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Вселение камчатского краба в Баренцево море: итоги и перспективы

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Oaaea?aeueiia aaaionoai ii?neiai e ?a/iiai o?ainii?oa ?O

Oaaea?aeueiia ainoaea?noaaiiia ia?aciaaoaeueiia o/?aaeaeaiea aunoaai
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao aiaeiuo eiiioieeaoeee

Io?iaineee oeeeae

Eaoaae?a anoanoaaiii-iao/iuo aeenoeeieei

?aoa?ao

ii aeenoeeieeia «Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau i?ia?anneaiuo oaoiieiaee»

ia oaio: «Anaeaiea eai/aoneiai e?aaa a Aa?aioeaai ii?a: eoiae e
ia?niaeoeau»

Auiieiee: nooaeaio a?. 131

Caiueei E.I.

Ioeaiea:

Io?iaine – 2007

Aaaaeaiea

Eai/aoneee e?aa – oeaiiue i?iiuneiaue iauaeo, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiue a
aeaeueiaainoi/iuo ii?yo. Aai anaeaiea a Aa?aioeaai ii?a auei iaeiei ec
i?iaeoia ?uaioicyenoaaiiie io?anee 1930-1960-o aiaeia ii eio?iaeoeoeee
oeaiiuo i?iiuneiauo aeaeia ai aioo?aiiea aiaeiaiu e ii?y NNN?.
Oeaeaniia?aciinoue oaaee/aiey aeii?iaeoeoeaiinoe naaa?iuo ii?ae ca n/ao
aeeeeiaoecaoeee a ieo iiauo aeaeia iauaeoia i?iiunea i?eciaaaeanue
oiaaea iiiaeie o/aiuie (Caen, 1936; Caieaae/, 1940, Eeueei, 1954; I?eia,
1996). I?iaeo ia?anaeaiey eai/aoneiai e?aaa eiae aeaaithth
i?aaeunoi?eth, a iai o/anoaiaae oeaeue ?yae iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
i?aaiecaoeee. A 30-a aiaeu yoi auee Io?iaineay aeieiae/aneay noaioeey
AIEIa, aiineaaenoaee i?aia?aciaaiiay a Io?iaineee ii?neie aeieiae/aneee
einoeooo (IIAE) AI NNN?, e I?iiaeinoaioeey OEI?I, a 50-o aiaeao —
Oeaio?aeueiay i?iecaiaenoaaiii-aeeeeiaoecaoeeiiiay noaioeey (OeIAN, a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy OeIAO), a 60-o aiaeao — AIE?I, IIAE e Iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiay
eooeieiae/aneay eiienney AI NNN? (I?eia, 1998; Eaaei, 2001).

Ec enoi?ee ecaanoii, /oi i?e eieiiecaoeee iiauo caiaeue ooaea /anoi
caaiceee aeeaioiuo. Eae i?aaeei, iiaeiaiua ia?ii?eyoey e aeia?o ia
i?eaiaeeee. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue caaic a Aano?aeeth e?ieeeia,
oie/oiaeeaoeo cia/eoaeueioth /anoue ianoaeu. Anee ia?aiauaiea aeeeeo
aeeaioiuo a i?ioeii ethaee i?iecaiaeeee ii iaaaaeaieth, noeoeeii, oi a
iaoae no?aia nianai iaaeaaii (a 20-50-a aiaeu i?ioeiai aaea) iii
inouanoaeyeinue ieaiiai, a niioaaonoaee n iieeoeeie “iiei?aiey
i?e?iaeu”. A no?aio caaacee oeaeue ?yae aeeeeo aeeaioiuo ec Aia?eee e
Acee. Aieueoeinoai anaeaiee iiauo aeaeia ia oaeaeinue, ii a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo ia?anaeaioeu i?eaeeeenue, i?e/ai ioithaeue ia ia iieueco
i?e?iaea e ethaeyi.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO aaea eiaeiay eaeay “ia?ano?ieee oaoiu” oaanea, ii
ia oia?ea ieii/aoaeueii. A 60-o aiaeao OO aaea eai/aoneiai e?aaa ii/oe
oaeii, aac iaeanee ia?aaacee n Ioioneiai ii?y a Aa?aioeaai e auionoeee a
?aeiia iinaeea Oa?eaa?ea aaeece Io?iainea. Aieaa o?eaeoeaoe eao e?aau
ie/ai naay ia i?iyaeyee, e i ieo noaee caauaaoue, iin/eoaa yenia?eiaio
iaoaea/iui. Iaeiaei a iineaaeiaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony iaiaeeaeaiiay
aniuoea /eneaiiinoe e?aaia – yoi i?eia?aei oa?aeoa? ianoiyuaai
aaaenoaey. Eai/aoneee e?aa – naiue e?oiiue ec ii?neeo ?aeia. Aai
ea?aiaen (oeoeiiaue iaioee?ue) aeinoeaaao /aoaa?oe iao?a, a a oe?eio
e?aa (aianoa n eiia/iinoyie) eiaao ?acia? aieaa iao?a. Yoio e?oiiue
oeuiee iiaee?aao ana aeeaia aie?oa, a?aaia o iaai iao. E?aaia noaei oae
iiiai, /oi iie ia/aee iiaeaaeyoue iiiaeo ii?neeo iaeoaoaeae – io
iieethneia e eaeieiaeeo aei ?ua. ?ano?nai ii?y iaianai
o?oaeiiainiieieiue oua?a. Nae/an naiia a?aiy iiaeaanoe eoiae
yenia?eiaioa, iiyoiio oaia ?aaiou aeooaeueia.

Ia i?eia?a yoiai ia?anaeaioea iiaeoaa?aeeeenue caeiiiia?iinoe i?ioeanna
aiaae?aiey iiaiai aeaea ia iaaeeooth oa??eoi?eth. Ii enneaaeiaaieyi,
i?ioeann aaeeaaiey aeaea ia ieiuaaee aia aai a?aaea ninoieo ec
ianeieueeeo yoaiia: inaiaiea iiaie oa??eoi?ee, aacoaea?aeiia
?aciiiaeaiea, eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u aeioeaiica. Ia ia?aii yoaia
ia?anaeaiiue e?aa inaiee iiaua ianoa iaeoaiey, i?eniiniaeeny e ianoiui
oneiaeyi e ?anoe?ee ?aeii ?ani?ino?aiaiey. Yoio yoai i?ioaeae i?e ieceie
/eneaiiinoe ia?anaeaioeaa e aue i?aeoe/anee iacaiaoiui. Inaieaoeeny a
iiauo oneiaeyo e?aa ia/ae ao?ii ?aciiiaeaoueny, /oi noeioee?iaaei
aniuoeo aai /eneaiiinoe, oae iacuaaaiue yeieiae/aneee ac?ua,
i?ienoiaeyuee i?e anaeaiee a ?aeii n iaeeeai ieue e ionoonoaeai a?aaia.
Yeieiae/aneee ac?ua iiaeao ?anoyiooueny ia ianeieueei eao, iiea ia
iiyayony nieaeathuea /eneaiiinoue oaeoi?u (iaoaaoea ieue, aieacie e
o.i.).

Eoiae e ia?niaeoeau yenia?eiaioa.

Oe?ieiianooaaiua ?aaiou ii eio?iaeoeoeee eai/aoneiai e?aaa aeinoeaee
naiae oeaee: nae/an /eneaiiinoue anaeaioea a Aa?aioeaaii e Ii?aaaeneii
ii?yo oaeiaa, /oi oaea ia/ao aai i?iiunae. Auaiaeu io iieo/aiey
aeiiieieoaeueiiai i?iiuneiaiai aeaea, eiathuaai aunieoth eiiia?/aneoth
oeaiiinoue, i/aaeaeiu. Oai ia iaiaa, ia?yaeo n yeiiiie/aneei oniaoii,
aeeeeiaoecaoeey e?aaa i?eaaea e aicieeiiaaieth ?yaea i?iaeai, eae
yeiiiie/aneiai, oae e yeieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

I?iaeaia anaeaioeaa a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?eia?aea iniaia cao/aiea, /oi
naycaii n oe?ieei ?ani?ino?aiaieai a XX aaea neo/aeiie eee iaia?aiiie
eio?iaeoeoeee ?anoaiee eee aeeaioiuo. Iiiai/eneaiiua i?eia?u
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi /oaea?iaeiua aeaeu, aiaae?yynue a ianoiua
niiauanoaa, eciaiytho eo no?oeoo?o e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue, /anoi auoaniyy
ianoiua aeaeu aneaaenoaea eiieo?aioeee, oeuie/anoaa eee i?eaianaiey a
aiaeiai-?aoeeieaio ?acee/iuo caaieaaaiee (Aeeiia e ae?., 2000). A neo/aa
n eai/aoneei e?aaii ?ene ?acaeoey iaaaoeaiiai noeaia?ey i?e aai
aiaae?aiee a yeinenoaiu Aa?aioeaaa ii?y aeinoaoi/ii aaeee. Iniaaiiinoue
e?aaa eae aeaea-anaeaioea ninoieo a oii, /oi ii yaeyaony noaaeiui
aeeaioiui, ia?acothuei neiieaiey («noaaea») aunieie /eneaiiinoe, e
oeuieeii-iieeoaaii, ieuae eioi?iio neoaeao iieethnee, eaeieiaeea, /a?ae,
?aeiia?aciua e i?i/ea i?aaenoaaeoaee ciiaaioina. Nai anaeaiaoe a
i?e?iaea oycaei oieueei ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo ?acaeoey – a aeaea
ieaieoiiiie ee/eiee eee iaeueea. Iiae?inoee e?aa aeaaiaea?y oaa?aeiio
iaioee?th, iiuiui eeaoiyi, eieeaeoeaiiio ia?aco aeecie e aeoeaiie
iai?iia i?aeoe/anee ia eiaao a?aaia (Iaaeia, 2003). N/eoaaony, /oi
eeieoe?othuei oaeoi?ii ?inoa /eneaiiinoe e?aaa yaeyaony oieueei ei?iiaay
aaca (Aaeeei, 1962; Aa?aneiiaa, Ei/aiia, 1997). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iiioeyoeey e?aaa anooieea a o?aoueth, ii eeanneoeeaoeee A.O. Ea?iaae/
(1998), oaco aeeeeiaoecaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, aeey eioi?ie oa?aeoa?ai
yeniiiaioeeaeueiue (“ac?uaiie”) ?ino /eneaiiinoe anaeaioea.
Iaeiio?iee?oaiia ?acaeoea iiioeyoeee a o?aoueae oaca i?eaiaeeo e
ia?anoaieth i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo aeaeii-anaeaioeai e aeioe/aneie n?aaeie
(TV oaca), /oi, /a?ac iaino?aiea o?ioe/aneeo ioiioaiee, aaaeao e
ia?ooaieth no?oeoo?u e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey niiauanoa/yeinenoai (Eocueiei,
Aoaeeiiaa, 2002).

A nayce n yoei yeieiae/aneee iiieoi?eia ninoiyiey aeiiiuo niiauanoa
Aa?aioeaaa ii?y aeey IIAE naaiaeiy yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae i?e
eco/aiee iineaaenoaee anaeaiey eai/aoneiai e?aaa. Ia i?ioyaeaiee
iineaaeieo eao iniiaiui iai?aaeaieai iaoae iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie aicaeaenoaey e?aaa ia
aeiiiua aeioeaiicu e onoaiiaeaiea aaee/eiu iiioeyoeee anaeaioea,
eioi?oth a ninoiyiee i?iei?ieoue ii?a aac caiaoiiai oua?aa aeey naay.
Enneaaeothony o?ioe/aneea nayce e?aaa, a oii /enea e a iaeeiaiaeiie
i?ea?aaeiie ciia, eioi?ay iaei aeinooiia aeey enneaaeiaaiey
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie i?oaeeyie eiaa (o?ae, ae?aaa) e aaea aaioiniua
niiauanoaa eniuouaatho iiauoaiioth iaa?oceo ni noi?iiu iieiaeuo e
ac?ineuo iniaae eai/aoneiai e?aaa. Eco/athony eiieo?aioiua ioiioaiey
anaeaioea n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ianoiie oaoiu: e?aaieaeii Lithodes maja,
iaeioi?uie aeaeaie aeiiiuo aaioiniyaeiuo ?ua. I?iaaae?iiua enneaaeiaaiey
iieacaee noiaenoai ieuaauo niaeo?ia e ia?anoaiea eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo
anaeaioeai e iniiaiuie i?iiuneiauie ?uaaie-aaioioaaaie — ieeoae, ii?neie
eaiaaeie, iieinaoie coaaoeie e o?aneie (Iaaeiaa e ae?., 2004).

A oiaea enneaaeiaaiey ninoiyiey aaioiniuo niiauanoa Io?iaineiai
iiaa?aaeuey, aeeth/ay e Iioianeee caeea, auee auyaeaiu eciaiaiey a eo
no?oeoo?a (O?ieiaa e ae?., 2003). A aoaa Aeaeueiacaeaiaoeeay (Ainoi/iue
Io?iai) a ianeieueei ?ac oiaiueoeeanue /eneaiiinoue ii?neeo aaeae a
n?aaiaiee n ia?eiaeii aei anaeaiey eai/aoneiai e?aaa (?aeaaneee e ae?.,
2004). Oai aea ioia/aii nieaeaiea /eneaiiinoe e aeiiannu ioaeaeueiuo
aeaeia aaniicaiii/iuo aeeaioiuo, neoaeaueo ei?iii e?aaai (Iaaeiaa,
2004). Ana yoe eciaiaiey iiaoo auoue naycaiu n i?inouie oeoeooaoeeyie
/eneaiiinoe aeiiiuo aeae?iaeiioia, iaeiaei iaeiia?aiaiiua eciaiaiey a
?yaea ?aeiiia iiaee?aieytho i?aaeiieiaeaiea i aicaeaenoaee
aeaea-anaeaioea ia aeiiiua niiauanoaa.

N oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu o?iia, eioi?ue iiaeao iaianoe
iiioeyoeey anaeaioea niiauanoaai Aa?aioeaaa ii?y, n 2002 a. a IIAE auee
ia/aou yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ieoaiey e?aaia. Ia aaca naciiiie
aeinoaioeee IIAE aaeaaiaeii i?iaiaeyony yenia?eiaiou, a oiaea eioi?uo
eco/athony iniaaiiinoe iiaaaeaiey e ii?aaeaeythony ia oieueei ieuaaua
iio?aaiinoe e?aaia, ii e neieueei ?aaeueii eie oie/oiaeaaony aaioina a
i?ioeanna ieoaiey. Ii eiathueiny ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue naaaeaieyi,
noaiaiue aicaeaenoaey iiioeyoeee e?aaa ia aeiiiua niiauanoaa
cia/eoaeueia e i?aainoiaeeo i?iaiice?oaiue oua?a a ianeieueei ?ac a neeo
oiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa, /oi oaeoe/anee e?aau eno?aaeytho ai?acaei aieueoa
aaioina, /ai ei o?aaoaony aeey ieoaiey (Aoaeeiia e ae?., 2003; Iaaeiaa,
2005).

Aeey ioeaiee aeeyiey /oaea?iaeiiai aeaea a iiaii ianoa iaeoaiey
ecaanoiue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao oaeaea eco/aiea oi?ie?iaaiey
neiaeioe/aneeo ioiioaiee e?aaa n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ianoiie oaoiu. A
ia?eiae inaiaiey iiaiai ?aaeiia o eai/aoneiai e?aaa, ia?yaeo n
i?ioeannaie noaiiaeaiey iiioeyoeee, oi?ie?iaaeenue iiaua eiiiainaeueiua
ioiioaiey n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ianoiie oaoiu. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee onoaiiaeaii, /oi eai/aoneee e?aa a Aa?aioeaaii ii?a
i?eia?ae iiaue ianniaue aeey iaai aeae-eiiiainae – ?uaioth ieyaeo
Johanssonia arctica (Eocueiei, 2000). E?iia oiai, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue,
/oi n ?annaeaieai eai/aoneiai e?aaa a Aa?aioeaaii ii?a cia/eoaeueii
?anoe?eeny a?aae aai iaeaieaa ianniauo eiiiainaeia (?uaiay ieyaea
Johanssonia arctica, aieiieaa Ischyrocerus commensalis) no n?aaiaieth n
aieaa ?aiieie a?aaeaie, i?eaiaeeiuie aeey ieo a eeoa?aoo?a (Aeai?aoeeee
e ae?., 2004; Aeai?aoeeee, Eocueiei, 2005).

Yeieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey eio?iaeoeoeee eai/aoneiai e?aaa oanii naycaiu
n yeiiiie/aneeie. Oi, /oi iiiaiieeeeiiiay iiioeyoeey
aeeeeiaoece?iaaiiiai eai/aoneiai e?aaa ia i?ea?aaeiii oaeueoa aeoeaii
eiieo?e?oao n aai?eaaiiie oaoiie, a oii /enea e n aeiiiuie aeaeaie ?ua,
ca iaeie e oa aea ieuaaua ?ano?nu, aoaeao eiaoue nouanoaaiiua
iineaaenoaey aeey ?uaiiai i?iiunea. Iiea aea yeiiiie/aneee oua?a io
e?aaa ia i?eieiaaony ana?ueac, oae eae i?iyaeyaony eeoue a nioouaaiee e
/anoe/iie ii?/a noaaiuo iaaiaeia e y?onia, ia /oi ia aiieia iainiiaaiii
ec?aaeea aeaeothony ii?aaaeneea ?uaaee, iieo/athuea nouanoaaiioth
i?eaueue io i?iaeaaee aueiaeaiiuo aeaaioia (eiiaaea aanii aei 12-15 ea)
(Eocueiei, Aoaeeiiaa, 2002).

E?iia oiai, aei neo ii? iaecaanoiu i?e/eiu noieue cia/eoaeueiiai ?inoa
/eneaiiinoe aa?aioeaaiii?neie iiioeyoeee e?aaa a iineaaeiaa a?aiy. Ia
eneeth/aii, /oi yoi yaeaiea a?aiaiiia e iaoneiaeaii aeeyieai iao/oaiiuo
oaeoi?ia. Ioe?uoea eiiia?/aneiai i?iiunea e?aaa a Aa?aioeaaii ii?a,
ianiiiaiii, iicaieeo naea?aeaoue yeniiiaioeeaeueiue ?ino aai
/eneaiiinoe, oa?aeoa?iue aeey aeeeeiaoece?iaaiiuo aeaeia. A naith
i/a?aaeue, a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai eiiia?/aneee eia iiaeao i?eaanoe e
nouanoaaiiiio nieaeaieth caiana yoiai oeaiiiai i?iiuneiaiai aeaea.
Eiaiii iiyoiio oaea nae/an iaiaoiaeeii i?aaei?eieiaoue oaae ii
?ac?aaioea iniia eneonnoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa eai/aoneiai e?aaa a
iaoae no?aia. Iiuo Ii?aaaee iieacuaaao, /oi aeaiiua oaoiieiaee
iaiaoiaeeiu ia oieueei aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey /eneaiiinoe e?aaa a aoaeouai,
ii e, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, aeey iieo/aiey eiiia?/aneie auaiaeu io
i?iecaiaenoaa oeaiiiai ii?ai?iaeoeoa a ianoiyuai.

?ac?aaioea iniia oaoiieiaee eneonnoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa eai/aoneiai
e?aaa nae/an aaaeaony a o?ao iai?aaeaieyo. I?aaeiieaaaaony iieo/aoue e
iiae?aueaaoue ee/eiie eai/aoneiai e?aaa aeey auionea a ii?a, au?aueaaoue
e?aaia io ee/eiie aei oiaa?iiai ?acia?a e aeiea?ieeaaoue aueiaeaiiuo a
ii?a ac?ineuo iniaae. ?aaeecaoeey ia?auo aeaoo iai?aaeaiee aeaaeoeueoo?u
ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue cao?oaeieoaeueia, oae eae iiiaea aniaeou aeieiaee
e?aaa iaoiaeyony aua a i?ioeanna eco/aiey. Iiea iaeaieaa i?eaieaiui n
yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey e eaaei ?aaeecoaiui yaeyaony aeiea?ieeaaiea
ac?ineuo iniaae eai/aoneiai e?aaa aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo
iieacaoaeae oiaa?iiai ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ia oiia
oaaee/aiey /eneaiiinoe e?aaia a Aa?aioeaaii ii?a ana /aua noaee
iiiaaeaoueny e?aau n ieioei iaiieiaieai eiia/iinoae, /oi iiaeao
iaaaoeaii neacuaaoueny ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iiunea (Ai?iaueaaa, 2003).
Iiyoiio ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee aei?aueaaiey e aeiea?ieeaaiey oaeeo
iaeiiaeeoeeiiiuo iniaae iiaeao ieacaoueny ia iaiaa ia?niaeoeaiui aeaeii,
eae naaeeiaia ?uaiaiaenoai.

Nae/an a aeaa?eaeueiie IIAE e ia aaca naciiiie aeinoaioeee Einoeoooa a
iin. Aeaeueiea Caeaioeu aaaeoony yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey,
iai?aaeaiiua ia ?ac?aaioeo aeioaoiieiae/aeeo iniia eneonnoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa e?aaa. Aeey ?ac?aaioee nia?aiaiiiai iiaeoiaea e
eneonnoaaiiiio aini?iecaiaenoao ?aeiia?aciuo iaie aue eniieueciaai iiuo
?aaio ii anaeaieth eai/aoneiai e?aaa a Aa?aioeaai ii?a I?iaiaeyony
yenia?eiaiou n oeaeueth eco/aiey oaeeo aaaeiuo aniaeoia aeieiaee
aeaiiiai aeaea eae eeiueea, ieoaiea, iniaaiiinoe iiaaaeaiey, a oii /enea
ieuaaiai e iiaaaeaiey a i?ioeanna ?aciiiaeaiey. Aeey auyaeaiey
iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee aeey aei?aueaaiey ac?ineuo iniaae e eco/aiey
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey iieiaic?aeuo e?aaia ieaie?oaony i?aaiecaoeey
enneaaeiaaiee e?aaia a oneiaeyo naaeeiaiai niaea?aeaiey ia
yenia?eiaioaeueiii iieeaiia IIAE «E?aniua eaiie» a Naeaea-aoaa. Iiieii
yoiai ieaie?oaony ?ac?aaioea eneonnoaaiiuo ei?iia e ia? ii iiauoaieth
?ai?iaeoeoeaiie ooieoeee yoiai oeaiiiai i?iiuneiaiai aeaea a oneiaeyo
eneonnoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey. A aoaeouai i?aaeoniao?eaaaony auyaeaiea
iiauo caeiiiia?iinoae i?ioaeaiey ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuo i?ioeannia eai/aoneiai
e?aaa a Caiiey?uea ia iniiaa eco/aiey oeceieiae/aneeo, iaiaiiuo
i?ioeannia, a oaeaea iniaaiiinoae aai yoieiaee, ?inoa e ieoaiey.

CAEETH*AIEA

Aeeeeiaoece?iaaiiue a Aa?aioeaaii ii?a eai/aoneee e?aa – oeaiiaeoee aeae
i?iiuneiauo ?aeiia?aciuo – aiieia i?eaeeeny, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaii
enneaaeiaaieyie Iiey?iiai iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai einoeoooa ii?neiai
?uaiiai oicyenoaa e ieaaiia?aoee (IEI?I), e ia?aciaae
naiiaini?iecaiaeyuothny iiioeyoeeth, eioi?ay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeinoeaea
i?iiuneiauo ?acia?ia. Aieaa oiai, e?aau iiaoo noaoue ia oieueei oeaiiui
i?iiuneiaui iauaeoii, ii e iioaioeeaeueiui iauaeoii aeey aeaaeoeueoo?u o
io?iaineiai iiaa?aaeuey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy o/aiuie ?anniao?eaaaony o?e aa?eaioa aeaaeoeueoo?u
e?aaa: iiae?aueaaiea ee/eiie n oeaeueth auionea a ii?a; au?aueaaiea
e?aaia io ee/eiie aei oiaa?iuo ?acia?ia; iiaeea?ieeaaiea e?aaia,
ioeiaeaiiuo a ii?a. Ia?aue aa?eaio iiaeao iaeoe ?aoaiea eeoue iinea
ioeaiee yeieiae/aneiai aeeyiey e?aaa a iiauo oneiaeyo e auyniaiey,
ianeieueei aeaeaoaeueii oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe iiioeyoeee. Aoi?ie
aa?eaio, o/eouaay neiaeiaeooth aeieiaeth e?aaa ia ?aiieo yoaiao
?acaeoey, a i?iiuoeaiiuo ianooaaao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a?yae ee
inouanoaei. Iaeaieaa aa?iyoiui iiaeao ieacaoueny o?aoee aa?eaio, aai
oniaoii ?aaeeciaaee ii?aaaeneea o/aiua.

?aaeecaoeey iineaaeiaai aa?eaioa aeaaeoeueoo?u e?aaa a ?aaeiia
noaiiaeony i/aiue aeooaeueiie. Eae iieacaee iaaethaeaiey nio?oaeieeia
IEI?I, a iineaaeiea aiaeu cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aueaaeeaaaiuo i?e
yenia?eiaioaeueiii i?iiunea naioeia (aei 30 – 50%) ioa?aeiauaaaony e
aua?anuaaaony ca ai?o ec-ca ieceiai niaea?aeaiey iyna a eiia/iinoyo.
Auiieiaiiue ioaeaeii i?ea?aaeiuo aei?ano?nia e aeaaeoeueoo?u IEI?I a
2001 aiaeo yenia?eiaio iieacae, /oi niaea?aeaiea ioa?aeiaaiiuo naioeia a
naaeea e iiaeea?ieeaaiea eo iooiaeaie ia?a?aaioee ?uau a oa/aiea aeaoo
ianyoeaa iicaieyao oaaee/eoue auoiae aunieiea/anoaaiiiai iyna e?aaa ia
20%. ?an/aou iieacaee, /oi oaoiieiaey aei?aueaaiey e?aaa aoaeao
iaeicao?aoiie. Ei?ia – aeaoaaua, ca ia?eiae niaea?aeaiey e?aau nuaaeatho
eo iaiiiai, e oiio aea, e?aau auaea?aeeaatho aunieoth ieioiinoue
iinaaeee, a naaeee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue iiiaie?aoii.

Inaiueth i?ioeiai aiaea nio?oaeieee ioaeaea i?ea?aaeiuo aei?ano?nia
IEI?I ?aoeee i?iaanoe yenia?eiaio. Iineieueeo o eai/aoneiai e?aaa
ioia/ai iaeioi?ue aeaoeoeeo aana, aai aeiianno o/aiua ?aoeee aeia?aoue a
eneonnoaaiiuo oneiaeyo. Yenia?eiaioaeueioth e?aaiaoth oa?io ono?ieee a
iaeiie ec aoa Aa?aioeaaa ii?y. E?aaia iaeie iannu iiianoeee a naaeie e
iiaeea?ieeaaee a oa/aiea aeaoo ianyoeaa iooiaeaie ?uaiia?a?aaioee.
?acoeueoao ii?aaaeae iaeeaeaiey – ca yoi a?aiy e?aau aeinoeaee oiaa?iiai
aana. Eae oieueei oaoiieiaey aei?aueaaiey aoaeao io?aaioaia iieiinoueth,
aa iiaeii aoaeao i?eiaiyoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi, iiaeaeaaoei caiyoueny
aeaiiui aeaeii aeciana, iinea iauyaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iiunea e?aaa.

AEAEEIA?AOE*ANEEE NIENIE

1.Iaothoeei A.A., Naiieeia A.I., Enaaa I.A. ?acoeueoaou
yenia?eiaioaeueiiai eiaa eai/aoneiai e?aaa a i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiao Io?iaia
a 1998-1999 aa. // Iaoa?eaeu io/ao. nan. IEI?I ii eoiaai iao/ii-enneaae.
?aaio a 1998-1999 aa. – Io?iaine: Ecae-ai IEI?I, 2000. – *. 2. – N.
159-167.

2.Aa?aiaiei A.E. Iea?aoeey e ?annaeaiea eai/aoneiai e?aaa a Aa?aioeaaii
ii?a // Eai/aoneee e?aa a Aa?aioeaaii ii?a. Io?iaine: Ecae-ai IEI?I.
2003. N. 65-69.

3.Aoaeeiia A.A., Aoaeeiiaa A.I., Iaaeiaa E.A. Aeeyiea eai/aoneiai e?aaa
Paralithodes camtschaticus ia iae?iaaioin Io?iaineiai i?ea?aaeuey,
ia?aay ioeaiea ia i?eia?a ii?neeo aaeae ?iaea Strongylocentrotus. AeAI,
2003 a., o. 393, ? 2, n. 281-283.

4.Naiieeia A.I. I?iiuneiai-aeieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea o?aaoaneie
a?oiie?iaee eai/aoneiai e?aaa/ A.I. Naiieeia, A.A. Oaoeeee //Aei?ano?nu
e aeaaeoeueoo?a a i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiao Aa?aioeaaa e Aaeiai ii?ae: Na.
iao/. o?./ IEI?I. – Io?iaine: Ecae-ai IEI?I, 2002. – N. 98-109

5.Naiieeia A.I. Yenia?eiaioaeueiue i?iiunae e?aaa a 1994-2000 aa. //
Eai/aoneee e?aa a Aa?aioeaaii ii?a (?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee a
1993-2000 aa.).- Io?iaine: Ecae-ai IEI?I, 2001.- ?acae. 3. 4.- N.
134-155.

6.Ai?iaueaaa I.E. Eai/aoneee e?aa — iauaeo aeaaeoeueoo?u // Eai/aoneee
e?aa a Aa?aioeaaii ii?a. Io?iaine: Ecae-ai IEI?I. 2003. N. 325-333.

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