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?a??o

«*??»

E?? ?e?u a ?????? ???eytho ??i (cranium). Ca ??th??? ??? ?eth?e, ??e ???
??ii ????u ??o ??e ??e. I? ???tho ????? ?y ????i ?c? e ????o ???a ???
(??ey, ??a, ??y?y). E?? ??, ??e /??a y?yth?y ??? ?y ????o ???a ?????e
(???ue ??) e ???????e (??? ???e ?a) ???.

A ?y? n y?i ??i ??y? ??? ? ?a ??? — ??e ??? e ??e ??. E?? ??? (???? ??i)
???eytho ?a ??? ??e — ???ay e ???ay e ??? ????: ??ay, ????ay, e????ay e
????ay. E ??yi ?? ??ny?y ??ue ??? ???: ??iyy ?eth?ue, ???y, ???y, ???ay
e ??ay ??e, a ??a ??yy ???y ???? e ?a ???? — ??yy ?eth?ue e ???. Nth? ?
??nyo ??y??oth ??ue.

A????? ??? ??? ???? ???, a ?o i???? ????e e ???a, ??c ???a ???yo ?????a
??aeu e ??u. I???? ??e ?atho ??? ???e — ??? (???) ?e y?e?, ?????a ????.
O?? ??? ???o ? ???ey ????i ??a e ?????? ????. O ???? a ???a ? ???? ????
??i ?????i ?????o ?ae ???i.

1. E?? ???

C????y ??ue (os occipitale) ??o ??o ???e ??. Aa ??e ?????tho ???a
(?????) ????a, ???yth?a ???ue ??? n ?????i ???i. E??? ? y?? ????y ????y
???ay (??ey?ay) ??ue ????? ??e, ???y, ???y? n ??i ?????e ??e, ???? ??.

A??? ??e ????? ??e ???? a ?? ?u??a n y??????e ????? ?????y? ?y ????ey n
????. I???? ???i ???a ?????o ??e ??y???i ??a.

O??ay ???ay ????ay ??y ??o ? ???? ?????e ???? ????? ???, a ? ?????
(????) — ????? ????? ??? e ??????? ?????.

E????ay ??ue (os sphenoidale) ?????a ??o ????? e ??? ??y?, a ????e /??a.
I? ???o ? ?? e ?? ??? ????a: ???o ???a, ??o ???a e ?????o ????a. A??yy
?????ue ?? ???? a ?? ?e ?????i ????i ??a n ?????i ?y ????e ??? a????e
???? — ????.

A?????ay ???ue ??? ?? ????ny ?e???? ???e, ???e ?a ????ny n ???e ???ueth.
I?? ??o? e ??i ??uey? ????ny ??iyy ????ay ??, ???y a ????. O?a ? ?????y
????? ??e, ???y?e a ????e ??? ??a. A ????e ???? ??a (a ?????e ???e ??ae)
?????u ???a, ???? e ???? ????y. I?????a ?? ????i? ???? ??iyo ? ?????e e
????? ????e.

A???y ??ue (os temporale) — ??y ???y ? ??? ???. A??e ??e ????? ??i ??a e
????ey. *?? ?a ???yo ???a ???, a ?i ??a ??e ???ai ??a e ??e ????? ???
???e, a ??a ??iay ??ue ??? ???? ??u.

A???y ??ue ???o ? ?? ???:

ue ?????;

ue ?????;

ue ?????.

Ia ???e ?????e ??e ????y ????a ????i ????i ???a, ??e ? ?? ????? ?????e
????, a ???e — ????th??y y?a e ????e ???e.

A??o ????y ??y, ? ? ???? ?????e ???o ??? ???? ????, ???e, ???yy? ? ????
??ueth, ???? ???oth ??.

A????y ??ue a ?? ????e ????e ??i???o ???? ???? ??? ??o e ???e.

E????y ??ue (????) ????? ? ??a ?????th ????, a ?e ??eytho ???thth,
??thth e ??thth ?????e.

Ia ??? ?????e ????y ????a ?????i ????i ???a, ??c ???a ???yo ???e e
?????-????e ??u. *?? ???e ?????e ???? ???? ??o ??a??e ???e. Io ???
?????e ???? ???o ???e ????? ????. E?? ? ?? ?????i ???????a ????a, ??c
???a ???o ???e ??.

A ??a ????? ??e ??aey?y ????ay ?e?? e ???e ????. A????y ???ue ???y?ny n
??????? y???e e ???e ?????? ????, a ??a n ???ueth ????? ??c ??e ????
??u.

O???y ??ue (os parietale) — ???????y ???ay ???y ????a n ??a???e, ?
??th??? ???i, ?ay?. Ia ???? ?????e ???a? ???? ???.

E??y ??ue (os frontale) ???o ? ??? ??e, ???o ????? ??? e ???e ??e. N??a
e ??a ? ??a ?ath?y ??? ??u, a ?? ? — ????? ??. I? ?????e ??? ??ay ??ue
????o a ??? ??????e ??. A???a e ??a ??? ??o???? e??e ??? ??o ?????ue.

?????y ??ue (os ethmoidale) ??o a ???a ??? e ????o ???a a ?????e ?a?e
???e ???e e ???oe. E?? ???o ? ????? ????e, ? ???e ?????i ?? ???o
?????ey?ay ????a. I???yy ??? a ??? ?????e ???e ???e.

Ii ???? ? ?????ey?? ????e ??aey?y ????? ????u, ??iy?a ? ??????o ?????
y??, ???th ???o ??ue ?y?? ??i ????i. E???? n ???? ?i?? (??? e ??a) ????
???e ?????e ?????e, ???thu?e ???th ??ue ????? ??? ???oe.

N ????? ???u, ????? e ?????ey?? – ????a, y??e ???th?y n ???e ???ueth. N
????? ?????e ????? a ???th ???ue ??atho ??? ????a ???a ????e — ??iyy e
??iyy ???a ????.

2. E?? ??

I?iyy ???y ???? — ???iy???y ??ay ????y ???y ????a, ???o a ???ue ?? n
???e ?i ??? ?? ????o ???e e ?a?? ???o ???i. N??ay ??ue (os lacrimale) —
????y ??ue, ???i??ay ? ????? ??? ????; ??o ???th ???o e ???ue. O???? a
?????e ?????? ??? e y?e ???? ??a.

I??ay ??ue (os nasale) ??o ??o ?oy??e a ??o ???????e ????e. I??y e ??y
???a ??e ???tho ???th ??? ??? ??.

N??e (vomer) ????? ? ??a ??o ??a, ????o ???a a ???a?? ???e ?????e ???e
???e.

A??yy ?eth?ue (maxilla) ???o ? ?? e ???o ????a. A ?? ??eytho ??? ?????e:
???thth, ?????th (??thth), ????oth e ???th.

Ia ???? ?????e ???y ????? — ?u??y y?a, a ??a ??????a ????a; ? ?????e —
??? ???? ?eth?e, a ? ???e — ???e ?? a ??????th ??? ???e ?eth?e. A???y??
???? ??o y??e (??? ????) ?y ??? ???o ??a, ??? ???? ????o a ?????e ????
??, ??? e ???? ???? ???yth?y n ?????? ??y?.

I??y ??ue (os palatinum) ???o ? ?? ???o ????e, ??????o ?ae ?y?i ??i:
?????ey??, ??y?e a ??? ???e ??? ???e ???e, e ???????, ???th?e ??thth
??ue ???? ??.

N???y ??ue (os zygomaticum) ??? ????e ??????o ??? e ??o ??. E?? ?????th,
???oth, ????oth ?????e, a ??a ??? e ???? i???e; ????e ????o a ?????e
???? ??.

I?iyy ?eth?ue (mandibula) — ?????ay ????y ??ue ???. N??? ? ?? e ??aey?o
? ?ai ?ae ??i ??i ??? ?o?e. N???, ? ????e ??, ???y ??????e ???, a ? ????
? ?? — ? ??????? ???o e ??????? ????th. Ia ????? ?????e ?? ???a ??????y
?? e ?eth??-??y??ay ??y.

E??y ??ue ??? ??????y ???? — ?i??i e ??? — ????? ?????. I???? ? ?????
?????e ??e ??o a ??e ??? ?eth?e.

I?uy??ay ??ue (os hyoideum) ?????ay, ???o ? ?? e ?? ?? ??a — ???o e ??o.

3. N????a ??? ???

E?? ???a ???yth?y ?e ??? ??. E?? ??, ???ay ?? e ??o ???e ?ay?, ???tho
???a ?u, ????ay ??ue ???? ??e ???ya?y n ???? ??ueth ????? ??; ?a ????a
??e ??e ??? ???yth?y ?????i ???? ??.

E ???? ?? ??ny?y ???? ?a (??o ??? e ????e ??y?), ?????? (? ???e ??e ??o
??y ??i?? ??y?) e ?????? (??o ????? e ????e ??y?). O ????o e ???? o ????
?????i ?? ??????.

A???-????th??e ??? (articulatio temporo-mandibularis) ??ue, ???????e, ?
??a ?????. I???? ???? ?????i ???? ??? ?eth?e e ????e yi?e ???? ??e. A??e
???a ???y ????e ??. N???ay ?i? o??ey?ny ?????e ?y??.

A ???a ???? ????a e ????? ??? /?th?e (????? e ????? ?a), ???a ???ey ???
e ??i, ?a??a ?eth?e ??? e ??ae. A? y? ???ey ????yo ?e ?? ??iey, ?e ?y??
??a n ???????e ??th.

4. *?? ?e ??a

A???iyy ?????ue ??? ???, ????ay e ????o ??o, ????ny ???? ?????ueth. Ia
?e ???u ????y e ????ey, ???th?a ???o ????i ??a. C?? ??a ??? ???? ??a
???a ???a ???u, ??????ny a ?????a ????ey ???? ???a ???e ???? ????, e
?o????a ???u — ??u ?????y ???e.

Ia ???? ?????e ????o ??? ??u ????y ???? ?????a, ??c ?o ???? ??? ???e
???? ????i ??a e ??iy???? ?? ???th?y n ????e ??? ???. I???a ??iy?? ????
????? ??aey?y a ????ie e ???? ??yo, a ??a a ???e ?????? ???? ???? ???.

A ???? ??? ???atho ??ithth ??ue — ??, ?e ??o, e ??thth ??ue — ????a.

E?? ??? ???eytho ???? ??e, ??ay e c????y ??y, ????? ??e ???? ???, e ??ue
???o ??ue? ?????e ??e. E?? e ??e ???, ???th?a ?? ???, ??ny?y e ???i
?noyi ??????i ???ey.

I? ??iyo ? ?? ????e ?????i ???ai ????, ??o ???? ??????y ????e ?? ????i
???? (??iy). A???iyy, ????ay e ????o ??o ????a ????? ????e ????ny
??????. I? ??? ??? ??o ??thae??y ?????a ???? ??? y?e ????e, ?c ????y
????.

I???? ??? ??o ????thth e ???oth ?????e. A?e ??????? ???? ???ue ???ue
???, ? ??o a?? ????yy, ?e ???ay, ?????ue. Ia ?e ???atho ???thth, ??thth
e ??ithth ???? y?e.

A ?????e ???e ??ae ??u ??????ay (???y???y) ????a ????? ??e, ????a ???
?????i ??a, ??iyy ????ay ??, ???? ??i, n ?????i ?y ?i??a, ???a, ????,
???? e ??? ????y, ????a ???i?? ????i ???a ? ??? ?????e ???? ???? ??e,
y??? e ???a ????? ????y, ??e ??y???i ??a e ??ea ?????y.

Ia ???? ?????e ????y ??? ??aeyony ??u (????y, ???a a ???th ???ue),
?????a ???? ?e???? ??e, ???? ????a ???i ?i?a, ????? ???? e ???????a
????a, ?????e ????, ???e ????? ??e e ??? ?????y.

I? ?????? ??? ???e ??u ???e ?oo ???oe, a ??o ?? — ?? a ???ue ?? (?????y
????).

A???a (orbita) ??? ???i ?????i ?y ??? ??ey. E?? ?? e ??? ???: ??ithth,
??thth, ????oth e ?????th. A??yy ??ea ????? ????? ??ueth ??? ??e e ???
??uey? ?????e ??e, ??yy — ???? ??ueth e ???e ?eth?ueth, ???ay — ????
??ueth e a??? ??? ?????e ??e, ????yy — ???e ??ueth e ????? ????? ?????
??e.

A o?o ??o ??? e ?????e ???? ???ony ??yy ????ay u?ue, ???y a ?????-??oth
y?o. A??yy ????ay ?? e ????? ????a ???ath?y a ??ithth ???oth y?o. I?????
??e ??o a ???ue ??.

I??? ?? (cavitas nasi) ???? ?????a ????a a ???i ???, y?y?ny ????i ???i
?????o ??e, ???? ??i ??y?y. E?? ?? ???a (?????a) ????a e ?a ???? (??u).

E??ay ?????a ??o ???ue ?? ? ?a, ?ua ????, ????. I? ???o ? ???a e
?????ey?? ????e ????? ??e e y?y?ny ????? ???e ?y ??? ????.

I??e ???e ???e ?? y?y?ny ???a ??, a ???e — ???y ??ue ??? ??e e ????ay
????a ????? ??e.

A??ay ??? ????? ???e ??ueth, ???e ?eth?ueth, ???e ??ueth, ????? ?????
??e, ?????ey?ie ????? ??? ??e e ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????e ??e, ???y
?????? ??o ??o. Io ???e ??ee a ???ue ?? ?ath?y ? ?e ???a ????: ??iyy,
??iyy (???u ????a ????? ??e) e ??yy.

I? ??? ? ???i ????ny ???e ?ae. N?o????? ???atho ???e, ???e e ??? ???a
??, a ???a i???th?y ??? ??????o ???. A ???e ???e ?ae ???ath?y ??? ?????e
??e e ??? y??e ????? ??e, a ???e ???e ?ae — ??? ???e ?eth?e e ??? ??e, a
??a y??e ????? ??e, a a ??? ???e ?ae — ?????e ??e.

I??? ?a (cavitas oris). Aa ??ithth ???th ??? ???ey? ???a ??, ?????? ???e
????? ????eth??o ??? e ???????e ?????e ?a?o. N??? e n ??a ???th ??? ???e
?a ???tho ???ey?? ???? e ??.

Ia ???e ?????e ??? ???atho ??? yi?: ???oth, ?????th e ?????-??oth. A???e
??o ???? e ?????e y??e y?y?ny ???ay ??. O??eyy?, ?????y y?a ????o a
?????-??oth. I???yy ????ny n ???ueth ??? (???a ????a), n ????e (??yy
????ay ??), ???ueth ?? (e????i-??? ????a), a ??a n ???ueth ?a (???e ???
??e).

5. A????a e ???a ?????e ???

????a ?? ??? ???, ???i ??yi ???? e ?????e, ????ny n ?????? (??????????)
???. A ????? ??e e ??e e??e, ???eyth?a ????a ???, ???yo ?y??th e
??????th ???th ??? ???ey.

E?? ?? e ??e ??? ???yo ??? ?????oth e ???th ???, ??y ?y??th. I?????th
??? ??????o e ??e ???? ???? y?yth?y ???e ??????i ??? — ???? (fonticuli).

????tho ????: ????, ??? e ??? ???a — ?????e e ?????e. I???e ???? ??e
???e, ??o ??o ??a. A? ???? ??? ?? ???y ??o ???e ??y?, a ??? ??e ?? — ??o
????e. Ii ????th ????o ? ??? ?aeo ??e (o ????a ? 2 ?n. ???a).

I? ????? ???????i ???ey ???ie ????, a ?e ?????yo, ???th?o ??? ??????a
???c? (oy??a ????y ?????y ?e ????ey), ????. Ia ???? ???th?y ?????a
???ey. C????? ??? ? ???? ??ee ????, ???e ????o ??? ??a ???ey. A??? ????
o ????? ??????o ?? ????otho, a ?? ?ath?y, ? ???atho ? 2—3-? ?ny? ??e.

Ae??y ?????ue — ???a ?y??o ???? i?? ??y? ??? ????y ???. O ??????o ? ???u
??????a ???, ??u, ????, ?o ??a, ??i ???u ?eth?e. Y? ???ey? ??ueth
?????ue. A????a y?? ???e ??i ?? ??o?? ??? e ???ey? 1/8 ??i?? ??? (o
????i 1/4).

O? ??? ???oth?y e 3—5-? ?? ??e. ??o ???a ??????y e 25—30 ??i. ????a, ??
e ??a ??? ??aey?y a o??e ?????e ? ???ey ????i ??a.

I??? ??i a ?y? n ??? ???? ????e ?? ?????? ??? ????. AE??? ??i ???y?
????a /?? ???? ???, a ? ??? ???u ??a ????? ? ??u, ???a ?? ?????u ???i
??o ???o ???a. I??? ???ey ??? ???? ??????i ???ey ? ?atho.

N????a ????y ?????iyth?y ? ?? ??i: ????ath?y ???, ???? ???a ????, ??i
????ny e??i e ???i. Ia ??o ??? ??o ?ey? ?????? ???u.

A ???? ???? ?? ???????e ???ee, ?i ????a ???a ???? (? ????? ?????e I???)
??e ?????i ???a ???. I????, ?i ??a «????» ??? i????ue ??i ????y ? ??i
?????e ???e ?ay?e a ??e? ????.

Y?o ??? ?e ??? ??e a ?, ?i ????? ??o ???a ???? a ??a e ???atho a ?th.
E???? ???e ??????? e ??? I. I. I???-I??e ??th?e o ??? I?? A??e ???
?ay??? ??? ????, ??u ?? ??? ??? oy??e. A ??e??a ? ??? ??ey?? ????ay ???a
?e ?? ??????i a????ey.

A ?????yo ?????? ??? O??u ?? «i??? ???, ?oy??y a ???o ????? ??e. Y?
?????ue ?o??i ????e ?????o ?ay?e e ????.

Ia ??o ??? ?eytho ??a ????????? i?????. E??????a ???ey ??u e ???? ???
???o ?? ? ???? ?????? — ?????y.

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