i?eaiy e ia ia?aiuaaaiii
aieiaie ianea – aio aaaea! – ii?u ia au?iaoue e aiacaei ia niaueaoue.
I?eoiaeeony naa?eeoue neaeueiua ii?iaeu. E naa?eyo. Naa?eyo aiaei?inee e
aoaee, aaeoa?ee e iieethnee, iieeoaou, ii?neea aaee, ?a/ee…

Naa?eeeueueee iiyaeeenue a aeaeaeii aaieiae/aneii i?ioeii. Enoi/aiiua
eie ii?iaeu iaoiaeyo aeaaea a aeieaia?eeneeo ioeiaeaieyo; e iiiuia iie
i?iaeieaeatho naith ?ac?ooeoaeueioth ?aaioo. Naa?eyuay aeayoaeueiinoue
iieethneia oieaae aucuaaao eiiaaea eaoano?ioe/aneea iineaaenoaey .
Eiaaea a ?aeiia Ni/e a ?acoeueoaoa iai?iaeoiaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa aa?aa
iaiaaeeeny io aaeueee, ii ia/ae ionooiaoue ni nei?inoueth aei 4 i a
aiae. Aeaaiui aeiiaieeii ?ac?ooaiey auee oieaaeu, eioi?ua canaeeee
eaaeaeue iao? neaeueiiai aa?aaa, neiaeaiiiai aeeienouie neaioeaie, e
i?eiyeenue ae?oaeii naa?eeoue naaa iiaeaiaeiua ii?ee. E n/anoueth, aue
iaeaeai auoiae: aa?aa noaee oe?aieyoue iiia?a/iuie noaieaie, a iaaeaeo
ieie canuiaoue aaeueeo. A ?acoeueoaoa naa?eeeueueee auee oie/oiaeaiu,
aeaeaeouayny iiae oaea?aie aiei aaeueea ia?aiieiea eo. A a Caiaaeiie
Aa?iia ia iaiaa iianioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?iaiaeeo neo/aeii caaacaiiue
ec Eeoay iioiaoi?oeee e?aa – ii i?iiee ai iiiaea ?aee, e, no?iy naie
ii?u, iiae?uaaao aa?aaa e ?ac?ooaao ieioeiu.

E aeiaaiiie iea?aoeee II ?iaea iiaeii ioianoe e ia?aiauaiea naiiai
aeeaiai aauanoaa. Nthaea ioiinyony naciiiua ia?aeaou ioeoe, ia?aiauaiey
aeeaioiuo a iieneao ei?ia, ianniaua iea?aoeee aeeaioiuo. Anoanoaaiii,
/oi ana yoe ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu aeaeaeaiey aeeaiai aucuaatho e
o?ainii?oe?iaeo iaaeiaaiiiai aauanoaa.

Aa?iaaeneee, eae iu aeaeaee, iiae?acaeaeye i?ioeannu, inouanoaeyaiua a
aeinoa?a aeeaui aauanoaii, ii oa?aeoa?o naieo i?ioeannia. Ianeieueei
eia/a iiaeioae e coiio aii?ino nia?aiaiiee Aeaaeeie?a Eaaiiae/a
I.A.Aiae?onia. “Oeie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecia aiiaua, eiathuay
aaieiae/aneia cia/aiea ,– ienae Aiae?onia,– iiaeao auoue naaaeaia e
aeaoi eaoaai?eyi: ai-ia?auo, e ia?aciaaieth ia ia?oaeiie iiaa?oiinoe eee
aioo?e oaa?aeuo auaeaeaiee, niiniaiuo nio?aiyoueny; ai-aoi?uo, e
ia?aciaaieth aeeaeeeo e aaciia?aciuo auaeaeaiee, niiniaiuo anooiaoue a
?acee/iua oeie/aneea ?aaeoeee n ie?oaeathuei iai?aaie/aneei ie?ii”. Ii
nouanoao, yoo aea iuneue ?acaeaaea ia nia?aiaiiii iaoa?eaea iee?iaeieia
O.A.A?enoianeay. Iia oeacaea, /oi iea?aoeey aoiiia oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia
iiaeao auoue eae i?yiui, oae e einaaiiui ?acoeueoaoii
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?aaieciia (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aaeoa?ee). A
oaaeeoea niaiauaiu eeanneoeeaoeeiiiua iiaeoiaeu Aa?iaaeneiai
(ai?eciioaeueiua ?yaeu) e Aiae?oniaa – A?enoianeie ( aa?oeeaeueiua
noieaoeu). Aeey iiieiaiey oie ?aaiou, eioi?oth niaa?oaao aeeaia aauanoai
a aeinoa?a, i/aiue aaaeiuie yaeythony o?e iniiaiuo iieiaeaiey, eioi?ua
Aeaaeeie? Eaaiiae/ iacuaae “aeiaaioeie/aneeie i?eioeeiaie”.

A oi?ioee?iaea A.E.Aa?iaaeneiai iie cao/ao neaaeothuei ia?acii:

I i?eioeei:”Aeiaaiiay iea?aoeey aoiiia oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia a aeinoa?a
anaaaea no?aieony e iaeneiaeueiiio naiaio i?iyaeaieth”.

II i?eioeei: “Yaiethoeey aeaeia a oiaea aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie,
i?eaiaeyuay e nicaeaieth oi?i aeecie onoie/eauo a aeinoa?a, eaeao a
iai?aaeaiee, oaaee/eaathuai aeiaaiioth iea?aoeeth aoiiia aeinoa?u” (eee
a ae?oaie oi?ioee?iaea: “I?e yaiethoeee aeaeia auaeeaatho oa i?aaieciu,
eioi?ua naiath aeeciueth oaaee/eaatho aeiaaiioth aaioeie/aneoth
yia?aeth”).

III i?eioeei: “A oa/aiea anaai aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie, n e?eioiciy,
canaeaiea ieaiaou aeieaeii auei auoue iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia aeey anaai
aeeaiai aauanoaa, eioi?ia oiaaea nouanoaiaaei”.

Aeey Aa?iaaeneiai I aeiaaioeie/aneee i?eioeei aue oanii naycai ni
niiniaiinoueth aeeaiai aauanoaa iaia?aie/aiii ?aciiiaeaoueny a
iioeiaeueiuo oneiaeyo. “Aeo?ue aoiiia”, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeeciue, ii ii?aaeaeaieth AEi?aea Ethauea, no?aieony e aaca?aie/iie
ceniainee. Neaaenoaeai yoiai e yaeyaony iaeneiaeueiia i?iyaeaiea
aeiaaiiie iea?aoeee aoiiia a aeinoa?a.

II aeiaaioeie/aneee i?eioeei, ii nouanoao, cao?aaeaaao ea?aeeiaeueioth
i?iaeaio nia?aiaiiie aeieiae/aneie oai?ee – aii?in i iai?aaeaiiinoe
yaiethoeee i?aaieciia. Ii iunee Aa?iaaeneiai, i?aeiouanoaa a oiaea
yaiethoeee iieo/atho oa i?aaieciu, eioi?ua i?eia?aee niiniaiinoue
onaaeaaoue iiaua oi?iu yia?aee eee “iao/eeenue” iieiaa eniieueciaaoue
oeie/aneoth yia?aeth, caianaiioth a ae?oaeo i?aaieciao. A oiaea
aeieiae/aneie yaiethoeee, oaeei ia?acii, oaaee/eaaaony “EIAe” aeinoa?u a
oeaeii. *enoi iaoaiaoe/anee yoi iieacae A.A.Aeaenaaa, eioi?ue ia iniiaa
?an/aoia i?eoae e neaaeothuei auaiaeai: “Yaiethoeey aeieaeia eaeoe a
iai?aaeaiee oaaee/aiey nei?inoe iaiaia aauanoaii a nenoaia”. E aeaeaa:
“Noaiiaeony iiiyoiui, ii/aio ia?aciaaeenue oa?iaiou, ?ieue eioi?uo
caeeth/aaony a ?aceii oaaee/aiee nei?inoae ?aaeoeee, eaeoueo i?e iau/iuo
oneiaeyo eneeth/eoaeueii iaaeeaiii”.

II aeioeie/aneee i?eioeei Aa?iaaeneiai iieo/aao iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey ia
naiii ?aciiia?aciii yiie?e/aneii iaoa?eaea. Oae, a 1956 aiaeo ii/aiaaae
A.E.Eiaaea eceiaeee ?acoeueoaou oeie/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey aieaa 1300
ia?acoeia cieu nia?aiaiiuo aunoeo ?anoaiee. Ia yoii iaoe?iaeoai
oaeoe/aneii iaoa?eaea aaoi? i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi (ca ianeieueeeie
eneeth/aieyie) cieueiinoue ?anoaiee aic?anoaao io i?aaenoaaeoaeae
ae?aaieo oaeniiia e aieaa iieiaeui. Yoa caeiiiia?iinoue – iaeii ec
/anoiuo i?iyaeaiee II aeiaaioeie/aneiai i?eioeeia. Aiiaua aea aai
i?iyaeaiey a aeinoa?a i/aiue iiiaiia?aciu e aeiaieueii iaiaeeaeaiiu.
Aicueiai ae?oaie i?eia? ec iaeanoe aioaieee.

Iaaaaeaineee aioaiee A.I.Oio?yeia iaaeaaii onoaiiaee naiaia?acioth
iai?aaeaiiinoue yaiethoeee aunoeo ?anoaiee – eioaineoeeaoeeth niai
i?aaiia a oiaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey i?aaiecia. “Oae, ii iiaieth
Oio?yeiaa, o ae?aaieo ae?aaiaeaeiuo ieaoiia – eaieaeiaeaiae?iiia – niaia
auea iiaeaa?aeaia oieueei /anoue eenoueaa. O aieaa i?iaeaeioouo a
yaiethoeeiiiii ioiioaiee ?anoaiee – iaii?ioieeiia?aciuo – iiaaeatho
oaeaea oieueei eenouey, ii o ieo a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie ii ioiioaieth e
ianna anaai oaea niaiyaony aieueoay /anoue, /ai o eaieaeiaeaiae?iiia. O
iaeaieaa i?eieoeaiuo aieinaiaiiuo – naaiaieeia – niaiai oaeaea
iiaeaa?aeaiu oieueei eenouey, aea e oi ca eneeth/aieai iniiaaiee. O
oaieiuo ia?eiaee/anee niaiythony aaoae e ei?a. Iaeiiaoe, ia i?eia?a
oeaaoeiauo iu iaeaieaa /aoei aeaeei ia?aoiae io iiiaieaoieo oi?i
(aea?aauey e eonoa?ieee) e iaeiieaoiei (o?aau). Yoio aea ia?aoiae
iaaethaeaaony e o ae?oaeo oaeniiia aunoeo ?anoaiee: n?aaee ae?aaieo
oaiuae e ieaoiia ainiiaenoaiaaee ae?aaiaeaeiua oi?iu, a nia?aiaiiua iai
iaiue e ieaoiu – o?aau; n?aaee iaii?ioieeia a aaieiae/aneii i?ioeii auei
iiiai ae?aaiaeaeiuo, a nae/an ae?aaiaeaeiua iaii?ioieee auie?atho. Oaeay
eioaineoeeaoeey niai, anoanoaaiii, i?eaiaeeo e oneeaieth aeiaaiiie
iea?aoeee aoiiia a aeinoa?a. E caeanue “?aaioaao” II i?eioeei…

III aeiaaioeie/aneee i?eioeei oaeaea naycai ni “anthaeiinoueth” eee
“aeaaeaieai” aeecie. Yoio oaeoi? iaania/eaaao aacinoaiiai/iue caoaao
aeeaui aauanoaii ethaie oa??eoi?ee, aaea aiciiaeii ii?iaeueiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aeeauo i?aaieciia.

Oaaeeoea

Oa?aeoa? e eieaeecaoeey i?ioeannia, inouanoaeyaiuo aeeaui aauanoaii.

?iae aaieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe Aaea i?ioeann
i?ioaeaao Aioo?e i?aaiecia Aia
i?aaiecia

Oa?aeoa? i?ioeanna

I Oeie/aneee (aeioeie/aneee) Ia?aaa?eaaiea ieue, iino?iaiea oaea
i?aaiecia Auaeaeaiea ai aiaoithth n?aaeo i?iaeoeoia iaoaaieecia e
yene?aoia; aiaeeaoi/iia ieuaaa?aiea

II Iaoaie/aneee I?iioneaiea iai?aaieaneeo eiiiiiaioia ieue /a?ac
aeaeoaei/iue o?aeo a?oioiaaeia e eeiaaeia a). Ia?aiauaiea naiiai
“aeeaiai aauanoaa” (neaaenoaea yoiai – o?ainii?oe?iaea aeiaaiiiai
aauanoaa);

a). ia?aiauaiea iaaeeaiai aauanoaa i?aaieciaie a oiaea
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe

IV. Aeinoa?a e /aeiaae. Iiinoa?a.

Aa?iaaeneee, aiaeece?oy aaieiae/aneoth enoi?eth Caiee, ooaa?aeaeaao,
/oi iaaethaeaaony ia?aoiae aeinoa?u a iiaia ninoiyiea – a iiinoa?o iiae
aeaenoaeai iiaie aaieiae/aneie neeu, iao/iie iunee /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaeiaei
a o?oaeao Aa?iaaeneiai iao caeii/aiiiai e iai?ioeai?a/eaiai oieeiaaiey
nouiinoe iaoa?eaeueiie iiinoa?u eae i?aia?aciaaiiie aeinoa?u. A iaeieo
neo/ayo ii ienae i iiinoa?a a aoaeouai a?aiaie (iia aua ia ianooieea), a
ae?oaeo a ianoiyuai (iu aoiaeei a iaa), a eiiaaea naycuaae oi?ie?iaaiea
iiinoa?u n iiyaeaieai /aeiaaea ?acoiiiai eee n aicieeiiaaieai
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi eiaaea a ea/anoaa
ieia?aeiaa Aa?iaaeneee ienae i aaieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ii
aua ia oiio?aaeye iiiyoee “iiinoa?a” e aeaaea “aeinoa?a”. I oi?ie?iaaiee
ia Caiea iiinoa?u ii iaeaieaa iiae?iaii ienae a iacaaa?oaiiie ?aaioa
“Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea”, ii i?aeiouanoaaiii n oi/ee
c?aiey enoi?ee iaoee.

Eoae, /oi aea iiinoa?a: ooiiey eee ?aaeueiay no?aoaaey auaeeaaiey?
O?oaeu Aa?iaaeneiai iicaieytho aieaa iainiiaaiii ioaaoeoue ia
iinoaaeaiiue aii?in, iineieueeo a ieo oeacai ?yae eiie?aoiuo oneiaee,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey noaiiaeaiey e nouanoaiaaiey iiinoa?u. Ia?a/eneei yoe
oneiaey:

canaeaiea /aeiaaeii anae ieaiaou;

?aceia i?aia?aciaaiea n?aaenoa nayce e iaiaia iaaeaeo no?aiaie;

oneeaiea naycae, a oii /enea iieeoe/aneeo, iaaeaeo anaie no?aiaie Caiee;

ia/aei i?aiaeaaeaiey aaieiae/aneie ?iee /aeiaaea iaae ae?oaeie
aaieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, i?ioaeathueie a aeinoa?a;

?anoe?aiea a?aieoe aeinoa?u e auoiae a einiin;

ioe?uoea iiauo enoi/ieeia yia?aee;

?aaainoai ethaeae anao ?an e ?aeeaee;

oaaee/aiea ?iee ia?iaeiuo iann a ?aoaiee aii?inia aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae
iieeoeee;

naiaiaea iao/iie iunee e iao/iiai eneaiey io aeaaeaiey ?aeeaeiciuo,
oeeinioneeo e iieeoe/aneeo iino?iaiee e nicaeaiea a ainoaea?noaaiiii
no?ia oneiaee, aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey naiaiaeiie iao/iie iunee;

i?iaeoiaiiay nenoaia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey e iiaeuai aeaaininoiyiey
o?oaeyueony. Nicaeaiea ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe ia aeiionoeoue
iaaeiaaeaiey e aieiaea, ieuaou e /?acau/aeii ineaaeoue aieacie;

?acoiiia i?aia?aciaaiea ia?ae/iie i?e?iaeu Caiee n oeaeueth naeaeaoue aa
niiniaiie oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana iaoa?eaeueiua, ynoaoe/aneea e aeooiaiua
iio?aaiinoe /eneaiii aic?anoathuaai ianaeaiey;

eneeth/aiea aiei ec aeecie iauanoaa.

I?ineaaeei, ianeieueei auiieiythony yoe oneiaey a nia?aiaiiii ie?a e
inoaiiaeiny aieaa iiae?iaii ia iaeioi?uo ec ieo.

Canaeaiea /aeiaaeii anae ieaiaou. Yoi oneiaea auiieiaii. Ia Caiea ia
inoaeinue iano, aaea ia nooiaea au iiaa /aeiaaea. Ii iainiiaaeny aeaaea
a Aioa?eoeaea.

?aceia i?aia?aciaaiea n?aaenoa nayce e iaiaia iaaeaeo no?aiaie. Yoi
oneiaea oaeaea iiaeii n/eoaoue auiieiaiiui. N iiiiuueth ?aaeei e
oaeaaeaeaiey iu iiiaioaeueii ociaai i niauoeyo a ethaie oi/ea caiiiai
oa?a. N?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaothony, onei?ythony,
iiyaeythony oaeea aiciiaeiinoe, i eioi?uo iaaeaaii o?oaeii auei
ia/oaoue. E caeanue iaeuecy ia aniiiieoue i?i?i/aneeo neia Aa?iaaeneiai:
“Yoio i?ioeann – iieiiai canaeaiey aeinoa?u /aeiaaeii – iaoneiaeai
oiaeii enoi?ee iao/iie iunee, ia?ac?uaii naycai ni nei?inoueth niioaiee,
n oniaoaie oaoieee ia?aaeaeaeaiey, n aiciiaeiinoueth iaiiaaiiie
ia?aaea/e iunee, aa iaeiia?aiaiiiai ianoaeaeaiey ia anae ieaiaoa.” . Aei
iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie n?aaenoaa oaeaeiiioieeaoeee ia?aie/eaaeenue
oaeaa?aoii, oaeaoiiii, ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaieai, i eioi?uo ienae aua
Aa?iaaeneee. Eiaeanue aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua io iaeiiai
eiiiuethoa?a e ae?oaiio i?e iiiiue iiaeaia, iiaeeeth/aiiiai e oaeaoiiiie
eeiee, aeieoiaiou ia aoiaaa ia?aaeaaaeenue n iiiiuueth oaeneieeueiuo
aiia?aoia. Oieueei a iineaaeiea aiaeu ?acaeoea aeiaaeueiie
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie eiiiuethoa?iie naoe Internet aeaei ia/aei
ianoiyuae ?aaiethoeee a /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee, eioi?ay aoiaeeo
nae/an a y?o eioi?iaoeee. A 1968 aiaeo Ieienoa?noai Iai?iiu NOA
icaaioeeinue naycueth iiiaeanoaa naieo eiiiuethoa?ia a niaoeeaeueioth
naoue, eioi?ay aeieaeia auea niinianoaiaaoue iao/iui enneaaeiaaieyi a
aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiie noa?a. Ecia/aeueii e yoie naoe auei i?aaeuyaeaii
o?aaiaaiea onoie/eainoe e /anoe/iui iia?aaeaeaieyi: ethaay /anoue naoe
iiaeao en/aciooue a ethaie iiiaio. E a yoeo oneiaeyo anaaaea aeieaeii
auei auoue aiciiaeiui onoaiiaeoue naycue iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?ii-enoi/ieeii e eiiiuethoa?ii-i?eaiieeii eioi?iaoeee
(noaioeeae iacia/aiey). ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa oaeie naoe e aai
inouanoaeaiea auei ii?o/aii ARPA – Advanced Research Projects Agency –
Oi?aaeaieth ia?aaeiauo enneaaeiaaiee Ieienoa?noaa Iai?iiu. *a?ac iyoue
eao iai?yaeaiiie ?aaiou oaeay naoue auea nicaeaia e iieo/eea iacaaiea
ARPAnet. A oa/aiea ia?auo aeanyoe eao ?acaeoea eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae oei
iacaiaoii – eo oneoaaie iieueciaaeenue oieueei niaoeeaeenou ii
au/eneeoaeueiie e aiaiiie oaoieea. Ii n ?acaeoeai eieaeueiuo naoae,
iauaaeeiythueo eiiiuethoa?u a i?aaeaeao iaeiie eaeie-eeai i?aaiecaoeee,
iiyaeeanue iio?aaiinoue naycaoue aiaaeeii eieaeueiua naoe ?acee/iuo
i?aaiecaoeee. A?aiy io a?aiaie i?aaei?eieiaeenue iiiuoee eniieueciaaoue
aeey yoiai oaea aioiaoth naoue ARPAnet, ii ath?ie?aou Ieienoa?noaa
Iai?iiu auee i?ioea. AEeciue o?aaiaaea auno?uo ?aoaiee, iiyoiio ca
iniiao aoaeouae naoe naoae Internet auea acyoa no?oeoo?a oaea
nouanoaothuae naoe ARPAnet. A 1973 aiaeo auei i?aaieciaaii ia?aia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia iiaeeeth/aiea – e naoe iiaeeeth/eeenue Aiaeey e
Ii?aaaey. Iaeiaei i?e/eiie ia/aea ac?uaiiai ?inoa naoe Internet a eiioea
80-o aiaeia noaee oneeey NSF (National Science Foundation –
Iaoeeiiaeueiue iao/iue oiiae NOA) e ae?oaeo aeaaeaie/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee
e iao/iuo oiiaeia anaai ie?a ii iiaeeeth/aieth iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee e
naoe. ?ino e ?acaeoea naoe Internet, niaa?oainoaiaaiea au/eneeoaeueiie e
eiiioieeaoeeiiiie oaoieee eaeao nae/an iiaeiaii oiio, eae eaeao
?aciiiaeaiea e yaiethoeey aeeauo i?aaieciia. Ia yoi a naia a?aiy ia?aoee
aieiaiea Aa?iaaeneee: “Ni nei?inoueth, n?aaieiie nei?inoueth
?aciiiaeaiey, au?aaeaaiie aaiiao?e/aneie i?ia?anneae a oiaea a?aiaie,
nicaeaaony yoei iooai a aeinoa?a ana ?anoouaa iiiaeanoai iiauo aeey iaa
einiuo i?e?iaeiuo oae e iiauo aieueoeo i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee.” . “…Oiae
iao/iie iunee, iai?eia?, a nicaeaiee iaoei, eae aeaaii caia/aii,
niaa?oaiii aiaeiae/ai oiaeo ?aciiiaeaiey i?aaieciia.” . Anee ?aiueoa
naoueth iieueciaaeenue oieueei enneaaeiaaoaee a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeee,
ainoaea?noaaiiua neoaeauea e iiae?yae/eee, oi oaia?ue i?aeoe/anee ethaie
aeaeathuee iiaeao iieo/eoue aeinooi e iae. E caeanue iu aeaeei
aiieiuaiea ia/ou Aa?iaaeneiai i aeaaii?eyoiie n?aaea aeey ?acaeoey
iao/iie ?aaiou, iiioey?ecaoeee iao/iiai ciaiey, ia eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiinoe
iaoee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee ?aiueoa ethaeae ?acaeaeyee a?aieoeu e
ia?iiiua ?annoiyiey, oi oaia?ue, aiciiaeii, oieueei ycueiaie aa?uea?.
“Anyeee iao/iue oaeo, anyeia iao/iia iaaethaeaiea, – ienae Aa?iaaeneee,
– aaea au e eai au iie ie auee naeaeaiu, iinooiatho a aaeeiue iao/iue
aiia?ao, a iai eeanneoeoee?othony e i?eaiaeyony e aaeeiie oi?ia, n?aco
noaiiayony iauei aeinoiyieai aeey e?eoeee, ?aciuoeaiee e iao/iie
?aaiou.”. Ii anee ?aiueoa aeey oiai, /oiau auoea a naao iao/iay ?aaioa,
/oiau iao/iay iuneue noaea ecaanoiie ie?o, o?aaiaaeenue aiaeu, oi nae/an
ethaie o/aiue, eiathuee aeinooi e naoe Internet, iiaeao i?aaenoaaeoue
naie o?oae, iai?eia?, a aeaea oae iacuaaaiie WWW no?aie/ee (World-Wide
Web – “Anaie?iay iaooeia”) ia iaic?aiea anai iieueciaaoaeyi naoe, i?e/ai
ia oieueei oaeno noaouee e ?enoiee (eae ia aoiaaa), ii e iiaeaeaeiua
eeethno?aoeee, a eiiaaea e caoeiaia nii?iaiaeaeaiea. Nae/an naoue
Internet – yoi ie?iaia niiauanoai ieiei 30 ouny/ eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae,
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iaaeaeo niaie. Ianaeaiea Internet oaea ninoaaeyao
ii/oe 30 ieeeeiiia iieueciaaoaeae e ieiei 10 ieeeeiiia eiiiuethoa?ia,
i?e/ai eiee/anoai oceia eaaeaeua iieoi?a aiaea oaeaaeaaaony. Aa?iaaeneee
ienae: “Nei?i iiaeii aoaeao naeaeaoue aeaeiuie aeey anao niauoey,
i?ienoiaeyuea ca ouny/e eeeiiao?ia” . Iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi e yoi
i?aaeneacaiea Aa?iaaeneiai naueinue.

Oneeaiea naycae, a oii /enea iieeoe/aneeo, iaaeaeo anaie no?aiaie Caiee.
Yoi oneiaea iiaeii n/eoaoue anee ia auiieiaiiui, oi auiieiythueiny.
Aicieeoay iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu I?aaiecaoeey Iauaaeeiaiiuo iaoeee
(III) ieacaeanue ai?acaei aieaa onoie/eaie e aeaenoaaiiie, /ai Eeaa
iaoeee, nouanoaiaaaoay a AEaiaaa n 1919 a. ii 1946 a.

Ia/aei i?aiaeaaeaiey aaieiae/aneie ?iee /aeiaaea iaae ae?oaeie
aaieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, i?ioaeathueie a aeinoa?a. Yoi oneiaea oaeaea
iiaeii n/eoaoue auiieiaiiui, oioy eiaiii i?aiaeaaeaiea aaieiae/aneie
?iee /aeiaaea a ?yaea neo/aaa i?eaaei e oyaeaeui yeieiae/aneei
iineaaenoaeyi. Iauai ai?iuo ii?iae, ecaeaeaaiuo ec aeoaei Caiee anaie
oaooaie e ea?uea?aie ie?a, nae/an ii/oe a aeaa ?aca i?aauoaao n?aaeiee
iauai eaa e iaieia, auiineiuo aaeaaiaeii anaie aoeeaiaie Caiee.

?anoe?aiea a?aieoe aeinoa?u e auoiae a einiin. A ?aaioao iineaaeiaai
aeanyoeeaoey aeecie Aa?iaaeneee ia n/eoae a?aieoeu aeinoa?u iinoiyiiuie.
Ii iiae/a?eeaae ?anoe?aiea eo a i?ioeii eae eoia auoiaea aeeaiai
aauanoaa ia nooo, iiyaeaiey aunieinoaieueiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe, eaoathueo
ianaeiiuo, a iicaeiaa eaoathueo yua?ia e ioeoe. A i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea a
iiinoa?o a?aieoeu aeinoa?u aeieaeiu ?anoe?youeny, a /aeiaae aeieaeai
aueoe a einiin. Yoe i?aaeneacaiey naueenue.

Ioe?uoea iiauo enoi/ieeia yia?aee. Oneiaea auiieiaii, ii, e niaeaeaieth,
n o?aae/aneeie iineaaenoaeyie. Aoiiiay yia?aey aeaaii inaiaia e a
ie?iuo, e a aiaiiuo oeaeyo. *aeiaa/anoai (a oi/iaa iieeoeee) yaii ia
aioiai ia?aie/eoueny ie?iuie oeaeyie, aieaa oiai – aoiiiay (yaea?iay)
neea aioea a iao aae i?aaeaea anaai eae aiaiiia n?aaenoai e n?aaenoai
ono?aoaiey i?ioeainoiyueo yaea?iuo aea?aeaa. Aii?in ia eniieueciaaiee
aoiiiie yia?aee aeoaiei aieiiaae Aa?iaaeneiai aua aieaa iieoaaea iacaae.
A i?aaeeneiaee e eieaa “I/a?ee e ?a/e” ii i?i?i/anee ienae: “Iaaeaeaei
a?aiy, eiaaea /aeiaae iieo/eo a naie ?oee aoiiioth yia?aeth, oaeie
enoi/iee neeu, eioi?ue aeano aio aiciiaeiinoue no?ieoue naith aeeciue,
eae ii caoi/ao… Noiaao ee /aeiaae ainiieueciaaoueny yoie neeie,
iai?aaeoue aa ia aeia?i, a ia ia naiioie/oiaeaiea? Aei?in ee ii aei
oiaiey eniieueciaaoue oo neeo, eioi?oth iaecaaaeii aeieaeia aio aeaoue
iaoea?” . Ia?iiiue yaea?iue iioaioeeae iiaeaea?aeeaaaony /oanoaii
acaeiiiai no?aoa e no?aieaieai iaeiie ec noi?ii e cuaeiio
i?aainoiaenoao. Iiaouanoai iiaiai enoi/ieea yia?aee ieacaeinue
niiieoaeueiui, ii i?eoaeny ia ei a?aiaie e iiiae ia a oa ?oee. Aeey
?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa a iaeanoe ie?iiai
eniieueciaaiey aoiiiie yia?aee a 1957 aiaeo nicaeaii Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
Aaaionoai ii Aoiiiie Yia?aee (IAAAOY), iauaaeeiyaoaa e 1981 aiaeo 111
ainoaea?noa.

?aaainoai ethaeae anao ?an e ?aeeaee. Yoi oneiaea anee ia aeinoeaiooi,
oi, ai anyeii neo/aa, aeinoeaaaony. ?aoeoaeueiui oaaii aeey onoaiiaeaiey
?aaainoaa ethaeae ?acee/iuo ?an e aa?ieniiaaaeaiee auei ?ac?ooaiea a
eiioea i?ioeiai aaea eieiieaeueiuo eiia?ee.

Oaaee/aiea ?iee ia?iaeiuo iann a ?aoaiee aii?inia aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae
iieeoeee. Yoi oneiaea niaethaeaaony ai anao no?aiao n ia?eaiaioneie
oi?iie i?aaeaiey.

Naiaiaea iao/iie iunee e iao/iiai eneaiey io aeaaeaiey ?aeeaeiciuo,
oeeinioneeo e iieeoe/aneeo iino?iaiee e nicaeaiea a ainoaea?noaaiiii
no?ia oneiaee, aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey naiaiaeiie iao/iie iunee. O?oaeii
aiai?eoue i auiieiaiee yoiai oneiaey a no?aia, aaea aua nianai iaaeaaii
iaoea iaoiaeeeanue iiae eieinnaeueiui aiaoii ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeeinioneeo e
iieeoe/aneeo iino?iaiee. Nae/an iaoea io oaeeo aeaaeaiee naiaiaeia,
iaeiaei ec-ca oyaeaeiai yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey a ?inneeneie iaoea
iiiaea o/aiua auioaeaeaiu ca?aaaouaaoue naaa ia aeeciue iaiao/iui
o?oaeii, ae?oaea oacaeatho ca a?aieoeo. Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ?inneeneie
iaoee nicaeaiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oiiaeu. A ?acaeouo e aeaaea
?acaeaathueony no?aiao, /oi iu aeaeei ia i?eia?a Eiaeee,
ainoaea?noaaiiue e iauanoaaiiue no?ie nicaeatho ?aaeei iaeneiaeueiiai
aeaaii?eyonoaiaaiey aeey naiaiaeiie iao/iie iunee.

I?iaeoiaiiay nenoaia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey e iiaeuai aeaaininoiyiey
o?oaeyueony. Nicaeaiea ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe ia aeiionoeoue
iaaeiaaeaiey e aieiaea, ieuaou e /?acau/aeii ineaaeoue aieacie. I
auiieiaiee yoiai oneiaey o?oaeii noaeeoue iauaeoeaii, iaoiaeynue a
aieueoie no?aia, noiyuae ia ii?iaa aieiaea e ieuaou, eae ia yoii ieooo
ana aacaou. Iaeiaei Aa?iaaeneee i?aaeoi?aaeaeae, /oi i?ioeann ia?aoiaea
aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o ia iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iinoaiaiii e
iaeiiiai?aaeaii, /oi ia yoii iooe a?aiaiiua ionooieaiey iaecaaaeiu. E
ianoaiiaeo, neiaeeaoothny nae/an a iaoae no?aia, iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue
eae yaeaiea a?aiaiiia e i?aoiaeyuaa.

?acoiiia i?aia?aciaaiea ia?ae/iie i?e?iaeu Caiee n oeaeueth naeaeaoue aa
niiniaiie oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana iaoa?eaeueiua, ynoaoe/aneea e aeooiaiua
iio?aaiinoe /eneaiii aic?anoathuaai ianaeaiey. Yoi oneiaea, iniaaiii a
iaoae no?aia, ia iiaeao n/eoaoueny auiieiaiiui, iaeiaei ia?aua oaae a
iai?aaeaiee ?acoiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeu ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XX aaea
ianiiiaiii ia/aee inouanoaeyoueny. A nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae i?ienoiaeeo
eioaa?aoeey iaoe ia aaca yeieiae/aneeo eaeae. Any nenoaia iao/iiai
ciaiey aeaao ooiaeaiaio aeey yeieiae/aneeo caaea/. Ia yoii oaeaea
aiai?ee Aa?iaaeneee, no?aiynue nicaeaoue aaeeioth iaoeo i aeinoa?a.
Yeieiaecaoeey caiaaeiiai niciaiey i?ienoiaeeea ia/eiay n 70-o aiaeia,
nicaeaaay oneiaey aeey aicieeiiaaiey yeioeeueiie oeeaeeecaoeee. Nae/an
yeno?aienoneay oi?ia caeaiiai aeaeaeaiey ieacaeanue oai oaea ia ioaeiie,
iineieueeo ca?aaioaee ainoaea?noaaiiua iaoaieciu ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai. A NNN? aei 80-o aiaeia n/eoaeinue, /oi
nioeeaeenoe/aneia oicyenoaiaaiea i?aiyonoaoao oa?ica yeieiae/aneiai
e?ecena. A ia?eiae ia?ano?ieee yoio ieo ?acaayeny, aeoeaece?iaaeinue
aeaeaeaiea caeaiuo. Iaeiaei a nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae iieeoe/aneia
?oeiaiaenoai ia?ai?eaioe?iaaeinue a iniiaiii ia ?aoaiea yeiiiie/aneeo
i?iaeai, i?iaeaiu yeieiaee ioioee ia caaeiee ieai. A ie?iaii ianooaaa
aeey ?ac?aoaiey yeieiae/aneie i?iaeaiu a oneiaeyo ?inoa ianaeaiey
ieaiaou o?aaoaony niiniaiinoue ?aoaiey aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai, /oi a
oneiaeyo noaa?aieoaoa ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noa eaaeaony niiieoaeueiui.

Eneeth/aiea aiei ec aeecie iauanoaa. Yoi oneiaea Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae
/?acau/aeii aaaeiui aeey nicaeaiey e nouanoaiaaiey iiinoa?u. Ii iii ia
auiieiaii e iiea iaynii, iiaeao ee auoue auiieiaii. Ie?iaia niiauanoai
no?aieony ia aeiionoeoue ie?iaie aieiu, oioy eieaeueiua aieiu aua oiinyo
iiiaea aeecie.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei, /oi iaeeoei ana oa eiie?aoiua i?eciaee, ana
eee ii/oe ana oneiaey, eioi?ua oeacuaae A.E.Aa?iaaeneee aeey oiai, /oiau
ioee/eoue iiinoa?o io nouanoaiaaaoeo ?aiaa ninoiyiee aeinoa?u. I?ioeann
aa ia?aciaaiey iinoaiaiiue, e, aa?iyoii, ieeiaaea iaeuecy aoaeao oi/ii
oeacaoue aiae eee aeaaea aeanyoeeaoea, n eioi?iai ia?aoiae aeinoa?u a
iiinoa?o iiaeii aoaeao n/eoaoue caaa?oaiiui. Ii, eiia/ii, iiaiey ii
yoiio aii?ino iiaoo auoue ?aciua.

Nai Aa?iaaeneee, caia/ay iaaeaeaoaeueiua, ?ac?ooeoaeueiua iineaaenoaey
oicyenoaiaaiey /aeiaaea ia Caiea, n/eoae eo iaeioi?uie ecaea?aeeaie. Ii
aa?ee a /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi, aoiaieci iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi?aeanoai
aeia?a e e?aniou. *oi-oi ii aaieaeueii i?aaeaeaeae, a /ai-oi, aiciiaeii,
ii ioeaaeny. Iiinoa?o neaaeoao i?eieiaoue eae neiaie aa?u, eae eaeaae
?acoiiiai /aeiaa/aneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a aeinoa?iua i?ioeannu iiae
aeeyieai iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee. Iaaei a iaa aa?eoue, iaaeayoueny ia aa
i?eoanoaea, i?aaei?eieiaoue niioaaonoaothuea ia?u.

V. ?ieue /aeiaa/aneiai oaeoi?a a ?acaeoee aeinoa?u.

Oeaio?aeueiie oaiie o/aiey i iiinoa?a yaeyaony aaeeinoai aeinoa?u e
/aeiaa/anoaa. Aa?iaaeneee a naieo ?aaioao ?ane?uaaao ei?ie yoiai
aaeeinoaa, cia/aiea i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa.
Yoi iicaieyao iiiyoue ianoi e ?ieue enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa
a yaiethoeee aeinoa?u, caeiiiia?iinoe aa ia?aoiaea a iiinoa?o.

Iaeiie ec eeth/aauo eaeae, eaaeaueo a iniiaa oai?ee Aa?iaaeneiai i
iiinoa?a, yaeyaony oi, /oi /aeiaae ia yaeyaony naiiaeinoaoi/iui aeeaui
nouanoaii, aeeaouei ioaeaeueii ii naiei caeiiai, ii ninouanoaoao aioo?e
i?e?iaeu e yaeyaony /anoueth aa. Yoi aaeeinoai iaoneiaeaii i?aaeaea
anaai ooieoeeiiaeueiie ia?ac?uaiinoueth ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e /aeiaaea,
eioi?oth iuoaeny iieacaoue Aa?iaaeneee eae aeiaaioeiee. *aeiaa/anoai
naii ii naaa anoue i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea e anoanoaaiii, /oi aeeyiea
aeinoa?u neacuaaaony ia oieueei ia n?aaea aeecie ii e ia ia?aca iunee.

Ii ia oieueei i?e?iaea ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia /aeiaaea, nouanoaoao e
ia?aoiay naycue. I?e/ai iia ia iiaa?oiinoiay, io?aaeathuay oece/aneia
aeeyiea /aeiaaea ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, iia ai?acaei aeoaaea. Yoi
aeieacuaaao oio oaeo, /oi a iineaaeiaa a?aiy caiaoii aeoeaece?iaaeenue
ieaiaoa?iua aaieiae/aneea neeu. “…iu ana aieueoa e y?/a aeaeei a
aeaenoaee ie?oaeathuea ian aaieiae/aneea neeu. Yoi niaiaei, aaeaa ee
neo/aeii, n i?iieeiiaaieai a iao/iia niciaiea oaaaeaeaiey i
aaieiae/aneii cia/aiee Homo sapiens, n auyaeaieai iiaiai ninoiyiey
aeinoa?u — iiinoa?u — e yaeyaony iaeiie ec oi?i aa au?aaeaiey. Iii
naycaii, eiia/ii, i?aaeaea anaai n ooi/iaieai anoanoaaiiie iao/iie
?aaiou e iunee a i?aaeaeao aeinoa?u, aaea aeeaia aauanoai ea?aao
iniiaioth ?ieue” . Oae, a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ?acei iaiyaony io?aaeaiea
aeeauo nouanoa ia ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaea. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio i?ioeann
yaiethoeee ia?aiineony a iaeanoue ieia?aeia. ?acei iaiythony ii/au,
aiaeu e aicaeoo. Oi anoue yaiethoeey aeaeia naia i?aa?aoeeanue a
aaieiae/aneee i?ioeann, oae eae a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee iiyaeeanue iiaay
aaieiae/aneay neea. Aa?iaaeneee ienae: “Yaiethoeey aeaeia ia?aoiaeeo a
yaiethoeeth aeinoa?u” .

Caeanue anoanoaaiii iai?aoeaaaony auaiae i oii, /oi aaieiae/aneie neeie
yaeyaony nianoaaiii aiana ia Homo Sapiens, a aai ?acoi, iao/iay iuneue
nioeeaeueiiai /aeiaa/anoaa. A “Oeeinioneeo iuneyo iaoo?aeenoa”
Aa?iaaeneee ienae: “Iu eae ?ac ia?aaeeaaai aa y?eia aoiaeaeaiea a
aaieiae/aneoth enoi?eth ieaiaou. A iineaaeiea ouny/aeaoey iaaethaeaaony
eioaineaiue ?ino aeeyiey iaeiiai aeaeiaiai aeeaiai aauanoaa —
oeeaeeeciaaiiiai /aeiaa/anoaa — ia eciaiaiea aeinoa?u. Iiae aeeyieai
iao/iie iunee e /aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea aeinoa?a ia?aoiaeeo a iiaia
ninoiyiea — a iiinoa?o” .

Iu yaeyainy iaaethaeaoaeyie e eniieieoaeyie aeoaieiai eciaiaiey
aeinoa?u. I?e/ai ia?ano?ieea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iao/iie /aeiaa/aneie
iuneueth iin?aaenoaii i?aaieciaaiiiai o?oaea a?yae ee yaeyaony noeoeeiui
i?ioeannii. Ei?ie yoiai eaaeao a naiie i?e?iaea e auee caeiaeaiu aua
ieeeeiiu eao iacaae a oiaea anoanoaaiiiai i?ioeanna yaiethoeee.
“*aeiaae… ninoaaeyao iaecaaaeiia i?iyaeaiea aieueoiai i?e?iaeiiai
i?ioeanna, caeiiiia?ii aeeyuaainy a oa/aiea, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaoo
ieeeea?aeia eao” .

Ionthaea, enoaoe, iiaeii caeeth/eoue /oi auneacuaaiey i naiieno?aaeaiee
/aeiaa/anoaa, i e?ooaiee oeeaeeecaoeee ia eiatho iiae niaie aaneeo
iniiaaiee. Auei au ii iaiueoae ia?a no?aiii, anee au iao/iay iuneue –
ii?iaeaeaiea anoanoaaiiiai aaieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna i?ioeai?a/eea au
naiiio i?ioeanno. Iu noiei ia ii?iaa ?aaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea: aeinoa?a iin?aaenoaii ia?a?aaioee iao/iie iuneueth
ia?aoiaeeo a iiaia yaiethoeeiiiia ninoiyiea – iiinoa?o.

Canaeyy ana oaieee iaoae ieaiaou, iie?aynue ia ainoaea?noaaiii
i?aaieciaaiioth iao/ioth iuneue e ia aa ii?iaeaeaiea, oaoieeo, /aeiaae
nicaeae a aeinoa?a iiaoth aeiaaiioth neeo, iiaeaea?aeeaathuoth
?aciiiaeaiea e aeaeueiaeoaa canaeaiea ?acee/iuo /anoae aeinoa?u. I?e/ai
aianoa n ?anoe?aieai iaeanoe aeeoaeuenoaa, /aeiaa/anoai ia/eiaao
i?aaenoaaeyoue naay ana aieaa niei/aiioth ianno, oae eae ?acaeaathuea
n?aaenoaa nayce – n?aaenoaa ia?aaea/e iunee ieoouaatho aanue Caiiie oa?.
“Yoio i?ioeann – iieiiai canaeaiey aeinoa?u /aeiaaeii – iaoneiaeai
oiaeii enoi?ee iao/iie iunee, ia?ac?uaii naycai ni nei?inoueth niioaiee,
n oniaoaie oaoieee ia?aaeaeaeaiey, n aiciiaeiinoueth iaiiaaiiie
ia?aaea/e iunee, aa iaeiia?aiaiiiai ianoaeaeaiey anthaeo ia ieaiaoa” .

I?e yoii /aeiaae aia?aua ?aaeueii iiiye, /oi ii aeeoaeue ieaiaou e
iiaeao e aeieaeai iuneeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue a iiaii aniaeoa, ia oieueei a
aniaeoa ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe, naiuee eee ?iaea, ainoaea?noa eee eo
nithcia, ii e a ieaiaoiii aniaeoa. Ii, eae e ana aeeaia, iiaeao iuneeoue
e aeaenoaiaaoue a ieaiaoiii aniaeoa oieueei a iaeanoe aeecie — a
aeinoa?a, a ii?aaeaeaiiie caiiie iaiei/ea, n eioi?ie ii ia?ac?uaii,
caeiiiia?ii naycai e oeoe ec eioi?ie ii ia iiaeao. Aai nouanoaiaaiea
anoue aa ooieoeey. Ii ianao aa n niaie anthaeo. E ii aa iaecaaaeii,
caeiiiia?ii, iai?a?uaii eciaiyao. Iioiaea, /oi aia?aua iu iaoiaeeiny a
oneiaeyo aaeeiiai aaieiae/aneiai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, ioaaoeaoaai
iaeiia?aiaiii anth ieaiaoo. XX aae oa?aeoa?ai oai, /oi ethaua
i?ienoiaeyuaa ia ieaiaoa niauoea naycuaathony a aaeeiia oeaeia. E n
eaaeaeui aeiai nioeeaeueiay, iao/iay e eoeueoo?iay naycaiiinoue
/aeiaa/anoaa oieueei oneeeaaaony e oaeoaeyaony. “Oaaee/aiea
anaeaineinoe, niayiiinoe anao /aeiaa/aneeo iauanoa iai?a?uaii ?anoao e
noaiiaeony caiaoiui a iaiiiaea aiaeu /ooue ia aaeaaiaeii” .

?acoeueoao anao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo eciaiaiee a aeinoa?a ieaiaou aeae
iiaiae o?aioeocneiio aaieiao Oaey? aea Oa?aeaio caeeth/eoue, /oi
aeinoa?a a ianoiyuee iiiaio auno?i aaieiae/anee ia?aoiaeeo a iiaia
ninoiyiea – a iiinoa?o, oi anoue oaeia ninoiyiea a eioi?ii /aeiaa/aneee
?acoi e iai?aaeyaiay ei ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iiaoth iiuioth
aaieiae/aneoth neeo. Yoi niaiaei, aeaeeii ia neo/aeii, n oai iiiaioii
eiaaea /aeiaae canaeee anth ieaiaoo, ana /aeiaa/anoai yeiiiie/anee
iauaaeeieeinue a aaeeiia oeaeia e iao/iay iuneue anaai /aeiaa/anoaa
neeeanue aiaaeeii, aeaaiaea?y oniaoai a oaoieea nayce. Oaeei ia?acii:

*aeiaae, eae ii iaaethaeaaony a i?e?iaea, eae e ana aeeaua i?aaieciu,
eae anyeia aeeaia aauanoai, anoue ii?aaeaeaiiay ooieoeey aeinoa?u, a
ii?aaeaeaiiii aa i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie;

*aeiaae ai anao aai i?iyaeaieyo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /anoue aeinoa?u;

I?i?ua iao/iie iunee iiaeaioiaeai anai i?ioeui aeinoa?u e eiaao
yaiethoeeiiiua ei?ie. Iiinoa?a – yoi aeinoa?a, ia?a?aaioaiiay iao/iie
iuneueth, iiaeaioaaeeaathuaeny anai i?ioeui ieaiaou, a ia
e?aoeia?aiaiiia e ia?aoiaeyuaa aaieiae/aneia yaeaiea.

Aa?iaaeneee iaiaeiie?aoii ioia/ae, /oi “oeeaeeecaoeey “eoeueoo?iiai
/aeiaa/anoaa” — iineieueeo iia yaeyaony oi?iie i?aaiecaoeee iiaie
aaieiae/aneie neeu, nicaeaaoaeny a aeinoa?a,— ia iiaeao i?a?aaoueny e
oie/oiaeeoueny, oae eae yoi anoue aieueoia i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea,
ioaa/athuaa enoi?e/anee, aa?iaa, aaieiae/anee neiaeeaoaeny
i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u. Ia?acoy iiinoa?o, iia anaie ei?iyie
naycuaaaony n yoie caiiie iaiei/eie, /aai ?aiueoa a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa
a neieueei-ieaoaeue n?aaieiie ia?a ia auei” .

Iiiaia ec oiai, i /ai ienae Aa?iaaeneee, noaiiaeony aeinoiyieai
naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy. Nia?aiaiiu e iiiyoiu iai aai iunee i oeaeinoiinoe,
iaaeaeeiinoe oeeaeeecaoeee, i aaeeinoaa aeinoa?u e /aeiaa/anoaa.
Ia?aeiiiue iiiaio a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa, i /ai naaiaeiy aiai?yo o/aiua,
iieeoeee, ioaeeoeenou, aue oaeaeai Aa?iaaeneei.

Aa?iaaeneee aeaeae iaecaaaeiinoue iiinoa?u, iiaeaioaaeeaaaiie eae
yaiethoeeae aeinoa?u, oae e enoi?e/aneei ?acaeoeai /aeiaa/anoaa. N oi/ee
c?aiey iiinoa?iiai iiaeoiaea ii-eiiio aeaeyony e nia?aiaiiua aieaaua
oi/ee ?acaeoey ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee. Aa?aa?neia ioiioaiea e aeinoa?a,
oa?ica ie?iaie yeieiae/aneie eaoano?iou, i?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa
ianniaiai oie/oiaeaiey — ana yoi aeieaeii eiaoue i?aoiaeyuaa cia/aiea.
Aii?in i ei?aiiii iiai?ioa e enoieai aeecie, e i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u
a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aeieaeai cao/aoue eae iaaao, i?ecua e oiio, /oiau
iuneeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue, a aeinoa?iii – ieaiaoiii aniaeoa.

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a.

Aeeai ?.Ae. “Iaoea i aeecie”, I. – 1981a.

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Oeeinioneea iunee iaoo?aeenoa”, I.– 1988a.

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Aeinoa?a e iiinoa?a”, I.– 1989a.

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea”, I. – 1989a.

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Ia/aei e aa/iinoue aeecie”, I.– 1989a.

Eiiae?aoueaa I.I. eaeoeee, M. – 1997a.

Eaii A.A. “Neaaeu aueuo aeinoa?”, I. – 1979a.

Eaiaca I.A. “Aeieiaey. Aeiiaoiee ?aiaoeoi?”, I. – 1997a.

?ocaeei A.E. “Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey” I. 1997a.

Niieeia I.N. “?inney e Caiaae a ioa/anoaaiiie ?oaeeoeenoeea 19 aaea”

o?anoiiaoey, 2 oii, I. – 1995a.

Aa?iaaeneee A.I. Ia/aei e aa/iinoue aeecie. – I.: ?anioaeeea, 1989. –
N.156.

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Aeinoa?a e iiinoa?a.– I. Iaoea, 1989.– n.185

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Aeinoa?a e iiinoa?a.– I. Iaoea, 1989.– n.181

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Aeiaaioeie/aneea i/a?ee. – I., 1940. – N.49.

E.I a?en e O.Yiaaeuen, Ni/. o.20, n.616

A.E.Aa?iaaeneee. Oeie/aneia no?iaiea aeinoa?u Caiee e aa ie?oaeaiey.
I., 1965, n. 283, 286; Aeiaaioeie/aneea i/a?ee, I.– E., 1940, n.185

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea”, I. – 1989a.,
n.136

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea”, I. – 1989a.,
n.132

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea”, I. – 1989a.,
n.134

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea”, I. – 1989a.,
n.143

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea”, I. – 1989a.,
n.140

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea”, I. – 1989a.,
n.331

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Oeeinioneea iunee iaoo?aeenoa”, I.– 1988a., n.26

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Oeeinioneea iunee iaoo?aeenoa”, I.– 1988a., n.27

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Oeeinioneea iunee iaoo?aeenoa”, I.– 1988a., n.27

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Oeeinioneea iunee iaoo?aeenoa”, I.– 1988a., n.28

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Oeeinioneea iunee iaoo?aeenoa”, I.– 1988a., n.34

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Oeeinioneea iunee iaoo?aeenoa”, I.– 1988a., n.88

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. “Oeeinioneea iunee iaoo?aeenoa”, I.– 1988a., n.46

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