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Учение о тканях (гистология)

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?a??o

«O??a i ??yo (????ey)»

I???i ???? e ???? ???o ? ???. O?? — y? ?????e ????yny ???a ??? e ?????o
???? (?????? ????), ??aeath?o ????th ???ey e ????????? ? ????? ????i?o
???e.

Ii ???eth, ???e e ???eth ??eyth?y ??oth?a ?? ???:

ue y?????ay ??ue (yi???);

ue ??ue e ??a;

ue ??????ay ??ue;

ue ???ay ??ue;

ue ???y ??ue.

A ??? ???i ??? ??yo ????a ??e, ??i ?y??? ??o ??e. A ???a ?? ??e ????a
????yo ?????a e ????a ????o e ?????o y???? (???????y ?????y) e ? ???????
(???????y ?????y). Y? ???? a ????o ??yo ???atho ?-??i?. A ???? ??e ? ??
??yo ????yo ???? ???a ????? ????y. A ??iy?a ??y ?????i, ?i ??e
??????ath?y ?e ?????e. Y?????ay, ??????ay, ??????y (???y) ???ay ??e
?????tho ??? e ???, ?????y (?????i???y) ???ay ??ue ????????y ?? ?e
?????? ??aeyo, a a ???e ??e ??????ath?y ?? ???a ???a. A??????a ??? ?e ?
?????e ????ny ?????? ??????.

1. Y?????ay ??ue

Y???a??y ??ue (y???e) ????o ?????ue ??, ????o ????th i???o ????? ?????e
??o ???a (???e, ????, ????aey?a ?? e ?.), ???? ???? (???, ????, ?th??) e
???ao ???. A ?y? n y?i ???atho ????e y???e e ????? y???e., I??y? ? ???a
???e e ????? ??u ????a, ????e y???e y?y?ny ?????e ??ueth e ???y? ???oth
???th e o??eth ??? ???a ??o ????? e ???th?e ?i ???. O?, ?i?????e y???e
?????i ?y ???????a e ??? y???o ???a; ??c ???? y???e ? ???e ????a
????ey?ny ????? ????a ??????y ???, ??a e ????a a ??ue e e??. AE????e
y???e, ???th?e ???, ???? ?????ueth ?ae?y? ???? — ???u, ???a ?? ??aey?y ?
??ithth ??o, ?? ???atho a ??ue e ??o (???u). N????? ??? ?????? e ??ey?
????, ?????a ?y ???ay????e ????a, ???a?y ????e. A ?y? n y?i ??e y???e
???e ??a ???? ?????? y???y.

Y???e ????ey? ??e ??o ???. A ??n??? ? ???ey e ???e ? ??o ??? ????. E??e
y???y ?????th?y ? ????e ????, ???e ? ???i ? ????? ??? ??????? ??e. Y?
??? ???tho ?ey???th, o. a. ?-??i? ???? ? ????a e ?????a ???, e ???e
?????ueth e ?????e.

N ??? ???????o e ??????? ?????? ??eytho y??????, ?e ???, y??????e, ?e
????, e ??? ?? y???y.

A ??? ??????e y???y ???? ?e ?i??? ??? e ????e ???? (?a ??? ?????? y???y
???? e ????e ????, a ??? ??????i ????ath?y a ?n??? ??a), ?e e ??a
y?????? ???. A?e a y???e ???atho ???? ????ey, o. a. ???a ?? ??? ????th?y
a ???a ???e, ? ??e ?????? y???e ????ny ????ath?i. I??n??? y???e, ????
???ey ???? ?iy?ny a ?????e ? ??oy??y ??? ??? ?e ?i ?????, ??o ????
?????i.

E??e y???y — y?????u — ?atho ??oth o??. I? ??iyo ? y?a, ?????, ???? e
?????o ????, ??????o ???????e ?????y? ????o ??a y???y. A ????? ????? ?a
?? ????: y????????y ??, ?????e, ?????, ???? A???. ss?i ??? ???a, ???? ?e
??????a, a ?????a ??? ?i ??. A y?????? ???o ??eytho ?a ??e: ????th,
?????oth a ???o ????? ??e, e a????th, ????oth e ????e ?????e. A ????e
??e ??o y?i, a ????? — ????u, ????a ?eth??y e ?????a ????u, e ???i
??ny?y ??????e — ????? ??????? ???u ????? ? ????e ?????e ???. A???th?y e
???ay ??? ????? ?y y???y, ??c ???e ????yo ???? ????ey (????, ????
y???e). ????e — ????a ????u ? ????e ?????e ??? ??????i y???y. A????y ?
ae???th ????y ?e ???? a ???yo, ????? y????. ????e ????eytho ??e ???u
????? n ???y?? a ?o ?oy?, ????e ????e ????e. A ????? ??? y???y ??aey?y
?????? — ???? ????u, ?????ath?a, ?-????, ????ue ??? y???y.

I????? ???e y???e ????o ?????ue ???? ???? ?th??, ???, ????a e ????ny
????ai. Ii y?y?ny ?????i ???? ?????? ??? — ????u — e ????o ????th ???ue
?? — ??i. *?? ?? ????yo ??i?a ???? ??o ????th, ??aey??y a ???e ?th??,
??? e ????a, e ??ueth, ???yth?e ???, ???a ?ae ????? a ??????? ??e. Y????
????ey? ??e ?????e ?? ???, ?e??th?e ????thth ?????ue ?????o e ??????o
???a. O?? e ???? ??? y???ey — y??????a — ????. I??i y? ???a, ?oy??a ?
??a ??? ???, ????a ???ny. Ii ?c??th ?e y?yth?y ?????? ????u, a ? ???eth
?atho ??i ?u?i n y????.

I????? ????? y???e ????o ??e?u ??e, ???? ???e ??c e ??? ???, ???????
y??e? — ???i ???i ????thth ?????ue ???a, ????a, ???? ???y, ???o ???? e
???a ??????e ???. A ???o, a e??? ????yo ???? ????ey, ??? ?atho ???ath?th
??eo, ??iy?th ? ???? ??a ??????e. ?????ny ?????e n????e y???e ? y???? e
????u. I????? ???y?? i?????e y???e ?????i ???? ????e ??u n y??e, ???????
? ??? ???, o.a. a ????i ?y?a, e ?????. Ii ????o ?????a i?e e ????a ???
???e ???u.

I?????e ???e ?????ath?e y???e a???? ???? ??a, ???ue ?a e ????. Ii ???o ?
????ai ?iy, ?iy ????o e ?iy ???o ???. I??? ??? ???tho e ????? ???tho n
?????e y???y.

I?????e ???e ????ath?e y???e ?c???y y?????, ? ????o ?????ue ??. Y????
???o ec ??? ?ny?? ??a ???. I??? ?????y ??? a ???a ?o?? ? ?????e ??
??????ny ???th ???, ?????i ? y?a e ????? e ??i??? a ?o ????. Y???e ??
????i ?ey?yi ???e ??u.

Iiy?? a ?i ???y ?yae ??????? a ?? ?????? ????, ?????e e ????ath?o ??a
???.

I????e y???e ????? ?y ???a ??a?????? ???u, ??? ???o ??y??th?y ?e ?????
?/?. Ii ???o ? ?? ??a — ????? e ?????.

A ?y? ? ??i ?????i ????? ????e y???e ??i ?????ny ?????yi, ? ? ???? ???
??o?????ny. A??????a y???y ????? ??i ??????i ???y ???. A ?????i y???e ?a
??? ??o ???ny, a a ?i????i y?i ????i ???tho ?? ??? ????? e ????? ??a. I?
?????e y???y ??????? ?i ????? ? ??? e?????i ?????y ??? ? ?ayi ??.
????ath??y ??? ???ath?y ? ?????? ??i. Y?????y ?? ????? ??a ??, ?e ?a
????ny ???e ???? ??????? ??ueth, ????? ???y???e.

2. AE??u

AE??u ???ytho a ????a ?????th ???th. A??y?? ?e ???? ?atho ???? ?y ????a,
???ath?o a ????a. *?? ??c y?y?ny ???iy???? ???? (????, ????ay ?th?ay
???, ??????y ???), ??? ??yo a ??? ???a (????, ??? ??? ?e??). A????? ??c
— ?????a y???y. ????tho ??? ??i? ???? — y????? e ??? ????? ???? —
y?????, ? ?ath?a ???? e ??eyth?a ???u ???????i a ??ue. Y????? ???
???otho a ??ey?e ????a, ???ath?o a ???o e o?iyo. AE??u ???e ???? ??eytho
??? a ????a ???e (????, a ???ue ???a, ??e e ?.) ?e ? ?????ue ??. Y?????
ae??u ???ytho ????a ???e a ?????e ? ??, a ??? ??o ???a e ??? ?e ??yo.
I????, ??? ???????? ??? ??eytho ???, ?????e ?y ????a ?????y. Y? ???
???th?y ?? ? ??a ??? ?????ey, ????i, ??i ???? (??ia ?????y ???a) e ????
???a. Y????? ??? ??ue ??????, ?????i ? ?o ???????. I?????? ??? (??????
???) ?????u a y???e ?????o ??e e ????a e ?????tho ??ue. A ??????? ???o
???atho ?????e ??e e ???? ???. N????? ??e ???o ? ???, ?????thu? ???
(??????). A ?????e ? ??, ??y?y ?e ?o ? ???? ???e, ??eytho ???a e ???a
???. Ii ??a ?????? ?ae?a ???atho ????a, ???ey?? e ????-???ey?? ???.

Ia ????e ??, ?e ????ny ??? e ??i ??i ? ??ey?ny ? ???, ???atho ?????a,
????? e ???e?? ???. I????? ??? (???? ??i ???ath??y) ??eytho ??? a ????
??? ?c ????ey ????? ?????o ???. A????a ??? ?????oth?y ????i ?????i ?????
n????? ???. A ???? ???? ????ay ??ue ??? ???a?ny e ??? a ??? ???a. A
???oth?a ??? ?????y ??? ????????y. O?? ?i ???? ????? ?y ???? e ????o
???o ??c. A ?????o ???o ????a ???a ?????a?y ???th ???. ?????? ???
y?yth?y ???? ???. O ??a?a ??? ?? ???? y?yth?y ???a. Ii ????o ???a
???atho ??? ????a, ????, ????a (???i-????a) e ???a.

3. N?????iay ??ue

E ??????? ??e ??nyo ?????th, ??????? ??e ? ?????? ????? e ????th (?y??y
e ?n?ay). N??????y ??ue ????? ???? e ???i ?????i i?????? ????, ???a ???o
? ???i e ????i ????.

E ?????e ??????? ??e ??nyo ??oth, ??????th ???th e ?????th ???th (????y,
????a ?????, ?????ay e y?????y ??e). N??????y ??ue n ??u? ????? ??????
???ey??, ???e, ????e e ?????.

N??????y ??ue ???y? ?????th ???th, ?y??oth n ???? ??? e ? ???? a ???
???a, ???oth (????c, ????a ???? ?e), ?????oth (???? ??? ???a, ?y??? ?
??o ??e, ???? ??? e ?.), ?????oth (????o a ????o ?????e, ????ey ?i)
???e. I? ????o ??????? ??iy?yo ??????ay ??ue ??o ?????ue a ??????e, ?e
?e ? ??? ??o ??? ??? y???? ??e.

???y ?????y ??????ay ??ue. Y? ??ue ???o ? ??? e ??????i ????, a e???
???a ?????u ??i e ?atho ??? ?????a. I? ?????? ?????a ??? e ??u, ??? a
??? ???a, ???y ? ???. I?????a ???? ???? ?????? (???th?a), y?????a ???a e
???? ????.

E?????a ???a ????eytho ??e ?y?a e? ?????? ????a oy? ???? 1 —12 ?i,
??iy?a ? ?a ??a ??? ??e — ???e. I? ???? ???? e ??ue ???. Y?????a ???a
????eytho ??e ??y??y ?? ???i ????. Eo ?ae? ????? ?e ?????e ???a ???????o
?????. A ??? ?????e ??????? ??e ?e ???tho ???????th ??. I??i y?o ?? ??a
???i, a ??? ??????? ??e ???ath?y ??a ???ey??, ?e ??????a, ???a, ????? ??
???? ????y ??, ?i ?e ??? ????th?y ?ey? ???a e ???tho ??. I? ??yo a ???
??? ??????o ??a, ????e, ???? ??a e o. ae.

I???a ???? ??????? ??e ????ey? ??e ????oth ??o e y?y?ny ????i. A ?i ???
??yo ???????? (?????ay ???a, ???i e ?.), ???a ?????atho ???????a e
??????? ?????e ????i ????. E???? y???u ??????? ??e ?????? ???????????e
????, ??????e, ???????e (????e), ???u? ?????, ??????, ????? e ???????.
E?? ??, a n??????e ??e ???ath?y ??? ??e (????u).

Ai ???? ????a ?a ??y ????? ??a ???. I??ath?a ??? ??iyth?y ??? ? ??
?????y ?? ????. E?? ??, a ??????? ??e ?ath?y ???, ????a ?a????y a ???
????a ??u. O?? ??? ???th?y ???????????e. E ?i ??ny?y ???, ??????a ? ??
?????o ???y?a,— ???????a, ?e ?????y?? (????). O??e ? y?yth?y ???ey?? ???
e ????u. I? ??tho ???th ?? ? ??? a ????o ???????? ??????ey ??e, ? e ?e
??? ??????? ??iy?yo (?????, ????a ??????y e ?.). O????? — ???a,
????????a ???, ??? ?????? a ??????? ??e. I? i???u e ???? ???ny; ??o
????ue ? ??????????uo ?? e ?????ny a ??? ???. O????? ???atho ???a a
i????? ????i ???? e ?????? ???i. I? ?????n?o ??iy?yo ?e ???otho a ?????
?i e ?????e ???? ??e e ?????????? ???u ??? ????o ?e. O?????, c????? ??
???ey, ???th?y ?????e.

I?????? (????e) — ???, ????a e ????? e ??????th ?????o ??? ????eth a
????? e????o ???. ????tho ????a e ???a ????e. I??? ????e (?????, ???th?a
??? a ??a) ???ath?y a ????, ?a?i ????? ?????? ????, a ??a a ??? ????y
???o ???. I? ??o ????? ?e ????? ????, ?????? ?oa ? ??a e ? ??? ??? e
???? ??????y. I? ????o ?c???eyo ????a ?e ?e ??????e ??a ????ey ?y?yth?y
????a ????e — ?????. I???? ?????th?a ????? ???atho ? ???o ?????,
??????????? ???, ?i???a e ????a. ???? e ??a ? ????. I???? ????tho
i??????u, a ?o ?????th?y ?????a ????, ?????th?y ???? ??.

O???a ???? (??? ???) ????eytho ??e ?????? ??u ??? n ????? e ?????e
?????ueth ?????. I? ???e 3,5— 14,0 ?i e ??? 22 ?i; ?????tho ???i
??y??oth?e ?????th ??e. E????i ? ??????y ?e ????? ?????yo.

I????u (??????? ???) ???ath?y a ??? ??????? ??e ????e ???? ??e ????,
????o ??c, a ??????o ??o e ???i ??a. I? ????o ??????? ??iy?yo ? ?????
??i ??????y. I? ??? ??u e ???? e ??o ????ue ? ?????, ???ey?? ???, ?????
e ?. I??????a ??? ???otho a ?????e ???e, a ??a a ??? ??a. E???u (???a
???) ???tho ?????ueth ????a? ????e ??. I? ???ath?y a ??? ??????? ??e
???i?a ?e ???? ??i ?????o ???a. E?? ???? ????th?y a ???i ?????, ???yy
??? ???, ???yo i ???e ??e. AE??? ??? ?????, ??? ??ay ??? ???? ??th
?????? ??, ???th?th ?th ?????th ??ue ???. E????i ???o e??e a ??????? ??e
??? ????o I? ?? ??i ???th?y ? ???????o ??? ?????th?o ?????a ???y?.

I?????u (????? ???) — ?oy??a ?a?e n ????e, ???iy?? ??u ?????. Eo ?????
???? c?? ???? ????. A ??? ??????? ??e ?e ???ath?y a ?? ??? ???i ???a, a
?? ???e e ??? ???? ??c. Eo ??ue ??i a ????? ???? ??a.

I??ay ?????y ??????ay ??ue. A ?????e ? ?????ey ???i y? ??ue ????ey?ny ?
??????th e ?????th. ???e ???u ??o ??? e ???e ??????e ??????? ??ueth ????
?????. A i???? ??? ????i ????, ?????? ???a e ?? y??e??? ???i ??? ???? ??
e ??o, ????ath?y, ????y ???. E???? y???? a ?e ??. A ?????e ???e ?????e
??????? ??e ??e ?????? ???i ?????u a ???e??i ?????e, ??????? ??????
???yi, a ???o ?i????? ??i. I? ???? ????y ??, ?y?e, ????e e ??o???th
??????oth ??ue, ???ath?th ????a ??? (?????, ?????? ??? e ?.) I???? ?yc?
(??? ?y?e ?????? ???, ????a ?y?e e ?.) e ???? a ???o ??o ???a e ???a
????? y?????e ??ueth, ????? ???a ????? y?????o ???i.

N??????y ??ue n ???e ?????. ????y?ay ??ue ??i? ? ???ey?? ??? e ???ey??
???i. ????y?? ??? e?tho ????, ???? ?e ???yth?y ?? n ???, ???y ???o
(reticulum; ?nth? ???? ??e). ????y?? ???a ????ath?y ? ?? ?????yo.
???oey?? ???a ????ath?y ? ?? ?????yo. ????y?ay ??ue ???ey? ??a ???? ??a,
??????o ??a e ????e, a ??a ?????y a ????e ???? ????a, a ??? e o. ae.
????y?ua ??? ???? ?????ny a ??? ???, ??a (???????, i????, ?????u e ?.).

????iy??????e ???? (???a ?????) ???tho ?????? ?? ??? ????a, ????o ????a?
? ??? ??u ???u ???? e ???e e ?e?aeua?ue ? a ?????. O?? ??? ??? ?y ?????y
???o ?y ?a??? ???a, ???ath?o ??a ?e ?y?yth??y ???, ??? ??i??. I? ??tho
??oth ?? a ?????e ?????. E ??i ???i ??ny?y ????e, ?????th?a ???ey?? ???
?????? ???a, ????? ??? ?????o ?????o ???y?a ??? e ae?. A??? y? ??? a
??oth ???o ????e E. E. I???a.

AE??ay ??ue y?y?ny ??? ????ey ???uo ?????o ???a, ?y?? ? ????? ?iy?ny a
?????e ? i??ey ????a. O ???? ???y ??ue ???? ????e ??, ????y a ????, ????
??e, ??i ??e e o. i. I??i ?a ???y ?i???? ??? ??????? ??e ? ???. AE???
??? ???ao ??e ?? e ?? ??i ?????e ?e ??????e ??u. I?? ?ie ???yo ?????? e
y?????a ???a e ????ath?y ?????u, ??? ??? e ????u. A ???e ??e ???atho
???? ?i??u ??? ???a, a ????e ?????y ?? ? ????a.

N???ay, ?e ?????y, ??????ay ??ue ?????y ??? o ????, a ????e a ???? ????
????. I?????a ???? y?e ??e ????i e ????? ??.

I????e ??ueth ???tho ??ue, a ???e ?????y ??i ????? ??? — ?????a.

O?y??y ??ue. Y? ??ue ???o ? ??? ??? — ?????a, ????? ???i ?????i i??????
????. A ?????e ? ???ey ??????i ???? ???atho ?????, y?????e e ?????e ?yu.

A????e ?yu ???o ? ?y??o ???, ???? ??o a ??? ???yo a ?????? ????, ???
????. E??e ??????e ??u, ?? ???? ?e ????. I?????a ???? ????? e ???o ?
?????? ???i e ????i ????. O?yu ? ???? ????a i???o ?y??th ??ue ???, ????o
?????e ???yth??y ?n?e e ???? ??a ?????o ??e. N ????i ??th?th?y ???a?a
????? ?y??o ??? e ????a ?????i ???a ??????i ????, a ????? ?? a ?i
????ath?y ?? ???y e i????o ??????? ?y?.

Y?????e ?yu o ???? ???? ??th ????, ????a ?y? ???e e ?., ??o ????? ?? e
??a ???/?, ?i ?????. A ?????? ???? ???y ???a ????? y?????o ???i. A ?i
???a ? ????? ???n ??????ey.

A????? ?yu ???? ??????? ??e, ???? ??? e ?n??? ????a ?????e
???i-????th???, ????-?th???i e ????o ??? ????. A? ?????? ???? ???? ???a
????? ?????? ???i.

I??y??a ????o ?yu ? ?????e. Aa ?o???e ?? ???? ??? ??? — ??????, ? ???o
???ath?y ?y??a ??? — ?????, a ????? ?? ????? ?? ?y?.

E??ay ??ue. I????y ? ??? ????? ??????i ????, ??iy?? ? ???i e ????i ????,
?????i ??????? n?e, ?i ??? ? ???e.

A ???e ??e ??iy?i ????? ????ea e ????a ??e. O???a???a ???? ???e ??e ??o
?iy?ny n ????i, a ?????e ? ???y, ???? ?y????e, ?e ????e ?y????e y?????
??c e ?????. E????a? ???a ???e o?? ???? ???? ????uo (os — ?n?); ?e
?y?yth?y ? ???????o ????? ?e ?????e ????a. I??????a ???? ?????? ???i
???i ?ey? ???y, ???th?? ?i?? ????ey, ??ath?a ??e ????ue. I?????a ????
??e — ??? — ??? ??ue ??? e y????e. N???? y?o ???a n??? ? ????ue e ????,
???y ????? ?y ???e ??e. A i?????i ???? ???e ??e ????ath?y ???a, ???? ??u
???e, ????? ???? ???o ????. I? ???yth?y ???? ?????. A ???e ??e ?????y ?e
?? ???: ?????u, ????u e ?????u.

I????? — ???, ???th?a ???th ??ue. A???th?y a ??? ????ey e ??????ey ???e
??e. A ???ath??y ??e ? ??ue ??i.

I???? ???th?y ? ?????? e ?atho ????e. O?a ????? ??o a ???o ???yo, a ????
??aeyo a ?n?? ????. N??? ???o ????a ???o ???y ?y ??? ?u?? ??o ?????e e
???? ????th.

I????? — y? ???a ??iy??? ??? n ?????. I? ???atho ???a a ????? ??e e
???????ai ?y? n ?????? ??u ?e ???.

????tho ?a ?? ???e ??e — ???????oth e ?????oth. E ?e ??nyo ??a e ???
??a.

A ???????? ???e ??e ?????? ???a ???tho ??? ???? ??e, ??o ???? a ???o
???yo ??o ????u. O ???? y? ??ue ?????y ?? a ???? ???ey ??? o ????, a o
???? — a ?? ??? e o ?? ?????ey e ??yi ????e.

I?????y, ?e ???????ay, ???y ??ue ???? ?????? ???a, ??????a ??????e ???e
??? ????e ?e ??o ??. I?????y ???y ??ue ???? ?a ??e ???a ????.

Ae??i ? ??o ???o ???. O?a ??? ??o a? ???a, a ? ???? ???yo a ????o ???
??. Y? ??? ?i??atho ?????u e ???th?y ???????.

E??. I?????y ???y ??ue ???? ????? e ???? ???a ????, ?i ???ey? ??ue. A
????? ???i ???? ???a ????e ????ath?y a ?????? ??y?a e ??atho ???? ???th
????ue. A ???? ???? ???i? ??? ??e ???tho ?????u ??? ??u, ????ath??y a
?????e ? ???e ??e.

Ec ?????i ???? ???o ???i ???i ??iyy ??ue ???o ????o ??? (??, ?e ???), a
???? ???? ???? ? ??u, ?e y???, a ??a ???? ??e; a ???o ??yo ???y ? e ???
????.

A ????? ???i ???? ???a ????e ???tho ?????? ????a ???u — ???u. I??i
y?y?ny ?????e ???? ??e. E??? ????e ??????? ?????u ??? ?????o ???a; ??? ?
5—20 ???? 3—7 ?i. O?ay ?????y ???o ??e ??oth ????ue. I??? a ??? ???a, a
???e ???? ??ae, ????ny ?????i ???i ???a (???? ??e). E??u ???yth?y ?? n
???, a ??? — ??o ??e, n ???? ???? ??a, ??????? ??? ??e, e n ???? ?????u.
I?? ????e ???a ????e ?? a ??? ?????yo e ?nyo ??a?a ?????, ?e ??????o.
N??? e ???e ??e ????e ?n???th?y ???????. E??u, ? ???i ?i?aeyo ??? ?
?????u a ??ue, ???th?y ??????. I????? n ??ueth ???ytho ?????? ???a, ????
???th?y ???ath??, ?e ??????, ????e.

N??? ??ue ???a ?????? (???o). I? n??? ? ?? ??a ??????? ??e. A????e ??
???? ?i? ?????? e y?????o ???i, a ??a ?????u e ????n?. A ??? ??a e
?????u ?????u ???atho ???a a ???a????e. I???e ?? ???? ? ??a ???e ???????
??e, e ?? ????yth?y ?y?e e ????y ??. I????? ???? ???a ????? ???a e ???.

Y???i ????ny ????, ???ath?y ??ue ? ???u ???????i ???. I? ?????yo e ????o
??e ????? ? ????a??a (?????y) ? ?? ?????u, ???y, ????y? ?ae ??? ????,
???y? ??u ????e ??e, ???y ??? ?o ??o ? e??? ??e, ????oth ???? ???e ???.

4. I???y ??ue

Ae?????a ???? a ????a ???? e ?a??? ?????u ?????i ???? ??e, ???th?e
?????ue?? ?????e. E ???? ??e ??nyo ??????th (???th) e ?/???oth
(????????oth) ???oth ??ue, ?eth?th?th ????th e ????th. N??????? y????e
y?yth?y ???? ???? — ?i???? (???? ??). Ia y????? ???????yo a ???a ?????
???atho ??a ??? ??????u ?e ?????? ??? o???. N????a ????o ?? ??? ? ??e
?????a ?? a ?i????a, ??????o ???? ?i ???; ????? ??????e ???? ??e ???? e
????th ??? ???a, ??y??th ? ??? e o. ae. Iay????i ???? ??? ?? y?y?ny ?
?????? e ???i y????, a ????? ?? ?e ????? ???? ??e ?e ?e?aeyo a ????.

I?????ay (???y) ???ay ??ue ??o ????a ????. I???y ??? — ??? — ???????ay,
n ???a??e ???e. A ?e ?? y?i, ????? (?????a), ????u e ??i?a (?????).
N??????a ?????u ????ath?y ? ????e ??? ??ue ? ?e. I??? ??? ???? ?? e ??o.
Ii??i ????i a ???e ???? ??e y?yth?y ??? ?????? e y?????a ???a, ??????a
??? ??? e ?y??th?a ? ??o ??e.

I?????ay ???ay ??ue ?????y ???? e ???? ????i ????ny a ??iy?e ????ey,
???eyy ?????? ??a ???n?i y??? e ? ?i?yy?. O?? ?i ??????? ?y????e ????ny
?????. A??ay ???ay ??ue a ???a ? ????e ? ???y?ny ???eth. Yo? ?ae ??e ???
a ??? ??? ????o ????? ???a (???e, ????, ???e ???, ??a e ?.), ?????o ???a
e ??.

E????? ???? ???a ????eytho ??e ?oy??a ??????? ?????y n ????e ?e ??????
?i??, ???? ???a ???? ?? e ??o ?e ???th?y a ??????oth ??ue ????e e ???. O
???? ??a ???a ?atho ??o ? ????? ?????a ? 10 ? e ???, ???? ? 12—70 ?i.
N??????i ????i ? y?yth?y ????????? ?????u, ???a ???tho ??e ????oe, ??? ?
??? ? ???i ??a ????i ???a. I????y ??????ue ????? ?uy?y?ny ?????? ???ia n
???e ???-?????e e ?????e ?????. I????a ?a?? ????? ????ath?y a ???a ? ??i
e ?i ? ???, ?i ?o????? ????oth ??????ue ??i ???a. N ???th y???i?? ?????
?????i, ?i a ??? ????? ??yo ????a a???? — ?????? (??????u). I???a ???a
???? ?e?? ????? y?? (? ????? ?ny?? ? ??? ??i), ????u, ???a n ?????y? ???
???, ?????o e ???u ????i?. N???? ??u ??? ??????? ??ueth, ???y ???? ??oth
?? ??o ????e ????e — y????.

E????ay ???ay ??ue ???? ????a ??u, ??u ?a, ???, ???? ???? e ?yae ??? ??.
A ??? ??e? y? ??ue ??o ?? ?????e. A??ay ??ue ???? ???i ????o ?? ????
???e ????th ????ey e ???e ??ey???th. Y?o ?i ??????? ?y????e ????ny
??????. E????ay ???ay ??ue ?????y ?????i a ??o ? ????, ??? ? ?? ????e
???? ??a. I??i ??ue ?? (?????a, ????a e ?.), ??a ??, ?????y ?c ???y
???ey ?ae ?ey?? e???? ? ?????? ???, a ??u ??? e ???? ???ath?y i??????.

I??ay ??????ay ??ue, ???ath?y ??o ???e, ??o ???? ????i ????y. I? ????o a
??ue ??u e ???? ??o ???e ???? ???i. Y? ?????e ????e. A ?i ??i??? ??? e
??u. Nay? ?? n ????y? ????ey?ny ? ?? ?????? ???i, ???th?o ???ia ???i e
?????o n ??i???.

N???ay ?????y ???ay ??ue ???? ???oth ???? ??? — ???ae. I? ????? ?????
????e ???? — ???????e. N ???th ????? ??? y? ??? ?a?iyth?y a ???? ????u,
?e ????a ???? ???a. O?ay ?n?? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?e ???i ???. A????
??????u ???tho ???y?th ???o ???.

E????ay (????????ay) ???ay ??ue ?????y ? ????u. E??e, ? ???o ???ath?y
???? ??e?, ???th?y ?????e. A ?????? ???yo ???ay ??ue ??o ????????y, ???,
?? ????y?? ???y ????otho, ???ay ??ue ????ny ??????? ??ueth, ???th?e
??oe.

5. I??ay ??ue

I??ay ??ue y?y?ny ???? ?????i ???e ???u. I? ???o ? ???o ??? e ??? ????e.
I??? ??? ???? ?ae ????i ?????y ????ue a ??iy?a ???ae?ey, ?????? ???? e
????? ?. Y? ???? ???eytho ?a????oth ???th ???e ???u. I???ey ?????e ?y??
n ???? ???? e ????ey? ?????th, ?????th, ???oth ??oe? e ???th ??u.

I??? ??? — ???u, ?e ????u, ????eytho ??e ?????a ???. ???? ?? ???a
???th?y a ?????? ???? (? 3—4 ? 130 ?i). Ii ??a ???a ??? ??a ??ue ??ua.
I???e ???o ??? ???yo ???e ???n ? ??e ??e ?? ???? a ??oth, ??a ????a ?
????? ??? ? 1,0—1,5 i.

????tho ?a ?? ????a ???e ???. I?i?? ???i ?? ???yo ???? ? ?? ???e ??? e
??? ???i ?e ??yi ???o ???a, ?e ???th?y ????e, ?e ????. I??ay ??? ??o ???
??? ?? ??i, ???e ??????y ?i??i ????i ? ??? ???a ?e a ??a, ???. I???e
???i a?a ???th?y ?????, ?e ????? ??y?y. Eo ????? o ??? ???? ????. Y?
???? ???yo ???a ???? e ?? ???e ???. Ae???u ??????? ???? ?atho ? ???????
e?? ?????a ?????th?a ???? — ??????? ???a ????y, ?e ????u.

Ii ????? ????a ???u ?ey?y ? ??ey?? (???eth??) — n ae?iy ?????, ????ey??
(????th??) — n ?????e ?????. I?? ??eytho ??????y?? (??? ???eth??) ???u,
??? e ???o ???o ???th?y ? ??? ???a ?? ??? n ???oth?i O-???? ????. O?ay
??a ????? ?y ??????? ?????.

I??ay ??? ??o ?? y?i, ????? 2—3 y???. Oe????a ????, ??? ????, ?????o ?y
eth?o ???, ???? ??????? ???? (???? I?ney) e ??????y?? ???o. O??????a
a???i ????ey? ??e ?????ue, ???th?th a ?? ??? e ????o ? ??i ?????ua ???,
????th??y ????e ????y?. I? ?iy?ny a ?????e ? ???????i ??iy?y ???. A
???yo ????y??y, ?a?u (????a ????a, ?????, ?????a ????a e ?.) ???
???ath?y e ???tho. Y?o ???n ???e ???? ?????a, o. a. ?????ey.

Ae??i ?????i ?i???? ????? ???o ??? y?ythony O??a ?? – ??????u. A ??n??
?e ??o ??ue ???i ?????i ?? ??o, a ?? ??? ???tho ??.

I???ey ?????? ???? ????e ??u e ????, ???a ?ey?y ? ?a ???: ????th (????)
e ????th (????a ????e). N??e ????a ???atho y?????u, ????u e ???????u.
Y?????u ???atho ??????? ??e e ????e ????i ??a. A???? ???tho ???e ???o
?????e ???e ???u. I??????? ???tho ?? ???? a ?????e e ??????? ???e ???a,
???tho ???? ???o ???i e ??yo a ??? ???o ????e. E??e ????e ???? e ????
???????.

I???e ????e ???th?y ???? ???o e??e (??? ????), ???? ?????. I???a ???o
???i (i????a) ????? ?a??e, ???a ???thony ???????? (?????a ???). A ?????e
? ???ey ???? ???atho ??????a (??y???) e ????? (iy???) ???a ???a. A??????
???a ???a ?????oth?y ?i, ?i ????u a ?o ??o ??? ?? e ??o e ???tho oy?
?????u. A ??e ???? ????ath?y ?? ?e ????i ??uo ????a. I????a ???a ???a
?atho ??a ???th. ????, a???iyy ??ue ???e ???? ???. I? ????a ???? ????
???????o ????? ????ay ???? ?????ny a ??i-????? ??. Ia ??ae???i ???y?e a
????? ???a ?????u ??a ??a ??e — ???e ???a e ???y — ?? ???? ???a (????u
???a). I? ?????otho ???? ?????. I????a ???a ??a ??????o, ? ???? 1-20 ?i.

I?? ????? e ??????o ???o ???i, ???? ?????????? ????e, ???tho ???a ???,
?e ??u. N?????????y ???? ??a ????ny y????i. I? ????o a ??o ??a e ????o
??e ???o ???i (?????) e ????a ???a (y?????). A y???? ????ath?y ?????a e
??????a ???, ???? ???yo a ????? e y?i???.

I???? ???o ???i ???? ?????th i??????? ???? ???? ???a, ?e ???e ? ?????y
ia ???e ????e ????. Ia ??a ????e ????o ??????ay ???y e ????ny ??oe, ??c
???e a ????? ???? ?????a ?????o ???? ???o ???i ?e ?????e (???????) ??a.
?????ey ???? ???a ????ny n ?????? ?????y ????? e ?????y ? ?o ?????? ?io,
???ath?o a ???oth ??ue. I??a ???? ?????o ????a i??otho ? ??? ????y — ??u
??a e ???tho a ???oth ??ue e ??u ?????. I??????e ?? ??? ? ????th 1—4
?/n?.

Ia??a ???a ????ath?y ????e ?????— ???? ????y?. Ii ???e ???atho ?e ???
???o ????e: ???????, ?e ????u, ?????? e ?????a, ?e y????, e ????y ? ???
???? — ???????a ???u.

*??????a ???a ????y (????u) ????? ????e, ?????ey? ????a ??????? ????. I?
?n???atho ?????y ec ???e ??u (y???????u) e ? ????? ???a (???????u).
????tho ????a i??? ????y, ??iy?a ??? ? ????i ????y ???? ???? ???, e
?????a, an? a ?????e ???? ????y ???atho ???a y?i?? ????e. I????? ???a
????y ??o ?? ???u ??e???????e ????. O?? ????y ???th?y ???????ie: ????,
??????i ??? (??? O??a—I??e). ????? ?a??? ?? ???th?y ???-????e ?????. I?
??iyo ? ???o ???i, ??y??y ? ?????e ????i ???a a ?? ???e.

Y???? ??tho ?? ??a — ?????? e ?e????. Ae?????a (????) ???a ????y y?yth?y
????e ?????ey? ???? ?????? ??? a ???? ??e e ???th?y ???-????e ????y?.
N????? ????y a ???o ???otho ???-????? ????y. I???? ?aeu i??uo ????e
???a?ytho ??e ???-???? ???.

Nay? ??o ???? ???? ????ey?ny ?e ??? ????. I? ????? ????e ????y? ???a ??e
??? ? ??, ????o ?e ???o ???. A ???a ???e ???n ?i??o ??? a ??i ?????e (n
???a ? ?? ?e ???? ??? e??e). A ????o ???o ???e ???u ?e ???? ?-???o.

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