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Aaaaeaiea

Ieeoi, ieeiaaea e ieaaea ia niiiaaaeny, /oi i?iaeaia noa?aiey auea e
inoaaony iaeiie ec iaeaieaa aeooaeueiuo a anoanoaiciaiee. Nicaeaiea
oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeaeae eco/aaiiai i?ioeanna – aaaeiaeoee yeaiaio
iiciaiey, iiyoiio aeaiiiio aii?ino oaeaeyaony oeaio?aeueiia aieiaiea a
ethaie nia?aiaiiie iaeanoe iaoee. Aa?iioieiaey – iia?aie/iay iaeanoue
aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeiu, eco/athuay i?ioeann noa?aiey. Iia ia?aaeeaaao
e?ecen, naycaiiue n oai, /oi noa?ua i?eioeeiu nicaeaiey eiioeaiooaeueiuo
iiaeaeae noa?aiey, naiaeeaoeany ii nouanoao e aaniethoecaoeee
ioaeaeueiuo iaaethaeaaiuo yaeaiee e /anoiuo iaoaieciia noa?aiey,
iioa?iaee e?ao. Ana oae iacuaaaiua oai?ee noa?aiey, eioi?uo ia ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ian/eouaatho aieaa noa, ieacaeenue ianinoiyoaeueiuie e ai iiiaii
i?aaenoaaeytho oieueei enoi?e/aneee eioa?an.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?yae /enoi iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeoiaeia e
iiaeaee?iaaieth noa?aiey ia ano?a/atho eioa?ana e i?eciaiey n?aaee
aeieiaia, oae eae aeaaea i?e naiii iiaa?oiinoiii eco/aiee aeaeiu
aeieiae/anee ia iainiiaaiiua e oaeoe/anee iaaa?iua ecia/aeueiua
i?aaeiinueee. Oae, iai?eia?, iiaeiua yeieiae/aneea e yaiethoeeiiiua
iaoaiaoe/aneea oai?ee noa?aiey, iniiaaiiua ia i?aaenoaaeaiee i
“oeaeaniia?aciinoe noa?aiey” eae iaoaiecia onei?aiiiai iaiiaeaiey aeaea,
eaii?e?otho i/aaeaeiue oaeo aunieie anoanoaaiiie nia?oiinoe a aeeeie
i?e?iaea, eiaaea noa?ua aeeaioiua oaeoe/anee ionoonoaotho a iiioeyoeee e
i?aeoe/anee ana aeeaioiua oie?atho iieiaeuie.

A oi aea a?aiy, nouanoaoao ianoiyoaeueiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue a /aoeii iauai
acaeyaea ia yaeaiea noa?aiey a oeaeii e a iiaeaeyo, iicaieythueo
eiee/anoaaiii e niaea?aeaoaeueii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue noa?aiea i?aaieciia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaaeiaeoei i?aaenoaaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaiay
?ac?aaioea nouiinoiuo iiaeaeae noa?aiey, io?aaeathueo naii nouanoai
yoiai iauaai aeey anaai aeeaiai yaeaiey e yaeythueony aeieiae/anee
iainiiaaiiuie e aeieiae/anee niaea?aeaoaeueiuie.

1. Iniiaiay /anoue

Noa?inoue eee noa?aiea – iaecaaaeiue i?ioeann, nouiinoue eioi?iai
naiaeeony e iiyaeaieth i?eciaeia onoaeinoe eae ioaeaeueiuo i?aaiia e
oeaiae, oae e i?aaiecia a oeaeii. Noa?inoue – caeeth/eoaeueiue yoai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey i?aaiecia a iaoai ie?a. Ia/aeii a? o
/aeiaaea oneiaii n/eoatho aic?ano iinea 75 eao — yoi oae iacuaaaiay
oeceieiae/aneay noa?inoue. Ii e i?e yoii ninoiyiee iiaoo nio?aiyoueny
oinoaaiiua e oece/aneea neeu, ii?aaeaeaiiay ?aaioiniiniaiinoue,
iauanoaaiiay eee nioeeaeueiay aeoeaiinoue e eioa?an e ie?oaeathuaio
ie?o. I?ioeann noa?aiey ia/eiaaony a ?aciuo i?aaiao e oeaiyo ia
iaeiia?aiaiii e i?ioaeaao n ?aciie eioaineaiinoueth. Ai iiiaii
eioaineaiinoue noa?aiey caaeneo io a?iaeaeaiiuo, aaiaoe/anee
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo naienoa oeaiae.

Ecaanoiu iiiaea naiuee, /eaiu eioi?uo ioee/athony caaeaeiui
aeieaieaoeai, ia i?iyaeyy i?eciaeia ia?ooaiey iaiyoe, ineoeee eee
oece/aneie aeoeaiinoe aei 80 — 90 e aieaa eao. E iaiai?io, anoue
ei?ioeiaeeaouea naiuee, /eaiu eioi?uo aeeaoo 35 — 55 eao.

Ieacaeinue, /oi i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea
iai?yioth caaeneo io a?iaeaeaiiie aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioa
noia?ieneaeaeeniooacu (NIAe). E niaeaeaieth, aeoeaiinoue yoiai oa?iaioa
ia iiaeaea?ony ?aaoee?iaaieth ecaia, iineieueeo aaiaoe/anee
cai?ia?aiie?iaaia. Iaeiaei ia aeieth NIAe i?eoiaeeony oieueei 70 %
?aaiou ii iaaca?aaeeaaieth iianiuo eenei?iaeiuo ?aaeeeaeia.

Inoaeueiua 30 % i?eoiaeyony ia oae iacuaaaiua aioeieneaeaiou, o?iaaiue
niaea?aeaiey eioi?uo iiaeii ?aaoee?iaaoue n iiiiuueth aeieiae/anee
aeoeaiuo i?aia?aoia. E iei ioiinyony aeoaieiu A, aaoa-ea?ioei,
iee?iyeaiaiou oeeie e naeai e ae?oaea.

Aeiaaaeyy yoe eiiiiiaiou a iaoo ieuo, iu iiaeai eiio?iee?iaaoue
aeoeaiinoue 1/3 naiaiaeii-?aaeeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia, eeieoe?othueo
nei?inoue noa?aiey iaoaai i?aaiecia.

I/aiue aaaeii iiieiaiea caeiiiia?iinoae noa?aiey. N nia?aiaiiuo iiceoeee
anoanoaiciaiey — yoi iinoaiaiiia nieaeaiea i?eniiniaeoaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae i?aaiecia.

Iaeuecy oi/ii aeeaaiinoe?iaaoue ia/aei noa?aiey — iii ia/eiaaony ne?uoii
e cao?aaeaaao ia ana oaei, a iaeaieaa ?aieiue i?aai eee nenoaio.

E anee aia/aea eciaiaiey, aucaaiiua noa?aieai, i?aeoe/anee ia ia?ooatho
i?ioeanna i?eniiniaeaiey i?aaiecia e ?acei eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi
aeecie, oi aiineaaenoaee, i?e aieaa au?aaeaiiuo aic?anoiuo naeaeaao,
i?aaieci i?eniinaaeeaaaony e oaeei eniuoaieyi ana o?oaeiaa e o?oaeiaa.

A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?ioeann noa?aiey io?aaeaaony ia
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie e ia?aiie nenoaiao. Ioeiaeaiea oieanoa?eia a
ninoaeao a i?ioeanna noa?aiey i?eaiaeeo e iinoaiaiiiio oaanaieth
iieiioeaiiiai e?iainiaaaeaiey eeaoie ?acee/iuo i?aaiia e oeaiae
ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie e auaiaeo io?aaioaiiuo iaoaaieeoia (oeaeia) ec
eeaoie.

?aaioa i?aaiia ia?ooaaony. Ia/aiue ooaea i/euaao e?iaue io
aiaei?anoai?eiuo oieneiia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iaeeueiiio iiyaeaieth
ieaiaioiuo noa?/aneeo iyoai ia eiaea. Ii/ee iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii
oeeueo?otho e?iaue, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai a e?iae iaeaieeaaaony ii/aaay
eeneioa, inoaoi/iue acio e ae?oaea i?iiaaeooi/iua i?iaeoeou iaiaia,
iiauoaiiay eiioeaio?aoeey eioi?uo ia/eiaao oi?iiceoue ia?ae/iua iaiaiiua
i?ioeannu e oaiaoaoue eeaoi/iia aeuoaiea.

E iaeiieaieth oeaeia a i?aaiecia aanueia /oanoaeoaeueia ia?aiay nenoaia,
eioi?ay iio?aaeyao aieueoa anaai yia?aee e ioaeaeaaony a aania?aaieiii
?aaeeia iinoaaee eenei?iaea, aetheicu, eaeueoeey e ae?oaeo ieoaoaeueiuo
aauanoa.

O noa?uo ethaeae, aaeaeo oooaeoaiey aeoeaiinoe ia?aiuo i?ioeannia, a oie
eee eiie noaiaie nieaeathony eieoeeaoeaiinoue, ?aaioiniiniaiinoue,
aieiaiea, cao?oaeiyaony niiniaiinoue ia?aeeth/aoueny n iaeiiai aeaea
aeayoaeueiinoe ia ae?oaie, ?acaeaaaony yiioeeiiaeueiay ianoieeinoue,
ia?ooaaony nii.

Nouanoaaiiua naeaeae i?ienoiaeyo a noa?a ineoeee. I?e noa?aiee
ioia/aaony oooaeoaiea oa?aeoa?a, iiyaeaiea aeai?annee, /oanoaa
iaeeii/anoaa e o?aaiae, i?aneaaeotho iunee i iee/aiiinoe e
aanniuneaiiinoe aeecie, aicieeaao no?ao ia?aae aoaeouei, /anoi ethaee
noaiiayony /?acau/aeii neoiuie eee /a?noauie.

N aic?anoii iaiythony aiciiaeiinoe caueoiuo nee i?aaiecia, iaaeaao
aeoeaiinoue eiioiiie nenoaiu, caueuathuae i?aaieci io eioaeoeee, io
?aeiauo ia?a?iaeaeaiee eeaoie, niinianoaothuae auno?iio ainnoaiiaeaieth
iia?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaiia.

Anee noa?aiea i?aaiecia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaiciiaeii i?aaeioa?aoeoue,
oi a?aiy aai iiyaeaiey e nei?inoue ioaaoa anaai i?aaiecia iiaeii, a
ecaanoiuo i?aaeaeao, ?aaoee?iaaoue. Nia?aiaiiua o/aiua caaeaeenue
oeaeueth – i?aa?aoeoue noa?inoue ia a io/eoaeueiue, iieiue aieaciae e
no?aaeaiee, aeeeoaeueiue 20-25 eaoiee ia?eiae, a a e?aneaue io?acie
iaoaai iooe, iieiue aeeciaiiie ioae?inoe, iinayuaiiue aioeai e
i?aaioeai, naiaeiui aeaeai e iiieiaieth aeoaei auoey.

Eae i?ienoiaeeo noa?aiea?

Aiaoiyy noi?iia noa?aiey i?iyaeyaony ?aiueoa, /ai iu aeoiaai.

Ia?aue yoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony eciaiaieyie oa?aeoa?a /aeiaaea. Ie?oaeathuea
ia/eiatho ioia/aoue o iaai iaaieiaoaeueiinoue, iaaiciiaeiinoue
nin?aaeioi/eoueny, auno?oth ooiieyaiinoue io iiiioiiiuo aeaenoaee,
o?oaeiinoe n canuiaieai, iaiaeeaeaiiua yiioeeiiaeueiua niaaeu e
iiaeu?iu, ?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoue, ieaeneainoue e aa?anneaiinoue, ieioia
iano?iaiea, aeai?anneth, aanniiieoeo, iiyaeaiea aacio/aoiiai no?aoa,
?anno?ienoaa iaiyoe.

Aoi?ie yoai io?aaeaaony oaea ia naiie aiaoiinoe /aeiaaea. I?e yoii
eciaiyaony no?oeoo?a eiaee, aiein, iiaoae.

Ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey a eeaoeao eieeaaaia oooaeoaaony yeanoe/iinoue eiaee,
iiyaeyaony nooinoue e oaeooaiea a?, aicieeatho ii?ueiu, ieaiaioiua
iyoia, ?acae?aaeaiea. Eiaea enoii/aaony, oae eae ?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo
iiauie ?anooueie eeaoeaie eiaeiiai yieoaeey e ioie?athueie noa?uie
eeaoeaie ia?ooaii a noi?iio caiaaeeaiey ?inoa iiauo eeaoie e oaaee/aiey
niaea?aeaiey ioie?athueo eeaoie eiaee.

Iiaeiaiue i?ioeann i?ienoiaeeo e a aieinao. Ec-ca iaaeinoaoi/iiai
iinooieaiey ieia?aeia e aeoaieiia a i?aaieci aieinu eciaiytho naith
no?oeoo?o, noaiiayony eiieeie, oiieeie, ooneeuie, iaiytho oeaao —
iiyaeyaony naaeeia. O ioae/ei /anoi ioia/aaony iaeunaiea, o aeaiuei —
?aaeeee ?ino aiein, na/aiea aiein.

O?aoee yoai – noa?aiey naycai n eciaiaieai oeao?u. O iiiaeo ethaeae
iiyaeyaony ia oa?aeoa?iay aeey ieo iieiioa, en/acaao oaeey,
oaaee/eaaaony ianna aee?iaie oeaie. E anee au iii neacuaaeinue oieueei
ia oooaeoaiee oeao?u. Iaee?aiea aea?o ciae, /oi i?ioeann noa?aiey iaa?ae
nei?inoue.

I?e yoii a i?aaiecia i?ienoiaeeo iiiaeanoai iaaaoeaiuo eciaiaiee,
ia?ooaaony aeayoaeueiinoue aaniethoii anao i?aaiia e nenoai, a oii /enea
e a einoiie oeaie, iniaaiii a iicaiii/ieea, eioi?ue ia iiaeao
auaea?aeaoue oaeiai aana e ia/eiaao aeaoi?ie?iaaoueny.

N aeaoi?iaoeeae iicaiii/ieea ia?ooaaony i?aaeeueiay ?aaioa anaai
i?aaiecia. Aio oiaaea-oi e aunooiatho ia noeaio ana oa?aeoa?iua aieacie
noa?inoe.

Ii ia aeoiaeoa, /oi noa?inoue ii?aaeaeyaony ianii?oiui aic?anoii,
ianii?oiua o?eaeoeaoue eao — anaai eeoue neaiae, /oi oaia?ue iaiaoiaeeii
ia naay ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea. Iaeioi?ua ethaee caia/atho i?eciaee
noa?aiey iinea aeaaaeoeaoe iyoe eao, a ae?oaea — iinea ni?iea iyoe.

Ii iiaieth iiiaeo o/aiiuo iniiaiay i?e/eia noa?aiey (aeaaaia?aoeee
i?aaiecia) iaoiaeeony a aeoaeia aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea eeaoee — AeIE.
Nooue yoie oai?ee ninoieo a oii, /oi iia?aaeaeaiey AeIE eeaoie,
aucaaiiua i?ioeannii ieeneaiey, n aic?anoii iaeaieeaathony. Yoi
i?eaiaeeo e ?acaeoeth aeaaaia?aoeaiuo aieaciae noa?aiey: ?aea, eiioiiuo
ia?ooaiee, na?aea/iininoaeenoie iaoieiaee, aeenooieoeee iicaa e ia?aiie
nenoaiu, oinoaaiiie aeaa?aaeaoeee, i?eia?aoaiiiai naoa?iiai aeeaaaoa,
a?o?eoa.

2. Oai?aoe/aneea iiaeaee noa?aiey

Iauay iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue noa?aiey A. Aiiia?oea

Ia?aay iniciaiiay /aoeay iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue noa?aiey auea nicaeaia
ieiei 200 eao oiio iacaae A. Aiiia?oeii (1825). Iia aei neo ii? iaeaieaa
oi/ii iienuaaao nia?oiinoue /aeiaaea e, aeaeeii, aieueoeinoaa ae?oaeo
i?aaieciia. A iniiao aa auei iieiaeaii i/aiue ae?aaiaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i
iioa?a a oa/aiea aeecie iauae AEECIANIINIAIINOE i?aaiecia – o/aiea i
“aeeciaiiie neea” (“yioaeaoee” A?enoioaey), eioi?ay eiaao oaiaeaioeeth
oieueei ?ano?a/eaaoueny ni a?aiaiai aeey ethaiai ?iaeeaoaainy i?aaiecia.

Nia?oiinoue, eae eiee/anoaaiioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo “ianiiniaiinoe
i?ioeainoiyoue ?ac?ooaieth”, Aiiia?oe ?anniao?eaae eae aaee/eio,
ia?aoioth aeecianiiniaiinoe – niiniaiinoe i?ioeainoiyoue anae
niaieoiiinoe ?ac?ooeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia. Ii i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi ai
a?aiaie aeecianiiniaiinoue nieaeaaony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ae naiie a
eaaeaeue iiiaio, /oi aeey nia?oiinoe niioaaonoaoao yeniiiaioeeaeueiiio
ia?anoaieth n aic?anoii.

Aiiia?oe ioia/ae noiaenoai e?eauo eciaiaiey nia?oiinoe e yio?iiee, a
A.Ia?en (1932) ienae, /oi “ianiiniaiinoue i?ioeainoiyoue ?ac?ooaieth
eiaao oo aea i?e?iaeo, /oi e ?annayiea yia?aee” (oi anoue, noa?aiea
yeaeaaeaioii oaaee/aieth yio?iiee, eioi?ay neoaeeo ia?ie
iaoii?yaei/aiiinoe ethaie nenoaiu). A.Eiioi?o a “Aeieiaee noa?aiey”
(1967) ieoao i oii, /oi “aeeciaiiinoue” ia nia?aiaiiii o?iaia iiieiaiey
iiaeao auoue naaaeaia e aeinoaoi/ii eiie?aoiiio, oioy e ia aauanoaaiiiio
noano?aoo – “a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaenoaaeyaony aiieia aa?iyoiui, /oi
eioi?iaoeey, niaea?aeauayny a eeaoeao, e anoue… “aeieiae/aneay
yia?aey”.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaea?aeaoaeueiay eioa?i?aoaoeey iiiyoey
“aeecianiiniaiinoe” n naiiai ia/aea naiaeeeanue e naiaeeony a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ia noieueei e aauanoaaiiiio iaiieiaieth (“yioaeaoey” ae?aaieo),
neieueei e yia?aaoe/aneiio e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio niaea?aeaieth.

Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie oi?ioea Aiiia?oea. aiineaaenoaee
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiay caoai O. Iaeeaiii, inoaaony iaeeo/oae aeey iienaiey
nia?oiinoe, naycaiiie ni noa?aieai, aeey naiuo ?acee/iuo aeaeia,
aeeth/ay /aeiaaea.

Aeey oeaeae eiee/anoaaiiie aa?iioieiaee iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue
au/eneaiey ia?aiao?ia o?aaiaiey Aiiia?oea-Iaeeaia, /oi iiaeii naeaeaoue
iaoiaeaie iaeeiaeiie ?aa?annee. Aeey au/eneaiey “a?o/ioth” nia?aiaiiua
o/aiua E.A. Aaa?eeia e I.N. Aaa?eeiaa (1991) i?aaeeaaatho naie aeai?eoi,
aeathuee aiieia oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueioth oi/iinoue. Iieo/aiiay e?eaay
eciaiaiey aeeciaciiniaiinoe, iaeiaei, ana aea ioee/aaony io ?aaeueiie a
aa ia/aeueiie e eiia/iie /anoe e io?aaeaao eciaiaiea oaea
noi?ie?iaaaoaainy i?aaiecia, i?ae?aoeaoaai i?ioeannu ?inoa e ?acaeoey.

?aaoeyoi?iay iiaeaeue noa?aiey

Oeaio?aeueiui aeey aeecie eae oaeiaie yaeyaony i?ioeann iinoiyiiiai
naiiiaiiaeaiey anao ninoaaiuo /anoae i?aaiecia, /oi, ii nouanoao,
oiaeaeanoaaiii ii?aaeaeaieth aeecie eae oaeiaie. Aiieia eiae/ii
i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi o?iaaiue naiiiaiiaeaiey ii?aaeaeyao e o?iaaiue
aeecianiiniaiinoe. Iaeiaei, aunieea nei?inoe i?ioeannia naiiiaiiaeaiey
aeey o?iaiy aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia (ieNae) e aeaaea aeey eeaoi/iuo
i?ioeannia (/anu) iaeiicia/ii oeacuaatho, /oi ia yoeo o?iaiyo
naiiiaiiaeaiea aeieaeii no?aieoueny, /oi ia naiii aeaea e eiaao ianoi, e
noaaeeecaoeee a eaaeaeue iiiaio a?aiaie. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, n oi/ee c?aiey
nia?aiaiiuo oai?ee naiii?aaiecaoeee e eeaa?iaoeee aeioeie/aneea
i?ioeannu e eeaoi/iia naiiiaiiaeaiea – yoi naii?aaoee?othueany e
naiinoaaeeece?othueany nenoaiu. Aeey ieo iao ieeaeeo i?ioeannia, eioi?ua
niiniaiu auee au ai a?aiaie iinoiyiii e iaeiiiai?aaeaiii eciaiyoue
ninoiyiea anaai i?aaiecia a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee – i?ioeannia ?acaeoey e
noa?aiey.

Aeey inouanoaeaiey aeieaia?aiaiiuo i?ioeannia ?acaeoey i?aaieci
eniieuecoao niaoeeaeueiua oaea /enoi ?aaoeyoi?iua, iaoaieciu,
ooieoeeiie?othuea ia o?iaia oeaeinoiiai i?aaiecia. A ?yaea neo/aaa
inouanoaeaiea oaeeo ?aaoeyoi?iuo i?ia?aii iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e
nieaeaieth naiiiaiiaeaiey, a, cia/eo, e aeecianiiniaiinoee – e noa?aieth
(Aeaauaeianeee, 1966, Aeiioeia, E?ooueei, Iiaeeiecei, 1997, Iiaeeiecei,
Aeiioeia, 1997, O?ieueeen, 1975).

?anniio?ei neaaeothuoth i?inooth noaio. Ionoue o?iaaiue naiiiaiiaeaiey
(iai?eia?, o?iaaiue eeaoi/iiai naiiiaiiaeaiey iooai aeaeaiey eeaoie a
iiioeyoeee, ia?aie/aiiie e noaaeeece?iaaiiie eaeeiiiuie e eiuie
ia?aoiuie naycyie) aoaeao i?iii?oeeiiaeai iaeioi?iio aauanoao “N”. Yoi
iiaeii iaania/eoue, iai?eia?, ca n/ao ?anoi?iaaeeaaiey au?aaaouaathueo
yoi aauanoai ?aaoeyoi?iuo “s” eeaoie. ?aaeueii oaeea i?ioeannu oe?iei
ecaanoiu, iai?eia?, aeey iae?iai?iiiaeueiie ?aaoeyoeee e inouanoaeythony
ca n/ao niiioaiiie aunieie aeaaee eeaoie-eiaeaeoi?ia “i” a ?aaoeyoi?iuo
oeaio?ao aaaaoaoeaiiai iicaa (aeiioaeaiona).

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaoeyoi?iay oai?ey noa?aiey ieacuaaaony aeinoaoi/ii
i?inoie e yooaeoeaiie i?e ea/anoaaiiii e eiee/anoaaiiii iienaiee
i?ioeannia noa?aiey ?aaeueiuo nenoai. Aieaa oiai, iia aaeaa ee ia
aaeeinoaaiiay iiaeao iauynieoue i?e/eiu aunieeo aeaeiauo ?acee/ee ii
n?ieai aeecie aeey aeeceeo aeaeia, iino?iaiiuo ec noiaeiuo oeiia eeaoie
e oeaiae (iai?eia?, aeey /aeiaaea e iuoe) e aiciiaeiinoe a ?yaea neo/aaa
?acei, a ?acu, a aeey iaoaieie?iaiuo e ia ii?yaeee, eciaiyoue
aeeeoaeueiinoue aeecie i?aaieciia a yenia?eiaioa eee i?e eciaiaiee
anoanoaaiiuo oneiaee.

Niaa?oaiii ynii, iai?eia?, /oi aeey iuoae, o eioi?uo eiaao ianoi
?acee/ea a ?acu aeeeoaeueiinoe aeecie aanaiiae e inaiiae aaia?aoeee
iioiinoaa a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo ?aaoeyoi?iua iaoaieciu i?eioeeieaeueii
aieaa aaaeiu, /ai aeey /aeiaaea, o eioi?uo oaeoe/anee iao naciiiuo
?eoiia noa?aiey. ssnii oaeaea e oi, /oi eciaiaiey oeaiae 2-o eaoiae
iuoe, aiaeiae/iua eciaiaieyi iaeiioeiiuo oeaiae 60-80-eaoiaai /aeiaaea a
i?eioeeia oaeaea a aieueoie ia?a caaenyo io ?aaoeyoi?iuo aeeyiee, oiaaea
eae aeeaouee a oa/aiea 100 eao /aeiaae ai?acaei iaiaa iiaeaa?aeai,
aeaeeii, aeaenoaeth nianoaaiii ?aaoeyoi?iuo iaoaieciia.

Iiaay eiioiiay oai?ey noa?aiey

I?eaeiaeueiuie ?inneeneeie enneaaeiaaieyie iieacaii, /oi a nia?aiaiiii
iiiaieeaoi/iii i?aaiecia nouanoaoao niaoeeaeueiay nenoaia ?aaoeyoeee
eeaoi/iiai ?inoa ethauo niiaoe/aneeo i?ieeoa?e?othueo eeaoie,
i?aaenoaaeaiiay, a /anoiinoe, noaiiioeyoeeyie O-eeioioeeoia (nenoaia
E?I).

Aieaa iiae?iaii yoio aii?in ?anniio?ai a ioaeaeueiuo ioaeeeaoeeyo
(Aeiioeia, 1990, Aeiioeia, E?ooueei, Iiaeeiecei, 1997, Iiaeeiecei,
Aeiioeia, 1997).

Iieacaii ?yaeii aaoi?ia, /oi yoa nenoaia iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaia e n
?aaoeyoeeae ?inoa oeaeinoiiai i?aaiecia, n i?ioeannaie ?aaaia?aoeee,
aeia?ieacee, iiooieaaiai ?inoa e ni nieaeaieai o?iaiy eeaoi/iiai
naiiiaiiaeaiey a noa?inoe, eiaaea nieaeaaony nei?inoue eeaoi/iiai
aeaeaiey naiuo ?acee/iuo oeiia niiaoe/aneeo eeaoie.

Eie auea auaeaeiooa iiaay eiioiiay (eeioieaeiay) oai?ey noa?aiey,
naycuaathuay aic?anoiia nieaeaiea eeaoi/iiai ?inoa e naiiiaiiaeaiey
iaiin?aaenoaaiii n ?aaoeyoi?iuie eciaiaieyie a O-eeioieaeiie nenoaia
eiioieoaoa, a oie aa /anoe, eioi?ay ?aaoee?oao eeaoi/iue ?ino
niiaoe/aneeo eeaoie (Aeiioeia, 1990-2000).

Iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi oi?ioaa niioaaonoaea iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia
aeey “?aaoeyoi?iie oai?ee” noa?aiey iicaieyao auno?i e i?inoi ia?aoeoue
noa?aiea aiaoiei aaaaeaieai ?aaoeyoi?iiai oaeoi?a “F. Iaeiaei, a
?aaeueiinoe a i?aaiecia i?ioaeatho i?ioeannu noa?aiey e ia naycaiiua n
naiiiaiiaeaieai, i?aaenoaaeaiiua auoa e io?aaeathuea, iai?eia?,
iaia?aoeioth aeaaeue ia?aiuo eeaoie, aeueaaie, iao?iiia, ioaeaeueiuo
oieeaeueiuo aaiia a eeaoea, aeaaea coaia e i?. Eiaiii yoei iaoaieciai
i?eiaaeeaaeeo, aeaeeii, oeaio?aeueiay ?ieue a noa?aiee ?ua e eiuo
iinoiyiii ?anooueo a oa/aiea anae aeecie i?aaieciia.

Oaeoe/anee, a i?aaiecia eiaaony ia?iiiia /enei iaiaiiaeythueony ia naiai
ea?a?oe/aneii o?iaia yeaiaioia, noa?athueo iaia?aoeii ii iaoaiecio
i?inoie oo?aou eeaoie. Ia o?oaeii aeaeaoue, /oi yoio aea iaoaieci
eaaeeoue a iniiaa e ?acia?aiiuo ?aaoeyoi?iuo iaoaieciia – oae noa?atho
ia?aiua ?aaoeyoi?iua oeaio?u. Aeeaae aeaiiiai iaoaiecia a noa?aiea
aeinoaoi/ii aunie – e eiioeo aeecie, iai?eia?, /aeiaae oa?yao aieaa
iieiaeiu iao?iiia a ii/eao, aeueaaie a eaaeeo, aieaa 70% eeaoie
iaeioi?uo ?aaoeyoi?iuo oeaio?ia aeiioaeaiona e i?. Noi?ie?iaaaoeany
aoi?e/iua eciaiaiey, iai?eia?, eiiiainaoi?iia oaaee/aiea iauaia aeueaaie
e aic?anoiay yioecaia, ia ia?aoeiu. Aio ii/aio ana iaoiaeu
aeinoeioeyoeee eae i?aaeei ia i?eaiaeeee e au?aaeaiiiio iiauoaieth
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie – noa?ue i?aaieci ia niiniaai
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aunieee o?iaaiue naiiiaiiaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey,
iiyoiio nieaeaiea naiiiaiiaeaiey a noa?inoe – yoi iaoaieci noa?aiey e
eiiiainaoeeiiiue i?ioeann aeey noa?iai i?aaiecia.

Noa?aiea eae niiioaiiay iioa?y e eciaiaiea eioi?iaoeee

Nouanoaotho aua ieieioi aeaa iaoaiecia noa?aiey, aiinyuea naie aeeaae a
noa?aiea oeaeinoiiai i?aaiecia.

Yoi, ai-ia?auo, eciaiaiea i?e noa?aiee iaiaia aauanoa (a oaeaea yia?aee
e eioi?iaoeee) n aiaoiae n?aaeie e, ai-aoi?uo, iiauoaiea noaiaie
?aciiia?acey aeey naiuo ?aciuo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia e naycae a
i?aaiecia – “?ac?aaoee?iaaiea” oeaeinoiie nenoaiu i?aaiecia.

Iaa iaoaiecia yaeythony eiie?aoecaoeeae i?ioeanna niiioaiiie oo?aou
eioi?iaoeee a nenoaia, ca eioi?ui neaaeoao aa iaoa?eaeueiay e
yia?aaoe/aneay aeaa?aaeaoeey. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iieiaeei, /oi iaeioi?ay
nenoaia (i?aaieci) iieo/aao ecaia iioie aauanoaa (?1), yia?aee (W1) e
eioi?iaoeee (I1). Nio?aiaiea naiia naay nenoaiie icia/aao
iiaeaea?aeeaaiea iinoiyinoaa iaoa?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u nenoaiu (p2),
yia?aaoe/aneeo iioieia e acaeiinaycae (w2) e oiaeaeanoaa ai a?aiaie
eioi?iaoeee i naaa (i2); caiaoei oaeaea, /oi, oae eae i?aaieci oieueei
/anoue aieueoaai aai iaeioi?iai oeaeiai – aeinoa?u, iai?eia?, oi (P1,
W1, I1) >>> (p2, w2, i2).

E?iia oiai, nio?aiaiea nenoaiu ai a?aiaie icia/aao oiaeaeanoai noiia?iuo
iioieia, iinooiathueo ec aiaoiae n?aaeu, auaiaeyuaeny ec nenoaiu e
nio?aiythuaainy aeeiaie/anee iioiea aioo?e nenoaiu. Ia o?oaeii aeaeaoue,
/oi oeaio?aeueiui i?e oaeii ?anniio?aiee ieacuaaaony i?ioeann nio?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee a nenoaia, o.e. aauanoaaiiay e yia?aaoe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey
yaeythony oieueei “iaoa?eaeueiuie iineoaeyie” yoie eioi?iaoeee e,
oaeoe/anee, neaaeotho ea/anoaaiii e eiee/anoaaiii ca eciaiaieai
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay aunooiaao eae ?aaoee?othuee, oi?aaeythuee e
naiii?aaiecothueeny oaeoi?.

A iauai aeaea eioi?iaoeey a nenoaia iiaeao eciaiyoueny aeaaiaea?y
neaaeothuei i?ioeannai:

· iinooieaieth eioi?iaoeee (e yio?iiee) ecaia (iai?eia?, “?aiiio” neeaie
ecaia eee yaiethoeeiiiia aeaaeaiea i?e oi?ie?iaaiee iiauo i?eciaeia e
o.i.);

· iiyaeaiea iiaie eioi?iaoeee (e yio?iiee) aioo?e nenoaiu ca n/ao
acaeiiaeaenoaey a iae aauanoaa e yia?aee a oiaea neiaeiaeoeo
acaeiii?aa?auaiee e acaeiinaycae (iaoaaieeci, ?ino e ?acaeoea, iaoaieciu
naii?aaoeyoeee e naiii?aaiecaoeee e o.i.);

· eciaiaiea e iioa?y eioi?iaoeee a nenoaia (?acaa?ouaaiea i?ia?aii ?inoa
e ?acaeoey; “iooaoeee” iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee – AeIE,
aaeeia e ea?a?oe/anee ae?oaeo no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae iaoa?eaeueiuo
iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee; niiioaiiue ?aniaae eioi?iaoeee – i?iecaiaenoai
yio?iiee e o.i.).

I?ioeann oo?aou eioi?iaoeee aiaeiae/ai aa eciaiaieth – “iooaoeeyi”,
i?e/ai ii iineo aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa? e, ii nouanoao, naiaeeony eee e
ioeaeai a oiaea i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa eioi?iaoeee a oiaea
naiieiie?iaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee, eee e niioaiiiio
aa?iyoiinoiiio “iooe?iaaieth” iaaini?iecaiaeyuaeny eioi?iaoeee
(iai?eia?, iia?aaeaeaiey naiaiaeiuie ?aaeeeaeaie iaaeaeyuaeny AeIE e
o.i.). Caiaoei, /oi ai iiiaeo neo/ayo “iooe?iaaaoay” eioi?iaoeey
niiniaia e aini?iecaiaenoao (iai?eia?, aieueoeinoai iooaoeee eeaoie ia
i?eaiaeyo e i?ae?auaieth eo aeaeaiey) e /anoi nio?aiyaony aiciiaeiinoue
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aini?iecaiaeyueony ia aa iniiaa no?oeoo?, eioi?ua,
oaeei ia?acii, anooiatho a eiieo?aioeeth n eiathueieny ?aiaa no?oeoo?aie
i?aaiecia.

Niioaaonoaaiii, “iooe?iaaaoay” eioi?iaoeey iiaeao oaeaea
aini?iecaiaeeoueny naia, iiiieiyoueny ca n/ao iooaoeee iaeciaieaoaeny
eioi?iaoeee e ?annaeaaoueny (ia?aoiay iooaoeey a enoiaeioth oi?io e?aeia
iaei aa?iyoia e i/aiue iaea): dIm/dt = k4 Im + k2 Im – k5 Im

Aeey oiai, /oiau o/anoue o?aaoaiia nio?aiaiea iinoiyinoaa aauanoaa,
yia?aee e eioi?iaoeee iinea i?ae?auaiey ?acaeoey o ac?ineiai i?aaiecia,
aaaaeai a oi?ioeu ia?aie/aiea eiee/anoaa eioi?iaoeee (I+Im=const),
iieo/ea ecaanoioth ec eeaa?iaoeee oi?ioeo naiiaini?iecaiaeyuaeny nenoaiu
n ia?aoiuie iieiaeeoaeueiuie e io?eoeaoaeueiuie naycyie: dI/dt = k1 I /
k4 (I + Im) – k2 Im – k3 I; dIm/dt = k5 Im / k4 (I + Im) + k2 Im – k6Im

*eneaiiay iiaeaeue ?annaeaaiey ia/aeueiie eioi?iaoeee a
noaaeeece?iaaaoaeny nenoaia i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?enoiea 5.

I?e aiaeeca iiaeaee o/oaii, /oi iooe?iaaaoea eeaoee iau/ii iaiaa
aeecianiiniaiu e, e?iia oiai, iiaeaa?aathony eiioiiiio iaaeci?o e aeaioo
iiyoiio auno?aa, a oaeaea ii oai aea i?e/eiai n iaiueoae nei?inoueth
naiiiaiiaeythony. Niioaaonoaaiii eiyooeoeeaiou aeey iiaeaee iiaeia?aiu a
neo/aa a?aoeea: k1=0,3, k5=0,2, k4=0,1, k2=0,03, k3=0,05, k6=0,07.

Ia iiaeaee iiaeii aeaeaoue, /oi ni a?aiaiai niioiioaiea iooaioiuo e
iaeciaiaiiuo aaeeieoe eioi?iaoeee noaaeeece?oaony, ii a oa/aiea
iaeioi?iai ia?eiaea aoaeao eiaoue ianoi ia?anoaiea /enea iooaoee, /oi
aoaeao aanoe e ia?anoaieth nia?oiinoe. Aeae e?eaie nia?oiinoe, iaeiaei,
ia yeniiiaioeeaeueiue, a eeiaeiue, a eiaa?eoia nia?oiinoe – auioeeue,
/oi cia/eoaeueii ioee/aaony io ?aaeueiie ea?oeiu. Yoi ia oaeeaeoaeueii,
oae eae a?aiy onoaiiaeaiey ?aaiiaaney I e Im iaaaeeei – oaeoe/anee,
iai?eia?, a?aiy eeaoi/iiai aeaeaiey aeey eeaoie neecenoie e eiaee – aeie
e /anu, iiyoiio ia oiia iiiaeo eao aeecie iai?yioth yoio iaoaieci a?yae
ee aiineo nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a i?ioeann noa?aiey. Iaeiieaiea iooaoeee
nei?aa io?aaeaao ae?oaea i?ioeannu – ?aceia (?aaoeyoi?iia) nieaeaiea
nei?inoe eeaoi/iiai naiiiaiiaeaiey e nieaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eiioiiiai
iaaeci?a n aic?anoii. Iooaoeee aaaeiu e a neo/aa iiauoaiey n aic?anoii
?enea aicieeiiaaiey iiooieae, /oi aiineo cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a i?e/eiu
nia?oiinoe aeey ieaeiieoathueo aiiaua e /aeiaaea a iniaaiiinoe.

Oae eae iooaoeee aiciiaeiu naiua ?aciiia?aciua, oi oaeoe/anee ca n/ao
yoiai aea iaoaiecia iu eiaai e aoi?ia oa?aeoa?iia aeey noa?aiey
neaaenoaea: oaaee/aiea ?aciiia?acey enoiaeii iaeii?iaeiuo no?oeoo?.
Oaaee/aiea ?aciiia?acey no?oeoo? – iiyaeaiea aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
“/oaeie” eioi?iaoeee. Iia ia?aa?oaeaao nenoaiu i?aaiecia, ioaaonoaaiiua
ca ?aniiciaaaiea e oaeaeaiea aa, i?e/ai, o.e. oaeoe/anee, iiaua
no?oeoo?u eeoue iaiiiai ioee/athony io noa?uo e nio?aiytho ai iiiaeo
neo/ayo i?aeoe/anee ia i?aaeiai o?iaia ooieoeeiiaeueioth niiniaiinoue e,
niioaaonoaaiii, ?aaeueioth oeaiiinoue aeey i?aaiecia, oi /?acia?iay
?aaeoeey i?ioea “/oaeiai” aeaaea a?aaeia.

E?iia oiai, oae eae eioi?iaoeey eiio?iee?oao iioiee aauanoaa e yia?aee,
aoiaeyuea a nenoaio e auoiaeyuea ec iaa, oi eciaiaiea aaeeaina I/Im
oaeoe/anee icia/aao nieaeaiea aiciiaeiinoe ioai?a “ioaeiie” aauanoaaiiie
e yia?aaoe/aneie iniiau aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa naiae no?oeoo?u e nieaeaiea
?aniiciaaaiey e auaiaea “/oaeiai” aauanoaa e yia?aee – oi anoue,
io?aaeaao ecaanoiue iaoaieci noa?aiey – “iaeiieaiey oeaeia”: (
d(I/Im)/dt = d(p2,w2/P1,W1)/dt ).

Iieiua iaoaiaoe/aneea aueeaaeee aeey eeethno?aoeee auoa neacaiiiai
aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeiaiee, iaeiaei, ia o?oaeii aeaeaoue, /oi a iauai aeaea
iaa i?ioeanna noa?aiey, eae ai?i/ai e oaea iienaiiua auoa, yoi oieueei
/anoiua i?iyaeaiey i?ioeanna ia?anoaiey yio?iiee, ?anniao?eaaaiua n
?acee/iuo “oi/ae c?aiey” – n oi/ee c?aiey ?acee/iuo naienoa aeeaiai
aauanoaa, aeeauo nenoai. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, e niiioaiiay iioa?y
aeecianiiniaiinoe a oeaeii, e ?aaoeyoi?iia nieaeaiea naiiiaiiaeaiey, e
nieaeaiea no?oeoo?iie iaeii?iaeiinoe e “caa?yciaiea” i?aaiecia ia
auaaaeoeieny e ioeiaeeaoeieny “aaeeanoii” aauanoaaie – ana yoi a
aeiaaeueiii ieaia anoue io?aaeaiea aeaenoaey aaeeinoaaiiie i?e/eiu –
aeene?aoiinoe i?aaiecia, aeaenoaey caeiiia oa?iiaeeiaieee ia /anoe/ii
ioe?uooth nenoaio, ia niiniaioth, iinea ieii/aiey ?acaeoey, e
yooaeoeaiie aeaeueiaeoae yaiethoeee. Caiaoei, i?e yoii, /oi noa?aiea ia
anoue “au?aaioaaoeeny a yaiethoeee oaiiiai”, ioaeiie aeey eneeth/aiey
iayooaeoeaiuo oi?i aeecie e niaiu iiauie, noa?aiea io?aaeaao aieaa
aeiaaeueiua caeiiiia?iinoe Auoey aiiaua.

Aeioeie/aneea e oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea iiaeaee noa?aiey

Yoio o?iaaiue ?anniio?aiey iicaieyao iiiyoue, /oi noieo ca
“aeecianiiniaiinoueth”, i?eienuaaaiie ia oieueei anaio i?aaiecio, ii e
eaaeaeiio aai yeaiaioo. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, “noa?ie” yaeyaony eaaeaeay
/anoue noa?iai i?aaiecia, ii oiaaea aicieeaao aii?in – eaeay
oa?aeoa?enoeea, iauay aeey naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia
i?aaiecia, iiaeao io?aaeaoue yoo aeecianiiniaiinoue e aaee/eio, ae
ia?aoioth – o?iaaiue noa?aiey, aeey naieo iieaeoe e eo eiiieaenia,
oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee e o.i.

N oi/ee c?aiey aeioeiee e oai?ee neiaeiuo nenoai ia oaeoth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?aoaiaeotho aeaa (oanii acaeiinaycaiiuo) iauea
oa?aeoa?enoeee, i?eiaiyaiua a oeiee, aeioeiee e aiiaua oai?ee neiaeiuo
nenoai: yoi yio?iiey e eioi?iaoeey. I?e yoii yio?iiey (S) iiaeao auoue
i?yii ii?aaeaeaia /a?ac eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay, a naith i/a?aaeue, oanii
naycaia n aa?iyoiinoueth niauoey:

S = A LnW + B,

aaea A e A – eiyooeoeeaiou, a W – aa?iyoiinoue niauoey.

Oaea ec yoiai aeaeii, /oi iaeneioi yio?iiee niioaaonoaoao iaeneiaeueii
aa?iyoiiio ninoiyieth, iiyoiio aeeciue n oi/ee c?aiey oa?iiaeeiaieee
ii?aaeaeytho eae noaiaiue ioeeiiaiey io iaeneiaeueii aa?iyoiiai
ninoiyiey – io ?aaiiaaney; eae “ia?aaiiaaniue iioie”, eae ioeeiiaiea io
ninoiyiey ?aaiiaaney.

Niioaaonoaaiii, iiaeii oaia?ue i?aaenoaaeoue o?iaaiue aeecianiiniaiinoe
eae noaiaiue ioeeiiaiey io ninoiyiey ?aaiiaaney.

I/aaeaeiui i?e oaeii ?anniio?aiee yaeyaony e oi, /oi aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
aeecianiiniaiinoe a ethaie /anoe ethaie aeeaie nenoaiu iaiaoiaeeia
iinoiyiiay cao?aoa yia?aee, oae eae aeey aeeauo nenoai oa?aeoa?ii
nieaeaiea yio?iiee, a niaeanii aoi?iio caeiio oa?iiaeeiaieee yoi
aiciiaeii oieueei i?e iinoiyiiii iinooieaiee yia?aee ecaia.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii noaiaie iio?aaeaiey yia?aee i?aaieciii iiaeii noaeeoue
i noaiaie aai aeecianiiniaiinoe.

Ia i?aeoeea eniieuecotho ioeaieo iauaai iaiaia aeey oeaeiai i?aaiecia,
nei?inoue iio?aaeaiey eenei?iaea oeaiyie, o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey
eenei?iaea i?e iaa?ocea (“eiyooeoeeaio iieaciiai aeaenoaey” e iiuiinoue
aeeauo i?ioeannia), a oaeaea iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia iio?aaeaiea
eenei?iaea e/eee iiuiinoue aiaoiaai ?acaeaaaiiai oneeey – iauai
aaeaioaoeee i?aaiecia. I?aaeeaaathony oaeaea e iaeioi?ua eiua iiaeoiaeu.
Iai?eia?, naycue yio?iiee n oaieiniaea?aeaieai iicaieyao, a i?eioeeia,
ii iee?i-eaei?eiao?ee iaoeaiie e aeaiaoo?e?iaaiiie AeIE aiai?eoue a
yia?aaoe/aneii yeaeaaeaioa i oii, eaeay yia?aey e, niioaaonoaaiii,
yio?iiey, niioaaonoaoao “aeeaiio” e “iaaeeaiio” ninoiyieth aeaaea aeey
ioaeaeueiie iieaeoeu. Iaeiaei, eioa?i?aoaoeee oaeiai ?iaea n
i?eaea/aieai oece/aneeo yeaeaaeaioia aeeaiai, aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeiu.

Aeey oeaeinoiiai i?aaiecia yooaeoeaiuie, aeaeeii, yaeythony iiaeoiaeu
ioeaiee yio?iiee n oi/ee c?aiey eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea aa aa?iiie/iinoe
aeey oeaeiai aaeeiiai i?aaiecia. Enoiaeyo ec i?aaenoaaeaiee ia
iioeiaeueiinoe acaeiinaycae ?acee/iuo ?aaoeyoi?iuo nenoai: a eaaeaeue
iiiaio a?aiaie aiciiaeii iioeiaeueiia aa?iiie/iia ninoiyiea,
iaania/eaathuaa iaeneiaeueioth aeecianiiniaiinoue, iaeneiaeueioth
aaeaioaoeeth e o.i. Enoiaey ec e?inn-ei??aeyoeee iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
nenoaiaie (na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie, aeuoaoaeueiie, yiaeie?eiiie e i?.)
iiaeii au?aceoue a aac?acia?iuo /eneao oaeea eiyooeoeeaiou
acaeiiaeaenoaey e i?eaeaoue ei cia/eiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
niaea?aeaiey, a oaeaea au?aceoue yoi a iiiyoeyo yio?iiee.

?acaa?iooua enneaaeiaaiey a yoii iai?aaeaiee, iaeiaei, ionoonoaotho, /oi
cao?oaeiyao i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaeecaoeeth e eioa?i?aoaoeeth oaeeo
iiaeoiaeia. Ianiiiaiii, iaeiaei, /oi eiaiii yio?iiey yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei
iieacaoaeai noa?aiey e niiniau, iicaieythuea au/eneyoue aa aeey
oeaeinoiiai i?aaiecia aeieaeiu ioe?uoue i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey aiaeeca a aeieiaee noa?aiey e aeey auyniaiey
ia?ae/iuo, nouiinoiuo, iaoaieciia e ia?aii?e/eiu noa?aiey.

Aeey i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeae aaaeii ?anniio?aoue aiciiaeiinoe aeeyiey ia
eioi?iaoeeiiii-yio?iieeiua i?ioeannu a oeaeii, /oi iicaieeei au aeeyoue
e ia nouiinoiue iaoaieci noa?aiey. Aeey ?aciuo o?iaiae i?aaiecaoeee,
i/aaeaeii, nouanoaotho ?aciua aiciiaeiinoe. Oae, aeey oeaeinoiiai
i?aaiecia yoi oaea ianoaeaeaeinue a nayce n ?aaoeyoi?iuie iiaeaeyie
noa?aiey. Aiciiaeiinoe caeanue naiaeyony e:

a) aeeyieth ia i?ioeannu ?inoa, ?acaeoey e naiiiaiiaeaiey eeaoie
(yiaeie?eiiua aeeyiey, ia?aiua aeeyiey e aoii?aeueiua aeeyiey),

a) aa?iiiecaoeeth eiathueony i?ioeannia (aeoioieoo?a, oece/aneay e
ineoieiae/aneay o?aie?iaea e o.i.),

a) nioeeaeueii-iauanoaaiiua ia?ii?eyoey eae “caei?iaue ia?ac aeecie”.

Iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao oa aiciiaeiinoue aeeyiey iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ia oeie/aneea i?ioeannu, eniieuecoy oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea iiaeoiaeu. Aiiaua
aiai?y, oeie/aneay nianue ?aaeueii iiaeaa?aeaia ia?iiiiio /eneo
?aaeoeee, eaeoueo a naiuo ?aciuo iai?aaeaieyo. AEecianiiniaiinoue
caeanue yeaeaaeaioia auaeaeaieth ec oeie/aneiai “ooia” aeioeie/anee
cia/eiie eioi?iaoeee – aicieeiiaaiey iai?aaeaiiinoe aeioeie/aneeo
iioieia. Iaeaieaa eioa?aniui caeanue yaeyaony ?anniio?aiea oa?iaioiiai
iaoaiecia. N oi/ee c?aiey aeioeiee e oa?iiaeeiaieee aeecianiiniaiinoue
iiaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae ioiioaiea nei?inoae oa?iaioicaaeneiuo
?aaeoeee “aeecie” – eioi?iaoeeiiii oeaiiuo aeioiie/aneeo i?ioeannia, e
iaoa?iaioiui ?aaeoeeyi “ooia” – yio?iiee. Aaaeii, /oi oaeea i?ioeannu a
oeaeii caaenyo io aiaoieo oaeoi?ia – oaiia?aoo?u, ?I,
ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiiai iioaioeeaea, aeaaeaiey aacia e i?.
Eioa?anii, /oi ana ia?a/eneaiiia i?aaeeaaaaony n oniaoii aeey
aeinoeioeyoeee e ai?ueau ni noa?aieai:

a) ei??aeoeey ?I, i?aaeaea anaai aeeaoioa?aieae – niinianoaiaaiea
iuaea/eaaieth aioo?aiieo n?aae ia aaaaoa?eaineeo ?aaeeiao,

a) ei??aeoeey IAI n eniieueciaaieai oeie/aneeaeoeae?iaaiiuo n?aae,
yeaeo?ieeca?ia e iaoiaeia yeaeo?ii/enoee aiaeu, /oi iicaieyao eciaiyoue
IAI aiaeii?iaiaeiie aiaeu, iau/ii eiathuae IAI ii?yaeea +600, aei 0 e
aeaaea io?eoeaoaeueiuo cia/aiee; iiiooii iaiyaony aoi?e/iay no?oeoo?a
aiaeu – iia noaiiaeony “aiiiaaiiie”,

a) eciaiaiea aeaaeaiey aacia – yoi oe?ieiecaanoiay aunieiai?iay oa?aiey,

a) nieaeaieai oaiia?aoo?u iauyniytho iiiaea yooaeou i?iaeeaiey aeecie,
eae o oieiaeiie?iaiuo (iaeaieaa iieacaoaeueii), oae e o ieaeiieoathueo –
iai?eia?, yooaeou aeice?iaaiiiai aieiaeaiey o e?un iau/ii
nii?iaiaeaeathony e au?aaeaiiui nieaeaieai oaiia?aoo?u oaea.
Aeeeoaeueiay aeeciue e yooaeou iiieiaeaiey, iaaethaeaaiua o aeeaioiuo
iinea ceiiae niy/ee oaeaea iiaoo auoue naycaiu n yoeie aeeyieyie.

Iaeiiaoe, a iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiioey?iuie noaee i?yiua
yia?ai-aeoeaaoeeiiiua iaoiaeu, eioi?ua iiaoo i?yii aeeyoue ia o?iaaiue
aeioeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee, a /anoiinoe, ia yia?aee aeoeaaoeee oaeeo
?aaeoeee, /oi ana aieaa oe?iei i?eiaiyaony aeey iauae aeinoeioeyoeee e
icaei?iaeaiey:

a) eaca?iia iaeo/aiea a o./. aioo?eaaiiia,

a) iciiioa?aiey,

a) yeaeo?iiaaieoiia iaeo/aiea a o./. EA*-oa?aiey e iiiaea iaoiaeu
oeceioa?aiee.

Yooaeou oaiia?aoo?u ia oeie/aneea i?ioeannu eioa?anii ianoaeeoue n oi/ee
c?aiey aeeyiey ia niioiioaiea oa?iaio-caaeneiuo e iaoa?iaioiuo
i?ioeannia. Oae eae iaa oeia i?ioeannia ?acee/athony a naiae
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe e oaiia?aoo?a, aiiaua aiai?y, neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue aeey
aeaoo ?aciuo oaiia?aoo? ?acee/ey a ioiioaiee nei?inoae oa?iaio-caaeneiuo
e iacaaeneiuo i?ioeannia, /oi iiaeii au?aceoue e a oa?ieiao yio?iiee.
Oaeea iiaeoiaeu iiaeii aac o?oaea ?aaeeciaaoue a yenia?eiaioa e
iii?iaiaaoue iaeoe iioeiaeueioth iaeanoue, aaea noa?aiea aoaeao
ieieiaeueii. Iaeiaei, anee aeey oieiaeiie?iaiuo yoi, aeaeeii, ia aaaeii,
aeey ieaeiieoathueo yoi iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie i?iaeaio. Aeey
aunoeo aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea oaieie?iaiinoue – aaaeiia yaiethoeeiiiia
i?eia?aoaiea, iicaieythuaa, a /anoiinoe, iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aaaeiaeoea
iiaua ooieoeee – i?aaeaea anaai o?iaaiue ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Auaiae

AEeciue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai i?aaiecia – noaaeeece?iaaiiue aaeoi?iue
(eiathuee eoiaiaia iai?aaeaiea eciaiaiey) iioie, eciaiythuee naie
oa?aeoa?enoeee ni a?aiaiai. Iioiaaiac – i?ioeann a ?acaeoee aeecie a
oeaeii e i?ioeaiaeaenoaea noa?aieth, anaaaea iiae?acoiaaaao eciaiaiea
oaiia e iai?aaeaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey, a oaeaea i?iaeieaeaiea
anao ioaeaeueiuo i?ia?aii ?acaeoey e iauaai eo ?acoeueoaoa aeey
i?aaiecia a oeaeii, a ia oieueei i?ioeaiaeaenoaea ?ac?ooeoaeueiui
i?ioeannai a i?aaiecia – nianoaaiii “noa?/aneei” eciaiaieyi. Aiiaua
aiai?y, enoiaey ec ea?a?oe/iinoe oeaiiinoiuo i?ei?eoaoia aeey /aeiaaea
noa?aiea ana aeeyiey ia iaai, oai aieaa cao?aaeaathuea naio
aeieiae/aneoth i?e?iaeo /aeiaaea, iaaiciiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue aac o/aoa
/enoi /aeiaa/aneeo oaeoi?ia – ineoieiaey, nioeeaeueiay noa?a, ii?aeue e
eoeueoo?a.

Ana neacaiiia icia/aao, /oi i?ia?aiiu, ?aaeeeaeueii aeeythuea ia
i?ioeann noa?aiey, iiaoo auoue oieueei /anoueth iaueo caaea/,
eanathueony /aeiaa/anoaa a oeaeii e ia iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu ?aaeeeaeueii
aac o/aoa ioaaoia ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:

· eae aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny aeaeaa /aeiaa/anoai, aueaey ec-iiae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie ?aaoeyoeee aeinoa?u;

· eae eciaiyaony aeae /aeiaaea a oeaeii;

· eae eciaieony aeieiae/aneee iineoaeue /aeiaaea eae i?aaiecia;

· eae eciaiyony /oanoaa e eioaeeaeo /aeiaaea;

· aeey /aai, nianoaaiii, iaiaoiaeeiu oaeea eciaiaiey (oeaeue e caaea/e
naiiniciaiey nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea eae aeaea ai Anaeaiiie);

· ii?aeueiua, nioeeaeueiua e eiua auoaeathuea ec yoiai i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua
/ai aeaeaa, oai aieueoa cai?auatho aiciiaeiua, ii ia aaeaeaaoiua, ia
ioaa/athuea “/aeiaa/iinoe” aicaeaenoaey /aeiaaea ia naiiai naay.

Ia neaaeoao oaeaea caauaaoue, /oi /aeiaae nouanoaoao e eae eiaeeaeae,
?acaeaathueeny a iioiaaiaca, a eae aaeeieoea aeaea – caaea/e
i?aiaeieaiey noa?aiey a oii e ae?oaii neo/aa ?acee/iu.

Aeiaaeueiinoue caaea/e i?ioeaiaeaenoaey noa?aieth – aeaaiue auaiae, aac
o/aoa eioi?iai enoeiiua caaea/e, auoaeathuea ec enoeiiiai ninoiyiey
i?iaeaiu. Noa?aiea – eiiieaeniue aeiaaeueiue oaiiiai e aeeyiey ia iaai –
aeiaaeueiay caaea/a.

A oeaeii, nai eioa?an e oaiiiaio noa?aiey aeey /aeiaaea icia/aao, /oi ii
auoae ca i?aaeaeu aeieiae/aneie i?e?iaeu e o?aaoao oaea eiuo oneiaee e
oi?i nouanoaiaaiey. Oaeoe/anee, ?a/ue eaeao i oi?ie?iaaiee iiauo iooae
yaiethoeee /aeiaaea, iiauo oi?i aai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e, aiciiaeii,
iiaiai oeia oece/aneiai oaea, iiauo oneiaee aeecie e iiauo ioiioaiee ni
n?aaeie.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aaa?eeia E.A., Aaa?eeiaa I.N.Aeieiaey i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie.
-I: IIEI. Iaoea.1986.

2. Aaeoeaie Ae.I. i/?aae. Nenoaiiua enneaaeiaaiey. Aaeaaiaeiee. ENA ?AI.
I.:1996.

3. Aeiioeia A.E. Eiioiiaeieiaey iinoiaoaeueiiai ?acaeoey. I.:IIEI. ?AI.
Iaoea.1990.

4. Aeiioeia A.E. I?eiaiaiea oai?ee aeia?oeeeea aeey aiaeeca i?ioeannia
iaaeeeaoi/iie ?aaoeyoeee i?ieeoa?aoeee oeaiae: aeieacaoaeuenoaa
nouanoaiaaiey niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie eeaoi/iie nenoaiu ?aaoeyoeee
i?ieeoa?aoeee oeaiae//Oniaoe nia?aiaiiie aeieiaee.1986.O.101.Aui.1. N.18
-29.

5. Aeiioeia A.E., E?ooueei A.I., Iiaeeiecei A.A. Noa?aiea: iaoaieciu e
iooe i?aiaeieaiey. I.: Aeieioi?ina?aen. 1997.

6. Eiioi?o A. Aeieiaey noa?aiey. I.:Ie?.1967.

7. E?ooueei A.I., Iaiae A.A., Neaaei I.A. Eeanneoeeaoeey, aiaeec e
i?eiaiaiea eiaeeeaoi?ia aeieiae/aneiai aic?anoa aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey
iaeeaeaaiie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie// Oeceieiaey /aeiaaea. 1995. N
6. N.42.

8. Ieaoii. Aeeaeiae. I/?aae. A.O.Einaaa. I.:Iuneue.1986.

9. Iiaeeiecei A.A., Aeiioeia A.E. Noa?aiea, aeieaieaoea e aeiaeoeaaoeey.
I., 1996.

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