.

Альтернативные источники энергии. (Грани нетрадиционной энергетики.)

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 911
Скачать документ

EAEEIEIA?AAeNEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

Eaoaae?a NO e AO

“A?aie iao?aaeeoeeiiiie yia?aaoeee”

?aoa?ao ii aeenoeeieeia:

“Yeieiaey”

? a a i o o i?iaa?ee ? a a i o o auiieiee

nooaeaio a?. 95-AO-1

?acoaaaa A.A.

Aeaoa:________________ Aeaoa:________________

Iiaeienue:_____________ Iiaeienue:_____________

Eaeeieia?aae 1997

Niaea?aeaiea:

no?.:

1. Aaaaeaiea:

1.1. A?aie iao?aaeeoeeiiiie yia?aaoeee
……………………………………..3

2. A?aie nieia/iie yia?aaoeee:

2.1. Oioiiiue
eioo…………………………………………………………..
………..4

2.2. Eo/oa aeaoaaea e
yooaeoeaiae……………………………………………..4

2.3. Eiaaea iin?aaeieee ia
ioaeiu………………………………………………..7

2.4. I?iiuoeaiiue
oioineioac…………………………………………………8

2.5. Yeaeo?inoaioeee ia i?aeoa, a aua eo/oa ia eoia
!!!………………9

3. Aao?iyia?aaoeea:

3.1. Iiaee?aoaeue
aao?a………………………………………………………….
…..12

“Iao?aaeeoeeiiay yia?aaoeea” iao?aaeeoeeiiia iioiio, /oi iaaacaea au? o
ian anoue o?aaeeoey – aa?a/ue ?iaeioth i??e?iaeo.

?acoaaaa A.A.

A?aie iao?aaeeoeeiiiie yia?aaoeee.

O/aiua i?aaeinoa?aaatho: ?acaaaeaiiuo caiania i?aaie/aneiai oiieeaa
i?e iuiaoieo oaiiao ?inoa yia?aiiio?aaeaiey oaaoeo anaai ia 70-130 eao.
Eiia/ii, iiaeii ia?aeoe e ia ae?oaea iaaiciaiiaeyaiua enoi/ieee yia?aee.
Iai?eia?, o/aiua oaea iiiaea aiaeu iuoathony inaieoue oi?aaeyaiue
oa?iiyaea?iue neioac…

Ii aeaaea a oii neo/aa, anee ia Caiea aoaeoo ioe?uou i?aeoe/anee
iaen/a?iaaiua nu?ueaaua ?ano?nu, ia oaeanony ecaaaeaoue yeieiae/aneie
aaaeu. Eao /a?ac 100 ia iaoae ieaiaoa aoaeao au?aaaouaaoueny 1 %
yia?aee, eioi?oth iia iieo/aao io Nieioea – 1.5 o 10 24 Aeae a aiae.
Yoio ?oaaae ia neaaeoao ia?aoiaeeoue. Eia/a ia/i?ony oayiea iiey?iuo
eueaeia, eaoano?ioe/anee iiauneony o?iaaiue Ie?iaiai ieaaia. A oaeii
neo/aa i?ea?aaeiui ai?iaeai e oeaeui i?eii?neei no?aiai yia?aey oaea ia
iiiaaeiaeony.

Oae iacuaaaiiai oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey ieaiaou iiaeii ecaaaeaoue eeoue a
oii neo/aa, anee «acyoue ia aii?oaeaiea» nieia/ioth yia?aeth, eioi?ay
iacaaeneii io oiai, eniieuecoao eee ia eniieuecoao aa /aeiaae, –
iaa?aaaao aoiinoa?o Caiee.

OIOIIIUE EIOO

*oiau a iieiie ia?a eniieueciaaoue eo/enooth yia?aeth Nieioea, e ioaeii
i?aa?aoeoue a eaeie-eeai eiie aeae. Nio?aieoue naaoiaie eo/ a aaie
(aniiiiei /oaeaea-o/aiiai, aa?iy «Iooaoanoaee Aoeeeaa?a», eioi?ay ia/oae
i nieia/iuo eiina?aao) aua ieeiio ia oaeaaaeinue.

Iaeei ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo e ia?niaeoeaiuo niiniaia
i?aia?aciaaiey naaoa – oioiyeaeo?e/aneee. oioiiu ia?aaeatho naith
yia?aeth yeaeo?iiai a iieoi?iaiaeieeao. Aicieeaao yeaeo?e/aneee oie.

Eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo? Iiae?iaii ia yoii iiaeii i?i/eoaoue a o/aaieea
oeceee. Iu aea iiyniei ae?aooea. Cai?auaiiua yia?aaoe/aneea ciiu a
iaeioi?uo iieoi?iaiaeieeao ii oe?eia eae ?ac niioaaonoaotho aaee/eia
yia?aee eaaioa naaoa. Cai?auaiiay ciia – yoi iioaioeeaeueiue aa?uea?,
eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii i?aiaeieaoue yeaeo?iio i?e ia?aneiea n iaeiiai ia
ae?oaie aoii e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee. Iiaeioea oioii, yeaeo?ii ia?aoaao
iiaeaeaeiinoue Cia/eo, iiaeao aicieeiooue yeaeo?e/aneee oie. Aaaeue ii
ii?aaeaeaieth oie – yoi iai?aaeaiiia aeaeaeaiea yeaeo?e/aneeo ca?yaeia.

Aea aio aaaea, oioieiaeooee?iaaiiua yeaeo?iiu iiaoo n ?aaiie
aa?iyoiinoueth aeaeaaoueny eae a iaeio, oae e a ae?oaoth noi?iio. YAeN
?aciuo ciaeia eiiiaine?otho ae?oa ae?oaa. Oiea ia aoaeao.

Anee aea oaia?ue niaianoeoue aeaa iieoi?iaiaeieea (/aua anaai
eniieuecoaony e?aiiee), eaae?iaaiiuo ?aciuie i?eianyie (iaeia, a neeo
ianiaiaaeathueo aaeaioiinoae, i?eaiineo a enoiaeiia aauanoai
ianeiiiaine?iaaiiua yeaeo?iiu – iieo/aaony iieoi?iaiaeiee n-oeia, a
ae?oaay, /uey aaeaioiinoue iaiueoa. i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth aeu?ie,
iineoaeae iieiaeeoaeueiuo ca?yaeia – iieoi?iaiaeiee ?-oeia), ia eo
a?aieoea ia?acoaony n-?-ia?aoiae. Naaoa iao – oie ionoonoaoao. Eae
oieueei iieoi?iaiaeieeiaue aeeiae) inaaoeoue, iioaeoo ecauoi/iua
yeaeo?iiu a ?-ciio.

EO*OA AeAOAAEA E YOOAEOEAIAE

Anoue oaeay «auaa?iooay» i?eneacea: eo/oa auoue caei?iaui e aiaaoui, /ai
aaaeiui e aieueiui. Neaaeoy yoiio i?eioeeio, e ?acaeaaaony
oioiyia?aaoeea. Aua iaaeaaii oioiyeaeo?iyia?aey iaoiaeeeanue i/aiue
aei?iai. E iaioae?aii. Aei 1982 aiaea a iaoae no?aia oioiyeaiaiou
auioneaeenue oieueei aeey einie/aneeo aiia?aoia. A iacaiiua
i?aia?aciaaoaee iiiaaeaei eeoue oi, /oi ii eaeei-oi i?e/eiai
aua?aeiauaaee iniiaiua caeac/eee.

Iaeiiaoe iiyaeeinue iiuoiia i?iecaiaenoai aeeneiauo nieia/iuo yeaiaioia
aeey ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo ioaeae. Naaanoieiinoue nieia/iie
yeaeo?iyia?aee oiaiueoeeanue a 3- 4 ?aca. Ii ana ?aaii 7-10 ?oa. ca 1 Ao
onoaiiaeaiiie iiuiinoe (oaeiau naaiaeiyoiea cao?aou) – yoi i/aiue
aei?iai. Eaeao iiene niiniaia oaeaoaaeaiey nieia/iuo yeaiaioia. Iaeei ec
i?eia?ia oiio – eioa?aniay ?ac?aaioea niaaoneiai o/aiiai A. Noaiaiiaa.
Ii i?aaeeiaeee aunieiea/anoaaiiue e?aiiee ia au?aueaaoue a aeaea
neeoeia, eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony iioii ?anieeeaaoue ia e?oaeua ieanoeiu, oa
aea, a naith i/a?aaeue, ouaoaeueii iiee?iaaoue, cao?a/eaay iiiai yia?aee
e ?anoiaeoy aionooth iaoa?eae, a auoyaeaaoue oiieeie eaioaie ec
?anieaaa. I?e oaeii niiniaa ia oieueei nieaeaaony naaanoieiinoue
oioiyeaiaioia, ii e oaaee/eaaaony yooaeoeaiinoue nieia/iuo aaoa?ae.
Aaaeue eaiou iiaeii niueaoue aieioioth, a iaaeaeo aeeneiauie yeaiaioaie
anaaaea inoaaony iaeniieueciaaiiay ieiuaaeue.

Iaeiaei a aoeaaeueiii niunea eaiaiue i?aoeiiaaiey nieia/iie
yeaeo?iyia?aaoeee – ieceee EIAe e?aiieaauo yeaiaioia. Aeaei a oii, /oi
eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue nieia/iie yia?aee iiaeiuaaony yeaeo?iiaie a
iieoi?iaiaeieeao. Eueaeiay aeiey iaaeathuaai eceo/aiey eaeao ia iaa?aa
oioiyeaiaioa (/oi, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, oooaeoaao aai oioiyeaeo?e/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee), eaeay-oi /anoue io?aaeaaony, eaeay-oi i?iiecuaaao aai
ianeaicue. Aniiiiei, aaaeue cai?auaiiay iieina a iieoi?iaiaeieea
aeiaieueii ocea. A cia/eo, e iaaaeeei «yia?aaoe/aneia iaith» yeaeo?iiia.
E?iia oiai, cia/eoaeueiua iioa?e yia?aee a iieoi?iaiaeieeao naycaiu n
?aeiiaeiaoeeae yeaeo?iiia e aeu?ie (eiiiainaoeeae ?aciieiaiiuo
ca?yaeia).

A ?acoeueoaoa EIAe noaiaea?oiuo nieia/iuo yeaiaioia ia i?aauoaao 10%.
Ai?i/ai, oaea anoue iiuoiua ia?acoeu, iieo/aiiua a eaai?aoi?eyo I.
Eaaaia, A. Caeoeaaie (III «Eaaio»), EIAe eioi?uo 15-17%. E yoi ia
i?aaeae. Yenia?oaie iin/eoaii, /oi i?aaeaeueiue EIAe aeey nieia/iuo
yeaiaioia n n-?-ia?aoiaeii ninoaaeyao 27-30%.

Iniaaiii ia?niaeoeaiuie n/eoathony iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua i?aia?aciaaoaee n
oae iacuaaaiuie aaoa?a- ia?aoiaeaie. Iie ecaioiaeaiu ec aeaoo ?acee/iuo
ii oeie/aneiio ninoaao iieoi?iaiaeieeia (a ioee/ea io iienaiiiai iaie
iaeiiai, ii eaae?iaaiiiai n aeaoo noi?ii ?aciuie i?eianyie).
Niioaaonoaaiii oe?eia cai?auaiiuo cii a eaaeaeii ?acee/ia. A iaeanoe
n-?-ia?aoiaea aic ieeaao, ca n/ao acaeiiiai naeaaeeaaiey iioaioeeaeueiuo
aa?uea?ia, aeiiieieoaeueiay oioi-YAeN. Eieeaeoea o/aiuo, ?aaioathuee
iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii aeaaeaieea AE. Aeoa?iaa, iieo/ee ia oioiaeeiaeao n
aaoa?iia?aoiaeii «a?naieae aethieiey – a?naieae aaeeey» EIAe ieiei 20%.

I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi i?e iaa?aaa oaeea oioiaeeiaeu ia oooaeoatho naie
oioiyeaeo?e/aneea naienoaa. Iie onoie/eai ?aaioatho aeaaea i?e 1600-
e?aoiii oieioiaiee iioiea nieia/iie yia?aee.

Ieacuaaaony, iiaeii nicaeaoue oioii?aia?acothuea ono?ienoaa, eioi?ua
aoaeoo ooeeece?iaaoue i?aeoe/anee aanue iaaeathuee ia ieo naao. Iie
iaeaaeatho oae iacuaaaiie aa?eciiiie no?oeoo?ie, oi anoue cai?auaiiay
ciia o ieo ia?aiaiiie oe?eiu (?en. 1). Yoiai aeiaeaathony, aaiaey a
?aciua ciiu iieoi?iaiaeieea ?acee/iua i?eiane. A oaeii neo/aa oioi-YAeN
aaia?e?oaony ia ia iaeiie iiaa?oiinoe n-?-ia?aoiaea, a a oeaeie
i?ino?ainoaaiiie iaeanoe, aeey ?aciuo oi/ae eioi?ie – ?aciua cai?auaiiua
ciiu. A iae aeey ethaiai eaaioa iaeaeaony oe?iiiia ianoa/ei, aaea aai
aac iiiao iiaeioeo yeaeo?ii.

Oai?ey aa?eei eiuo no?oeoo? a iaoae no?aia ?ac?aaaouaaaony
/eaiii-ei??aniiiaeaioii AI NNN? I. Eeaei?aiei, aeieoi?ii
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe A. ?aaeieeiiaui, aeieoi?ii oaoie/aneeo iaoe
Ae. No?aaeiaui, eaiaeeaeaoii oeceei- iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe A. Ieeiaaiiaui
e ae?. Aeieacaii, /oi oioii?aia- ?aciaaoaee n aa?eciiiie no?oeoo?ie
(eieue nei?i iao/aony eo ecaioaaeeaaoue) aoaeoo eiaoue EIAe 90%.

Eaeao iiene e iiauo – aeaoaauo iaoa?eaeia aeey oioiyeaiaioia. Aanueia
ia?niaeoeaiu, ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo enneaaeiaaoaeae, iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua
niaaeeiaiey iaaee, eaaeiey, na?u. I?aia?aciaaoaee, iieo/aiiua ia eo
iniiaa, iaaei?iae, aea aio aaaea – EIAe o ieo ii?yaeea 5%, e iaoa?eaeu
ianoaaeeueiu, ?ac?ooathony iiae aicaeaenoaeai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.
Neiaeiay, aei?iainoiyuay aa?iaoecaoeey naiaeeo ia iao iieo/aiioth
yeiiiieth.

Iiaeii oiaiueoeoue naaanoieiinoue aaeeiyeaeo?iyia?aee ae?oaei niiniaii.
Neaaeai, canoaaeoue Nieioea… y?/a inaauaoue oioii?aia?aciaaoaee. Aeey
yoiai eniieuecotho ono?ienoaa, eiaioaiua eiioeaio?aoi?aie. Iie niae?atho
nieia/iua eo/e n aieueoie ieiuaaee e iai?aaeytho eo ia ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoea ii ?acia?o nianoaaiii oioii?aia?acothuea iaiaee.

Ia?aaiee/aneee eiioeaio?aoi?. Oaea naii iacaaiea aiai?eo i oii, /oi aai
/aoa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aaieieae, anee iai?aaeoue yoo /aoo ia
Nieioea, oi i?aeoe/anee ana eo/e, io?aceaoeany io aa aioo?aiiae
ca?eaeueiie iiaa?oiinoe, niaa?oony a iaaieueoie iaeanoe aicea oieona
ia?aaieieaea. Eiyooeoeeaio eiioeaio?aoeee (ioiioaiea ieiuaaee, n ei-

oi?ie niae?aeenue eo/e, e oie ieiuaaee, ia eioi?ie iie
neiioeaio?e?iaaeenue) o oaeiai ono?ienoaa aaeee. Yoi, eiia/ii, oi?ioi.
Ii a oi aea a?aiy i?eaiaeeo e /?acia?iiio ia?aa?aao oioiyeaiaioa.
I?eoiaeeony i?aaeoniao?eaaoue nenoaio ioeaaeaeaiey. Aea e nenoaia
aaoiiaoe/aneiai neaaeaiey ca Nieioeai oiaea ioaeia. *ooue-/ooue
ioeeiieony Nieioea io ine neiiao?ee ia?aaieieaea – n?aco aea i?ienoiaeeo
nouanoaaiiay iioa?y oioiyeaeo?e/aneie iiuiinoe. I?eioeei ?aaiou oieiiia
e oieeeiia oaeie aea, /oi e ia?aaiee/aneeo eiioeaio?aoi?ia. Oieueei
iaeaathuea eo /ao ia ia?aaieu, a aeia?aieu a?auaiey. Yoa caiaia eiaao
ii?aaeaeaiiue niune. Aeia?aieieae niae?aao eo/e a oieaeueiie iaeanoe
aeaaea a oii neo/aa, anee eo iaeeii e ine neiiao?ee /aoe ninoaaeyao 6( !
Ia ioaeii iai?a?uaii iiai?a/eaaoue eiioeaio?aoi? aneaae ca Nieioeai.
Aiieia aeinoaoi/ii ec?aaeea (iiaeii e a?o/ioth) eciaieoue oaie aai
iaeeiia. 6° aea 6( – yoi 12(, a oaeie iooue ii iaao Nieioea niaa?oaao
i?eia?ii ca /an.

Eae ie ia?aaeienaeueii, iaaeinoaoie oieiiia e oieeeiia oanii naycai n eo
aeinoieinoaii – ieceee eiyooeoeeaio eiioeaio?aoeee eceo/aiey iicaieyao
ioeacaoueny io aei?iainoiyuae nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey oioiyeaiaioia.

E ae?oaiio oeio eiioeaio?aoi?ia – i?aeiieythuaio – ioiineony eeica
o?aiaey. Iia ninoieo ec oeaeiai iaai?a i?eci, ninoaaeaiiuo aa?oeiaie
aianoa, oae /oi iiaa?oiinoue eeicu, ia?auaiiay e Nieioeo, iaiiieiaao
?anoyioooth aa?iioeo.

Nieia/iua eo/e i?aeiieythony a i?eciao, i?e/ai anaaaea iaoiaeeony
?aniieiaeaiiay e Nieioeo iiae oaeei oaeii, /oi i?aeiieaoeany a iae eo/e
niae?athony ia oioiyeaiaioa, onoaiiaeaiiii ca aa?oeiie eeicu. Aio ii/aio
eeico O?aiaey ia ioaeii iiai?a/eaaoue a aa?oeeaeueiie iein einoe. iia
iaeeiaeiai oi?ioi ?aaioaao i?e auniei e iecei noiyuai Nieioea.

Naaiaeiy iiyaeythony oae iacuaaaiua ieineea eeicu O?aiaey. O ieo iao
«aa?iioee». N aeaeo yoi iaueiiaaiiua i?eciu. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua naaiaiou
a oaeie i?ecia ia?aaioaiu aeanoeei eceo/aieai, iieacaoaeue i?aeiieaiey a
ieo eciaieeny. A iai?aaeaiea i?aeiieaiiiai eo/a, eae ecaanoii, caaeneo
ia oieueei io oaea iaaeaiey (a eeica O?aiaey aai caaeaao «aa?iioea»), ii
e io iieacaoaey i?aeiieaiey aauanoaa.

Iaeia ec iaeaieaa eioa?aniuo ?ac?aaioie iineaaeieo eao – i?eciaeii. Yoi
oiaea i?ecia. Ii oaie i?e aa aa?oeia eiaao no?iai ii?aaeaeaiioth
aaee/eio. A caaeneiinoe io iieacaoaey i?aeiieaiey aauanoaa, ec eioi?iai
naeaeaia i?ecia (/aua anaai yoi i?aaie/aneia eee iioe/aneia noaeei),
oaie auae?aaony oaeei, /oiau ethaie eo/, iiiaaoee a i?ecio, oaea ia iia
i?ieoe /a?ac io?aaeathuoth iiaa?oiinoue e ieacuaaeny a eiaooea. Aio
inoaaony iaeei iooue – e niae?athuae a?aie i?eciu.

Aeaeeii, au oaea aeiaaaeaeenue, /oi i?eioeei ?aaiou i?eciaeiia iniiaai
ia yaeaiee iieiiai aioo?aiiaai io?aaeaiey, eiaaea eo/, aoiaeyuee a
iioe/anee aieaa ieioioth n?aaeo, ioeeiiyaony ianoieueei, /oi
neaaeothuoth a?aieoeo ?acaeaea aio i?aiaeieaoue oaea o?oaeiaa, a i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiii, auoa e?eoe/aneiai aeey aeaiiiai aauanoaa oaea iaaeaiey –
iaaiciiaeii.

I?eciaeiiu auee ?ac?aaioaiu a III «Eaaio», a eaai?aoi?ee eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoie/aneeo iaoe Y. Oaa?ueyiiae/a. E niaeaeaieth, ec-ca ath?ie?aoe/aneeo
i?iaiei/ae naie i?ei?eoao iu oionoeee. Iiea oae iaoi?iieeaue (ieiei
iieoaiaea) i?ioeann ioi?ieaiey aeieoiaioia ia cayaeo a
Aineiiecia?aoaiee, aiaeiae/ioth cayaeo, iia?aaeea iaoeo o/aiuo ia aeaa
iaaeaee, iiaeae aano?aeeeneee aaeeioaoiee A. AEeo?ii/…

Oiiiyiai eiioeaio?aoi? aua iaeiiai oeia – ethieianoeaioiue. I?eioeei aai
?aaiou ianeiaeai. A iioe/aneoth ieanoeio ae?aieaiu ethieiioi?iua
aauanoaa. Naao, i?iieeathuee a ieanoeio, aicaoaeaeaao aoiiu ethieiioi?a,
iie ia?aeceo/atho iiaeiuaiiua oioiiu, eioi?ua ec-ca iieiiai aioo?aiiaai
io?aaeaiey oaea ia iiaoo i?i?aaoueny /a?ac iiaa?oiinoe e caaa?oatho naie
iooue ia oioiniae?athuae a?aie.

A ia?niaeoeaa iiaeiaiua ono?ienoaa iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu eae
oneeeoaee a aoaeoueo iioe/aneeo YAI. Iiea aea iie i?ioiaeyo eniuoaiey a
iao/iuo eaai?aoi?eyo.

EIAAeA IIN?AAeIEEE IA IOAEIU

Anaaaea ee ioaeii eiiaoue aieiao eaeei ia?acii i?aia?aciaaoue naao a
ioaeiue iai aeae yia?aee? Oioiiu aac eaeeo-eeai iin?aaeieeia «naie ii
naaa» iiaeiuathony aoiiaie e a eiia/iii n/aoa oaaee/eaatho oaieiaoth
yia?aeth aauanoaa. Iaaei oieueei noiaoue ainiieueciaaoueny aea?iaui
oaieii, e oiaaea ia ioaeii aoaeao o?aoeoue aeaoeoeeoioth yeaeo?iyia?aeth
(a iu oaea ciaai, /oi e nieia/iay yeaeo?iyia?aey iaaeaoaaa), aeiionoei,
ia iaia?aa iiiauaiee,

Oeaaeeaatho e ia?aiinyo nieia/iia oaiei e ianoo eniieueciaaiey
eieeaeoi?u. I?inoaeoee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaieiiaiaiiee, a eiai” ?ii
oee?eoee?oao aeeaeeinoue. Naa?oo ii iie?aoai a /a?iue oeaao, /oiau eo/oa
iiaeiuaoue nieia/iia eceo/aiea, e cae?uo noaeeii, ia i?iioneathuei
eio?ae?aniua – oaieiaua eo/e. Iineieueeo iaeneioi eceo/aiey Nieioea
i?eoiaeeony ia aeaeeioth /anoue niaeo?a, iaoeo?ia ono?ienoai iiaeiuaao
iaiiiai aieueoa yia?aee, /ai ioaeaao a i?ino?ainoai. Iii aeeoioee?oao
oaiei, eioi?ia oaieiiineoaeue (/aua anaai aiaea, oaeouay ii
oaieiiaiaiiui o?oaai) ia?aaeaao iio?aaeoaeth.

Eae i?aaeei, eieeaeoi?u ieeoi ia iiai?a/eaaao aneaae ca Nieioeai. Eo
cae?aieytho aeanoei, i?eaioe?otho ia tha e onoaiaaeeaatho iiae oaeii e
ai?eciioo, ?aaiui oaeo oe?iou ianoiinoe.

Nieia/iia oaiei «iaeieaei?eeii», iii ?annayii. Aanueia caiai/eai
niaaaeeoue eieeaeoi?u eiioeaio?aoi?aie. Anee yoi aieueoea ia?aaiee/aneea
ca?eaea, n eo iiiiuueth iiaeii enia?youe aiaeo e ?acia?aaaoue ia?

aei aunieeo oaiia?aoo?. Iinoaiaiii oaea iaiaei aaeeinoaioeee, ia eioi?uo
oie au?aaaouaaaony aaia?aoi?aie, a?auaaiuie ia?iaie oo?aeiie (eae
aeaeeoa, aac yeaeo?iyia?aee ana-oaee ia iaioeinue). Nieioea, e?iia oiai,
ieaaeo iaoaeeu, a aaeeiia/ao iieo/atho iniai /enoua oeie/aneea aauanoaa.
Ai?i/ai, aaeei- oaoiieiaee – yoi oaia ioaeaeueiie noaouee. Iu aea
inoaiiaeiny ia auoiaii eniieueciaaiee nieia/iie oaieiaie yia?aee.

Iaeia ec iineaaeieo ?ac?aaioie – o?oa/aoue eieeaeoi? n eiioeaio?aoi?ii
oeia i?eciaeii. Ii ninoieo ec noaeeyiiuo oeeeeiae?e/aneeo o?oaie, a
eioi?ua ia iieiaeio ?aaeeona aue caeeo ?anieaaeaiiue iioe/anee
i?ic?a/iue e?aiiee – i?aaie/aneee eao/oe. Eiaaea ii caoaa?aeae,
iieo/eeny ano?iaiiue a o?oaeo i?eciaoe/aneee eiioeaio?aoi?.

Enoaoe, naia o?oaea – yoi oiaea eiioeaio?aoi? (oeeeeiae?e/aneee).
I?aaeiieiaeei, iia ionoa (i?eciaoe/aneee eiioeaio?aoi? iuneaiii
oae?aai). Oieaeueiay ieineinoue inoaaoaainy oeeeeiae?e/aneiai
eiioeaio?aoi?a – anoue iiia?a/iia na/aiea o?oaee. Anee ionoeoue aaeieue
yoie ieineinoe oaieiiineoaeue, iieo/ei oieioiaiea yia?aee, ?aaiia,
ioiioaieth aeeaiao?a oeeeeiae?e/aneiai eieeaeoi?a e aunioa oaieiiaiaiiuo
o?oaie. A /anoiinoe, aeey eieeaeoi?a oe?iu «Oeeein» eiyooeoeeaio
eiioeaio?aoeee oaieiaie yia?aee ?aaai 2. Aunioa o?oaie a iai ?aaia
?aaeeono oeeeeiae?e/aneiai eieeaeoi?a.

Oaia?ue iao?oaeii iin/eoaoue, /oi eiyooeoeeaio eiioeaio?aoeee o
eieeaeoi?a n i?eciaeiiii a aeaa ?aca aieueoa, /ai o eieeaeoi?a oe?iu n
«Oieein», eai ana iiiaaoea a i?eciaeii eo/e oaea ia iiaoo aai n
iieeiooue ec-ca iieiiai aioo?aiiaai io?aaeaiey e ono?aieythony e
niae?athuae iiaa?oiinoe, aunioa eioi?ie – anaai iieiaeia ?aaeeona
oeeeeiae?e/aneiai eieeaeoi?a. Aiaea, oee?eoee?othuay a oaeii eieeaeoi?a,
iiaeao caeeiaoue. Iiuou yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeatho…

I?IIUOEAIIUE OIOINEIOAC

Ii ianooaaai eniieueciaaiey nieia/iie yia?aee iai aua aeaeaei aei
?anoaiee. Aaeaaiaeii a aea?aaueyo, eonoa?ieeao, o?aaa, aiaei?ineyo ia-
n eaieeaaaony 3 o 10 21 Aeae caeiina?ae?iaaiiie n iiiiuueth oioineioaca
yia?aee. Yoi a 10 ?ac aieueoa oiai, /oi o?aoeony ca oio aea n?ie
/aeiaa/anoaii.

Caiai/eai, eiia/ii, eniieueciaaoue n aeeaie oioioeie/aneee iioaioeeae.
Iaeiaei ia aoaeoue aea caeaiua aiaaonoaa ieaiaou? Ioaeii nicaeaaaoue a
yia?aaoe/aneea ieaioaoeee. A aoaeouai, aeaeeii, iinea ?aoaiey
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie i?iaeaiu auno?i?anoouea aeaeu ?anoaiee noaioo
aunaaeeaaoue niaoeeaeueii «ia ioei?i» iee?ii?aaieciai e a ?acoeueoaoa eo
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iieo/ao oeaiiia oiieeai – iaoai.

Ai?i/ai, EIAe oioineioaca ?anoaiee i/aiue iae – a n?aaeiai 0,1 %. Anoue
ae?oaea ia?niaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey aeiaaeeiyia?aaoeee. Iai?eia?,
ianeieueei eao iacaae ioe?uoi yaeaiea aeioioieeca – ?aceiaeaiea aiaeu ia
aiaei?iae e eenei?iae iiae aeaenoaeai nieia/iiai naaoa i?e aeoeaiii
iin?aaeie/anoaa auaeaeaiiuo ec ?anoaiee oioineioace?othueo aauanoa.
Ae?oaie iaiaoiaeeiue eiiiiiaio – oa?iaio aeae?iaaiaca, eiathuee
n?iaenoai e aoiiai aiaei?iaea. Eiaiii ii «oaaaeaeaao» oioineioace?othuea
aauanoaa i?enooieoue e aeae?ieeco. Caaea/a enneaaeiaaoaeae – iao/eoueny
nicaeaaaoue oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo yoio i?ioeann eaeao noaaeeueii. Aaaeue
ecuyoua ec eeaoee oei?iieanou auno?i ?ac?ooathony ia naaoo.

Aeiaieueii oi?ioi io?aaioaiu iee?iaeieiae/aneea niiniau ?aceiaeaiey
aiaeu. Ioe?uou e oaea eniieuecothony iee?ii?aaieciu, ?acoeueoao
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe eioi?uo – aiaei?iae. A niaoeeaeueiuo aieinoyo aeey
ieo ?aciiiaeatho ei?i – iee?ineiie/aneea aiaei?inee ii?aaeaeaiiuo
aeaeia. Aiaei?inee iiaeiuatho nieia/iue naao, inouanoaeytho oioineioac,
a iee?ii?aaieciu, iiaaeathuea eo, ?aceaaatho aiaeo, auaeaeytho
aiaei?iae.

Aiaei?iae – yoi yeieiae/anee /enoia oeie/aneia oiieeai. I?e aai nai?aiee
iieo/aaony enoiaeiue i?iaeoeo – aiaea. Yia?aaoe/aneee e?oaiai?io aiaeu
iiaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny aei oao ii?, iiea naaoeo Nieioea.

YEAEO?INOAIOeEE IA I?AEOA, A AUA EO*OA…

IA EOIA !!!

I?e?iaea i?aiiaeianea iai, caieyiai, oaeeaeoaeueiue iiaea?ie – Nieioea.
Aai yia?aee aiieia oaaoyo ia oieueei /oiau iaia?aoue iaoo ieaiaoo, ii e
aaieth iaiieoue yeaeo?e/anoaii. Oieueei aio yia?aeth aeiaaiiai naaoeea
iaaei a?aoue ia n iiaa?oiinoe Caiee, aaea oneiaey /aua anaai
iaiaaeaaeiu, a n ieieicaiiie i?aeou, aaea Nieioea naaoeo e?oaeinooi/ii,
aea e ieioiinoue yia?aey ii/oe a 15 ?ac auoa.

Eaeay nicaeaiey i?aeoaeueiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee – ia iiainoue. Aia?aua aa
auneacae a ia/aoe aua a 1960 aiaeo iao niioa/anoaaiiee I. A. Aa?aa?ia, a
iicaea iiaeaea?aeae aia?eeaiaoe I.A.Aiaeca?.

Niaoeeaeenou i?iaiaeece?iaaee eae aeinoieinoaa, oae e iaaeinoaoee
niiniaa iieo/aiey yia?aee. *oiau i?aia?aciaaoue naao a yeaeo?e/anoai e
ia?ai?aaeoue aai ia Caieth, iaiaoiaeeii aeinoaaeoue ia i?aeoo e
?acaa?iooue oai ia?iiiua eiino?oeoeee nieia/iuo yeaiaioia. Ii
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui ?an/?oai, eo ieiuaaeue aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue 100
eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia e aieaa.

A einiin i?aaenoieo “caa?ineoue” aeanyoee ouny/ oiii a?ocia. Ii ie
iaeii?aciaua iineoaee oeia nia?aiaiiuo ?aeao, aeeth/ay iaeaieaa
niaa?oaiiue “I?ioii”, ie iiiai?aciaua “oaooeu” naaiaeiy n oaeie caaea/ae
ia ni?aaeythony.

Aea e eae ia?aaeaaaoue iieo/aaioth yia?aeth ia Caieth? A 1965a. i?iaaee
oaeie yenia?eiaio. N iaeiie ai?iie aa?oeiu ia ae?oaoth auea ia?aaeaia
yeaeo?iyia?aey n iiiiuueth NA*-eceo/aiey. I?aaaea, aa oaaoeei eeoue ia
oi, /oiau caaea/ue… ae?eyiaeo eaiii/ae. Ii aia?eeaineea eiaeaia?u
iieaaatho, /oi eiioea XXI noieaoey oaeei niiniaa iiaeii aoaeao
o?ainii?oe?iaaoue 100 OAo yeaeo?iyia?aee! Iaeiei neiaii, oeaeoth
Ieaaa?o!

Ii ia auaiaeiaa ee e i?iua no?ieoue nieia/iua yeaeo?inoaioeee ia Eoia?
Aiaeec iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy a?oioa iaoaai niooieea, aeinoaaeaiiiai
aanieeioiuie einie/aneeie aiia?aoaie, “Eoia” e ieeioe?oaiuie
yeniaaeeoeey. «Aiieeiiia», iieacae, /oi ii iia au iineoaeeoue ia oieueei
no?ieoaeueiui iaoa?eaeii aeey yiaeo?inoaioeee, ii e oiieeaii aeey
aeaeaaoaeueiuo onoaiiaie iaaei?aeoaeueiuo aoene?ia. N o/aoii yoi a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?anniao?eaatho ieieioi o?e aa?eaioa yia?ainiaaaeaiey
Caiee ec einiina.

A iaeiii ec ieo i?aaeoniao?eaaao ?acaa?ouaaiea nioai n?aaieoaeueii ia
aieueoeo nieia/iuo yeaeo?inoaioeee (iiuiinoueth aei 10 AAo) ia
aainoaoeeiia?iie i?aeoa. Ia Eoio aea a oaeii neo/aa aeinoaeaiyaoay
oieueei ai?iiaeiauaathuaa iai?oaeiaaiea e eiiieaen aeey ia?a?aaioee
a?oioa. Ecaioiaeaiiua oai yeaiaiou noaioeee o?ainii?oe?othony i?aeoo n
iiiiuueth iiiai?aciauo aoene?ia, ?aaioathueo ia oiieeaa, au?aaaouaaaiii
ec eoiiiai a?oioa. I?e yoii eoiiuo ?aeao-iineoaeae iiiaaeiaeony 35 ?ac
iaiueoa ii noiia?iie iann /ai iacaiiuo.

Anoue e oaeie aa?eaio: ia iiaa?oiinoe Eoiu no?iyony e?oiiiaaaa?eoiua
yia?aieceo/athuea NA*-noaioeee n ieoaieai aioaiiuo ?aoaoie io
oioiyeaeo?e/aneeo i?aia?aciaaoaeae. I?e iiuiinoe eiiieaena aei 1 AAo
aaaa?eou aioaii iiaoo aeinoeaaoue 100 ei. Ia ieieieoiiua i?aeou
auaiaeyony io?aaeaoaee nieia/iuo eo/ae, a ia ieieicaiiua –
NA*-io?aaeaoaee. N eo iiiiuueth yia?aey ia?aaeaaony a ethaie ?aeii
Caiee.

I?e nii?oaeaiee oaeie nenoaiu ia iiiaaeiaeony ia?ai?aaeyoue aieueoia
eiee/anoai a?ocia n Eoiu ia ieieicaiioth i?aeoo, oioy ianooaau ?aaio ana
aea aoaeoo iaiaeua. Aeey ?acaa?ouaaiey eiiieaenia noiia?iie iiuiinoueth
10 OAo iio?aaoaony a oa/aiea 30 eao ia?a?aaioaoue ieiei 300 iei. o
a?oioa ia Eoia e nicaeaoue ieiei 200 iei. o eiino?oeoeee ia i?aeoao
Caiee e aa niooieea. Aeinoieinoai aeaiiiai i?iaeoa – i?eioeeieaeueiay
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaea/e yia?aee n Eoiu oceii?eoeaeueiuie io/eaie ca n/ao
aieueoeo ?acia?ia ia?aaeathueo aioaii.

Iaeiiaoe, i?iaiice?oaony oaeaea no?ieoaeuenoai ia Eoia i?iiuoeaiiiai
eiiieaena ii aeiau/a aaeey-3, eioi?ue eeai aoaeao ia?ai?aaeyoueny ia
Caieth, aaea n aai iiiiuueth ia oa?iiyaea?iuo yeaeo?inoaioeeyo n
yeieiae/anee /enoui oeeeeii noaioo au?aaaouaaoue yeaeo?iyia?aeth, eeai
eniieueciaaoue a iiaeiaiuo aea ?aaeoi?ao ia Eoia, a oae iieo/aiioth
yia?aey ia?ai?aaeyoue ia iaoo ieaiaoo. Yoio aa?eaio i?eaeaeaoaeai aua e
oai, /oi i?e i?iecaiaenoaa aaeey-3 iiiooii iieo/atho aiaei?iae, aiaeo,
iaoai, acio e ae?oaea aauanoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeeciaiaania/aiey
eoiiuo eiiieaenia iaeoaoaeae.

N *AAI IA*AOUe?

Iiaeiaiua i?iaeou, iiiyoiia aeaei, inouanoaeoue iai?inoi, aeaaea i?e
oe?ieii iaaeaeoia?iaeiii nio?oaeie/anoaa. Iiyoiio ?ac?aaio/eee ?acaeee
eo ia ianeieueei yoaiia.

A 2000 – 2015 aiaeao iinea caaa?oaiey iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio
i?aaeiieaaaaony ?acaa?iooue nenoaiu inaauaiey, yia?ai- e oaieiniaaaeaiey
ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiia Caiee ec einiina, a oaeaea iaeaaeeoue o?ainii?oioth
einie/aneoth nenoaio ii ia?o?ooo Caiey – Eoia – Caiey aeey ianeoaeeaaiey
ia?aiai iinaeaiey ethaeae ia Eoia ni niaiiui yeeiaaeai /eneaiiinoueth
aei 10 /aeiaae.

E?iia oiai, ia ieceie i?aeoa (aunioa 1000 ei, iaeeiiaiea 97 a?aaeonia)
nicaeathony nieia/iua einie/aneea yeaeo?inoaioeee (NEYN) iaaaaaooiie
iiuiinoe.

NEYN iannie ii?yaeea 100o. iao?oaeii auaanoe ia i?aeoo n iiiiuueth
?aeaoiiineoaey «Yia?aey» e aei?acaiiiiai aeiea. Aeaoo oaeeo noaioeee
aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau iaania/eoue yia?aeae ianeieueei iinaeeia a
o?oaeiiaeinooiiuo ?aeiiao Caiiey?uey eee Neae?e eeai ieoaoue iiiaeanoai
iayeia, iaoainoaioeee, aoaa, eniieuecothueo iuia iaaaciianiua
?aaeeiecioiiiua enoi/ieee.

NEYN aoaeoo ?aaioaoue ii iaeiieoaeueiie noaia. Nieia/iay yia?aey,
ia?aaiaeeiay a yeaeo?e/aneoth, niae?aaony a aeeoioeyoi?ao eee
eiiaeainaoi?ao, a caoai ia?aaeaaony iio?aaeoaeth a aeaea NA*-yia?aee ca
oa 7 – 8 ieioo, iiea noaioeey i?ieaoaao a i?aaeaeao i?yiie aeaeeiinoe.

Ia neaaeothuai yoaia – a 2015 – 2030 aiaeu iieo/eo aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea nenoaia ii/iiai inaauaiey caiiuo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia
“einie/aneei“ yeaeo?e/anoaii. Ioe?iaony aiciiaeiinoue iiaea/e aai a
?aeiiu noeoeeiu aaaenoaee, aaea ia?ooaii yia?ainiaaaeaiea.
I?aaeiieaaathony eniuoaiey ia?auo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa (neaaeai,
naiie?oia), eioi?ua aoaeoo iieo/aoue yia?aeth iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec
einiina.

Iaeiiaoe, iinea 2030 a. iiaeii iaeeaeaoue caiaoiiai iiauoaiey iiuiinoe
eoiiie aacu. E ni a?aiaiai iia niiaeao iieiinoueth iaania/eaaoue
yia?aeae anth iaoo ieaiaoo.

E IETHNU, E IEIONU .

AEo?iaeenoia, i?enoonoaiaaaoeo ia i?ann-eiioa?aioeee, eioa?aniaaei: a
ia iiaeeytho ee iaaoaii ia ana aeeaia i?aaeeaaaaiua niiniau ia?aaea/e
yia?aee ec einiina iiuiaeoeie io/eaie yia?aee?

Aeaaeaiee A-N-Ei?ioaaa iiyniee, /oi o/aiua ?anniao?eaatho aeaa aa?eaioa
ia?aaea/e yia?aee – ii eaca?iiio eee NA*-io/o. ssiiineea enneaaeiaaoaee
ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea ia?aiio, iaoe – aoi?iio. EIAe eaca?iuo nenoai a
eo/oai neo/aa ninoaaeyao 15 – 20%, a NA*-nenoai – aei 90%. E oiio aea
i?iecaiaenoai eaca?ia oaoiieiae/anee neiaeiaa.

I?aaaea, NA*-io/ ii?iaeaeaao a aoiinoa?a eiiece?iaaiiua eaiaeu, ii
aaaeue io eiiecaoeee iiaeii iieo/aoue e iieueco, iai?eia?, auaeeaay
o?aii a eiiinoa?a e oai naiui oiaiueoay «ia?ieeiaue» yooaeo.

*oi aea eanaaony a?aaeiiai aicaeaenoaey eceo/aiey ia ieaeiea neie
aoiinoa?u e iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia iiaa?oiinoue ieaiaou, oi niaoeeaeenou
iaaeathony naanoe aai e ieieioio. Iiaeii aei aeoueny, /oi eiiece?iaaiiua
eaiaeu aoaeoo i/aiue iaaieueoeo aeeaiao?ia, a eo/ oi/ii iaoeaeai ia
i?eaiiua aioaiiu. Eioaineaiinoue aea eceo/aiey ca i?aaeaeaie eaiaea
?acei oiaiueoaaony. A oeaeii iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey i?eiaiaiey iiaie
yia?aaoe/aneie nenoaiu aoaeoo eoaea iaiueoeie, /ai, neaaeai, io
aicaeaenoaey iuiaoieo oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeee.

A einie/aneoth nenoaio yia?ainiaaaeaiey i?aaeiieaaaaony aeeth/eoue e
iuia nouanoaothuea aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee, a oii /enea i?eeeaiua. Ii ia
noaioo ia?aaeaaaoue yia?aeth ii i?iaiaeai, eae yoi aeaeaaony nae/an, a
/a?ac aioaiiu aoaeoo ia?ai?aaeyoue aa a einiin, a oae ioooaea, n
iiiiuueth ?ao?aineyoi?ia, e iacaiiui iio?aaeoaeyi. Oaeei ia?acii
niaoeeaeenou iaaeathony nouanoaaiii nie?aoeoue iioa?e yeaeo?iyia?aee i?e
aa ia?aaea/a, eioi?ua iuia ninoaaeytho ieiei 30% !

Aaeoiaeoanue a yoo oeeo?o. Aeaaea aa nie?auaiea iicaieeo na?ueacii
oiaiueoeoue e cao?aou e a?aaeiia aicaeaenoaea nia?aiaiiuo
yia?aieiiieaenia ia i?e?iaeo.

Iiaee?aoaeue aao?a.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae aaoa? eaaeaony naiui aeinooiiui ec aiciaiiaeyaiuo
enoi/ieeia yia?aee. A naiii aeaea: ia a i?eia? Nieioeo, ii aiieia
“?aaioiniiniaai” ia thaa e ia naaa?a, ceiie e eaoii, aeiai e ii/ueth, a
aeiaeaeue e ooiai. Iaeiaei ia yoii ana aeinoieinoaa e eii/athony;
aeaeueoa, oau, – nieioiua iaaeinoaoee… I?aaeaea anaai, yoi i/aiue
?annayiiue yia?ai?ano?n. I?e?iaea ia nia?aea aao?u a eaeeo-oi
ioaeaeueiuo “ianoi?iaeaeaieyo”, iiaeiaii ai?th/ei eneiiaaiui. E ia
ionoeea eo oa/ue ii ?oneai, iiaeiaii ?aeai. Anyeay aeaeaeouayny
aicaeooiay ianna “?aciacaia” ii ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee. I?aaaea,
?annayiiinoue, iaeay eiioeaio?aoeey oa?aeoa?ia e aeey nieia/iie yia?aee.
Ii n aao?ii aua ooaea. Aai iniiaiua ia?aiao?u – nei?inoue e iai?aaeaiea
– iaiythony ai?acaei auno?aa, a aieaa oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao e niaa?oaiii
iai?aaeneacoaii. A eoiaa ii iaaeaaeiinoe ii ii/oe aacaea onooiaao
Nieioeo. Ionthaea e auoaeatho aeaa aeaaiua i?iaeaiu i?iaeoe?iaaiey
aao?iyia?aaoe/aneeo onoaiiaie (AYO).

Ai-ia?auo, n o/aoii ?annayiiinoe aao?a no?aiyony “nieiaoue” aai
eeiaoe/aneoth yia?aeth n iaeneiaeueiie ieiuaaee. *oi eiaaony a aeaeo?
Aeey AYO iau/iie eiino?oeoeee (aao?iaia eieani ia ai?eciioaeueiie ine) –
yoi ieiuaaeue e?oaa, eioi?ue iienuaatho eiianoe i?e a?auaiee; o
niaoeeaeenoia iia iacuaaaony niaoaaiie ieiuaaeueth (IAI. Ionthaea a?iaea
au neaaeoao, /oi aeeaiao? eieana (aeeeio eiianoae) iaaei any/anee
ia?aueaaoue. E aeaenoaeoaeueii: ecaanoiu i?iaeou aeaaioneeo AYO n
aeeaiao?ii aao?ieieana aei 120 i. Ii aeey oaeeo aaaa?eoia neeueiua
aao?u, a i?eioeeia aieaa “auaiaeiua”, noaiiayony oaea iaaeaeaoaeueiuie –
ec niia?aaeaiee aaciianiie yenieoaoaoeee. E oiio aea, ?ann/eouaay
i?i/iinoue, ooo i?eoiaeeony aeiiieieoaeueii no?aoiaaoueny aeaaea io
iaeiaa?iyoiuo o?aaaiiuo ii?uaia e oai aua aieueoa ia?aoyaeaeyoue
a?iiicaeeoth eiino?oeoeeth. Iooue yaii ooieeiaue.

Ai-aoi?uo, aua aaaeiaa aeiaeoueny ?aaiiia?iinoe, iinoiyinoaa aao?iaiai
iioiea ia eiianoyo. Aaaeue a eiia/iii n/aoa ea/anoai yeaeo?iyia?aee,
au?aaaouaaaiie AYO, ii?aaeaeyaony eiaiii noaaeeueiinoueth iiiaioa
a?auaiey e oaeiaie nei?inoe ia aaeo aa aaia?aoi?a. Ii anee i?aaeuaeouay
i?iaeaia ?aoaaony oioy au aei ecaanoiiai i?aaeaea, oi yoa iiea ia
?aoaaony ieeae.

Iauee auaiae, aeaeeii, ynai: ioaeia onoaiiaea i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie
eiino?oeoeee. Iauoiaoue iiaeoiaeu e iae iiiiaoo ianeiaeiua
iaoaiaoe/aneea ecuneaiey. Iiniio?ei, io eaeeo iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia
caaeneo yia?aaoe/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue AYO.

Eae ecaanoii, eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey aeaeaeouaainy oaea

W = mV 2 / 2 .

Anee ?a/ue eaeao i aicaeooiii iioiea, oi V, anoanoaaiii, e anoue aai
nei?inoue. N iannie m /ooue neiaeiaa. A aeaiiii neo/aa aa?aony ianna
iauaia aicaeooa, i?ioiaeyuaai /a?ac II a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie. Cia/eo,

m = pSV,

aaea ? – ieioiinoue aicaeooa, S – II, V – oa aea nei?inoue aao?a. E
oiaaea enoiaeiia au?aaeaiea i?eieiaao aeae

W = ?SV 3 / 2 .

Yoi aaee/eia yia?aee a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie, ii nooe – iiuiinoue. Eoae,
cia/aiea W ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoiy ia?aiaiiuie – S e V. Eae a i?eioeeia
iiaeii aa oaaee/eoue? Anee ca n/ao S, oi i?eeaeaony nie?eoueny n
iaecaaaeiui ?inoii aaaa?eoia e iannu AYO (ni. auoa).

Oeeo?aie iaicia/aiu: 1 – iai?aaeaiea aao?a; 2 – aicaeooicaai?iia
ono?ienoai; 3 – aoiaeiua aicaeooiaiaeu; 4 – eiiooci?; 5 –
na?aiaeaeaaoaeue iiai?ioa; 6 – iiai?ioiue e?oa; 7 – aeeaiao? AO; a –
ono?ienoai na?ina; 9 – ioaiaeyuea aicaeooiaiaeu; 10 -aeeoooci?; 11 –
?aai/ee eaiae; 12 – yeaeo?iaaia?aoi?, 13 – oo?aeia.

Ii ec iieo/aiiie oi?ioeu aeaeai e ae?oaie ii?ie oaeiai “eiaiaiiai”
iiaeoiaea: IO naycaia n ieiuaaeueth 3 i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii, eeiaeii.
Caoi aeeyiea nei?inoe V ai?acaei neeueiaa – caaeneiinoue ooo oaea
eoae/aneay. Ianeieueei aaaeia yoa ?acieoea, iiyniei ia i?eia?a.

i?eaeeaeaiee, e inoaeueiua eeiaeiua ?acia?u AYO) nie?aoeeny au a ( 8 =
2,83 ?aca. Anee aea noiaai oaaee/eoue V ao?ia, auea?aai a aaaa?eoao
aieaa /ai a 5 ?ac ( (27), eo.ae.

*oi ae, onei?eoue aaoa? a i?eioeeia iao?oaeii: ioaeii caaiaoue aai a
iaeia iiaeiaea ay?iaeeiaie/aneie o?oau, iii?inoo aiai?y – a noaeathueeny
eaiae. A iai, eae ecaanoii, nei?inoue iioiea ?anoao ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ieiuaaee na/aiey. A iauee eiyooeoeeaio onei?aiey ?aaai
ioiioaieth ieiuaaeae aoiaeiiai e auoiaeiiai ioaa?noee. Aeaaea aeey
iau/iuo AYO oaea ?ac?aaioaiu iiaeiaiua ono?ienoaa – oae iacuaaaiua
eiiooci?u, eee aeaoeaeoi?u. Niune eo i?eiaiaiey a oii, /oi iie niae?atho
aaoa? n ai?acaei aieueoae ieiuaaee, /ai II.

Ii ii/aio, nooiea ia aa?iue iooue, eiino?oeoi?u ia iioee ii iaio
aeaeueoa? Naeaeaai aoiaeiia na/aiea eiiooca?a ia?aiaiiui – e n?aco ?aoei
oo, “ia?aoaaioth”, i?iaeaio – iiaeaea?aeaiey iinoiyiiie nei?inoe iioiea
ia eiianoyo iacaaeneii io eai?ecia aao?a! I?iua anaai ooo i?eiaieoue
iiai?ioiia aicaeooicaai?iia ono?ienoai (AO). Eaaei iiiyoue, /oi aai
yooaeoeaiia na/aiea iaeneiaeueii a iai?aaeaiee “oi?aeaaeiae” e
oiaiueoaaony i?e ioeeiiaiee a ethaoth noi?iio. I?e/ai oaeia AO niiniaii
eiaeoue aaoa? ni anao ?oiaia, e iioiio inoaeueiua yeaiaiou iiaeii
naeaeaoue iaiiaeaeaeiuie, aea e niiioe?iaaoue i?yii ia caiea, /oi
ai?acaei oaeiaiaa.

Oae ?iaeeeanue o aaoi?a eiino?oeoeey onoaiiaee, ecia?aaeaiiay ia noaia
(iaoaio ?O I9 1783-144). Aeaaiia aa ioee/ea – iiuiue “aao?ionei?eoaeue”:
?yae aicaeooiaiaeia n iieiiiiai?ioiuie AO ia eiioeao, noiaeyueony a
iauee eiiooci? e aeaeaa a ?aai/ee eaiae. Eaeeo aea nei?inoae aeinoeaaao
oai aicaeooiue iioie? ssnii, /oi yoi caaeneo io ioiioaiey aeaoo aaee/ei:
noiia?iiai yooaeoeaiiai na/aiey anao AO ia aoiaea e na/aiey ?aai/aai
eaiaea – ia auoiaea. Ionoue aeeaiao? iaeiiai AO anaai ao?ia i?aauoaao
aeeaiao? eaiaea, a ieiuaaeue niioaaonoaaiii – a aeaayoue ?ac. Oiaaea,
neaaeai, i?e iyoe AO iauee eiyooeoeeaio onei?aiey ?aaai 45. I?aaaea, iu
ia o/ee oo?aoeecaoeeth aicaeooiuo iioieia a nenoaia e aa iauaa
ay?iaeeiaie/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea, ii aeey ia?ae/iie ioeaiee oaeie ?an/ao
i?aaiia?ai. A yoi cia/eo, /oi naiue iau/iue, oia?aiiue aaoa? (5 i/n)
ii?iaeaeaao a eaiaea naa?oo?aaai a 225 i/n! Iaiiiiei, /oi ii oeaea A
ioi?oa o?aaaiiui n/eoaaony aaoa? n aeaeeie nei?inoueth -12 i/n…

Auoiaeeo, iau/iia aao?iaia eieani ooo oaea ia aiaeeony: aai eiianoe
i?inoi ia auaea?aeao oaeiai iaii?a. Ioaeia ianoiyuay oo?aeia, n
eiiaoeaie eiie oi?iu, ai?acaei iaiueoaai ?aciaoa e aieaa i?i/iuie –
ei?i/a, oeia aaeaoeeiiiie. Enoaoe, iiaeiaiia ono?ienoai iaiiiai
yooaeoeaiaa eniieuecoao ay?iaeeiaie/aneoth yia?aeth aicaeooiiai iioiea.
A caeanue e oiio aea ii ia?aie/ai noaieaie ?aai/aai eaiaea, na/aiea
eioi?iai ii/oe iieiinoueth ia?ae?uoi eiiaoeaie. A ?acoeueoaoa iauee EIAe
onoaiiaee aeieaeai caiaoii aic?anoe ii n?aaiaieth n iau/iie,
ai?eciioaeueii-inaaie.

Ia caaoaeai oieueei, /oi ay?iaeeiaie/aneee iioie, au?aaaoeeny ec
oo?aeiiiai eaiaea, iaaei niiaa caoi?iiceoue. Yoo ia?aoioth caaea/o
auiieiyao nenoaia, ca?eaeueii ioia?aaeathuay aoiaeioth: aeeoooci?
(“?anoe?eoaeue”) e aicaeooiaiaeu n ono?ienoaaie na?ina (ON) ia eiioeao.
Eiino?oeoeee AO e ON iiyoue-oaee iaeeiaeiau. Aaeeinoaaiiia ioee/ea –
aeeaiao?u yeaiaioia ioaiaeyuae nenoaiu aeieaeiu auoue aieueoa, /ai o eo
aoiaeiuo aiaeiaia, /oiau iaania/eoue yooaeoeaiue ia?aiaae aeaaeaiee.

Nei?inoue iioiea a oo?aeiiii eaiaea ?aaoee?oaony i?inoui a?auaieai AO.
I?e neaaii aao?a aicaeooicaai?ieee i?eaioe?othony “eeoeii” e iaio, a ii
ia?a oneeaiey ana aieueoa ioai?a/eaathony, anee yoi ioaeii. Ono?ienoaa
na?ina, anoanoaaiii, anaaaea iai?aaeaiu “nieiie” e aao?o. Eii?aeeie?otho
?aaioo anao AO e ON iee?ii?ioeanni?iua aeiee eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey eo
yeaeo?ii?eaiaeaie, aeao/ee iai?aaeaiey aao?a e oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni?
n caoeoie a iai i?ia?aiiie. ?aaeei ?aaoee?iaaiey aiieia iiaeao auoue ia
ieaaiui, a aeene?aoiui, i?i?uaiui, /oi oi?inoeo nenoaio oi?aaeaiey.

…Ii, iiaeaeoe, iienaiiay AYO a oeaeii eaaeaony ioithaeue ia aeaoaaie.
Anoue ee niune ai?iaeeoue ana yoe a?iiicaeeea aicaeooiaiaeu? *oi ae,
iieo/aiiay iaie oi?ioea iiuiinoe W iicaieyao n?aaieoue aaniethoiua
yia?aaoe/aneea iieacaoaee noa?iai e iiaiai aa?eaioia. Caaeaaeeiny
ieioiinoueth aicaeooa ia o?iaia ii?y ? = 1,2 ea/eoa.i e nei?inoueth
aao?a V = 5 i/n.

Aeey ia?aiai aa?eaioa aicueiai i?aaeaeueiue aeeaiao? aao?iaiai eieana –

-120 i, /oi aeaao ieiuaaeue 3 (II) /ooue aieueoa 11 000 ea.i. Iiaenoaaea
yoe aeaiiua a oi?ioeo, iieo/ei iiuiinoue aao?iaiai iioiea anaai 0,8 IAo.

Aeey iiaie AYO eniieuecoai iaoo ioeaieo nei?inoe V a ?aai/ai eaiaea
(ieiei 200 i/n) e caaeaaeeiny ne?iiiie aaee/eiie II oo?aeiu – 10 ea.i.
Aiaeiae/iue iieacaoaeue ninoaaeo 48 IAo! Yia?aaoe/aneia i?aeiouanoai
ianoieueei yaiia, /oi aeiiieieoaeueiua cao?aou (anee iie aiiaua
iiiaaeiayony) aeieaeiu ieoieoueny.

?acoiaaony, a iaieo aa?eaioao, n o/aoii ?acee/iuo iioa?ue,
yeaeo?iaaia?aoi?u ooeeecotho aeaeaei ia anth ay?iaeeiaie/aneoth
iiuiinoue. Ii e caeanue, eae iu oaaaeeeenue, iiaay AYO aeieaeia eiaoue
i?aeiouanoai – aieaa aunieee EIAe.

Eae iieacuaatho i?inoaeoea ?an/aou, noieo iinoaaeoue ianeieueei eeoieo
AO aea iaiiiai oaaee/eoue eo aeeaiao? – e iu auno?i iiaeieaeai e
i?aaeaeo aiciiaeiinoae aeaaea aaeaoeeiiiuo oo?aei. Oi anoue aeaiiia
oneiaea naii ii naaa ii?aaeaeyao /enei e ?acia?u AO i?iaeoe?oaiie
onoaiiaee a?yae ee aieueoa 10. I?aaaea, ooo aaaeai e aua iaeei oaeoi?

– n?aaeiaaiaeiaay nei?inoue aao?a a aeaiiii ?aeiia, aai, oae neacaoue,
aao?iiaa-nia/aiiinoue. Anee yoio iieacaoaeue iaiueoa oao aea 5 i/n, oi
aeey noaaeeueiie ?aaiou aaia?aoi?a iiaeao iiiaaeiaeoueny e aieaa 10
aicaeooiaiaeia. *oiau ioeaieoue oeaeaniia?aciinoue oaeiai ?aoaiey,
iiiaaeiayony, eiia/ii, aeaoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey e ?an/aou, a oii /enea
yeiiiie/aneea. Ii aeaaea iaoe i?eaeeaeaiiua ioeaiee aiai?yo, /oi
iiaeoiaoue anoue iaae /ai…

PAGE

PAGE 2

PAGE

PAGE 4

Похожие документы
Обсуждение
    Заказать реферат
    UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019