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Возникновение жизни на Земле

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2

Niaea?aeaiea

Anooieaiea 2

1. Oai?ee i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ia Caiea. 3

2. Aaeiaaiiay oai?ey i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ia Caiea 6

3. Oai?ey oai?aiey. 10

4. Iiene aeecie ai Anaeaiiie. 13

Auaiaeu. 19

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u. 20

Anooieaiea

Aii?in i iiyaeaiee aeecie ia Caiea eioa?aniaae aua oeeinioia ae?aaiaai
ie?a, a n?aaeiea aaea ioaao ia iaai aeaea oea?eiaue. Oiaaea aii?in i
i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie no?ieeny ia ia oi/iuo iao/iuo aeieacaoaeuenoaao,
a ia aa?a /aeiaaea. A N?aaeiea aaea oea?eiaue, eae eaoiee/aneay, oae e
i?ioanoaioneay e i?aaineaaiay, a i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie aeaeaea aieth
aiaa. Oe?aeiaue eiaea a oi a?aiy aeinoaoi/ii nee e aiciiaeiinoae aeey
oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue yoi aeiaiie, inia?eaaoue eioi?oth ia ana
iniaeeaaeenue.

E oieueei a O?O aaea ia/aeenue aieaa i?aaeiaoiua iao/iua iienee iooae
i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ia iaoae ieaiaoa. Iie auee neiaeiuie e
oa?ienouie, e, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a, ia caaa?oaiu e a iaoa a?aiy. Ana
oai?ee i i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie ia Caiea iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa
iniiaiua oai?ee: yoi yaiethoeeiiiay oai?ey e oai?ey oai?aiey. A iaoae
?aaioa iu aeaoaeueii iinoa?aainy ianoaeeoue yoe aeaa oai?ee e naeaeaoue
auaiae i oii, eaeay ec ieo aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueia.

Ae?oaei aii?inii, eioi?ue oaeaea eioa?anoao /aeiaaea – yoi aii?in i oii,
aaeeinoaaiai ee /aeiaae ai Anaeaiiie. Yoio aii?in oaeaea eiaao ioiioaiea
e aicieeiiaaieth aeecie ia Caiea. Aaaeue anee aeeciue iiaea ?acaeoueny
yaiethoeeiiii, oi aaea-oi a aeoaeiao Anaeaiiie iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue e
ae?oaea oeeaeeecaoeee…

A ?aaioa iu ?anniio?ei iiiuoee iienea o/aiuie e yiooceanoaie aiacaiiie
aeecie, niiniau oaeiai iienea (i?iaeo SETI) e aai ia?niaeoeau.

1. Oai?ee i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ia Caiea.

*aeiaa/anoai anaaaea eioa?aniaae aii?in i i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie ia
Caiea. Eae iiyaeeanue aeeciue ia Caiea?

?aeeaey aeaao iaeiicia/iue ioaao ia yoio aii?in, aeeciue auea nicaeaia
Aiaii, Oai?oeii, Aunoei ?acoiii. E eae aoaeao iieacaii aeaeaa, iaaiaeeo
iaeioi?ua aeieacaoaeuenoaa yoiai. Ii ?aeeaey ia aeaao ieeaeiai ioaaoa ia
aii?in: eae yoi auei naeaeaii. Iiyoiio o/aiuie auea noi?ioee?iaaia
oai?ey aaeiaaiiiai neioaca. Cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a nicaeaiea e ?acaeoea
oai?ee aaeiaaiiiai neioaca aian ecaanoiue niaaoneee o/aiue, aeaaeaiee I.
Iia?ei. Oai?ey aaeiaaiiiai neioaca iniiauaaaony ia oii, /oi
aeieiae/aneea aauanoaa auee nicaeaiu a iaeii ia?ae/iii ieaaia ec
iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa iiae aeaenoaeai aunieeo oaiia?aoo? e
yeaeo?e/aneeo ?ac?yaeia (iieiee). Neiaeiua iieaeoeu aieiieeneio neo/aeii
iauaaeeiyeenue a iaioeaeu, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, nicaeaee
ia?aiia/aeueiua aaeee. Ec yoeo aaeeia neioace?iaaeenue ia?ae/iua aeeaua
nouanoaa iee?ineiie/aneeo ?acia?ia.

O yoie oai?ee anoue iaaeinoaoie: iao ie iaeiiai oaeoa, eioi?ue au
iiaeoaa?aeee aiciiaeiinoue aaeiaaiiiai neioaca ia Caiea oioy au
i?inoaeoaai aeeaiai i?aaiecia ec iai?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee. A
iiiai/eneaiiuo eaai?aoi?eyo ie?a i?iaaaeaii i/aiue iiiai iiiuoie oaeiai
neioaca. Iai?eia?, oaeaeinue iieo/eoue iieaeoeu aieiieeneio, oaeaeinue
oaeaea iieo/eoue aeiaieueii aeeeiiua e neiaeiua iieaeoeu iaioeaeia –
niaaeeiaiee ianeieueeeo aieiieeneio, ia?aua i?e?iaeiua aeiiieeia?u, ii
ieeiio ia oaeaeinue a ?acoeueoaoa iiaeiaiuo yenia?eiaioia iieo/eoue
aeeaoth eeaoeo.

Oaeaea ii iaoaiaoe/aneie noaoenoeea aa?iyoiinoue naiica?iaeaeaiey
aeeaiai i?aaiecia ec iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa i?aeoe/anee ?aaiyaony ioeth.
Aa?iyoiinoue neo/aeiiai ia?aciaaiey ca ana a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey Caiee
oioy au iaeiie iieaeoeu AeIE ninoaaeyao 10- 800. I?ioeai?a/ao oai?ee
aaeiaaiiiai neioaca e aaieiae/aneea aeaiiua. Eae au aeaeaei iu ia
i?iieeaee a aeoaue aaieiae/aneie enoi?ee, ia iaoiaeei neaaeia «acieneie
y?u», oi anoue ia?eiaea, eiaaea ia Caiea ia nouanoaiaaei au ieeaeie
i?aaie/aneie aeecie.

Nae/an a ?acoeueoaoa iaeaiioieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a ae?aaieo
ii?iaeao, aic?ano eioi?uo aeinoeaaao 3,8 ie?ae. eao, a ieaiaoa Caiey
nouanoaoao ieiei 4,5 ie?ae. eao, iaoee eneiiaaiua inoaiee aeinoaoi/ii
neiaeiuo iee?ii?aaieciia – aaeoa?ee, neia-caeaiuo aiaei?ineae, i?inouo
a?eaeia. I?iaeaia aaeiaaiiiai neioaca aeiaieueii neiaeia e aeieaeia
?anniao?eaaoueny eeoue eae iaeia ec aeiioac i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ia
ieaiaoa Caiey.

Naie acaeyaeu ia i?ienoiaeaeaiea aeecie eiae e A. Aa?iaaeneee.

Ii aue oaa?ai, /oi aeeciue aaieiae/anee aa/ia, oi anoue a aaieiae/aneie
enoi?ee ia auei yiioe, eiaaea iaoa ieaiaoa auea aacaeeciaiiie.
Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae, /oi aeeciue – oaeay aea aa/iay iniiaa einiina,
eaeeie anoue iaoa?ey e yia?aey. Enoiaey ec i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeinoa?a eae
i caiiii, ii iaeiia?aiaiii e einie/aneii iaoaiecia, Aa?iaaeneee naycuaae
aa ia?aciaaiea e yaiethoeeth n i?aaieciaaiiinoueth Einiina. «Aeey ian
noaiiaeony iiiyoiie, – ienae ii, – /oi aeeciue anoue yaeaiea
einie/aneia, a ia noaoai caiiia». Yoo iuneue Aa?iaaeneee iiaoi?ye
iiiaie?aoii: «…ia/aea aeecie a oii Einiina, eioi?ue iu iaaethaeaai, ia
auei, iineieueeo ia auei ia/aea yoiai Einiina. AEeciue aa/ia, iineieueeo
aa/iue Einiin».

Oaeaea Aeaaeeie? Aa?iaaeneee aunooiee n aeiioacie einie/aneiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey aeecie, eioi?ay oaa?aeeo, /oi aeeciue a aeaea iaeaeoeo
nii? e a?eaeia iiaeao ia?aiineoueny n iaeiie ieaiaou ia ae?oaoth.
Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae, /oi iueeiee aauanoaa iiaoo niaea?aeaoue nii?u
aaeoa?ee, iee?ii?aaieciu. Iiae aeaenoaeai aao?a e ae?oaeo aoiinoa?iuo
yaeaiee yoe iueeiee iiaeieiathony a aunoea neie aoiinoa?u, aaea iie
iiaeoaaouaathony nieia/iui aao?ii e iieeaeatho aoiinoa?o ianaeaiiie
ieaiaou. Iiae aeaenoaeai nieia/iiai aao?a iueue iiaeao iooaoanoaiaaoue
ii ieaiaoiie nenoaia, iiea iia ia iiiaaeao a iiea i?eoyaeaiey ae?oaie
ieaiaou, oaeei ia?acii, aoaeao ia?aianaia aeeciue ia ae?oaea ieaiaou. Ia
naaiaeiy iao en/a?iuaathueo aeieacaoaeuenoa yoie aeiioacu, eae iao e aa
ieii/aoaeueiiai ii?iaa?aeaiey.

2. Aaeiaaiiay oai?ey i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ia Caiea

Ca?iaeaeaiea aeecie ia Caiea, a oeaeii, ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony caaaaeeie.

Eneiiaaiua inoaiee iieacuaatho, /oi aeeciue a aeaea iee?ii?aaieciia e
aaeoa?ee nouanoaiaaea aua ia iaiaa /ai 2 – 3 ie?ae. eao iacaae.
Iai?eia?, auee iaeaeaiu inoaoee eieiiee iee?ii?aaieciia a ai?iuo
ii?iaeao e neaioeao. A ieo auee iaia?oaeaiu inoaoee eieiiee
iee?ii?aaieciia, eioi?ua iaiiieiaee ei?aeeiaua ?eou. Iaoiaeea
niaea?aeaueo i?aaie/aneea inoaiee ia?acoeia yaeeanue ioe?uoeai. O/aiua
anaai ie?a aiciaiiaeee eco/aiea ii?iae, eioi?ua iie ?aiaa n/eoaee
eeoaiiuie ieaiaiaeinoae. Eo oneeey auee aiciaa?aaeaeaiu ii?aceoaeueiuie
?acoeueoaoaie: ae?aaiaeoei ec iaia?oaeaiiuo ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue
oi?iai aeecie (a caiaaeiie /anoe Aano?aeee) ieiei 3 500 iei. eao.

Eaeie aea auea ieaiaoa 4 ie?ae. eao iacaae? Aii?in, ia eioi?ue iao
iaeiicia/iiai ioaaoa. N/eoaaony, /oi aoiinoa?a Caiee a oa aeaeaeea
a?aiaia auea ii/oe iieiinoueth eeoaia eenei?iaea, a ninoiyea ec aiieaea,
aiaeu, ieene oaea?iaea, iaoaia, aiaei?iaea e ?yaea ae?oaeo aauanoa.
Aieueoay /anoue iiaa?oiinoe Caiee auea iie?uoa neiai ai?y/ae aiaeu,
eeiaiea eioi?ie iiaeaea?aeeaaeinue iaaiie, ?anieaaeaiiie ii?iaeie,
iaoiaeyuaeny iiae oiieie ieaaie/aneie caiiie ei?ie.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo e i?ienoiaeee aaeiaaiiue neioac. Aeaaeaiee Iia?ei
n/eoae, /oi, oaeay nianue aacia e ai?y/ae aiaeu iiaea i?eaanoe e
ia?aciaaieth oae iacuaaaiiai “ia?ae/iiai aoeueiia”, aiaaoiai eiaiii oaie
oeie/aneeie yeaiaioaie, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey neioaca aeecie.
?aaeoeey iiaea auoue eieoeee?iaaia aoeeaie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth,
eioaineaiui oeueo?aoeieaoiaui eceo/aieai, i?ioiaeyuei /a?ac oiieee neie
aoiinoa?u, eee yeaeo?e/aneei ?ac?yaeii iieiee.

Iicaea auee i?iaaaeaiu yenia?eiaiou ii iiaeaee?iaaieth oneiaee ae?aaiae
Caiee e ?anniio?ai aii?in iiyaeaiey aeieiae/aneeo aauanoa. Nicaeaaaeenue
iiaeaee ia?aicaeaiiiai ie?a, iie ninoiyee ec eiea e oeie/aneeo
?aaeoi?ia. A ?aaeoi?u caa?oaeaee ?anoai?u ii?neie aiaeu e niane aacia,
/a?ac ?aaeoi? i?iioneaee ?ac?yaeu yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea. Oeie/aneee
?aaeoi? iaa?aaaee aeey iieo/aiey ia?ia aiaeu. Iinea ianeieueeeo
i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?ac?yaeia iieo/aiioth nianue i?iaiaeece?iaaee e auyaeee
o?e aieiieeneiou. Aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey i?eaaee e oiio, /oi
enneaaeiaaoaee iieo/eee aua aieueoaa eiee/anoai aieiieeneio e aeaaea
i?inoua ioeeaioeaeu – no?ieoaeueiua aeiee AeIE.

?acoeueoaou yoeo yenia?eiaioia n/eoathony oaaaeeoaeueiuie e aeatho
iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi aanue aaeie (e ia oieueei ii) iia auoue
neioace?iaai ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo ieeeea?aeia eao.
I?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii, iiaea auoue nicaeaia aeaaea AeIE n aa ouny/aie
no?iai ?aniieiaeaiiuo aoiiia. Iaeiaaeaeu aicieeioa, iia iiaea
?ai?iaeooee?iaaoue naay, nicaeaaaoue naie nianoaaiiua aaeee e ae?oaea
neiaeiua i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa e ?acaeoueny a ooieoeeiie?othuoth
naiiaini?iecaiaeyuothny oi?io aeecie, oaeoth eae eeaoea aaeoa?ee.

Ia/oi iiaeiaiia iiaei i?iecieoe, ii iaoaiaoe/aneay aa?iyoiinoue
nicaeaiey oaeiai neiaeiiai aauanoaa, eae aaeie eee AeIE, a ?acoeueoaoa
neo/aeiiai niaaeeiaiey oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia a “ia?ae/iii aoeueiia”
aaneiia/ii iaea.

Aeaiiay oai?ey naaiaeiy i?eciaia iiiaeie o/aiuie, i?iaeieaeathueie iiene
iaoaiecia, eioi?ue niinianoaiaae au niaaeeiaieth aieiieeneio a aaeee aac
oi?aaeaiey ni noi?iiu AeIE.

Anee oaeie iaoaieci aoaeao iaeaeai, iu naeaeaai aaaeiue oaa ia iooe e
iiieiaieth caaaaeee ia?aciaaiey AeIE e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?ienoiaeaeaiey
aeecie.

Caiiay oi?ia aeecie /?acau/aeii oanii naycaiiay n aeae?inoa?ie. Ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oioy au oio oaeo, /oi aiaea anoue iniiaiie /anoueth
iannu ethaiai caiiiai i?aaiecia (/aeiaae, iai?eia?, aieueoaa eae ia 70 %
ninoieo ec aiaeu, a oaeea i?aaieciu, eae iaaeoca eee ia 97-98 %).
I/aaeaeii, /oi aeeciue ia Caiea noi?ie?iaaeinue eeoue oiaaea, anee ia
iae iiyaeeanue aeae?inoa?a, a yoi, ca aaieiae/aneeie naaaeaieyie,
i?iecioei ii/oe n ia/aea nouanoaiaaiey iaoae ieaiaou.

Niaeanii oai?ee aaeiaaiiiai neioaca aeeciue aicieeea ec iai?aaie/aneeo
aauanoa a ia?ae/iii ieaaia, eioi?ue iiuaae 4 ie?ae. eao iacaae iaoo
ieaiaoo. Iia aicieeea a aeaea eaiaeae aieiieeneio e i?inoaeoeo aaeeia,
eioi?ua acaeiiaeaenoaiaaee eae iaaeaeo niaie, oae e n aauanoaaie a aiaea
e a aoiinoa?a. Iie iiaeiuaee ae?oaea eaiaeueee, neioace?iaaeenue iiaua
aauanoaa. Yoio i?ioeann aue /?acau/aeii aeieaei. I?ioeann ca?iaeaeaiey
aeecie ia ieaiaoa ?anoyioeny ia iiiaea ieeeeiiu eao.

Ia?aui yoaiii auei, ii iiaieth o/aiuo, neioace?iaaiea oaaeaaiaei?iaeia
ec ea?aeaeia ?acee/iuo iaoaeeia e aiaeu. Ea?aeaeu iaoaeeia auee iieo/aiu
i?e iaa?aaaiee iaoaeeia e oaea?iaea a iaaia. Iioii i?e ecaa?aeaiee
aoeeaiia e ec o?auei a caiiie ei?a iie auee aua?ioaiu e auiuou a ieaai
eee aoiinoa?o. Aeaeaa ea?aeaeu iaoaeeia ?aaae?otho n aiaeie e, a
?acoeueoaoa ?aaeoeee, iu iieo/ei oaeaaiaei?iaeu ?acee/iiai ninoaaa.
Oaeaaiaei?iaeu e auee oie ia?aie nooiaiueeie e ?acaeoeth aeecie.

Oaeaaiaei?iaeu iiae aeaenoaeai oeueo?aoeieaoa Nieioea, yeaeo?e/aneeo
?ac?yaeia a aoiinoa?a, eioi?ay ninoiyea ec iaoaia, acioa ia/aee
iinoaiaiii ?aaae?iaaoue iaaeaeo niaie e n aacaie aoiinoa?u.
Oaeaaiaei?iaeu iaaeeaiii, ii iaoeeiiii anooiaee iaaeaeo niaie ai ana
iiaua e iiaua oeie/aneea acaeiiaeaenoaey. Eo /anoeoeu oaaee/eaaeenue e
oneiaeiyeenue. Iiyaeyeenue i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa ana aieaa neiaeiiai
ninoaaa e no?iaiey, ni ana aieaa neiaeiuie naienoaaie. Oaeei ia?acii,
auee iieo/aiu aieiieeneiou e ia?aua aeieiae/aneea iieeia?u – caaiuey
iieeiaioeaeia. Aeaeaa iie oneiaeiyeenue, ?aaae?iaaee n ae?oaeie
aauanoaaie.

Oae iinoaiaiii a oa/aiea iiiaeo e iiiaeo ouny/aeaoee noi?ie?iaaeny oio
iaoa?eae, oa neiaeiaeoea i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa (a /anoiinoe, aaeee), ec
eioi?uo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iino?iaiu aeeaua i?aaieciu. Yoi e anoue oai?ey
aaeiaaiiiai neioaca. Naiui oceei ianoii oai?ee aaeiaaiiiai neioaca anoue
iiyniaiea aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey aeeaie eeaoee, eae iia auea iieo/aia ec
aieiieeneio e iieeiaioeaeia oai?ey aaeiaaiiiai neioaca iiea /oi ia
iiaeao. Aaaeue eeaoea – yoi naiiaeinoaoi/iue i?aaieci, eioi?ue iiaeao
naiiaini?iecaiaeeoueny, eiaao oeaii/ee aeieiae/aneiai eiaea – AeIE e
?IE, naiii?iecaieueiue neioac eioi?uo /?acau/aeii iaeiaa?iyoai.

3. Oai?ey oai?aiey.

Eae auei neacaii auoa, nouanoaoao aeaa iniiaiua oai?ee i?ienoiaeaeaiey
aeecie: oai?ey oai?aiey e oai?ey aaeiaaiiiai neioaca. Oai?eth
aaeiaaiiiai neioaca iu ?anniio?aee auoa.

Nae/an iu ?anniio?ei oai?eth oai?aiey. Eae oai?ey aaeiaaiiiai neioaca,
oae e oai?ey oai?aiey eiatho naie aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

?anniio?ei aeieacaoaeuenoaa oai?ee oai?aiey.

Anee iu ia/iai aieaa aeoaiei ?anniao?eaaoue oneiaey aeecie ia ieaiaoa e
iaeioi?ua aii?inu ano?iiiiee e oeceee, oi n?aco i?eoiaeeony i?eciaoue,
/oi ana aie?oa ian i?eeaaeaii oae, /oiau ?acaeoea anao aiciiaeiuo ai
Anaeaiiie i?ioeannia i?eaaei, a eiia/iii eoiaa, e oi?ie?iaaieth Caiee, e
e iiyaeaieth ia iae ?aciiia?aciuo oi?i aeecie, aieioue aei /aeiaaea,
niiniaiiai iinoe/ue e ?ane?uoue yoe oaeiu.

Aio ianeieueei i?eia?ia, eioi?ua i?eaeaeee aieiaiea o/aiuo:

1. Anee au ?aciinoue iannu iaeo?iia e i?ioiia auea, neaaeai, a 2,5 ?aca
aieueoae, /ai anoue, aue au iaaiciiaeiui neioac aaeey, e any Anaeaiiay
ninoiyea au eeoue ec aiaei?iaea. Ia auei au ieaiao, anoa?ieaeia,
Caiee…

2. Anee au ianna yeaeo?iia auea ao?ia aieueoae, /ai anoue ia naiii
aeaea, ninoiyeenue au i?ioeannu iaeo?iiecaoeee aauanoaa (ii noaia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) e oiaaea aaeaeoeee e caacaeu ninoiyee au ec iaeieo iaeo?iiia.

3. Anee au neea acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ioeeiiaie auea oioy au ia
ianeieueei i?ioeaioia aieueoae, auea au noaaeeueiie /anoeoea aei?ioii
(ecioii 2Ia). A yoi cia/eo, /oi any Anaeaiiay ninoiyea au ec iaeiiai
eeoue aaeey. Anee au neea yoiai acaeiiaeaenoaey auea au oioy au ia 5%
iaiueoae, aaeee ia?aciauaaoueny ia iia au aiiaua. E oiaaea ia auei au
oa?iiyaea?iie ?aaeoeee neioaca, eioi?ay anoue enoi/ieeii yia?aee caacae.

Oaeeo i?eia?ia ian/eouaatho nauoa 20, iu aea ?anniio?aee oieueei o?e ec
ieo. Ii oaea o?ao aeinoaoi/ii aeey oiai, /oiau iieacaoue, ianeieueei
neiaeia e o?oiea aeeciue, ianeieueei iaeiaa?iyoii aa iiyaeaiea a aeaea
neo/aeiie oeoeooaoeee a ia?ae/iii ieaaia.

Nouanoaaiiui ia?acii eciaieeny au iao ie?, anee au iaiiiai ae?oaei auei
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo neeaie eoeiiianeiai iooaeeeaaiey iaeiieiaiiuo
ca?yaeia e yaea?iuie neeaie i?eoyaeaaiey. Anee au a?aaeoaoeeiiiay
iinoiyiiay auea iaiiiai aieueoae eee iaiueoae e o.i.. A eiioea eiioeia,
eeoue ca eiathuaainy niioiioaiey ?aaeueiie e e?eoe/aneie ieioiinoe
aauanoaa ai Anaeaiiie aiciiaeiia nouanoaiaaiea caacae ia i?ioyaeaiee
ieeeea?aeia eao e nouanoaiaaiea Caiee e aeeciue iae. Ia?auaao ia naay
aieiaiea e «iiaeaiiea» ia?aiao?ia, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iienuaatho
oneiaey ia iaoae ieaiaoa e eioi?ua aieaa anaai ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia
?acaeoea aeecie:

1. Iaeeii ine nooi/iiai ia?auaiey Caiea e ieineinoe yeeeioeee niya/aao
eeeiao ieaiaou.

2. Aiaea eiaao iaeaieueooth ieioiinoue i?e oaiia?aoo?a +4°N, aeaaiaea?y
/aio eaae iaoiaeeony iaae aiaeiaiaie (a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii neo/aa, a oae
anoue aeey anao ae?oaeo aauanoa, eaae auiaaeae au ia aeii, aiaea a
aiaeiaiao auia?caea au, e aeeciue a ieo auei au iaaiciiaeiie).

3. Aoiinoa?a Caiee ninoieo ec oaeeo aacia e a oaeii niioiioaiee, eioi?ua
eo/oa anaai ieacuaatho niaeaenoaea ?acaeoeth e nouanoaiaaieth aeecie.
Anee au eiioeaio?aoeey eenei?iaea caeanue auea aieueoae, ana, /oi iiaeao
ai?aoue, aeaaii nai?aei au, a anee au auea iaiueoae, ai?aiea aiiaua auei
au iaaiciiaeiui.

4. A aoiinoa?a Caiee anoue aoeaaeueii «neaaeu» oaeaeeneiai aaca e
aiaeiie ia?u. Oai ia iaiaa eo iieaeoeu, eioaineaii iiaeiuatho
eio?ae?aniia eceo/aiea Caiee, nicaeatho «ia?ieeiaue yooaeo», aeaaiaea?y
eioi?iio oaiia?aoo?a ia ieaiaoa i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 30°N auoa, /ai iia
auea au aac yoiai yooaeoa. A oiaaea oneiaey aeey aeecie ia ieaiaoa auee
au aanueia no?iauie. Oi aea eanaaony e niaea?aeauaainy a aoiinoa?a
iciia.

Iiyoiio, i?eciaaay ana aea ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe iaoee aiiaua a
auyniaiee i?iaeai /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, iaaei n aeieaeiui iiieiaieai
ioiineoueny e oiio, /oi oeaeue ?yae auaeathueony o/aiuo (n?aaee ieo –
eao?aaou Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee) i?eciatho nouanoaiaaiea Oai?oea eae anaai
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, oae e ?aciiia?aciuo oi?i aeecie ia iaoae ieaiaoa.

Ia aeaiiue iiiaio yoa oai?ey, oai?ey oai?aiey aeecie, ia aeaao ioaaoa ia
aii?in /ai aea eee eai iia auea nicaeaia e eae. *oi aea ioaao iu niiaeai
iieo/eoue a aoaeouai.

4. Iiene aeecie ai Anaeaiiie.

*aeiaae ia oi/ao /oanoaiaaoue naay iaeeiieei ai Anaeaiiie, aai
eioa?anoao, anoue ee ae?oaea ieaiaou, ia eioi?uo oaeaea ?acaeeanue
aeeciue, oaeaea nouanoaoao oeeaeeecaoeey. Aii?in i oii, anoue ee aeeciue
ca i?aaeaeaie Caiee, aieiiaae ethaeae n naiuo ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai. A
aa?iiaeneie iaoea iiaiai a?aiaie ii aue iinoaaeai Aeaei?aeaii A?oii.
Iaiaa ecaanoii, /oi yoie i?iaeaia oaeaeyee aieiaiea e oaeea o/aiua eae
Atheaain e Iuethoii. Oae, iineaaeiee, iai?eia?, ienae, /oi “iaaana iaae
iaie iiaoo auoue iaiieiaiu nouanoaaie, /uey i?e?iaea aeey ian
iaiiiyoia… Iiaoo auoue nouanoaa, iaeaaeathuea niiniaiinoueth
ia?aaeaeaeaiey a ethaii iai?aaeaiee ii aeaeaieth eee inoaiiaee a ethaie
iaeanoe iaaan, /oiau ianeaaeaeaoueny iauanoaii naaa iiaeiaiuo…”

Ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi caaea/a nayce n aiacaiiuie
oeeaeeecaoeeyie auea /aoei noi?ioee?iaaia eae no?iai iao/iay i?iaeaia
?inneeneei o/aiui Y. Iaiaeonii. A 1876 a. a Aaeueneiaoi?na (Oaeueneiee)
auoea (nia/aea ia oaaaeneii, a iioii ia ?onneii ycuea) aai eieaa
“Aaee/aeoay caaea/a iaoaai a?aiaie”, a eioi?ie i?aaeeaaaeny niaa?oaiii
eiie?aoiue e ?aaeueiue i?iaeo nayce n iaeoaoaeyie ieaiao Nieia/iie
nenoaiu n iiiiuueth naaoiauo neaiaeia. Iaiaeon ia oieueei iieacae
oaoie/aneoth aiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeaiey oaeie nayce, ii e ?anniio?ae
naiaioe/aneea i?iaeaiu eiioaeoa. Ii iino?iee ycue aeey einie/aneie nayce
ia i?eioeeiao iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeee. Ii oaeaea ?anniio?ae yeiiiie/aneea
aniaeou i?iaeoa e, ynii niciaaay, /oi cao?aou ia aai inouanoaeaiea iiaoo
auoue ia iiae neeo iaeiie no?aia, i?aaeeiaeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
nio?oaeie/anoai a yoie iaeanoe. Ii aai eaeay ia auea caia/aia iao/iie
iauanoaaiiinoueth. E a oa a?aiaia ia auei aeinoaoi/iie iao/iie aacu aeey
aa ?aaeecaoeee.

Oieueei a iineaaeiaa a?aiy o /aeiaa/anoaa iiyaeeenue aeinoaoi/iua
oaoie/aneea ?ano?nu aeey ia/aea iieneia aeecie ca i?aaeaeaie iaoae
ieaiaou. Ana?ueac i iienea aiacaiiuo oeeaeeecaoeee e eiioaeoa n ieie
caaiai?eee a eiioea 50-uo – ia/aea 60-uo aiaeia i?ioeiai aaea. Oiaaea
aea noaee iiyaeyoueny noaouee e eieae, iinayuaiiua yoie oaia, a caoai
ia/aeenue ia?aua iaaethaeaiey. Oiaaea aea auei oeacaii ia
i?eioeeieaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey iee?iaieiiaiai (aeeaiacii
ieiei 20 – 50 ni) eceo/aiey aeey ia?aaea/e niiauaiee a einie/aneii
i?ino?ainoaa. Yoi noaei ia/aeii a enoi?ee iao/iiai iiaeoiaea e i?iaeaia
iienea aiacaiiuo oeeaeeecaoeee, aaaeue aeey eceo/aiey yoiai aeeaiaciia
iiaeii auei eniieueciaaoue nouanoaothuea oaea ?aaeeioaeaneiiu.

I?iaeaia iienea aiacaiiie aeecie neiaeia e iiiaia?aiia. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee
aa iaaei eiaoue ?acaeooth oaoie/aneoth aaco (oaeaneiiu e
?aaeeioaeaneiiu, neiaeiia ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiia iai?oaeiaaiea), iaaei eiaoue
?acaeooth iao/ioth aaco e iiaeaioiaeaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia, eioi?ua
aoaeooue iieueciaaoueny yoei iai?oaeiaaieai. Oieueei a na?aaeeia OO aaea
caiiay oeeaeeecaoeey noaea iaeaaeaoue anai iaiaoiaeeiui aeey yoiai.

Oiaaea e auea nicaeaia i?ia?aiia SETI (Search for axtraterrestrial
intelligence – iiene aiacaiiiai ?acoia).

I?ia?aiia SETI (iiene aiacaiiiai ?acoia) iniiauaaaony ia
i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi nenoaiaoe/aneee iiene a einiina iiaeao auyaeoue
eneonnoaaiiua neaiaeu, enioneaaiua eeai iaia?aiii, eeai a ea/anoaa
neo/aeiiai yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai ooia, iiaeiaii oiio, eae Caiey enioneaao
ooi ?aaeeineaiaeia a ?acee/iii aeeaiaciia.

Ii, iieo/ea oaeie neaiae iaaei aai aua e ?anoeo?iaaoue, iiea /oi iaynii,
eae ?anoeo?iauaaoue eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?oth iiaoo i?eianoe n niaie
eneonnoaaiiua neaiaeu. O/aiua n/eoatho, /oi eneonnoaaiiua neaiaeu,
iai?aaeaiiua a noi?iio Caiee, aoaeoo ianoe iaoaiaoe/aneoth, oece/aneoth,
aeieiae/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth iao/iiai oa?aeoa?a. Ii iiaieth o/aiuo, anee
eiiieaiaoyia aeinoaoi/ii ?acoiiu, /oiau iino?ieoue ?aaeeioaeaneiiu aeey
onoaiiaeaiey iaaecaacaeiua nayce, iie aeieaeiu auoue ciaeiiu n oaie aea
i?eioeeiaie iaoaiaoeee, oeceee e oeiee, eioi?ua ecaanoiu ia Caiea. Ii
eae auoue, anee aoaeao niiauaii i aieaa oa?aeoa?iuo /a?oao naiaai ie?a,
i naiae eoeueoo?a e enoi?ee? Ia yoio aii?in aua iao ioaaoa.

Ia/aeii iienea e aiaeeca neaiaeia ia eo eneonnoaaiiinoue noae
aia?eeaineee i?iaeo iiae iacaaieai “Icia”. A ia/aea 1960 aiaea
aia?eeaineee ?aaeeiano?iiii O?yie Ae?aee i?iaae iiene ?aaeeineaiaeia
eneonnoaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey io caacae Oao Eeoa e Yineeii Y?eaeaia.
Iaa caacaeu iioiaee ia iaoa Nieioea e oaeaeaiu io ian ia iaaieueoia
?annoiyiea – ieiei 11 naaoiauo eao. N ai?aey ii etheue 1960 aiaea
25-iao?iaue ?aaeeioaeaneii ?aaeno?e?iaae neaiaeu ia aeeeia aieiu 21 ni
(i?eia?ii 1420 IAoe), niioaaonoaothuae eceo/aieth iaeo?aeueiiai
aoiia?iiai aiaei?iaea. Auai? eiaiii yoie /anoiou n/eoaaony iaeaieaa
eiae/iui n ano?iiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey. Caiene iioii aiaeece?iaaee a
iaaeaaeaea iaeoe iiaoi?ythueany na?ee iaeii?iaeiuo eiioeuenia, eioi?ua
iiaee au oeacuaaoue ia iniuneaiiia niiauaiea. Ii ?acoeueoaoia iieo/aii
ia auei.

A 1962 aiaeo, iinea auoiaea eieae ecaanoiiai niaaoneiai ano?iiiia,
aeaaeaieea E.N. Oeeianeiai “Anaeaiiay, aeeciue, ?acoi”, iieneaie
aiacaiiiai ?acoia aeoeaii caiyeenue a Niaaoneii Nithca. Aeey yoiai
eniieueciaaee iiaue e aeinoaoi/ii iiuiue ?aaeeioaeaneii ?AOAI-70.

Iiiuoee onoaiiaeoue eiioaeo n aiacaiiuie oeeaeeecaoeeyie ia
ia?aie/eaaeenue “i?ineooeaaieai” einiina. Oae a 1974 aiaeo auei
i?iaaaeaii ia?aoth ?aaeeiia?aaea/o iineaiey, aae?aniaaiiiai ae?oaei
ie?ai. Iineaiea niaea?aeaei 1679 aeo eioi?iaoeee. A iineaiee auei
caeiaee?iaaii ?enoiie, noaiaoe/anee ecia?aaeathuee /aeiaaea, nie?aeue
AeIE, Nieia/ioth nenoaio e oaeaneii A??aneai. N oao ii? einie/aneea
iineaiey ioi?aaeyeenue iaiaeiie?aoii. Ii ioaaoia ia iineaiey
/aeiaa/anoai iiea /oi ia aeiaeaeaeinue. I?e iinueea oaeeo iineaiee iaaei
o/eouaaoue ano?iiiie/aneea ?annoiyiey aei iauaeoia, nei?inoue
?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aaeeiaiei. Aaaeue aeaaea e aeeaeaeoei caacaeai iii
iiaeao aeaeaaoueny 10 – 15 eao. A e aeaeueiei aua aieueoa. Iiyoiio a
aii?ina iienea aiacaiiie aeecie iaaei caianoenue aieueoei oa?iaieai.

A 1950 aiaeo oecee Yi?eei Oa?ie noi?ioee?iaae aii?in i oii, /oi anee
Anaeaiiay caiieiaia nouanoaaie, iiaeiaiuie iai, oi iu eo oaea aeaaii
ano?aoeee au. “Aaea aea ana?” – aio iaeaieaa e?aoeay e iieiay
oi?ioee?iaea ia?aaeiena Oa?ie. Aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiua, ii iaoei
ia?eai, e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiua iienee i?yiuo neaiaeia aiacaiiuo
oeeaeeecaoeee eee eaeeo-oi neaaeia eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ia i?eaaee,
ia aeaeue, e iieiaeeoaeueiiio ?acoeueoaoo. E?iia oiai, anee aeiaaaeoue e
yoiio aanue eiiieaen ano?iiiie/aneeo e ano?ioece/aneeo iaaethaeaiee ca
iineaaeiea 100 – 200 eao, oi iieo/eony aiooeoaeueiue iauai eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?ue ia aeaao ie iaeiie caoeaiee a iieueco nouanoaiaaiey ?acoia,
oi/iaa iiuiuo oaoie/aneeo oeeaeeecaoeee, ca i?aaeaeaie Caiee. Eee aea
oeacuaaao, /oi iu ia oai e ia oi euai. *oi oaeaea aiciiaeii. Aiciiaeii,
eaeea oi ano?iiiie/aneea yaeaiey e yaeythony eneonnoaaiiuie, ii iu ia
ciaai yoiai.

Iiiaea iai?aaeaiey ano?iiiiee, iaoaiaoeee, ?aaeeiano?iiiiee i?yii eee
einaaiii naycaiu n i?iaeaiie iienea aiacaiiie aeecie. A ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue yoi eco/aiea yeciieaiao, eioi?uo ia aeaiiia a?aiy ioe?uoi
ianeieueei aeanyoeia. Iieo/aii ia?aia oioiecia?aaeaiea yeciieaiaou,
iieo/aiu aeaiiua i ninoaaa aoiinoa?u yeciieaiao-aeaaioia. ?acaeoea
oaoieee aeinoeaei oaeiai o?iaiy, /oi ano?iiiiu oaia?ue iiaoo iaeoe
caiiiiiaeiaiua ieaiaou. Iiaeii oaeaea i?iaanoe aiaeec io?aaeaaiiai
ieaiaoie naaoa e ii?aaeaeeoue, anoue ee ia iae iiaeoiaeyuay aeey aeecie
aoiinoa?a.

A 2005 aiaeo o/aiua iauyaeee ia ioe?uoee iioiaeae ia Caieth ieaiaou,
ia?auathuaeny aie?oa caacaeu Gliese 876. Oaiia?aoo?a ia iiaa?oiinoe
ieaiaou aiieia i?eaiaeia aeey oiai, /oiau oai nouanoaiaaea aiaea a
aeeaeeii aeaea – yoi aeaaiia oneiaea aeey iiyaeaiey aeecie, niaeanii
naaiaeiyoiei i?aaenoaaeaieyi.

Nicaeathony e ?aaeeciauaathony oaeaea e iiaua i?iaeou ii iieneo ieaiao
aicea aeeaeaeoeo caacae. Oae ii niiauaiey i?annu a 2015 aiaeo
Aa?iiaeneia Einie/aneia Aaaionoai a nio?oaeie/anoaa n IANA e aaaionoaii
«?ineiniin» caionoeo i?iaeo «Aea?aei».

A i?iaeo aeeth/aii /aou?a i?aeoaeueiuo oaeaneiia, eioi?ua aoaeoo
enneaaeiaaoue einiin a iienea i?eaiaeiuo aeey aeecie ieaiao. A oa/aiea
iyoe eao oaeaneiiu eco/ao 500 caacae e i?iaaaeoo niaeo?aeueiue aiaeec 50
naiuo iiiaiiaauathueo ii oa?aeoa?enoeeai ec iaia?oaeaiiuo ieaiao.

Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo ?acaeaaaony oai?aoe/aneay yeciaeieiaey,
eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaao oece/aneea, oeie/aneea e aeieiae/aneea oneiaey
aicieeiiaaiey e iiaeaea?aeaiey aeecie, oaeaea ?acaeaaaony oa /anoue
ano?iiiiee, eioi?ay naycaia n oi?ie?iaaieai e yaiethoeeae ieaiao, n
aiciiaeiinoueth aeecie ia ieo. I?e eco/aiee ieaiao iniiaiia aieiaiea
oaeaeytho iieneo aiaeu ia iiaa?oiinoe ieaiao, iineieueeo n/eoaaony, /oi
eiaiii a aiaea ia/eiaaony aicieeiiaaiea aeecie.

Eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiuo auoa iaoa?eaeia iiene aiacaiiie aeecie ia
caieiaao a nia?aiaiiie ano?iiiiee iniai aaaeiiai ianoa. Ia iieo/ea eaeeo
oi ?acoeueoaoia i?iaeo SETI iinoaiaiii caie?aao. O iaai, eiia/ii, anoue
aeiaieueii iiiai noi?iiieeia, iiiaea yiooceanou i?iaiaeyo enneaaeiaaiey,
ii yoi anoue oieueei eo ee/iia aeaei. Ia ainoaea?noaaiiii o?iaia yoio
i?iaeo ia iieo/aao ieeaeie iiaeaea?aeee e nouanoaoao oieueei ca n/ao
/anoiuo iiaea?oaiaaiee.

Iiene aiacaiiie aeecie i?ioiaeeo a aeaea iienea ieaiao o aeeaeaeoeo
caacae e auyaeaiey eo ia?aiao?ia, iaee/ey aiaeu. I?iaeo SETI aue i/aiue
iiioey?ai a 60 – 80 aiaeu, nae/an i?ienoiaeeo oiaiueoaiea aai
iiioey?iinoe e /oi naiia aeaaiia ia?ainiuneaiea oeaeae e iaoiaeia naiiai
i?iaeoa. Ec aac?acoeueoaoeaiinoe aai a i?aaeuaeouea aiaeu aeieaeiu auoue
ecaea/aiu auaiaeu, iaaei iiiaiyoue naio iaoiaeeeo enneaaeiaaiee, aieueoa
aieiaiey i?eaeaeyoue enneaaeiaaieth ia?eiaee/aneeo yaeaiee a einiina.

Cao?aaeaay aii?in iienea aeecie iaaei iiiieoue, /oi einiin ninoieo ia
oieueei ec caacae. Anoue aua e Nieia/iay nenoaia e aeeciue, a ?aciuo aa
oi?iao, aiciiaeia ia aa ieaiaoao. Iiyoiio iiiaea o/aiua i?aaeeaaatho
aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeeoue enneaaeiaaieth Eoiu, Ia?na e ieaiao-aeaaioia,
iai?eia?, THieoa?a, ia eioi?uo iiaee ?acaeoueny ?aciua oi?iu aeecie, eae
a i?ioeii, oae e nouanoaiaaoue e oaia?ue.

I?iaeo SETI a eciaiaiiii aeaea aoaeao, y oaa?ai, nouanoaiaaoue e
ai?aaeue, aaaeue /aeiaaeo ia oi/aony /oanoaiaaoue naia iaeeii/anoai a
aaca?aie/iii einiina.

Auaiaeu

A ?aaioa auee ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua oai?ee i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ia
Caiea. Ia aeaiiia a?aiy iaeuecy iaeiicia/ii o?aeoiaaoue i?ienoiaeaeaiea
aeecie oieueei eae aeo oai?aiey eee eae i?ioeann yaiethoeee. Iineieueeo
anoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa eae iaeiie, oae e aoi?ie oai?ee. Aeey oiai /oiau
oi/ii onoaiiaeoue eae aicieeea aeeciue ioaeiu aua enneaaeiaaiey. Oieueei
iinea eo i?iaaaeaiey iiaeii aoaeao onoaiiaeoue, eaeay ec yoeo oai?ee
aa?ia. Aiciiaeii, aoaeao nicaeaia aaeeiay oai?ey i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie,
eioi?ay aeeth/eo a naay aeaa yoe oai?ee.

*aeiaa/anoai iiea /oi iaeeiiei, iaeoe ae?oaea ?acoiiua oeeaeeecaoeee ai
Anaeaiiie iiea /oi ia oaeaeinue. Ii yoe iienee e i?iaeieaeaeenue oieueei
ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee. N ?acaeoeai oaoieee, iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa
yoe iienee aoaeoo i?iaeieaeaiu e, aiciiaeii, iie oaai/athony oniaoii a
aoaeouai. Oiaaea aoaeao iaeaeaii aua iaeii aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai /oi
/aeiaa/anoai ia iaeeiiei ai anaeaiiie e /oi oai?ey yaiethoeee aeecie
aa?ia. Ii yoi aoaeao a aoaeouai. Eioi?ia ia/eiaaony caao?a…

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. Aeiaeeeen E.I. 1990. Aiae?ae Aeieo?eaae/ Naoa?ia e iienee aiacaiiuo
oeeaeeecaoeee // Caiey e Anaeaiiay. 1990. N 6. N. 63-67.

2. Ea?aeaoaa I.N. 1975 // I?iaeaia CETI (Naycue n aiacaiiuie
oeeaeeecaoeeyie). I.: Ie?, 1975. N.166-169.

3. Eeeieoui A. A. Ano?iiiiey. I.: Iaoea, 1992., 237 n.

4. ?iaeaieia E. I. Oai?ey Aea?aeia e i?ienoiaeaeaiea aeecie ia Caiea.
I.: Iaoea, 1988. 156 n.

5. Iauay aeieiaey. O/aaiee aeey aocia. Iiae ?aae. Ia?aiiiiaa I. I. I.:
Aunoay oeiea, 2002. 378 n.

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