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Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea. 3

I?ioeann aeieiae/aneie i/enoee. 3

Nii?oaeaiey e aiia?aou aeieiae/aneie i/enoee. 4

Aeioeeueo?u n caa?oceie ec iaiinoaeea eee ieanoiannu. 5

Aeiaeeneiaua oeeueo?u. 6

Aeioeeueo?aoi?u. 7

Aei?aaeoi?u n aeiaa?aaaiaie. 9

Ay?ioaiee. 10

Ia?aaioea inaaeeia. 16

Iaacca?aaeeaaiea noi/iuo aiae. 16

Aeii/enoea noi/iuo aiae. 17

Oeeueo?othuea eieiaeoeu, eannaou. 17

Aeieiae/aneea i?oaeu. 18

Oeeueo?u n ca?ienoie caa?oceie. 18

Iee?ioeeueo?u e iaiuaiua oeeueo?u 19

Oeeueo? IENEII?. 20

Caeeth/aiea. 21

Eeoa?aoo?a. 22

1.Aaaaeaiea

I?iaeaia io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu o?aaoao onei?aiiiai aiaae?aiey
aunieiyooaeoeaiuo nenoai caueou aiaeiaiia io caa?yciaiee.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii caa?yciaiey aiaeiaiia, i?eaiaeyuei e oooaeoaieth
ea/anoaa aiaeu e ia?ooaieth ii?iaeueiuo oneiaee aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
aeae?iaeiioia, yaeythony na?inu i?iiuoeaiiuo noi/iuo aiae. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iiiaea aiaeiaiu ie?a ec-ca caa?yciaiey oo?aoeee naia cia/aiea eae
enoi/ieee ?uaioicyenoaaiiiai e naieoa?ii-auoiaiai aiaeiiieueciaaiey.

I?iaeaia i/enoee i?iiuoeaiiuo noieia e iiaeaioiaee aiaeu aeey
oaoie/aneeo e oicyenoaaiii-ieoueaauo oeaeae n eaaeaeui aiaeii
i?eia?aoaao ana aieueoaa cia/aiea. Neiaeiinoe i/enoee neacaia n
/?acau/aeiui ?aciiia?aceai i?eiane a noieao, eiee/anoai e ninoaa eioi?uo
iinoiyiii eciaiyaony a neaaenoaea iiyaeaiey iiauo i?iecaiaenoa e
eciaiaiea oaoiieiaee nouanoaothueo.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoiae i/enoee noi/iuo aiae aeoeaiui eeii yaeyaony
iaeaieaa oieaa?naeueiui e oe?iei i?eiaiyaiui i?e ia?aaioea noieia.
Eniieueciaaiea oaoie/aneiai eenei?iaea, aunieiaeoeaiuo neiaeioe/aneeo
eeiauo eoeueoo?, noeioeyoi?ia aeioeie/aneiai ieeneaiey, ?acee/iiai ?iaea
oniaa?oainoaiaaiiuo eiino?oeoeee ay?ioaieia, ay?aoeeiiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey
e nenoai ioaeaeaiey aeoeaiiai eea iicaieeei a ianeieueei ?ac iiauneoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iaoiaea aeieiae/aneie i/enoee. Cia/eoaeueiua
?aca?au ne?uou oaeaea a iaeanoe eioaineoeeaoeee ianniiaiaia.

I?iaeaia aeieiae/aneie i/enoee noieia i?eia?aoaao aic?anoathuaa
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea.

2.I?ioeann aeieiae/aneie i/enoee

Aeieiae/aneay i/enoea noi/iuo aiae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acoeueoao
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu aeoeaiue ee – noi/iay aiaea, oa?aeoa?ecoaiie
iaee/eai neiaeiie iiiaio?iaiaaie no?oeoo?u. Aeieiae/aneia ieeneaiea
ninoaaeythuaa iniiao yoiai i?ioeanna, yaeyaony neaaenoaeai i?ioaeaiey
aieueoiai eiiieaena acaeiinaycaiiuo i?ioeannia ?acee/iie neiaeiinoe: io
yeaiaioiuo aeoia iaiaia yeaeo?iiia aei neiaeiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee
aeioeaiica n aiaoiae n?aaeie.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee iieacuaatho, /oi oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth
neiaeiuo iiiaiaeaeiauo iiioeyoeee, e eioi?ui ioiinyony e aeoeaiue ee,
yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea a nenoaia aeeiaie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney, eioi?ia
aeinoeaaaony neiaeaieai iiiaeanoaa ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeo ioeeiiaiee
aeoeaiinoe e /eneaiiinoe ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia a oo eee eioth noi?iio io eo
n?aaeiaai o?iaiy.

3.Nii?oaeaiey e aiia?aou

aeieiae/aneie i/enoee

Aeieiae/aneay i/enoea iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny eae a anoanoaaiiuo oae e a
eneonnoaaiiuo oneiaeyo.

E nii?oaeaieyi anoanoaaiiie i/enoee ioiinyony:

Oeeueo?othuea eieiaeoeu, eniieuecoaiua i?e ?anoiaea 1 eoa.i a nooee e
iaiaa, e oeeueo?othuea eannaou – i?e ?anoiaea 0,5-6 eoa.i a nooee.

Iiey iiaecaiiie oeeueo?aoeee – i?e ?anoiaea aei 15 eoa.i a nooee e
aieaa.

Iiey oeeueo?aoeee – i?e ?anoiaea 1400 eoa.i a nooee e iaiaa.

A yoeo nii?oaeaieyo, oeeueo?othuae caa?oceie yaeythony anoanoaaiiua
a?oiou, eniieuecoaiua iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ianoa (ianee, noiane, eaaeea
noaeeiee).

Oeeueo?othuea o?aioae, ian/aii-a?aaeeiua oeeueo?u, i?eiaiyaiua i?e
?anoiaea 15 eoa.i a nooee e aieaa. I?ineoaeueiay e ae?aiaaeiay naoue
yoeo nii?oaeaiee iieiaeaia a neia eneonnoaaiiie oeeueo?othuae caa?ocee
ec i?eaiciiai a?oioa. Eo ono?aeaatho i?e iaee/ee aiaeiiai?iieoeaaiuo eee
neaaioeeueo?othueo a?oioia.

Oeeueo?othuea eannaou n i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth 0,5-6 eoa.i a nooee,
i?eiaiyaiua a neaaioeeueo?othueo a?oioao (noaeeieao) i?e eiyooeoeeaioa
oeeueo?aoeee ia iaiaa 0,1 eoa.i a nooee.

Oee?eoeyoeeiiiua ieeneeoaeueiua eaiaeu (OeIE) – i?e ?anoiaea 100-1400
eoa.i a nooee.

Aeieiae/aneea i?oaeu n anoanoaaiiie eee eneonnoaaiiie ay?aoeeae – i?e
?anoiaea 1400 eoa.i a nooee.

I?e e?oaeiaiaee/iie ?aaioa i/enoiie noaioeee Nii?oaeaiey anoanoaaiiie
i/enoee ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue, anee oaeiaeaoai?ythony
neaaeothuea oneiaey:

n?aaeiaaiaeiaay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa a ?aeiia ?aniieiaeaiey i/enoiie
noaioeee ia iaiaa 10 a?aae.N;

aeoaeia a?oioiauo aiae ia iaiaa 1 i io iiaa?oiinoe caiee;

iaee/ea naiaiaeiuo ieiuaaeae a aeece iaeuo iauaeoia.

I?e naciiiie ?aaioa noaioeee (oieueei a eaoiee ia?eiae) ia?aia oneiaea,
eanathuaany n?aaeiaaiaeiaie oaiia?aoo?u, eneeth/aaony.

Iaeiaei ii/aaiiua iaoiaeu ia anaaaea i?eaieaiu ec-ca iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
naieoa?iuo, ii/aaiii-a?oioiauo, eeeiaoe/aneeo, aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo
oneiaee. A nayce n yoei aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?eiaiaiee
nii?oaeaiee eneonnoaaiiie aeieiae/aneie i/enoee.

E nii?oaeaieyi, a eioi?uo aeieiae/aneay i/enoea i?ioaeaao a
eneonnoaaiii nicaeaiiuo oneiaeyo, ioiinyony:

Aeioeeueo?u n caa?oceie ec iaiinoaeea eee ieanoiannu.

Aeiaeeneiaua oeeueo?u.

Aeioeeueo?aoi?u.

Aei?aaeoi?u n aeiaa?aaaiaie.

Aeie aei?aaeoi?ia n caoiieaiiie a?oiaie caa?oceie.

Ay?aoeeiiiua onoaiiaee, ?aaioathuea ii iaoiaeo iieiiai ieeneaiey
(i?iaeeaiiie ay?aoeee).

Ay?aoeeiiiua onoaiiaee n ay?iaiie noaaeeecaoeeae ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai
eea.

3.1. Aeioeeueo?u n caa?oceie ec

iaiinoaeea eee ieanoiannu

Nii?oaeaiey aeieiae/aneie oeeueo?aoeee, iniaaiii n i?ee?aieaiiui
aeioeaiicii, oi?ioi naay ca?aeiiaiaeiaaee a ?aaioa n iaeuie ?anoiaeaie e
ieeiauie iaa?oceaie ii i?aaieea. Iie i?inou, oaeiaiu, a ieo ca ei?ioeia
a?aiy (aei 30 ieioo) i?ienoiaeeo nei?inoiia ecuyoea caa?yciaiee. Ia
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeioeeueo?ao a ea/anoaa oeeueo?othuae iannu i?eiaiytho
iauaiiue iaoa?eae: uaaaiue, a?aaee, ea?aiceo. Aei/iua caa?ocee ec aeieia
iaiinoaeea eiatho i?aeiouanoaa a oaoiieiae/aneii, eiino?oeoeaiii e
yenieoaoaoeeiiiii ioiioaieyo ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie iaoa?eaeaie.
Iaiinoaeei – yoi oaieiecieyoeeiiiue no?ieoaeueiue iaoa?eae. Ii
ioee/aaony iaoaie/aneie i?i/iinoueth, aeaai-, ia?i- e
aaciiai?iieoeaaiinoueth, iaianoieeinoueth, ii?icinoieeinoueth,
aeieaiaa/iinoueth, onoie/eainoueth e aicaeaenoaeth eeneio e i?iaeoeoia
?aceiaeaiey. Ieiuaaeue aaeni?aoeeiiiie iiaa?oiinoe iaiinoaeea a
caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu ia?oi?aoeee n o/aoii iaeuo e aieueoeo ii?- 200
ea.i/eoa.i.

Iaiinoaeei eiaao /?acia?ii ?acaeooth iiaa?oiinoue, oaea?aeeaaao a
aaeeieoea iauaia aieueoia eiee/anoai aeiieaiee, /ai eaeie-eeai ae?oaie
aeae caa?oci/iiai iaoa?eaea, /oi niinianoaoao eioaineaiiio ecuyoeth
caa?yciaiee ec noi/iuo aiae.

?ani?aaeaeaiea noi/iie aiaeu ii iiaa?oiinoe aeioeeueo?a inouanoaeyaony
n iiiiuueth ?aaeoeaiiai i?ineoaey (?en.1).

Ieanoianniaua caa?ocee eniieuecothony a aeaea aeanoeie (eieueoea,
ia?acee o?oa e o.ae.), aeanoei-aei/iie (ec ieineeo e aio?e?iaaiiuo
eenoia), a oaeaea iyaeie (ec ieanoianniauo ieaiie) canuiee. Oaeei
ia?acii, caa?ocea iaeaaeaao aunieie ionoioiinoueth, aieueoie
ni?aoeeiiiie iiaa?oiinoueth e ioiineoaeueii iaeui eiyooeoeeaioii
noeaieaiey aeiieaiee n iiaa?oiinoueth caa?ocee, /oi nicaeaao oneiaey
aeey ia?aciaaiey oiieiai neiy aeiieaiee.

Ieanoianniaay caa?ocea eneeth/aao caeeeaaiea aeioeeueo?ia, cia/eoaeueii
oaaee/eaaao iauai iinooiathuaai aicaeooa, /oi niinianoaoao iiauoaieth
ieeneeoaeueiie iiuiinoe. E?iia aeinoieinoa, aeioeeueo?u iaeaaeatho e
?yaeii iaaeinoaoeia. Oae, aunieay ia ?aaiiia?iinoue iinooieaiey noi/iuo
aiae io iaeuo iauaeoia e?aeia io?eoeaoaeueii aeeyao ia ?aaioo
aeioeeueo?ia e ay?ioaieia. A aeioeeueo?ao i?ienoiaeeo iiaenuoaiea
aeiieaiee e iaaethaeaaony ia ?aaiiia?iinoue oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeia aa
?aaiou, nicaeathony oneiaey, niinianoaothuea caeeeaaieth caa?ocee. Ai
ecaaaeaiey yoeo yaeaiee a /anu ieieiaeueiiai i?eoiea noi/iuo aiae
inouanoaeytho ?aoee?eoeyoeeth i/euaiiuo noi/iuo aiae, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
aeiiieieoaeueiui yia?aicao?aoai ia ia?aea/eo noieia.

3.2.Aeiaeeneiaua oeeueo?u

Yoe nii?oaeaiey i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?anoiaea noi/iuo aiae aei 1000
eoa.i a nooee. A ea/anoaa caa?ocee aeey aeiaeeneiauo oeeueo?ia
?aeiiaiaeothony ia?oi?e?iaaiiua aeenee, ecaioiaeaiiua ec iauaiiuo
neioaoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeia iiieaeaiiie ieioiinoe (iaiiieanoa, iaiinoaeea).

Nia?aiaiiua aeiaeeneiaua oeeueo?u i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
iiiainaeoeeiiioth aieinoue, iaiieiaiioth a?auathuaeny caa?oceie (?en.
2). Aeenee iaae?atho ia ai?eciioaeueii ?aniieiaeaiiii aaeo n ?annoiyieai
iaaeaeo ieie 15-20 ii. Aeenee iau/ii iia?oaeaiu a i/euaaioth aeeaeeinoue
ia 0,45Ae (30—45 %), eiiaaea aei 0,75Ae. Aeeaiao? aeeneia iaoiaeeony a
i?aaeaeao io 0,4 aei 3,0 iao?ia a caaeneiinoe io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
onoaiiaee.

I?eioeei aeaenoaey aeaiiiai nii?oaeaiey neaaeothuee: aeenee – iniiaiie
eiiiiiaio nii?oaeaiey – iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii a?auaoaeueiii
aeaeaeaiee, i?e/ai eo iiaa?oiinoue ia?oi?aoeee iie?uaaaony aeiieaieie,
eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a i?ee?aieaiiii ninoiyiee. Aeiiiaeoee, nicaeaaay
iaoe?ioth iiaa?oiinoue, iaania/eaatho aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea oneiaey, i?e
eioi?uo iooi?aiooay aeiieaiea i?iaeieaeaao ?aaioaoue, iaoiaeynue ai
acaaoaiiii ninoiyiee. Caeanue niaiauaaony ?aaeei ?aaiou i?ee?aieaiiiai
aeioeaiica e acaaoaiiiai (aeoeaiiai) eea. Ca i?aaeaeaie ciiu i/euaaiie
aiaeu iee?ii?aaieciu, iaoiaeynue a aeiieaiea, iieo/atho eenei?iae
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec aoiinoa?u.

I?e iaeeiaeiauo eaoaai?eyo ia?aaaouaaaiuo ai?iaeneeo noi/iuo aiae e
caaeaiiii yooaeoa i/enoee a?aiy ay?aoeee a AAeO ninoaaeyao 60-90 ieioo,
a a eeanne/aneeo ay?ioaieao – ieiei 6 /ania.

Aeiaeeneiaua oeeueo?u eiiiaeoiu, eiino?oeoeaii i?inou, onoie/eau e
?acee/iiai ?iaea ia?aa?oceai, eiatho ieceea oaeaeueiua yia?aicao?aou.
E?iia oiai, i?e eniieueciaaiee yoeo oeeueo?ia i?aeoe/anee ioiaaeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ianiniie noaioeee, oae eae aeae?aaee/aneea iioa?e
nii?oaeaiee ia cia/eoaeueiu.

Aeiaeeneiaua oeeueo?u – iiiainaeoeeiiiua nii?oaeaiey (3-6 naeoeee).
Iniiaiay ianna oaeaeaiiuo aei?aceaaaaiuo caa?yciaiee i?eoiaeeony ia
ia?aoth e aoi?oth naeoeee AAeO. I?ioeann nieaeaiey aiiiieeiiai acioa e
ieo?eoeeaoeee oniaoii i?ioaeaao a o?aoueae e iineaaeothueo naeoeeyo.
Oaeaeaiea acioa aeinoeaaao 40 %, /oi auoa, /ai a eeanne/aneeo
aeioeeueo?ao e ay?ioaieao. Iaeiaei a i/euaiiuo aiaeao i?enoonoaotho
acioenoua niee (aeiaaiiua niaaeeiaiey), iiyoiio a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo
o?aaoaony aeii/enoea.

Ec aeiaeeneiauo oeeueo?ia aeieiae/aneay ieaiea iioiea ia?aaioaiiie
aeeaeeinoe auiineony ai aoi?e/iue ionoieiee. ?acaeaeaiea aeiieaiee
inouanoaeyaony a?aaeoaoeeiiiui niiniaii. Aoi?e/iua ionoieieee
?aeiiaiaeoaony iai?oaeiaaoue oiieineieiuie iiaeoeyie.

3.3. Aeioeeueo?aoi?u

Eiiiaeoiay onoaiiaea aeioeeueo?aoi? i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iaeuo ?anoiaeia
noi/iuo aiae (io 2 aei 600 eoa.i a nooee) e iaania/eaaao iieioth
aeieiae/aneoth i/enoeo io ?aciiia?aciuo caa?yciaiee a oe?ieii aeeaiaciia
eiioeaio?aoeee. Onoaiiaea eiaao ieceea eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey e
yia?aaoe/aneea cao?aou. Iia i?inoa e yeiiiie/ia a yenieoaoaoeee, ia
o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiiai iinoiyiiiai ooiaea.Aeioeeueo?aoi? (?en.3) ninoieo
ec ay?aoeeiiiie (ni?aoeeiiiie) ciiu e ciiu inaaoeaiey.

A ni?aoeeiiiie ciia onoaiiaeaiu a?auathueany ia?oi?e?iaaiiua aeenee ec
iaiiieanoa eee iiaeiaiuo iaoa?eaeia. Aeenee a?auathony iioi?-?aaeoeoi?i
n /anoioie a?auaiey 10-15 ia/iei. Ca n/ao a?aaeeaioa aeaaeaiey
aeeaeeinoue e iooi?aiooay aeiieaiea ia?aeeaathony /a?ac ioaa?noea,
ono?iaiiia a ?acaeaeeoaeueiie ia?aai?iaeea. Oe?oiiaiiua oeiiuey
aeoeaiiai eea ec ciiu inaaoeaiey iioneathony aiec e /a?ac ioaa?noey
iiaenanuaathony a ay?aoeeiiioth ciio ca n/ao eeiaiaoeee oa/aiey. Oaeei
ia?acii, i?ienoiaeeo iinoiyiiue iaiai aeiiannu iaaeaeo ciiaie ni?aoeee e
inaaoeaiey. I/euaaiay aeeaeeinoue iiaeieiaaony e eioeo e ioaiaeeony ca
i?aaeaeu nii?oaeaiey.

Aeey eioaineoeeaoeee aeioaoiieiaee a aeioeeueo?a eniieuecoaony no?oeiay
ay?aoeey (?en. 4), /oi iicaieyao eneeth/eoue iaoaie/aneoth nenoaio
i?eaiaea iioi?-?aaeoeoi?. Oaeie iaoiae i/enoee i?eiaiyaony aeea
?anoiaeia noi/iuo aiae io 0,5 aei 1,5 eoa.i a nooee e aieaa, n caa?oceie
io ieceeo aei aunieeo cia/aiee eiioeaio?aoeee aei?acaeaeyaiuo
niaaeeiaiee (AIE).

No?oeiue aeioeeueo? ?aaioaao neaaeothuei ia?acii. Noi/iua aiaeu,
i?ioaaeoea iaoaie/aneoth i/enoeo, iiiaaeatho a ay?aoeeiiioth ciio, eoaea
oaeaea iinooiaao nianue inaaoeaiiie aeeaeeinoe e oee?eoeyoeeiiiiai
aeoeaiiai eea. Yoa nianue ec ieaeiae /anoe inaaoeyaony caae?aaony ii
o?oaii?iaiaeo ianinii e /a?ac no?oeiue ay?aoi? oaooiiai oeia
na?anuaaaony a ay?aoeeiiioth ciio aeioeeueo?a. No?oy iioiea aaiaeeony a
iaaenaeoeeiiiia i?ino?ainoai (?en. 4) ieaea naiaiaeiie iiaa?oiinoe ia
15-30 ni e io?aaeaaony io niaoeeaeueii nieaie?iaaiiie iiaa?oiinoe aeia.
A ?acoeueoaoa aicieeatho eioaineaiua aicaeooiua ainoiaeyuea iioiee,
eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e aeaeaeaieth aei?ioi?a.

Iinea eiioaeoa i/euaaiie aeeaeeinoe a ay?aoeeiiiie ciia nianue eee e
noi/iie aiaeu iinooiaao ia inaaoeaiea. Ciia inaaoeaiey ?acaeaeaia ia o?e
ionaea. A aeaaacaoeeiiii-ionoieiie ciia i?e iecoiaeyuai iioiea
ioaeaeythony auiineiua ec ay?aoeeiiiie ciia iocu?ueee aaca iaeuo
?acia?ia. Caeanue oe?oiiaiiua /anoeoeu eea inaaeaeathony ia aeii
ionoieieea e aica?auathony a ay?aoeeiiioth nenoaio. Aeaeaa nianue
iinooiaao ai aoi?oth ciio ionoaeaaiey, aaea i?ienioiaeeo iniiaiie
i?ioeann ?acaeaeaiey oaa?aeie e aeeaeeie oac n ia?aciaaieai acaaoaiiiai
neiy, oaeoaeythuaai i?ioeann aeioeeueo?aoeee. Ec yoie ciiu oe?oiiaiiua
oeiiuey aeoeaiiai eea oaeaea iinooiatho a eaia?o ay?aoeee. A
iineaaeothuai ioaeaeaiee iaania/eaaaony ieii/aoaeueiay i/enoea noi/iuo
aiae. Aoi?ay ciia ionoaeaaiey ?aaioaao a ?aaeeia ionoieieea.
Inaaeaeathueany oeiiuey aeoeaiiai eea ii noaiea aieinoe niiecatho a ciio
eo caai?a ianiniui aa?aaaoii. Inaaoeaiiua noi/iua aiaeu /a?ac na?iniue
eioie ioaiaeyony ia iaacca?aaeeaaiea.

3.4. Aei?aaeoi?u n aeiaa?aaaiaie

A ea/anoaa aei?aaeoi?ia aeey i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoueth 50-700 eoa.i a nooee noi/iuo aiae i?aaeeiaeaiu
5-6-nooiai/aoua onoaiiaee n iieoiia?oaeaiiuie a?auathueieny
aeiaa?aaaiaie. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eaneaae iiaeaeiiia (ei?uo)
oeeeeiae?e/aneie eee aeeceie e iei eiioeao?aoeee. Aeaeaeaiea i/euaaiie
noi/iie aiaeu e aeeaeeinoe ec iiaeaeiia a iiaeaeii – naiioa/iia ca n/ao
iauaaeeiaiey iiaeaeiiia a niiauathueany ninoaeu ii n?aaenoaai nenoaiu
iao?oaeia, ?aniieaaaaiuo a i?eiueathueo ae?oa e ae?oao noaiie
iiaeaeiiia. Aeey ?aaiiia?iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeeaeeinoe a ia?aii ii
oiaeo aeaeaeaiey iiaeaeiia ?aniieiaeai i?eaiiue ea?iai n caoiieaiiui
uaeaaui ia?aeeaii. Nai?iue eaiae aeey ioaiaea i/euaiiie aeeaeeinoe
ono?aeaaaony ia auoiaea ec iineaaeiaai iiaeaeiia onoaiiaee (?en. 4).

A eaaeaeue iiaeaeii iiiauaaony aa?aaai n aieieienoie caa?oceie , ia
eioi?ie ia?anoaao aeiieaiea. Aa?aaai iaaeeaiii a?auaaony aneaaenoaea
eaaeinoe eiino?oeoeee, ana aa?aaaiu eaneaaea i?eaiaeyony a aeaeaeaiea io
iaeiiai i?eaiaea. I?e a?auaiee aa?aaaia inouanoaeyaony anoanoaaiiay
ay?aoeey aeiiannu iee?ii?aaieciia.

A ieaeiae /anoe iiaeaeiia a ieaeiae /anoe iiaeaeiiia ono?aeaatho
nai?ii- ioaiaeyuea eaiaeu eee i?iaeieueiua aoiea?u aeey nai?a e ioaiaea
inaaeea, caeai/eaathueany iao?oaeii e caaeaeaeeie, eioi?ua
i?eniaaeeiythony e nai?iiio eieeaeoi?o, ioaiaeyuaio inaaeie ia
iaacaiaeeaaiea. ?aaaia?aoeey a?oae inouanoaeyaony aa?aioe?iaaieai /a?ac
ia?oi?e?iaaiiua o?oau, ?aniieiaeaiiua a ieaeiae /anoe aei?aaeoi?a.

Onoaiiaee ?aaioatho onoie/eai i?e ?acee/iuo eiioeaio?aoeeyo i?aaie/aneeo
aauanoa a noi/iuo aiaeao. Iie i?inou a yenieoaoaoeee, /oi iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue ia eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia.

3.5. Ay?ioaiee

Aeey iieiie aeieiae/aneie i/enoea noi/iuo aiae iaeuo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia
i?eiaiythony:

ay?aoeeiiiua onoaiiaee, ?aaioathuea ii iaoiaeo iieiiai ieeneaiey
(ay?ioaiee iiaeeeiiie ay?aoeee);

ay?aoeeiiiua onoaiiaee n ay?iaiie noaaeeecaoeeae ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai
eea.

Onoaiiaee iaieo oeiia iaania/eaatho noaaeeueioth aunieoth
yooaeoeaiinoue i/enoee noi/iuo aiae, iiaoo i?eiaiyony a ethauo
eeeiaoe/aneeo, a?oioiauo e aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo e ia o?aaoth
ioaiaea aieueoeo ieiuaaeae caiee.

Onoaiiaee, ?aaioathuea ii iaoiaeo iieiiai ieeneaiey. Iie i?aaeiacia/aiu
aeey iieiie aeieiae/aneie i/enoee auoiauo e aeeceeo e iei ii ninoaao
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae.

Iieiia ieeneaiea i?aaie/aneeo caa?yciaiee i?ioaeaao a o?e oacu. A
ia?aie oaca iaee/ey aieueoiai eiee/anoaa i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa a noi/iie
aeeaeeinoe iaania/eaaao auno?ia ?aciiiaeaiea iee?ii?aaieciia n
iai?a?uaiui i?ia?anne?iaaieai iauaai eo eiee/anoaa. Ai aoi?ie oaca
iaa?ocea ii i?aaie/aneei caa?yciaieyi ia aeoeaiue cia/eoaeueii ieaea e
ec-ca iaaeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa yoeo caa?yciaiee ?aciiiaeaiea
iee?ii?aaieciia ianeieueei naea?aeeaaaony. Onoaiaaeeaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiia
niioiioaiea ioaeaeo eiee/anoaii iinooieaoeo i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa e
i?e?inoii eea.

A o?aoae oaca ?aciiiaeaiea iee?ii?aaieciia aeoeaiiai eea caiaaeeyaony
ec-ca iaaeinoaoea i?aaie/aneeo caa?yciaiee. Ee eae au iaoiaeeony a
«aieiaeiii» ninoiyiee. Yoi canoaaeyao iee?ii?aaieciu aeoeaiiai eea
eniieueciaaoue ia oieueei i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa iinooieaoea ni noi/iuie
aiaeaie, ii e aieueooth /anoue i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa ioia?oeo
iee?ii?aaieciia, o.a. ieia?aeeciaaoue i?aaie/aneoth /anoue naiiai
aeoeaiiai eea. A ?acoeueoaoa iieiiai ieeneaiey i?aaie/aneeo caa?yciaiee
i?e?ino aeoeaiiai eea ianoieueei iae, /oi aai iiaeii oaeaeyoue ec
nii?oaeaiee /a?ac 1-4 ianyoea.

Eiiiaeoiua onoaiiaee (EO) i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 12 e 25 eoa.i a nooee
ecaioaaeeaathony a caaiaeneeo oneiaeyo a aeaea aaeeiiai iaoaeee/aneiai
aeiea. Ana onoaiiaee eiino?oeoeaii auiieiaiu a aeaea
ay?ioaiei-ionoieieeia n i?eioaeeoaeueiui aica?aoii aeoeaiiai eea.

Onoaiiaee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 12 eoa.i a nooee iai?oaeiaaiu
iaoaie/aneie nenoaiie ay?aoeee, inoaeueiua – yaeaeoi?iie eee
iiaaiaoe/aneie.

I?eioeei ?aaiou onoaiiaee (?en. 6): noi/iua aiaeu i?iioneatho /a?ac
?aoaoeo e aac ia?ae/iiai ionoaeaaiey iai?aaeytho a ciio ay?aoeee.

Caeanue i?ienoiaeeo aeieiae/aneay i/enoea noi/iuo aiae aeoeaiui eeii,
eioi?ue iiaeaea?aeeaaaony ai acaaoaiiii ninoiyiee ca n/ao a?auaiey
?ioi?iiai ay?aoi?a. Caoai iinea iieooi?a /aniaiai eiioaeoa a
ay?aoeeiiiii iauaia, niane noi/iuo aiae e aeoeaiiai eea ii
aeaaacaoeeiiiiio eaiaeo iinooiaao a ciio ionoaeaaiey. Inaaoee ee /a?ac
ieaeithth uaeue ionoieieea aica?auaaony a ay?aoeeiiioth ciio. Naa?oo
onoaiiaea ia?ae?uaaaony ueoaie aeey i?aaeio?aiaiey io caia?caiey a
ceiiee ia?eiae.

I?eioeei ?aaiou onoaiiaie EO -25 – EO-200 (?en. 7): aei iinooieaiey ia
onoaiiaeo noi/ioth aiaeo i?iioneatho /a?ac ?aoaoeo-ae?iaeeeo eee ?aoaoeo
n ?o/iie i/enoeie. Ia onoaiiaeo noi/iay aeeaeeinoue iinooiaao /a?ac
aoiaeiie iao?oaie e ii iiaeathuaio eioeo ia?aoaeaao a aeaa
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo eioea, i?ioiaeyueo ii i?iaeieueiui noaieai.

Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey inaaeaeaiey acaaoaiiuo aauanoa a eioie iiaeaaony
naeaoue aicaeoo. Ec ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo eioeia /a?ac ioaa?noey n
?aaoee?oaiuie o?aoaieueiuie aiaeineeaaie noi/iay aiaea ia?aeeaaaony a
ay?ioaie-ionoieiee. Ay?aoeeiiiua ciiu ?aniieiaeaiu ii i?iaeieueiui
noaieai. Aicaeoo a ay?aoeeiiioth ciio iiaeaaony io aicaeooiaeoaie ii
aicaeooii?iaiaeai e ?ani?aaeaeyaony /a?ac aeu?/aoua o?oau. A ay?ioaiea
aiciiaeii i?eiaiaiea yaeaeoeeiiiie ay?aoeee.

Ionoieiay ciia ?aniieiaeaia a oeaio?a onoaiiaee. Nianue noi/iuo aiae e
aeoeaiiai eea iinooiaao a ciio /a?ac ieaeithth uaeue, i?ioiaeeo /a?ac
acaaoaiiue neie, ia?aciaaiiue aeoeaiui eeii, aaea i?ienoiaeeo
?acaeaeaiea aeoeaiiai eea e i/euaiiie noi/iie aeeaeeinoe. Iineaaeiyy
iiaeieiaaony e iiaa?oiinoe ionoieiie ciiu, i?ioaeaao /a?ac caoiieaiiua
ioaa?noey a nai?iue eioie e ii iaio ioaiaeeony ec onoaiiaee. Aeoeaiue ee
oaeaeaaony iioieii a aoiea?u ionoieiie ciiu e ia?aea/eaaaony eeooaie a
ay?aoeeiiiua ciiu. Ecauoi/iue aeoeaiue ee ia?eiaee/anee (1 ?ac a 1-4
ianyoea) oaeaeyaony ec ay?aoeeiiiuo cii ia eeiaua ieiuaaeee.

Eiiiaeoiua onoaiiaee EO-12 – EO-200 i?ioee aeeeoaeueiua eniuoaiey ia
iiiaeo i/enoiuo noaioeeyo, ea/anoai i/euaiiiai noiea AIE e acaaoaiiui
aauanoaai ninoaaeyao 12-15 ia/e, eiioeaio?aoeey aiiiieeiiai acioa
nieaeaaony ia 40%. Yooaeoeaiinoue i/enoee noi/iuo aiae ia yoeo
nii?oaeaieyo iiauoaaony, anee ai aoi?e/iuo ionoieieeao eniieueciaaoue
oiieineieiua iiaeoee.

AIE «Ynoiii?iaeo» auea ?ac?aaioaia onoaiiaea AEI caaiaeneiai
ecaioiaeaiey. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ay?ioaie-ionoieiee, ?aaioathuee a
?aaeeia i?iaeeaiiie ay?aoeee. I?eioeei ?aaiou AEI-25 aiaeiae/ai
onoaiiaeai EO. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ay?aoeee ieiei nooie. A yoeo
nii?oaeaieyo eniieueciaaiu yaeaeoi?iay eee iiaaiaoe/aneay nenoaia
ay?aoeee.

Einoeoooii O?aeaa?ii?iii?iaeo a 1988 aiaeo aue ?ac?aaioai i?iaeo
i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee eaiaeecaoeee. Aeieiae/aneay i/enoea inouanoaeyaony
a ay?ioaiea-ionoieieea, niaiauaiiii n nii?oaeaieai aeii/enoee noi/iuo
aiae (?en. 9). Iaeia naeoeey ?ann/eoaia ia ?anoiae 50 eoa.i a nooee.
Iaeneiaeueiay i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue i/enoiie noaioeee 500 eoa.i a
nooee. A ciia ay?aoeee i?eiyo ?aaeei iieiiai ieeneaiey i?aaie/aneeo
caa?yciaiee. Ay?aoeey – iiaaiaoe/aneay, n?aaeaiaiocu?/aoay
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aa a n?aaeiai 18-20 /ania.

Noi/iay aiaea iinooiaao a ciio ay?aoeee ii o?oaii?iaiaeo aeeaiao?ii 100
ii, ooaea aea iiiaaeaao aicaeoo io aicaeooiaeoaee e oee?eoeyoeeiiiue
aeoeaiue ee n iiiiuueth y?eeooa. Ii enoa/aiee ia?eiaea aeieiae/aneie
i/enoee aeoeaiue ee ni noi/iie aiaeie iinooiaao ai aoi?e/iue ionoieiee,
aaea i?ienoiaeeo inaaoeaiea noieia. Aeoeaiue ee, iaoiaeyueeny aeaaiui
ia?acii a ieaeiae /anoe ionoieieea, y?eeooii iiaenanuaaaony e
ia?aea/eaaaony a ciio ay?aoeee. Ecauoi/iue aeoeaiue ee ia?eiaee/anee
oaeaeyaony ec ciiu ay?aoeee /a?ac eeii?iaiae aeeaiao?ii 100 ii ia eeiaua
ieiuaaeee. Inaaoeaiiay aiaea iinooiaao ii o?oaii?iaiaeo ec ionoieiie
ciiu a nii?oaeaiey aeii/enoee noieia. A ea/anoaa nii?oaeaiey aeii/enoee
iiaoo auo eniieueciaaiu aei?aaeoi?u n caoiieaiiie caa?oceie, eeai yoo
/anoue nii?oaeaiee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue eae ieo?eoeeaoi? –
aeaieo?eoeeaoi?. Auai? nii?oaeaiey aeii/enoee caaeneo io ianoiuo oneiaee
e o?aaiaaiee ea/anoaa i/euaiiiai noiea. A eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeia /anoe/iay ?aeiino?oeoeey nii?oaeaiey aeii/enoee.

Onoaiiaee, ?aaioathuea ii iaoiaeo ay?iaiie noaaeeecaoeee ecauoi/iiai
aeoeaiiai eea. Ay?iaiay noaaeeecaoeey – yoi i?ioeann ieeneaiey
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa a i?enoonoaee iee?ii?aaieciia e eenei?iaea
aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa, aaiaeeiiai i?eioaeeoaeueii. Yoio i?ioeann, n
oi/ee c?aiey eeiaoeee ?aniaaea i?aaieee, aiaeiae/ai i?ioeanno ieeneaiey
i?aaie/aneeo caa?yciaiee a ay?ioaiea.

Ay?iaiay noaaeeecaoeey inaaeea i?eaieaia aei 1400 eoa.i a nooee e
aieaa. Iineieueeo i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanna caaeneo io ia/aeueiie
eiioeaio?aoeee i?aaie/aneeo caa?yciaiee e iauaia ia?acothuaainy inaaeea,
oi aeey iaeuo ?anoiaeia noaaeeecaoi?u iieo/athony iaeuie e eaaei
yenieoaoe?oaiuie.

A noaaeeecaoi?a oe?iei i?eiaiyaony eae iiaaiaoe/aneay (aeu?/aoua
o?oau), oae e iaoaie/aneay (oo?aeiiua eee no?oeiua ay?aoi?u) ay?aoeey.
Ia i?ioeann noaaeeecaoeee inaaeeia aeeyao iaee/ea oiene/iuo, aa?anneaiuo
e o?oaeii ieeneyaiuo aauanoa i?e eiioeaio?aoeeyo, i?aauoathueo
aeiionoeiua.

Iaoiae ay?iaiie noaaeeecaoeee ecauoi/iiai eea ii n?aaiaieth n iaoiaeii
aiay?iaiie ia?aaioee inaaeea eiaao oaeea nouanoaaiiua i?aeiouanoaa:

i?inoioa eiino?oeoeaiiai eniieiaiey nii?oaeaiee;

ionoonoaea ac?uaiiianiinoe;

oi?ioea naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea iieacaoaee;

eo/oea aiaeiioaeathuea naienoaa;

eaaeinoue aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ioeanna;

i?inoioa ianeoaeeaaiey nii?oaeaiee.

Onoaiiaee caaiaeneiai ecaioiaeaiey ?ac?aaioaiu aeey i/enoiuo noaioeee,
iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeie, iauaaeeiythuee ay?ioaie, aoi?e/iue
ionoieiee e noaaeeecaoi? ecauoi/iiai aeoeaiiai eea. Nenoaia ay?aoeee
iiaaiaoe/aneay.

Ia ?en. 10 iieacaia noaia eiiiaeoiie onoaiiaee (EO) n ay?iaiie
noaaeeecaoeeae eee iiaaiaoe/aneie ay?aoeeae.

Noi/iay aiaea, i?ieaey ?aoaoeo-ae?iaeeeo, onoaiiaeaiioth aia aeiea, e
ianeieiaeo, iinooiaao a iaaeathuee eioie n /aou?ueiy o?aoaieueiuie
?aaoee?oaiuie aiaeineeaaie e iiaeathony a ay?ioaie. Ay?ioaie –
eaaae?aoiue a ieaia ?aca?aoa?, ii aeio eioi?iai iieiaeaiu /aou?a ieaoe
ia?oi?e?iaaiiuo o?oa aeeaiao?ii 150 ii. Ay?ioaie ?an/eoai ia
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?aauaaiey a iai noi/iuo aiae a oa/aiee 9 /ania a
/anu iaeneiaeueiiai i?eoiea. N i?ioeaiiieiaeiie noi?iiu ay?ioaiea
eiathony caoiieaiiua ieia aeey iiaea/e noi/iuo aiae a ionoieiee.

Ionoieiee – aa?oeeaeueii oeia. A iai onoaiaaeeaaaony ia?aai?iaeea,
iai?aaeythuay iioie aeeaeeinoe a ieaeithth ciio. Nai?iua eioee
inaaoeaiiie aiaeu auiieiytho n ?aaoee?oaiuie o?aoaieueiuie aiaeineeaaie.
Inaaoeaiiay noi/iay aeeaeeinoue iinooiaao ec aoi?e/iuo ionoieieeia ia
nii?oaeaiey aeii/enoee e iaacca?aaeeaaiey. A ionoieieea eiathony oanoue
i?eaiieeia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo niaaaeai y?eeooii n o?oaii?iaiaeii
aica?aoa aeoeaiiai eea a ay?aoeeiiioth ciio; o?e i?eaiieea eiatho
y?eeoou n o?oaii?iaiaeaie, iai?aaeaiiuie a noaaeeecaoi?. Aaeieue
ionoieieea ?aniieiaeai iinoee aeey ianeoaeeaaiey, eoaea auianaiu aaioeee
oi?aaeaiey y?eeooaie. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?aauaaiey noieia a
ionoieieea 1,5 /ana.

Iinooieaiea a noaaeeecaoi? naaaeeo ii?oeee aeoeaiiai eea aucuaaao
iaeiia?aiaiiia ioaeaeaiea oaeiai aea iauaia aiaeu a ionoieiie ciia
noaaeeecaoi?a, eioi?ay ioaiaeeony aianoa n i/euaiiuie noi/iuie aiaeaie
ec onoaiiaee. Aua?ocea ec noaaeeecaoi?a ia?aaioaiiiai aeoeaiiai eea
i?iecaiaeeony i?e aeinoeaeaiee a iai i?aaeaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee eea.
Ia?eiae aua?ocee ninoaaeyao 7-10 nooie.

I/enoea noieia ia yoi onoaiiaea inouanoaeyaony aac ia?ae/iiai
ionoaeaaiey, AIE i/euaiiiai noiea ninoaaeyao 15 ia/e.

Ia ?en.11 iieacaia noaia onoaiiaee n ay?iaiie noaaeeecaoeeae aeoeaiiai
eea e iaoaie/aneeie ay?aoi?aie. Yoe nii?oaeaiey auiieiytho a aei/iii
aa?eaioa /oi iicaieyao iaae?aoue iaiaoiaeeioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
(700-400 eoa.i a nooee e aieaa).

Onoaiiaea ?aaioaao neaaeothuei ia?acii: noi/iay aiaea iinea
?aoaoie-ae?iaeeie e ianeieiaee aac ionoaeaaiey iinooiaao a ay?aoeeiiioth
/anoue nii?oaeaiey. Ay?aoeey nianue aeoeaiiai eea e noi/iuo aiae
inouanoaeyaony iaoaie/aneei ay?aoi?ii, onoaiiaeaiiui eneeth/eoaeueii a
oeaio?a ay?aoeeiiiie /anoe. Ia?aaioaiiay aeeaeeinoue a niane n aeoeaiui
eeii /a?ac caoiieaiiue aiaeineea iinooiaao a aeaaacaoeeiiioth eaia?o e a
ionoieiee. Aica?ao aeoeaiiai eea a ay?aoeeiiioth ciio inouanoaeyaony ec
aoiea?iie /anoe ionoieieea /a?ac oee?eoeyoeeiiiue o?oaii?iaiae ca n/ao
aeae?inoaoe/aneiai iaii?a iaoaie/aneiai ay?aoi?a.

Iaeiia?aiaiiia iinooieaiea noi/iuo aiae e aica?aoiiai eea iaania/eaaao
eo oi?ioaa niaoaiea, a yoi a naith i/a?aaeue i?eaiaeeo e yooaeoeaiiio
ecuyoeth caa?yciaiee.

Inaaoeaiiua noi/iua aiaeu niae?athony a ioaiaeiie eioie aoi?e/iiai
ionoieieea, ono?iaiiiai ia iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe, e ioaiaeeony ia
nii?oaeaiey aeii/enoee e iaacca?aaeeaaiey.

4. Ia?aaioea inaaeeia

Ia?aaioea inaaeeia, iinooiathueo ni noi/iie aiaeie iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny a aiay?iaiuo oneiaeyo, i?ioaeathueo aac aeinooia
eenei?iaea aicaeooa, eiaaea ca n/ao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aiay?iaiuo
iee?ii?aaieciia i?ienoiaeeo ?aniaae i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, iaoiaeyueony a
inaaeea. E iei ioiinyony:

aeiooaeaou, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey aeeeiai aeiia;

naioeee, ?aeiiaiaeoaiua i?e ?anoiaea aei 20 eoa.i a nooee;

aeaooy?oniua ionoieieee e inaaoeoaee – ia?aaieaaoaee, i?eiaiyaiua i?e
?anoiaea aei 1400 eoa.i a nooee e aieaa.

A nii?oaeaieyo aoi?iai e o?aoueaai oeiia iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaiaeyo aeaa
i?ioeanna: ionoaeaaiea noi/iie aeeaeeinoe e ia?aaioea inaaeea.

A ay?iaiuo oneiaeyo, i?ioaeathueo i?e iaee/ee eenei?iaea aicaeooa, ca
n/ao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ay?iaiuo iee?ii?aaieciia i?ienoiaeeo ieeneaiea
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, iaoiaeyueony a inaaeea. E iei ioiinyony:

ay?ioaiee, ?aaioathuea n i?iaeeaiiie ay?aoeeae ii iaoiaeo iieiiai
ieeneaiey i?aaie/aneeo caa?yciaiee, iaoiaeyueony eae a aeeaeeie oae e a
oaa?aeie oaca noi/iuo aiae;

ay?iaiua noaaeeecaoi?u, ?aniieiaeaiiua a aeiea aieinoae (ay?aoee-

iiiuo onoaiiaie).

Ia?aaioaiiue (iaaca?aaeaiiue inaaeie) ec anao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo
onoaiiaie aeieaeai iinooiaoue ia nii?oaeaiey aeey aai iaacaiaeeaaiey.

5. Iaacca?aaeeaaiea noi/iuo aiae

I?iecaiaeeony n oeaeueth oie/oiaeaiey niaea?aeaueony a ieo iaoiaaiiuo
iee?ii?aaieciia e ono?aiaiey iianiinoe ca?aaeaiey aiaeiaia yoeie
iee?iaaie i?e nionea a iaai i/euaiiuo noi/iuo aiae.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui iaoiaeii iaacca?aaeeaaiey yaeyaony
oei?e?iaaiea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia iaeuo i/enoiuo noaioeeyo i?eiaiyaony
ianeieueei oeiia onoaiiaie aeey i?eaioiaeaiey aeice?iaaiey ?anoai?ia,
niaea?aeaueo aeoeaiue oei?.

E ia?aiio oeio ioiinyony onoaiiaee ii oei?e?iaaieth aiaeu oei?iie
ecaanoueth eee ii?ioeiia?aciuie aeiioei?eoaie. I?eioeei eo aeaenoaey
naiaeeony e i?eaioiaeaieth ?anoai?a o?aaoaiie eiioeaio?aoeee e
iineaaeothuae iiaea/ae aai a aiaeo.

Ei aoi?iio oeio ioiinyony onoaiiaee, eioi?ua iicaieytho iieo/eoue
iaacca?aaeeaathuea oei?i?iaeoeou ec enoiaeiiai nu?uey – iiaa?aiiie niee
– iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ianoa iio?aaeaiey. Oaeeie onoaiiaeaie yaeythony
yeaeo?ieeca?u i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey i?eaioiaeaiey yeaeo?ieeoe/aneiai
aeiioei?eoa iao?ey.

E o?aoueaio oeio ioiinyony onoaiiaee, iicaieythuea inouanoaeyoue
iaacca?aaeeaaiea aiaeu iooai aai i?yiiai yeaeo?ieeca. Yoio iaoiae
aac?aaaaioiue, iineieueeo iaacca?aaeeaathuea i?iaeoeou ia?acothony ca
n/ao yeaeo?ieeoe/aneiai ?aceiaeaiey oei?eaeia, iaoiaeyueony a naiie
ia?aaaouaaaiie aiaea.

6. Aeii/enoea noi/iuo aiae

Oicyenoaaiii auoiaua noi/iua aiaeu, iinooiatho io iaeuo iauaeoia,
iiaeaa?aaaony iaoaie/aneie e aeieiae/aneie i/enoea, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue
iieiie e iaiieiie. Nii?oaeaiey aeii/enoee iicaieytho nieceoue
niaea?aeaiea acaaoaiiuo e i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa aei 3-5 ia/e, acioa
aiiiieeiuo nieae (N)

e oinoaoia (P2O5) aei 0,5 ia/e, ieo?aoia aei 0,02 e ieo?eoia aei 10 ia/e
ii acioo.

6.1. Oeeueo?othuea eieiaeoeu, eannaou

Eniieueciaaiea a oaoiieiae/aneie noaia aeieiae/aneie i/enoee
nii?oaeaiee, ?aniieiaeaiiie a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo (oeeueo?othuea
eieiaeoeu e eannaou, iiey iiaecaiiie oeeueo?aoeee), iicaieyao
iaania/eoue iaeiia?aiaiioth aeoaieoth i/enoeo e iaacca?aaeeaaiea noieia
e ia o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiiai ono?ienoaa nii?oaeaiee aeii/enoee.
Ianeaaeiaaiea ieiei 50 nenoai iieacaei /oi aaeece i?aaeeueii
onoaiiaeaiiuo e yenieoaoe?oaiuo oeeueo?othueo eieiaeoeaa nicaeaaony
aiieia oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiay naieoa?iay ianoaiiaea. Ia aieueoeinoaa
ianeaaeiaaiiuo iauaeoia aeaaea a ?annoiyiee 1-2 iao?ia aie?oa
oeeueo?othuaai eieiaeoea ia ioia/aeinue caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?iiai
aicaeooa e iiaa?oiinoe ii/au. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo onoaiiaie iieacuaath, /oi aeaaea ia ?annoiyiee 0,8-1
iao?a io oeeueo?othueo eieiaeoeaa iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiey
caa?yciaiee a noi/iuo aiaeao.

Nii?oaeaiey anoanoaaiiie i/enoee noi/iuo aiae oaeea eae oeeueo?othuea
eieiaeoeu e aeieiae/aneea i?oaeu, iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a ea/anoaa
nii?oaeaiee aeii/enoee a ?acee/iuo oaoiieiae/aneeo noaiao ia?aaioee
noieia. Yoe nii?oaeaiey ?aciauatho, eae i?aaeei, iinea onoaiiaie
aeieiae/aneie i/enoee.

6.2. Aeieiae/aneea i?oaeu

Aeieiae/aneea i?oaeu n anoanoaaiiie eee eneonnoaaiiie ay?aoeeae – yoi
iaeaieaa yeiiiie/iua, i?inoua e iaaeaaeiua nii?oaeaiey, a eioi?uo
i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea niaea?aeaiey acaaoaiiuo e i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa aei
5 ia/e, oiaiueoaaony niaea?aeaiea aeiaaiiuo yeaiaioia e aaeoa?eaeueiuo
caa?yciaiee. I?e ionoonoaee caiaeueiuo o/anoeia aeey ono?ienoaa
aeieiae/aneeo i?oaeia e ia?aie/aiee eo i?eiaiaiey ii
aeae?iaaieiae/aneei, eeeiaoe/aneei e ae?oaei ianoiui oneiaeyi aiciiaeii
aeey aeii/enoee eniieueciaaoue nii?oaeaiey eneonnoaaiiie i/enoee noieia.

6.3. Oeeueo?u n ca?ienoie caa?oceie

?acee/atho aeaa oeia oeeueo?ia n ca?ienoie caa?oceie: a?aaeeiua n
ainoiaeyuei iioieii aiaeu e ea?eanii-canuiiua. Iaa oeia oeeueo?ia
iaeaaeatho iiauoaiiie a?ycaaieinoueth, oae eae oeeueo?aoeey a ieo
inouanoaeyaony /a?ac caa?oceo n oauaathuae e?oiiinoueth.

A ian/aii-a?aaeeiuo oeeueo?ao caa?ocea auiieiyaony ec ?a/iiai ianea
e?oiiinoueth 1,2-2 ii aunioie 1,4 i e ec a?aaey e?oiiinoueth 5-40 ii
aunioie 0,4 i (?en. 12).

A ea?eanii-canuiiuo oeeueo?ao (ECO) caa?ocea ninoieo ec ea?eana (a?aaee
e?oiiinoueth 40-60 ii) aunioie 1,8 i e canuiee (ianie e?oiiinoueth 0,8-1
ii) aunioie 0,9 i. ECO i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaooneieiue oeeueo? n
ienoiaeyuei iioieii aiaeu (?en. 13).

Yoio oeeueo? auaiaeii ioee/aaony io ecaanoiuo oai , /oi aai caa?ocea,
iaania/eaaao oeeueo?iaaiea a iai?aaeaiee oauaathuae e?oiiinoe ca?ai,
auiieiyaony ec iaaeaoeoeeoiuo iaoa?eaeia. E?oiiinoue ca?ai canuiee e
ea?eana, a oaeaea eo iauai iiaeae?atho oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ca?ia
canuiee iiaee naiaiaeii i?iieeaoue a eaiaeu, ia?acothueany a ea?eana
oeeueo?a, e iioneaoueny iiaei aeaenoaeai naiaiaeiiai iaaeaiey a ieaeiea
neie ea?eana n oai, /oiau aa?oiea neie auee naiaiaeiua io canuiee. Oaeei
ia?acii, i/euaaiay aiaea i?ioiaeeo /a?ac neie ea?eana, iacanuiiiai
ianea, aaea i/euaaony io /anoe acaane, a caoai iinooiaao a ieaeiea neie,
aaea oeeueo?oaony /a?ac iaeeica?ienoue oeeueo?othuee iaoa?eae – neie
canuiee.

A ?anniio?aiiuo auoa aeaoo oeiia oeeueo?ia i?iiuaea – aiaei-aicaeooiay,
yooaeo i/enoee ninoaaeyao ii acaaoaiiui aauanoaai 70-85%, ii AIE 50-65%,
ii OIE 30-40%. Iaeiaei oeeueo?u nieaeatho eeoue niaea?aeaiea acaaoaiiuo
aauanoa, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue, nieaeaao niaea?aeaiea i?aaie/aneeo
aauanoa.

Ian/aiua oeeueo?u eiatho iaaeinoaoie: aeey ieo o?aaothony caeaiey
aieueoie ieiuaaee e auniou (4,8 i), /oi i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth
eaieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia e aieueoie o?oaeiaieinoe i?e aicaaaeaiee
nii?oaeaiee.

6.4. Iee?ioeeueo?u e iaiuaiua oeeueo?u

Iee?ioeeueo?u i?aaenoaaeytho niaie nao/aoua a?auathueany aa?aaaiu,
iiouaiiua /anoe/ii a aeeaeeinoue. Noi/iay aiaea iiaeaaony aioo?ue
aa?aaaia, caa?yciaiiay aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue i?iiuaaaony no?oyie aiaeu
a aa?oiae /anoe aa?aaaia. Yooaeoeaiinoue i/enoee i?e iiaea/a ia ieo
aeieiae/anee ia?aaioaiiuo noi/iuo aiae ninoaaeyao ii AIE 20-30%, ii
acaaoaiiui aauanoaai 65-70%. Iee?ioeeue?u i?inou a yenieoaoaoeee e ia
o?aaotho aaeaaeiaaiiai ooiaea.

Iaiuaiua oeeueo?u i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aca?aoa?u n onoaiiaeaiiuie
aioo?e nao/aouie oeeueo?othueie yeaiaioaie. Oeeueo?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony
/a?ac naoee iaiuoui ia ieo oeeueo?othuei iaoa?eaeii. Iiyoiio ia?aae
?aai/ei oeeeeii a oeeueo? iiaeaaony ioeueia oeeueo?othuaai iaoa?eaea.
Yoio aea iaoa?eae aaiaeeony a aeii/euaaioth aiaeo iaaieueoeie aeicaie ai
a?aiy ?aai/aai oeeeea.

Ea/anoai aeii/enoee aunieia: ii niaea?aeaieth acaaoaiiuo aauanoa (4
ia/e) e AIE (3 ia/e) noi/iua aiaeu i?eaeeaeathony e /enoie ?a/iie aiaea.

6.5. Oeeueo? IENEII?

Yoio oeeueo? ?ac?aaioai a IEEEAIA e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie caiieiaiiue
oeeueo?, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeyo i?ioeannu ieeneaiey i?aaie/aneeo
caa?yciaiee ia ii?enoie iiaa?oiinoe caa?ocee. I?ioeann inouanoaeyaony ca
n/ao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iee?ii?aaieciia, ?acaeaathueony ia iiaa?oiinoe
ca?ai caa?ocee (ea?aiceo e?oiiinoueth 5-10 ii) e a iaaeii?iaii
i?ino?ainoaa. A oeeueo?a oaeaea i?ienoiaeeo caaea?aeaiea acaaoaiiuo
aauanoa (?en. 14).

Aiaea iiaeaaony ia i/enoeo ii o?oaii?iaiaeo /a?ac ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueioth
ai?iieo oeeueo?a, a ioaiaeeony ii o?oa/aoie ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie nenoaia
/a?ac aiaeineea a aeaea neoiia, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
caa?ocee a caoiieaiiii ninoiyiee.

Ia aeoaeia 50-70 ni io aa?oa caa?ocee ?aniieaaaaony aa?oiyy o?oa/aoay
aicaeooi?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay nenoaia, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie i?iecaiaeeony
ay?aoeey aa?oiae /anoe caa?ocee. I?e ia?aoiie aiaei-aicaeooiie i?iiuaea
ii o?oa/aoie ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie nenoaia iiaeaaony i?iiuaiay aiaea, ii
ieaeiae aicaeooi?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie nenoaia, ?aniieiaeaiiie o aeia, –
aicaeoo.

Iaa nenoaiu oeiaeaiu a iiaenoeeathuai neia a?aaey (uaaiy) e?oiiinoueth
10-20 ii. I?iiuaiay aiaea ioaiaeeony /a?ac niaoeeaeueiue ea?iai.

I?e oaeie oaoiieiaee i/enoee i?ienoiaeeo auno?ia ianuuaiea aiaeu
?anoai?aiiui eenei?iaeii (5-6 ia/e a aa?oiae /anoe oeeueo?a e 2-3 ia/e a
ieaeiae). I?iiuaiay aiaea aica?auaaony a aieiaeo i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee.
Oaeea oeeueo?u i?eiaiythony aeey aeii/enoee noi/iuo aiae, i?ioaaeoeo
aeieiae/aneoth eee oeceei-oeie/aneoth i/enoeo.

7. Caeeth/aiea

Caeanue auee ?anniio?aiu nii?oaeaiey e aiia?aou aeieiae/aneie i/enoee
auoiauo e i?iiuoeaiiuo aeeceeo ii ninoaao noi/iuo aiae iaeuo iauaeoia.
Ec /aai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ia auai? iaoiaea i/enoee auoiauo
noi/iuo aiae iaeuo iauaeoia ieacuaatho aeeyiea neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:

n?aaeiee nooi/iue ?anoiae noi/iuo aiae;

noaiaiue ia?aaiiia?iinoe iinooieaiey noieia io iaeuo iauaeoia;

?aaeei ?aaiou i/enoiie noaioeee (e?oaeiaiaee/iue eee naciiiue);

oa?aeoa? nenoaiu eaiaeeciaaiey (eieaeueiay eee a?oiiiaay);

on?aaeiaiea eiioeaio?aoeee caa?yciythueo aauanoa e i?aaie/aneeo (ii AIE)
aauanoa, niaea?aeaiea oinoaoia e acioa aiiiieeiuo nieae a iinooiathuai
ia i/enoeo noiea;

noaiaiue i/enoee noi/iuo aiae ii auoai?eaaaeaiiui caa?yciaieyi;

eeeiaoe/aneea, aaieiae/aneea oiiia?aoe/aneea oneiaey a ?aeiia
?aniieiaeaiey i/enoiie noaioeee.

I?e auai?a oeia i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee ?aeiiaiaeoaony, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue, ioeaieoue aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey nii?oaeaiee anoanoaaiiie
aeieiae/aneie i/enoee eae iaeaieaa aeaoaauo. E?iia oiai, i/enoiua
nii?oaeaiey aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue iieiia iaaca?aaeeaaiea e
iaacca?aaeeaaiea aeeaeeie e oaa?aeie o?aeoeee noieia aeey aiciiaeiiai eo
eniieueciaaiey ia i?eonaaeaaiuo o/anoeao eee naeueoicoaiaeueyo.

Eeoa?aoo?a

«Caueoa aiaeiaiia io caa?yciaiey iaeuie iauaeoaie», iiae ?aae. A.I.
*a?iyaaa, Aeaoa?eiao?a, 1994

TH?ueaa A.O. «I/enoea noi/iuo aiae iaeuo iauaeoia». ?eaa, Aaion, 1983.

Eoeeiuo I.A., Eeiiai A.E., E?eoooe A.I. «Iaoiaeu aeii/enoee noi/iuo
aiae». I. No?ieecaeao, 1978.

Ia/aaa A.I., Neaaeineee A.N. e ae?oaea. «Eioaineoeeaoeey aeii/enoee
aeieiae/anee i/euaiiuo noi/iuo aiae». Aiaeiniaaaeaiea e naieoa?iay
oaoieea, 1991. N12.

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