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Авария на Чернобыльской АЭС

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11

AAA?Ess IA *A?IIAUEUeNEIE

AOIIIIE YEAEO?INOAIOeEE.

?aoa?ao ii i?aaeiaoo “Yeieiae/aneay aaciianiinoue”

IUOAIEIAIE AEAIU NA?AAAAIU, 1 eo?n ioaeaeaiey ineoieiaee.

1998 a.

Aaa?ey ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN.

* * *

I?E*EIU

Aaa?ey iiaeiaiiai oeia, eaeay i?iecioea ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN, oae aea
iaeiaa?iyoia, eae e aeiioaoe/aneea aaa?ee. I?e/eiie neo/eaoaeny
o?aaaaeee yaeeinue iai?aaeneacoaiia ni/aoaiea ia?ooaiee ?aaeaiaioa e
?aaeeia yenieoaoaoeee yia?aiaeiea, aeiiouaiiuo ianeoaeeaaaoei aai
ia?niiaeii. A ?acoeueoaoa yoeo ia?ooaiee aicieeea neooaoeey, a eioi?ie
i?iyaeeenue iaeioi?ua nouanoaiaaaoea aei aaa?ee e ono?ai?iiua a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaeinoaoee ?AIE. Eiino?oeoi?u e ?oeiaiaeeoaee aoiiiie
yia?aaoeee, inouanoaeyaoea i?iaeoe?iaaiea e yenieoaoaoeeth ?AIE-1000, ia
aeiioneaee, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ia o/eouaaee aiciiaeiinoue oaeiai
eiee/anoaa ?acee/iuo ionooieaiee io onoaiiaeaiiuo e iaycaoaeueiuo aeey
eniieiaiey i?aaee, iniaaiii ni noi?iiu oao eeoe, eioi?ui
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii?o/aeinue neaaeeoue ca aaciianiinoueth yaea?iiai
?aaeoi?a.

Aeaiue 25 ai?aey 1986 aiaea ia 4-ii yia?aiaeiea *a?iiaueueneie aoiiiie
yeaeo?inoaioeee ieaie?iaaeny eae ia nianai iau/iue. I?aaeiieaaaeinue
inoaiiaeoue ?aaeoi? ia ieaiiai-i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiue ?aiiio. Ii ia?aae
caaeooaieai yaea?iie onoaiiaee iaiaoiaeeii auei i?iaanoe au? e iaeioi?ua
yenia?eiaiou, eioi?ua iaiaoeei ?oeiaiaenoai *AYN.

Ia?aae inoaiiaeie auee caieaie?iaaiu eniuoaiey iaeiiai ec
oo?aiaaia?aoi?ia a ?aaeeia auaaaa n iaa?oceie nianoaaiiuo ioaeae aeiea.
Nooue yenia?eiaioa caeeth/aaony a iiaeaee?iaaiee neooaoeee, eiaaea
oo?aiaaia?aoi? iiaeao inoaoueny aac naiae aeaeaeouae neeu, oi anoue aac
iiaea/e ia?a. Aeey yoiai aue ?ac?aaioai niaoeeaeueiue ?aaeei, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui i?e ioeeth/aiee ia?a ca n/?o eia?oeeiiiiai
a?auaiey ?ioi?a aaia?aoi? eaeia-oi a?aiy i?iaeieaeae au?aaaouaaoue
yeaeo?iyia?aeth, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey nianoaaiiuo ioaeae, a /anoiinoe aeey
ieoaiey aeaaiuo oee?eoeyoeeiiiuo ianinia.

Inoaiiaea ?aaeoi?a 4-ai yia?aiaeiea ieaie?iaaeanue aei?i 25 ai?aey,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e eniuoaieyi aioiaeeny ae?oaie, ia ii/iie ia?niiae.
Eiaiii aei?i ia noaioeee ia noaioeee iaoiaeyony ?oeiaiaeeoaee, iniiaiua
niaoeeaeenou, e, cia/eo, anoue aiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeoue aieaa
iaae?aeiue eiio?ieue ca oiaeii yenia?eiaioia. Iaeiaei caeanue neo/eeanue
“iaoaycea”. Aeeniao/a? “Eeaayia?ai” ia ?ac?aoee inoaiaaeeaaoue ?aaeoi? a
iaia/aiiia ia *AYN a?aiy, oae eae a aaeeiie yia?ainenoaia ia oaaoaei
yeaeo?iyia?aee ec-ca oiai, /oi ia ae?oaie yeaeo?inoaioeee iaiaeeaeaiii
auoae ec no?iy yia?aiaeie.

Ea/anoai i?ia?aiiu eniuoaiee, eioi?ay ia auea aeieaeiui ia?acii
iiaeaioiaeaia e niaeaniaaia, ieacaeinue ieceei. A iae aue ia?ooai ?yae
aaaeiaeoeo iieiaeaiee ?aaeaiaioa yenieoaoaoeee. Iiieii oiai, /oi a
i?ia?aiia, ii nouanoao, ia auee i?aaeoniio?aiu aeiiieieoaeueiua ia?u
aaciianiinoe, ath i?aaeienuaaeinue ioeeth/aiea nenoaiu aaa?eeiiai
ioeaaeaeaiey ?aaeoi?a (NAI?). Iiaeiaiia aiiaua aeaeaoue iaeuecy. Ii ooo
naeaeaee. E iioeae?iaea auea. A oiaea yenia?eiaioa iiaei i?iecieoe
aaoiiaoe/aneia n?aaaouaaiea NAI?, /oi iiiaoaei au caaa?oaieth eniuoaiee
a ?aaeeia auaaaa. A ?acoeueoaoa iiiai /ania 4-e ?aaeoi? yenieoaoe?iaaeny
aac yoiai i/aiue aaaeiiai yeaiaioa nenoaiu aaciianiinoe.

25 ai?aey a 8 /ania i?ienoiaeeea ia?aniaiea, iauanoaioeeiiiia
naeaeoi?iia niaauaiea, eioi?ia iau/ii aaaeoo aee?aeoi? eee aai
caianoeoaeue.

A oio ?ac auei niiauaii, /oi ia 4-i aeiea eae?o ?aaioa n iaaeiionoeii
iaeui n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaee aaciianiinoe /eneii noa?aeiae-iiaeioeoaeae.

Oaea ii/ueth yoi i?eaaei e o?aaaaeee. A aio oo?ii, eiaaea ana
i?aaeienaiey o?aaiaaee n?i/ii inoaiiaeoue ?aaeoi?, ?oeiaiaenoai noaioeee
?ac?aoeei i?iaeieaeaoue aai yenieoaoaoeeth.

Ooo aeieaeiu auee aiaoaoueny e i?ana/ue iiaeiaiua aeaenoaey
i?aaenoaaeoaee a?oiiu Ainaoiiyia?aiiaaeci?a, eioi?ay ?aaioaea ia *AYN.
Ii eiaiii a yoio aeaiue ieeiai ec nio?oaeieeia yoie i?aaiecaoeee ia
auei, anee ia n/eoaoue ?oeiaiaeeoaey, eioi?ue caoiaeee ia ei?ioeia
a?aiy, ia oniaa e auynieoue, /oi i?ienoiaeeo, /oi ieaie?oaony ia 4-i
yia?aiaeiea. A ana ?aaioieee iaaeci?a, ieacuaaaony, a ?aai/aa a?aiy a
i?eeaciii ii?yaeea auee ioi?aaeaiu a iieeeeeieeo, aaea iie aanue aeaiue
i?ioiaeeee iaaeeiienneth. Oaeei ia?acii, 4-e yia?aiaeie inoaeny e aac
caueou ni noi?iiu Ainaoiiyia?aiiaaeci?a.

Iinea aaa?ee niaoeeaeenou ouaoaeueii i?iaiaeece?iaaee anth
i?aaeuaeouoth ?aaioo eieeaeoeaa *a?iiaueueneie AYN. E niaeaeaieth,
ea?oeia ieacaeanue ia noieue ?aaeoaeiie, eae a? i?aaenoaaeyee. Caeanue e
i?aaeaea aeiioneaeenue a?oaua ia?ooaiey o?aaiaaiee yaea?iie
aaciianiinoe. Oae, n 17 yiaa?y 1986 aiaea aei aeiy aaa?ee ia oii aea 4-i
aeiea 6 ?ac aac aeinoaoi/iuo ia oi iniiaaiee auaiaeeeenue ec ?aaiou
nenoaiu caueou ?aaeoi?a. Auynieeinue, /oi n 1980 ii 1986 aiaeu 27
neo/aaa ioeaca a ?aaioa iai?oaeiaaiey aiiaua ia ?anneaaeiaaeenue e
inoaeenue aac niioaaonoaothueo ioeaiie.

Ia *AYN ia auei o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneiai oeaio?a, ia nouanoaiaaei
yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneiai iao/aiey, /oi
iiaeoaa?aeeeinue niauoeyie ii/e n 25 ia 26 ai?aey. A iiiaio aaa?ee ia
4-i yia?aiaeiea ieacaeinue iaiaei “eeoieo” ethaeae. E?iia oao, eoi aue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaeaenoaiaai a i?iaaaeaiee eniuoaiee, ooo ieacaeenue e
ae?oaea ?aaioieee noaioeee, a /anoiinoe ec i?aaeuaeouae niaiu. Iie
inoaeenue ii ee/iie eieoeeaoeaa, aeaeay naiinoiyoaeueii iio/eoueny oiio,
eae inoaiaaeeaaoue ?aaeoi?, i?iaiaeeoue eniuoaiey. Iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi a nenoaia Ieiyia?ai NNN? ia nouanoaiaaei e o?aiaae??a
aeey iiaeaioiaee iia?aoi?ia ?AIE.

A yaea?iie yia?aaoeea iniaia cia/aiea eiatho i?ioanneiiaeueiua
yecaiaiu. Ii ia *AYN iie i?eieiaeenue ia anaaaea aeinoaoi/ii
eiiiaoaioiie eiienneae. ?oeiaiaeeoaee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee a?
aicaeaaeyoue, naiiono?aieeenue io naieo iaycaiiinoae. Ia an? eaaeeeinue
e n i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeenoeeieeiie.

Eniuoaiey ia oo?aiaaia?aoi?a ?8 iiaeaioiaeee ieioi. Anee oi/iaa,
i?anooiii ieioi. Oai aieaa /oi ia iaeii e oi aea a?aiy auee
caieaie?iaaiu niaa?oaiii ?aciua ii caaea/ai e iaoiaeeeai i?iaaaeaiey
eniuoaiey oo?aeiu — ia aea?aoeeth e “ia auaaa”.

I?e/eiu aaa?ee ia *AYN, a? ?acaeoea enneaaeiaaeenue aaaeoueie o/?iuie e
niaoeeaeenoaie n eniieueciaaieai aeaiiuo i ninoiyiee ?aaeoi?a e aai
nenoai ia?aae aaa?eae, iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae yia?aiaeiea e aai
?aaeoi?iie onoaiiaee e yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee. A eoiaa
oaeaeinue ainnoaiiaeoue oiae niauoee, noi?ioee?iaaoue aa?nee i i?e/eiao
e ?acaeoee aaa?ee.

* * *

AAA?Ess

25 ai?aey 1986 aiaea neooaoeey ?acaeaaeanue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1 /an 00 ieioo — niaeanii a?aoeeo inoaiiaee ?aaeoi?a ia ieaiiai –
i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiue ?aiiio ia?niiae i?enooiee e nieaeaieth iiuiinoe
aiia?aoa, ?aaioaaoaai ia iiieiaeueiuo ia?aiao?ao.

13 /ania 05 ieioo — i?e oaieiaie iiuiinoe 1600 IAo ioeeth/?i io naoe
oo?aiaaia?aoi? ?7, aoiaeyuee a nenoaio 4-ai yia?aiaeiea. Yeaeo?iieoaiea
nianoaaiiuo ioaeae (aeaaiua oee?eoeyoeeiiiua ianinu e ae?oaea
iio?aaeoaee) ia?aaaee ia oo?aiaaia?aoi? ?8.

14 /ania 00 ieioo — a niioaaonoaee n i?ia?aiiie eniuoaiee ioeeth/aaony
nenoaia aaa?eeiiai ioeaaeaeaiey ?aaeoi?a. Iineieueeo ?aaeoi? ia iiaeao
yenieoaoe?iaaoueny aac nenoaiu aaa?eeiiai ioeaaeaeaiey, aai iaiaoiaeeii
auei inoaiiaeoue. Iaeiaei aeeniao/a? “Eeaayia?ai” ia aeae ?ac?aoaiey ia
aeooaiea aiia?aoa. E ?aaeoi? i?iaeieaeae ?aaioaoue aac NAI?.

23 /ana 10 ieioo — iieo/aii ?ac?aoaiea ia inoaiiaeo ?aaeoi?a. Ia/aeinue
aeaeueiaeoaa nieaeaiea aai iiuiinoe aei 1000—700 IAo (oaieiauo), eae e
i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue i?ia?aiiie eniuoaiee. Ii iia?aoi? ia ni?aaeeny n
oi?aaeaieai, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iiuiinoue aiia?aoa oiaea ii/oe aei ioey.
A oaeeo neo/ayo ?aaeoi? aeieaeai aeooeoueny. Ii ia?niiae ia iin/eoaeny n
yoei o?aaiaaieai. Ia/aee iiaeu?i iiuiinoe.

A 1 /an 00 ieioo 26 ai?aey ia?niiaeo, iaeiiaoe, oaeaeinue iiaeiyoue
iiuiinoue ?aaeoi?a e noaaeeece?iaaoue a? ia o?iaia 200 IAo (oaieiauo)
aianoi 1000—700, caeiaeaiiuo a i?ia?aiia eniuoaiee.

A 1 /an 03 ieioou e 1 /an 07 ieioo—e oanoe ?aaioathuei aeaaiui
oee?eoeyoeeiiiui ianinai aeiiieieoaeueii iiaeeeth/eee au? aeaa, /oiau
iiauneoue iaae?aeiinoue ioeaaeaeaiey aeoeaiie ciiu aiia?aoa iinea
eniuoaiee.

Iiaeaioiaea e yenia?eiaioo.

1 /an 20 ieioo (i?eia?ii – ii iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee)—noa?aeie
aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey (A?) auoee ec aeoeaiie ciiu ia aa?oiea
eiioeaaeee, e iia?aoi? aeaaea iiiiaae yoiio n iiiiuueth ?o/iiai
oi?aaeaiey. Oieueei oae oaeaeinue oaea?aeaoue iiuiinoue aiia?aoa ia
o?iaia 200 IAo (oaieiauo). Ii eaeie oeaiie? Oeaiie ia?ooaiey
no?iaeaeoaai cai?aoa ?aaioaoue ia ?aaeoi?a aac ii?aaeae?iiiai caiana
noa?aeiae—iiaeioeoaeae iaeo?iiia.

1 /an 22 ieioou 30 naeoiae—ii aeaiiui ?ania/aoee i?ia?aii auno?ie
ioeaiee ninoiyiey, a aeoeaiie ciia iaoiaeeeinue anaai oanoue–ainaiue
noa?aeiae. Yoa aaee/eia i?eia?ii aaeaia iaiueoa i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiie,
e iiyoue ?aaeoi? o?aaiaaeinue caaeooeoue.

1 /an 23 ieioou 04 naeoiaeuiia?aoi? cae?ue noiii?ii-?aaoee?othuea
eeaiaiu oo?aiaaia?aoi?a ?8. Iiaea/a ia?a ia iaai i?ae?aoeeanue. Ia/aeny
?aaeei auaaaa. A iiiaio ioeeth/aiey aoi?iai oo?aiaaia?aoi?a aeieaeia
auea au n?aaioaoue au? iaeia aaoiiaoe/aneay caueoa ii inoaiiaea
?aaeoi?a. Ii ia?niiae, ciay yoi, caaeaaia?aiaiii ioeeth/ee a?, /oiau,
ii-aeaeeiiio, eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue iiaoi?eoue eniuoaiey, anee ia?aay
iiiuoea ia oaeanony.

A neooaoeee, aicieeoae a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiuo aeaenoaee
ia?niiaea, ?aaeoi? iiiae (ii ?anoiaeo oaieiiineoaey) a oaeia ninoiyiea,
eiaaea aeaaea iaaieueoia eciaiaiea iiuiinoe i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth
iau?iiiai ia?iniaea?aeaiey, ai iiiai ?ac aieueoaio, /ai i?e iiieiaeueiie
iiuiinoe. ?ino iau?iiiai ia?iniaea?aeaiey aucaae iiyaeaiea
iieiaeeoaeueiie ?aaeoeaiinoe. Eieaaaiey iiuiinoe a eiia/iii eoiaa iiaee
i?eaanoe e aeaeueiaeoaio a? ?inoo.

1 /an 23 ieioou 40 naeoiaeia/aeueiee niaiu 4-ai yia?aiaeiea, iiiya
iianiinoue neooaoeee, aeae eiiaiaeo noa?oaio eiaeaia?o oi?aaeaiey
?aaeoi?ii iaaeaoue eiiieo naiie yooaeoeaiie aaa?eeiie caueou (AC-5).
Noa?aeie iioee aiec, iaeiaei /a?ac ianeieueei naeoiae ?acaeaeenue
oaea?u, e iia?aoi? oaeaeae, /oi iiaeioeoaee inoaiiaeeenue. Oiaaea ii
iaanoi/ee iooou na?aii?eaiaeia, /oiau noa?aeie oiaee a aeoeaioth ciio
iiae aicaeaenoaeai nianoaaiiie oyaeanoe. Ii aieueoeinoai
noa?aeiae-iiaeioeoaeae oae e inoaeinue a aa?oiae iieiaeia aeoeaiie ciiu.

Aaiae noa?aeiae, eae iieacaee iicaea niaoeeaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey,
ia/aaoeeny iinea iaaeaoey eiiiee AC, i?e nicaeaaoainy ?ani?aaeaeaiee
iioiea iaeo?iiia ii aunioa ?aaeoi?a ieacaeny iayooaeoeaiui e oaeaea iia
i?eaanoe e iiyaeaieth iieiaeeoaeueiie ?aaeoeaiinoe.

I?iecio?e ac?ua. Ii ia yaea?iue, a oaieiaie. A ?acoeueoaoa oaea
iacaaiiuo i?e/ei a ?aaeoi?a ia/aeinue eioaineaiia ia?iia?aciaaiea. Caoai
i?iecio?e e?ecen oaieiioaea/e, ?acia?aa oiieeaa, aai ?ac?ooaiea, ao?iia
aneeiaiea oaieiiineoaey, a eioi?ue iiiaee /anoeoeu ?ac?ooaiiiai oiieeaa,
?acei iiauneeinue aeaaeaiea a oaoiieiae/aneeo eaiaeao. Yoi i?eaaei e
oaieiaiio ac?uao, ?acaaeeaoaio ?aaeoi?.

Nieaeaiea iiuiinoe ?aaeoi?a, eae oaea auei neacaii, ia/aeinue a 1 /an
00 ieioo 25 ai?aey. Caoai yoio i?ioeann inoaiiaeee ii o?aaiaaieth
aeeniao/a?a yia?ainenoaiu. E i?iaeieaeaiea ?aaiou ii nieaeaieth iiuiinoe
aiiaue ia/aeinue a 23 /ana 10 ieioo.

?anniio?ei, eaeea iianiua i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeeee a aeoeaiie ciia ca yoe
22 /ana. I?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a oiaea oeaiiie
?aaeoeee ia?acoaony oeaeue niaeo? oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia. I?e aeaeaiee
yaea? o?aia iiyaeyaony eiae, eiathuee ia?eiae iieo?aniaaea ieiei naie
/ania. Caoai ii ia?aoiaeeo a enaiii-135, iaeaaeathuee naienoaii aeoeaii
iiaeiuaoue iaeo?iiu.

Enaiii, eioi?ue eiiaaea iacuaatho “iaeo?iiiui yae?ii”, eiaao ia?eiae
iieo?aniaaea ieiei aeaayoe /ania e iinoiyiii i?enoonoaoao a aeoeaiie
ciia ?aaeoi?a. Ii i?e ii?iaeueiie ?aaioa aiia?aoa ii /anoe/ii auai?aao
iiae aicaeaenoaeai oao aea iaeo?iiia, iiyoiio i?aeoe/anee eiee/anoai
enaiiia nio?aiyaony ia iaeiii o?iaia.

A i?e nieaeaiee iiuiinoe ?aaeoi?a e niioaaonoaaiii ineaaeaiee
iaeo?iiiiai iiey eiee/anoai enaiiia (ca n/?o oiai, /oi aai auai?aao
iaiueoa) oaaee/eaaaony. I?ienoiaeeo oae iacuaaaiia “io?aaeaiea
?aaeoi?a”. I?e yoii oeaiiay ?aaeoeey caiaaeeyaony, ?aaeoi? iiiaaeaao a
aeoaiei iiaee?eoe/iia ninoiyiea, ecaanoiia iiae iacaaieai “eiaeiie yiu”.
E iiea iia ia i?ieaeaia, oi anoue “iaeo?iiiue yae” ia ?aniaae?ony,
yaea?iay onoaiiaea aeieaeia auoue inoaiiaeaia. Iiiaaeaiea aiia?aoa a
“eiaeioth yio” i?ienoiaeeo i?e i?iaaea iiuiinoe ?aaeoi?a, /oi e
neo/eeinue ia 4-i yia?aiaeiea *AYN 25 ai?aey 1986 aiaea.

Enaiii iiiecee iiuiinoue aiia?aoa, e aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aai “aeuoaiey”
iio?aaiaaeinue auaanoe ec aeoeaiie ciiu aieueoia eiee/anoai noa?aeiae
NOC, eioi?ua oaeaea iiaeiuatho iaeo?iiu. Oaeei ia?acii, no?aieaiea
ia?niiaea, ianiio?y ie ia /oi, i?iaanoe yenia?eiaio anooieei a
i?ioeai?a/ea n o?aaiaaieyie ?aaeaiaioa.

* * *

N?ACO IINEA AAA?EE

Ac?uau a 4-i ?aaeoi?a *AYN naeaeioee ni naiaai ianoa
iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee aa?oa ?aaeoi?a, ?ac?ooeee ana o?oau aunieiai
aeaaeaiey, aua?ineee iaeioi?ua ?aaoee?othuea noa?aeie e ai?yuea aeiee
a?aoeoa, ?ac?ooeee ?aca?oci/ioth noi?iio ?aaeoi?a, iiaeieoi/iue ionae e
/anoue caeaiey. Ineieee aeoeaiie ciiu e enia?eoaeueiuo eaiaeia oiaee ia
e?uoo ?aaeoi?iiai e oo?aeiiiai caeaiee. Auea i?iaeoa e /anoe/ii
?ac?ooaia e?uoa iaoeiiiai caea aoi?ie i/a?aaee noaioeee.

Ianiio?y ia ac?uau, ana o?e inoaaoeony aeiea i?iaeieaeaee
aeaenoaiaaoue. Ia aue iia?aaeae?i aeaaea 3-e ?aaeoi?, eioi?ue oaoie/anee
oanii naycai n aaa?eeiie yaea?iie onoaiiaeie.

Aianoa n oai aicieeea neooaoeey, i?e eioi?ie neaaeiaaei inoaiiaeoue ana
?aaeoi?u. 3-e aeie inoaiiaeee a 5 /ania 26 ai?aey. 1-e e 2-e aeiee
caaeooeee niioaaonoaaiii a 1 /an 13 ieioo e 2 /ana 13 ieioo 27 ai?aey
1986 aiaea. Ana aiia?aou caoai auee iiaeaioiaeaiu e aeeeoaeueiie noiyiea
a oieiaeiii ninoiyiee, a iai?oaeiaaiea noaioeee iinea aaa?ee ia?aaaee a
iieiaeaiea oieiaeiiai ?aca?aa.

* * *

IINEAAeNOAEss

Aua?in ?aaeeiioeeeaeia (aeae iaonoie/eauo aoiiia, eioi?ua i?e
naiii?iecaieueiii i?aa?auaiee a ae?oaie ioeeeae enioneatho eiiece?othuaa
eceo/aieayoi e anoue ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue) ca i?aaeaeu aaa?eeiiai aeiea
*AYN i?aaenoaaeye niaie ?anoyiooue ai a?aiaie i?ioeann, ninoiyaoee ec
ianeieueeeo noaaeee.

27 ai?aey 1986 aiaea aunioa caa?yci?iiie ?aaeeiioeeeaeaie aicaeooiie
no?oe, auoiaeyuae ec iia?aaeae?iiiai yia?aiaeiea, i?aauoaea 1200i,
o?iaie ?aaeeaoeee a iae ia oaeaeaiee 5-10 ei io ianoa aaa?ee ninoaaeyee
1000 i?//.

Niaoeeaeenou ?ann/eoaee noiia?iue aua?in i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey (aac
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aeaai?iaeiuo aacia). Ii ninoaaee 50 IEe, /oi i?eia?ii
niioaaonoaoao 3,5 % iauaai eiee/anoaa ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a ?aaeoi?a ia
iiiaio aaa?ee.

E 6 iay 1986 aiaea aua?in ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe a iniiaiii caaa?oeeny.

Ia?aiia/aeueii ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai caa?yciaiey aicaeooiuo
iioieia i?ienoiaeeei a caiaaeiii e naaa?iii iai?aaeaieyo, a
iineaaeothuea aeaa-o?e aeiya naaa?iii, a n 29 ai?aey 1986 aiaea a
oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aeiaea thaeiii iai?aaeaiee (a noi?iio Eeaaa).

Caa?yci?iiua aicaeooiua iannu ?ani?ino?aieeenue caoai ia cia/eoaeueiua
?annoiyiey ii oa??eoi?ee ANN?, ONN?, ?NON?, a oaeaea ca i?aaeaeaie
Niaaoneiai Nithca.

*a?ac 15 aeiae iinea aaa?ee o?iaaiue aaiia-oiia a 5 i?// aue
caoeene?iaai ia ?annoiyiee 50-60 ei e caiaaeo e 35-40 ei e naaa?o io
*AYN. A Eeaaa o?iaie ?aaeeaoeee a iaa 1986 aiaea aeinoeaaee ianeieueeeo
aeanyouo ieeee?aioaaia a /an.

?aaeeiaeoeaiiio caa?yciaieth a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iiaeaa?aeenue
Aiiaeueneay e Iiaee?aneay iaeanoe ANN?, ?aeiiu Eeaaneie e AEeoiie?neie
iaeanoae ONN?, i?eiueathuea e 30-eeeiiao?iaie ciia aie?oa *AYN, /anoue
A?yineie iaeanoe ?NON?. Yoe oa??eoi?ee ninoaaeytho iuia oae iacuaaaioth
ciio ae?noeiai eiio?iey. Anaai aea a oie eee eiie noaiaie ieacaeenue
caa?yci?iiuie ?aaeeiioeeeaeaie 11 iaeanoae NNN?, a eioi?uo i?iaeeaaao 17
ieeeeiiia /aeiaae.

O/?iua auaeaeeee a aua?inao ec aaa?eeiiai ?aaeoi?a 23 iniiaiuo
?aaeeiioeeeaea. Aieueoay /anoue ec ieo ?aniaeanue a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo
ianyoeaa iinea aaa?ee e iianiinoe oaea ia i?aaenoaaeyao. A ia?aua ieioou
iinea ac?uaa e ia?aciaaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai iaeaea iaeaieueooth oa?ico
aeey caei?iauey ethaeae i?aaenoaaeyee ecioiiu oae iacuaaaiuo
aeaai?iaeiuo aacia. Aoiinoa?iua oneiaey, neiaeeaoeany a ?aeiia *AYN a
iiiaio aaa?ee, niinianoaiaaee oiio, /oi ?aaeeiaeoeaiia iaeaei i?ioei
ieii a. I?eiyoe e iinoaiaiii ?annayeinue a aoiinoa?a, oa?yy naith
aeoeaiinoue. A aeaeueiaeoai na?ue?cioth o?aaiao a?a/ae aucuaaee auiaaoea
ia caieth ei?ioeiaeeaouea ?aaeeiaeoeaiua eiiiiiaiou, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
eiae-131. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ia?eiae aai iieo?aniaaea, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iaeo?aeecaoeee oa?iaeathueo naienoa iaiaa ainueie
nooie, ii iaeaaeaao aieueoie aeoeaiinoueth e iianai oai, /oi ia?aaea?ony
ii ieuaaui oeaiyi, auno?i onaaeaaaony /aeiaaeii e iaeaieeaaaony a
i?aaiecia. A nayce n yoei aaiaeeeenue ia?aie/aiey ia oiio?aaeaiea
iaeioi?uo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia (iai?eia?, iieiea), i?iaiaeeeanue eiaeiay
i?ioeeaeoeea. E?iia oiai, anai iaoiaeeaoeiny a iaeaieaa iianiie ciia
i?aaeuyaeyeinue o?aaiaaiea ia iaycaoaeueiii eniieueciaaiee ?anie?aoi?ia.

Iinea ?aniaaea aieueoae /anoe ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai eiaea aieiaiea
?aaeeioeieeia e iaaeeeia i?eaeae, i?aaeaea anaai, ieooiiee. Ii ia noieue
?aaeeiaeoeaai, iaeiaei aeieaiaeeaou. Aai iaeiieaiea aeaaea a iaeuo
aeicaoiianii aeey e?aeeo.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee auynieeinue, /oi i?ioyae?iiinoue cii n
iiauoaiiie eiioeaio?aoeeae ieooiiey auea iacia/eoaeueiie, a oeie/aneea
oi?iu e ?acia?u /anoeoe, a eioi?uo ii ieacaeny, eaaei caaea?aeeaaeny
?anie?aoi?aie.

Neaaeothuae i?iaeaiie noaee oaea aeieaiaeeaouea ecioiiu no?iioeey e
oeacey, iniaaiii oeacee-137. Eo iaee/ea ia oie eee eiie oa??eoi?ee
naaiaeiy aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo
aeacaeoeaaoeeiiiuo ?aaio, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeyao ?aoaiea aii?inia
?ayaaeoaoeee ianaeaiey, aai i?iaeeaaiey a ii?aaeae?iiuo ?aeiiao,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio ?aaeeia ieoaiey ethaeae e ae?oaeo i?iaeai.

* * *

I?AAeI?EIssOUA IA?U

Ia?u aaciianiinoe, i?eiyoua a a. I?eiyoe, ieacaaoainy a 30-eeeiiao?iaie
ciia, iniiauaaeenue ia “E?eoa?eyo aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ii caueoa
ianaeaiey a neo/aa aaa?ee aoiiiiai ?aaeoi?a”, ?ac?aaioaiiuo e
iioaeeeiaaiiuo o/?iuie au? a 1963 aiaeo. Eo aeaa.

Ia?aue e?eoa?ee aeey i?eiyoey ia? aaciianiinoe (e?eoa?ee “A”)
ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai aiaoiaai iaeo/aiey aei 25 ay? e iauei iaeo/aieai
ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu a 30-250 ay?. A neo/aa, anee i?iaiice?oaiay aeica
iaeo/aiey ia aeinoeaaao yoeo o?iaiae eee aeecea e iei, ieeaeeo iniauo
ia?ii?eyoee, e?iia eiaeiie i?ioeeaeoeee e niaethaeaiey ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
iauaaeaeaie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, ia o?aaoaony.

I?e o?iaia aiaoiaai iaeo/aiey io 25 aei 75 ay? (e?eoa?ee “A”)
i?iaiaeyony ia?ii?eyoey, naycaiiua n i?ioeeaeoeeie, oe?uoeai ianaeaiey a
caaeneiinoe io ianoiuo oneiaee. E?aeiei ?aoaieai iiaeao auoue
yaaeoaoeey. Ii a? i?iaaaeaiea noaiiaeony iaycaoaeueiui, eeoue eiaaea
i?iaiice?oaony aeica aiaoiaai aaiia-iaeo/aiey aieueoa 75 ay?.

Neooaoeey a I?eiyoe auea oaeiaa, /oi o?iaie ?aaeeaoeee aeinoeaee
e?eoa?ey “A”, ii ia aeinoeaee e?eoa?ey “A”. I?iaiic nauoa 50 ay? aiiaua
ionoonoaiaae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, n th?eaee/aneie oi/ee c?aiey ai?iae a oio
iiiaio iiaeii auei e ia yaaeoe?iaaoue. Ii/aio an?-oaee auei i?eiyoi
oaeia ?aoaiea? Iioiio, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa aaa?ee ia *AYN i?iecio?e ia
e?oiiue ?aciaue aua?in aeoeaiinoe (aiciiaeiua iineaaenoaey eioi?iai auee
?ann/eoaiu iaoeie ca?aiaa), a aua?in aeoeaiinoe, ?anoyiooue ai a?aiaie.

A ae?oaeo ianoao, iaae eioi?uie aeaaea e i?ioei ?aaeeiaeoeaiia iaeaei,
iniiaaiee aeey yaaeoaoeee e aieueoeo o?aaia ia auei, ?aeiiaiaeiaaeenue
eeoue ia?u caueou ii e?eoa?eth “A”.

Ia?aii/a?aaeiie caaea/ae ii eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee aaa?ee auei
inouanoaeaiea eiiieaena ?aaio, iai?aaeaiiiai ia i?ae?auaiea aua?inia
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo ec ?ac?ooaiiiai ?aaeoi?a.
N iiiiuueth aiaiiuo aa?oie?oia i/aa aaa?ee caa?anuaaeny oaieiioaiaeyueie
e oeeueo?othueie iaoa?eaeaie, /oi iicaieeei nouanoaaiii nieceoue, a
caoai e i?ae?aoeoue aua?in ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo.
I?iaiaeeeenue oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey ii i?aaeioa?auaieth
iiiaaeaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa ec ?ac?ooaiiiai ?aaeoi?a a a?oio iiae
caeaieai 4-ai yia?aiaeiea.

Aaaeiui yoaiii yoie ?aaiou noaei nii?oaeaiea oe?uoey iaae ?ac?ooaiiui
?aaeoi?ii n oeaeueth iaania/aiey ii?iaeueiie ?aaeeaoeeiiiie ianoaiiaee
ia ie?oaeathuae oa??eoi?ee e a aicaeooiii i?ino?ainoaa.

A oeaeyo i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe /a?ac
iiaecaiiua e iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu a ?aeiia *a?iiaueueneie AYN aue nicaeai
eiiieaen caueoiuo e aeae?ioaoie/aneeo nii?oaeaiee.

Aeaaiaea?y aeacaeoeaaoeee aioo?aiieo iiiauaiee *AYN eo ?aaeeaoeeiiiay
caa?yci?iiinoue iiieaeaia aei iau/iuo ii?i i?e ianeoaeeaaiee aoiiiuo
yeaeo?inoaioeee.

Ia iniiaiie /anoe oa??eoi?ee noaioeee o?iaie ?aaeeaoeee ninoaaeyee
(inaiue 1988a.) io 1 aei 7 i?//, o aaeieieno?aoeaii-auoiaiai ei?iona,
eoaea i?eauaaao ia?niiae, 0,5-0,7 i?//. Eiioeaio?aoeey ay?icieae ia
oa??eoi?ee AYN iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao aeiionoeiie ii?iu aeey aoiiiuo
noaioeee.

Ca aeaa aiaea iinea aaa?ee ia *AYN ?acee/iua aaaeiinoaa, ioaaonoaaiiua
ca ?aaeeaoeeiiioth ianoaiiaeo a no?aia, ca iaaeeoeeineea aniaeou aaa?ee,
iieo/eee ia?iiiue iannea aeaiiuo ieeeeiiu enneaaeiaaiee
aeiceiao?e/aneiai, ?aaeeiiao?e/aneiai, niaeo?iiao?e/aneiai oa?aeoa?a,
eioi?ua iicaieeee iieo/eoue anaiauaiethuoth eioi?iaoeeth ia ianoaiiaea
eae ia naiie aoiiiie noaioeee, oae e a ae?oaeo ?aeiiao.

A oeaeii ?aaeeaoeeiiiay ianoaiiaea a 1988 aiaeo noaaeeece?iaaeanue, oae
eae e yoiio a?aiaie a iniiaiii ?aniaeenue ei?ioeiaeeaouea ?aaeeiioeeeaeu
e ?aaeeaoeeiiiue oii ia oa??eoi?eyo, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ca i?aaeaeaie
30-eeeiiao?iaie ciiu, ii?aaeaeyeny aeieaiaeeaoueie ?aaeeiioeeeaeaie
oeacey-137.

Iauee oii aaiia-eceo/aiee a Eeaaa ninoaaeye a na?aaeeia 1988 aiaea io
0,035 i?// a i?aaiaa?aaeiuo ?aeiiao aei 0,045 i?// a eaaiaa?aaeiuo.
O?iaie yoe aaniethoii aaciianiu. Ia i?aauoaao oaeeo i?aaeaeia
?aaeeaoeeiiiue oii e a ae?oaeo e?oiiuo ai?iaeao, iaoiaeyueony a ?aaeeona
100-200 ei io ?aeiia aaa?ee.

Aieaa neiaeiie yaeyaony ?aaeeaoeeiiiay ianoaiiaea a ciia ae?noeiai
eiio?iey.

?aaeeaoeeiiiia caa?yciaiea caeanue ia?aaiiia?ii. Iiae aeeyieai iiaiaeiuo
oneiaee (aeiaeaeae, iai?aaeaiey e neeu aao?a) a ia?eiae i?ioiaeaeaiey
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai iaeaea, ia?aciaaaoaainy i?e aaa?ee ia *AYN, a yoie ciia
noi?ie?iaaeenue ioaeaeueiua iyoia oeacey-137 (oae iacuaaaiua oeaceaaua
iyoia).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ciia ae?noeiai eiio?iey i?iaeieaeaaony
aeacaeoeaaoeey iaeaieaa caa?yci?iiuo o/anoeia e inouanoaeythony
ia?ii?eyoey ii caueoa ianaeaiey io aiaoiaai e aioo?aiiaai
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai iaeo/aiey. I?eiyou ia?u, iaania/eaathuea ?aaeaiaioaoeeth
iaeo/aiey aeeoaeae ciiu ia aeeeoaeueioth ia?niaeoeao a niioaaonoaee n
ii?iaie ?aaeeaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe, aeaenoaothueie a ?aeiiao ?aciauaiey
aoiiiuo noaioeee. Ianaeaiea ciiu eioi?ie?oaony i eiie?aoiie
?aaeeaoeeiiiie ianoaiiaea a ?aeiiao aai i?iaeeaaiey.

Ia?aua iia?aoeaiua ia?u Iieeoath?i OeE EINN e I?aaeoaeuenoai i?eiyee
aoeaaeueii /a?ac ianeieueei /ania iinea aaa?ee ia *AYN. N oao ii?
aii?inu eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee aaa?ee iaoiaeeeenue iiae eiio?ieai
ia?oeeiuo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia.

I?aaeoniao?eaaeenue na?ue?ciua ia?u iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue ianaeaieth,
iino?aaeaaoaio a ?acoeueoaoa aaa?ee. A /anoiinoe, auaeaeyeenue
n?aaenoaa ia aaeeiia?aiaiiua iiniaey, i?eia?aoaiea iaeaaeaeu e ae?oaeo
i?aaeiaoia ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeey ia?anaeyaiuo a?aaeaeai, ia iieaoo
eo ieoaiey e i?iacaea.

A ieoya?a 1986 aiaea aiiaue ca?aaioae 1-e yia?aiaeie, a a iiya?a oiai
aea aiaea 2-e. E iaa auoee ia i?iaeoioth iaa?oceo 1 ieeeeii eAo. 4
aeaeaa?y 1987 aiaea a 14 /ania 28 ieioo aue aeeth/?i a naoue 3-e
yia?aiaeie. 4-e ?aaeoi? a ieoya?a 1986 aiaea aue caia/aoai a “Oe?uoea”,
oae iacuaaaiue “Na?eioaa”.

* * *

O?IEE IA AOAeOUAA

Auee ninoaaeaiu e ?aaeeciaaiu ieaiu ii iiauoaieth aaciianiinoe AYN n
?aaeoi?aie ?AIE e naiaeiua ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaieth iaae?aeiinoe e
aaciianiinoe aeaenoaothueo e nii?oaeaaiuo aoiiiuo noaioeee n ?aaeoi?aie
?AIE e AAY?. N o/?oii aiaeeca i?e/ei aaa?ee ia?aniio?aia
ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneay aeieoiaioaoeey ii AYN, aianaiu ii?aaeae?iiua
eciaiaiey a iauea iieiaeaiey iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe aoiiiuo noaioeee e
i?aaeea yaea?iie aaciianiinoe, ooi/iaiu aeaenoaothuea e ?ac?aaaouaathony
iiaua noaiaea?ou e oaoie/aneea oneiaey ia iai?oaeiaaiea, ecaeaeey,
iaoa?eaeu, i?eai?u e n?aaenoaa aaoiiaoecaoeee, iinoaaeyaiua ia aoiiiua
noaioeee. ?ac?aaioaiu e inouanoaeythony ia?u ii iiauoaieth oaoie/aneiai
o?iaiy, iaae?aeiinoe e ea/anoaa ecaioaaeeaaaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey AYN,
niaa?oainoaiaaieth aai eiino?oeoeee e oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa.
I?iaaaeaia ia?aiiaeaioiaea e aooanoaoeey yenieoaoaoeeiiiiai ia?niiaea
anao aeaenoaothueo aoiiiuo noaioeee. Oaiaoeea iao/aiey ?ac?aaioaia n
o/?oii aiaeeca i?e/ei aaa?ee ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iiauoaiey o?iaiy ciaiee iia?aoeaiui ia?niiaeii o?aaiaaiee ii yaea?iie,
?aaeeaoeeiiiie e iiaea?iie aaciianiinoe. Aianaiu eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey
a oaoiieiae/aneea ?aaeaiaiou e eino?oeoeee ii yenieoaoaoeee AYN.

Aoiiiay yia?aaoeea, eniuoaa oyae?eue o?ie *a?iiauey, i?iaeieaeaao
?acaeaaoueny, iaeneiaeueii iaania/eaay aaciianiinoue e iaae?aeiinoue!

* * *

ENIIEUeCOAIAss EEOA?AOO?A:

1. “*a?iiaueue: niauoey e o?iee” Iiae ?aae. A. E. Eaiaoaiei, I., 1989

2. A. N. Aoaa?aa “Ca?aai iaae I?eiyoueth”, I., 1987

3. “Aaea?onue”, ?4 96:– A. Ethoeei “Ia?anoei iaaecai i o?uaiai”

– “Aecanyoeue iaeuiiuo aaaeiy”

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