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ANOOIEAIEA

Eae iiiai iu niei! Nio iu ioaeaai o?aoue iaoae aeecie.
Neieueei iiaeii auei au oniaoue ca yoi a?aiy, eioi?iai anai oae ia
oaaoaao! A /oi anee niaoue iaiueoa eee aiiaua ia niaoue? Aae?oa a
nie?auaiee a?aiaie nia e?iaony iaeei ec ?aca?aia?

Oae /oi aea oaeia nii? Ca/ai ii ioaeai i?aaiecio? *oi
i?ienoiaeeo n i?aaieciii ai a?aiy nia? Ii/aio iai niyony niu e /oi oaeia
niiaeaeaiey?

Aua a ae?aaiea a?aiaia niiaeaeaiey i?eieiaeenue ca ioe?iaaiey
aiaia. Ethaee aa?eee, /oi aeia?ua e ceua aeooe iiaoo anaeyoueny a oaei
niyuaai e iooai niiaeaeaiee niiauaoue aio ?aciua naaaeaiey, neeiiyoue
aai e oai eee eiui iinooieai, i?aaeaauaoue niauoey. Ii e oiaaea oaea
auei caia/aii, /oi a niiaeaeaieyo aiae e aeooe i?aaeii/eoatho
au?aaeaoueny iaynii, ii?ie neiaiee/anee, i?aaeinoaaeyy naiei ethaeyi
?acaaaeuaaoue oaeiue niune niiaeaeaiee. Yoi n/eoaeinue iaeaaeei aeaeii,
aeinooiiui eeoue ae?aoeai e i?ioanneiiaeueiui oieeiaaoaeyi niia.

Ia/aei iao/iiai iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth niiaeaeaiee ioiineony e
eiioeo 18 aaea. Iaeii ec ia?auo aieaa eee iaiaa na?ueaciuo ni/e-

iaiee ii yoiio aii?ino – «Iiuo iino?iaiey oai?ee nia» aeieoi?a

A. Ioaeiaa – iiyaeeinue a 1791 a.

Iaeiaei, ii-ianoiyuaio i?ioanneiiaeueiue eioa?an e
niiaeaeaieyi ia/aeny n iiyaeaieai ?aaiou C. O?aeaea* «Oieeiaaiea
niiaeaeaiee» (1900a.). «Aeey ian, iieiaeuo ineoeao?ia, iia noaea eo/ii
naaoa, aeey iaoeo iiaeeeuo eieeaa – i?aaeiaoii ianiaoae» – ienae E. A.
THia. Ia?iiiue aeeaae a eco/aiea e eniieueciaaiea niiaeaeaiee aian E. A.
THia** e aai oeiea. THia caieiaeny yoie i?iaeaiie ia i?ioyaeaiee anae
aeecie e, oai ia iaiaa, aiai?ee, /oi ii oieueei i?eioe?ue aeaa?ue a ie?
aanniciaoaeueiiai[\5\, no?. 268].

_______________________________________________________

* Ceaioiae O?aeae (1856-1939)- aano?eeneee a?a/-ineoeao? e ineoieia,
iniiaaoaeue ineoiaiaeeca.

**Ea?e Aonoaa THia (1875-1961)- oaaeoea?neee ineoieia e
oeeinio-eaeaaeeno, iniiaaoaeue aiaeeoe/aneie ineoieiaee.

N I I A E Ae A I E ss.

NIIAEAeAIEss – EAE ?ACOEUeOAO AeAssOAEUeIINOE

IAIssOE E AIIA?AAEAIEss.

Naaiaeiy iu ana aieueoa ociaai i ?acee/iuo niiniaiinoyo
/aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia. Ai nia /aeiaae i?iaeieaeaao i?eieiaoue

eioi?iaoeeth ec aiaoiaai ie?a. Ia yoii oaaaeeoaeueii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
?anneacu Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaaa, ioe?uaoaai ia?eiaee/aneee caeii ai nia. Ia
yoii aiai?eo e Yeiooaei, eioi?ue naie iniiaiua auaiaeu ii oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe, /oi iacuaaaony, ecaeae ec nia. Eiaiii ai nia
aeoeaece?oaony naycue /aeiaaea n eiiinoa?ie. Ii iiaeao i?eieiaoue
neaiaeu i niauoeyo, eioi?ua aio aua iaecaanoiu. E eiia/ii aea aauea niu.
Aniiiiei naiue aee?iuo e oiueo ei?ia, eioi?ua i?enieeenue i?aaeoaeth
Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa, /oi yaeeinue i?aaeaanoieeii o?iaeaeiuo e iao?iaeaeiuo
aiaeia. Aniiiiei nii iaeiiai ec ?aaioieeia *a?iiaueueneie AYN n iiaea?ii
ia /aoaa?oii aeiea. Ii anee a Aaeioa niiaee ecaea/ue ec nia iieueco, oi
niaoeeaeeno AYN aue iiaeiyo ia niao [\6\ ,no?. 3].

Iie?aynue ia yoe naaaeaiey iiaeii neacaoue, /oi niiaeaeaiey

yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii aeayoaeueiinoe iaiyoe e aiia?aaeaiey, naiaiaeiuo
io o/anoey ae?oaeo niiniaiinoae e /oanoa. Iioiio-oi niiaeaeaiey e
auaatho oae ?acee/iu ii niuneo e eiatho oae iaei iauaai n oai, /oi
iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue a aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeecie.

O ethaeae aieueiuo, ia?aooiieaiiuo iaiineeueiui o?oaeii,

niiaeaeaiey /anoi auaatho oyaeaeua e no?aoiua. Eiaaea iaeei ec i?aaiia
ia?aooiieai, ?acae?aaeai eee aieai, oi nii noaiiaeony ianiieieiui, a
eaaeea iuouaiey i?eia?aoatho ai nia /?acau/aeioth neeo.

Iai?eia?, ooi eiean i?iacaeathuae oaeaae i?aaenoaaeyaony
?aneaoaie a?iia eee iaeueaie ec i?oaeee. Oeon aeioe – oeonii

no?aoiie e ia?iiiie ciae e o.ae.

Niiaeaeaiey ii naiaio niuneo ii/oe anaaaea niioaaonoaotho
iauanoaaiiiio iieiaeaieth, oinoaaiiiio ?acaeoeth, oece/aneiio
ninoiyieth, oaiia?aiaioo e aic?anoo niyuaai.

Aiaaoiio nieony ?ineioue e oaeiaieuenoaey, aaaeiiio – o?oae,
ioaeaea, oieaeaiey, i?inueau e i?i/aa, a?oenoo – noeaia, ioaeeea,
iaaoeee, aieueiiio – aieueieoea, a?a/e, eaea?noaa e o.ae.

Niu iiyoa ieeiaaea ia niyony naiiaeieeo. Ieuee ieeiaaea ia
oaeaeeo nii ieeeeiia?a.

Niiaeaeaiey oaeaniua, oyaeaeua e no?aoiua auaatho aucaaiu
neaaeothueie i?e/eiaie: neeueiuie aia/aoeaieyie, iieo/aaiuie a ninoiyiee
aiae?noaiaaiey eaeei-eeai ec ?yaea aii auoiaeyuei neo/aai eee niauoeai,
ee/iui o/anoeai a eaeii-ieaoaeue auaeathuainy niauoee.

Iiyoiio aanueia iaiiiaea niu eiatho i?i?i/aneia, ?aaeueiia
cia/aiea.

Aanniuneaiii aa?eoue a eniieiaiea e iniaaiiia cia/aiea anaai
oiai, /oi nieony, ia n/eoaynue i?e yoii n ianoiyoaeuenoaaie e i?e/eiaie,
aucaaaoeie aeaiiia niiaeaeaiea. Ii e iaeuecy ioaa?aaoue oiai, /oi
iaeioi?ua niiaeaeaiey yaeythony i?i?i/aneeie. Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai
oaeoia ec enoi?ee anao no?ai e a?aiai, eiaaea niiaeaeaiey noaiiaeeenue
i?aaeaanoieeaie auaeathueony niauoee, canoaaeyaoea caaeoiaoueny iaae
yoei aii?inii e oeacuaaaoea, /oi a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo niiaeaeaiey eiaee
/?acau/aeii aaaeiia cia/aiea.

Niiaeaeaiea caeeth/aao a naaa iiiai iauaai n yniiaeaeaieai.

Ii?aaaeuaathony a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa niu ee/iinoae, iaea?aiiuo

yniiaeaeaieai, /anoi e ia iiaeic?aaathueo o naay yoio aea?, yoo
niiniaiinoue.

Aei neo ii? i?i?i/aneea niu inoathony iaiauynieiuie. Iaoea ia
a ninoiyiee i?iaanoe a?aiue iaaeaeo niiaeaeaieyie i?i?i/aneeie e
eioia?iuie.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi niiaeaeaiey – yoi neaaenoaea ?acee/iuo
iuouaiee, caia/aoeaaoeony a ninoiyiee aiae?noaiaaiey. Iie oae-

aea caaenyo io /enoi aiaoieo oneiaee ianoaiiaee, aicaeooa, oaeianoa, a
oaeaea oece/aneiai e ii?aeueiiai ninoiyiey niyuaai.

A aanniciaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe iicaa ai a?aiy nia e?iaony
oaeinoaaiiay neea i?aaeneacaiee, e iaeioi?ua niiaeaeaiey noaiiayony
ioe?iaaieai e i?aaeaanoieeaie aaaeiuo niauoee[\6\, no?.5,6].

NIIAEAeAIEss EAE ?ACOEUeOAO AeAENOAEss

AIAOIEO ?ACAe?AAEEOAEAE.

Iiiai/eneaiiua iaaethaeaiey ecaanoiuo a yoie iaeanoe o/aiuo
iieacuaatho, /oi niiaeaeaiey iiaoo aicieeiooue io neo/aeiiai
?acae?aaeaiey ai a?aiy nia oao eee eiuo i?aaiia /oanoa.

Aieaa oiai, aeaenoaoy ia niyuaai eaeei-eeai ?acae?aaeeoaeai –
caoeii, naaoii eee i?eeiniiaaieai, oaeaaony eiiaaea i?aaeiaia?aiii
aucuaaoue niiaeaeaiey, yaii niioaaonoaothuea oa?aeoa?o i?eiaiaiiiai
?acae?aaeeoaey. Oae, iai?eia?, o?aioeocneee o/aiue A. Ii?e ?anneacuaae,
/oi iaeiaaeaeu, a oi a?aiy eae ii niae, e aai iino iiaeianee oeaeii n
iaeaeieiiii; yoiai auei aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau aio ooo aea i?enieeenue
ia?othia?iay eaaea, Eae?, ainoi/iua no?aiu, aaea aio aeiaaeinue
iacaaeieai ia?aae oai iiauaaoue.

A ae?oaii iiuoa Ii?e inaaoee e?aniui naaoii eeoei niyuaai;
eniuooaiiio i?enieeanue a?ica, aniuoee iieiee, ?aneaou a?iia. A iaeiie
oaaeoea?neie ainoeieoea, ia?aiieiaiiie iooaoanoaaiieeaie, eae-oi ii/ueth
ai a?aiy a?icu ii/oe anai iinoiyeueoeai nieeny iaeei e oio aea nii:
aoaeoi ai aeai? n iaeooeoaeueiui ooiii auacaeatho yeeiaaee n iiauie
iooaoanoaaiieeaie, eioi?ua aua aieueoa noaniyo aeeaoueo a ainoeieoea.

Yoe oaeou naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aeeyiee aiaoieo ?acae?aaeaiee
ia aeayoaeueiinoue iicaa ai a?aiy nia [\9\, no?.11]

NIIAEAeAIEss EAE ?ACOEUeOAO AeAENOAEss

AIOO?AIIEO ?ACAe?AAEEOAEAE.

Ia iaiaa /anoui enoi/ieeii niiaeaeaiee yaeythony
aicaoaeaeaiey, i?eoiaeyuea a iica ia ec aiaoiaai ie?a, a ec aioo?aiieo
i?aaiia oaea – aeaeoaeea, eeoie, ii/aaiai iocu?y, eaaeeo, na?aeoea e i?.
Ana yoe i?aaiu iaeaaeatho /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e naycaiu ia?aiuie iooyie
n «i?aaiii ineoeee» – ei?ie aieueoeo iieooa?ee aieiaiiai iicaa. Aeiai iu
iau/ii ia caia/aai «neaiaeia», eaeoueo ec aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, iioiio /oi
niciaiea aieaa neeueiuie aia/aoeaieyie aiaoiaai ie?a. Ii/ueth ianoaiiaea
iaiyaony: /ai aieaa caie?aao aeayoaeueiinoue ia?oaeiuo i?aaiia /oanoa,
oai io/aoeeaaa ia/eiatho iuouaoueny ?acae?aaeaiey, aicieeathuea ai
aioo?aiieo i?aaiao, – iniaaiii anee yoe ?acae?aaeaiey aucuaathony
eaeeie-eeai aieaciaiiuie i?ioeannaie.

Niiaeaeaiey, aucuaaaiua ?acae?aaeaieai aioo?aiieo i?aaiia,
iiaoo eiaoue aeeaaiinoe/aneia cia/aiea. Ii iei iiuoiue a?a/ eiiaaea
iiaeao ?aniiciaoue ia/aei oie eee eiie aioo?aiiae aieacie, eioi?ay a
ninoiyiee aiae?noaiaaiey aua ia aeaao i naaa ciaoue, ia i?iyaeyaony
oeie/iuie aeey iaa neiioiiaie. Ecaanoii iiiaeanoai i?eia?ia oaeiai
?iaea. Iaoeeaioo iaeiiai a?a/a i?enieeinue, /oi o iaai «ieaiaiaea» iiaa
e ii iioa?ye niiniaiinoue ath aeaaeaoue; nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy o iaai
naeaeaeny ia?aee/ oie aea iiae. Ae?oaiio iaoeeaioo a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo
ianyoeaa nieeinue, /oi ii i?iaeaouaaao ?acee/iua i?aaeiaou; i?e/eiie
yoiai iiiai ?ac iiaoi?ythuaainy nia ieacaeanue aicieeathuay a aeioea
ceiea/anoaaiiay iiooieue [\9\, no?.12].

Iaaethaeaaiua oaeou aeeyiey aeayoaeueiinoe aioo?aiieo i?aaiia
ia niaea?aeaiea niiaeaeaiee aeieai ia iiaee auoue iauyniaiu. Eeoue
niaaoneea oeceieiae E. I. Iaaeia* e aai nio?oaeieee, a /anoiinoe E. I.
Aueia, ioe?uee iaoaieci acaeiiaeaenoaey ei?u aieiaiiai iicaa e
aioo?aiieo i?aaiia. Oai naiui auei aia?aua aeaii iao/iia iauyniaiea yoei
oaeoai. I?eaaaeaiiua iiuou e iaaethaeaiey, onoaiiaeaoea ?ieue aiaoieo e
aioo?aiieo i?aaiia /oanoa a aicieeiiaaiee niiaeaeaiee, i?ieiaeeee iooue
e nia?aiaiiui oeceieiae/aneei i?aaenoaaeaieyi i i?e?iaea niiaeaeaiee e
nia. [\9\, no?.13]

N I I.

I?E?IAeA NIA.

A niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a nouanoaoao iiiai oieeiaaiee
i?e?iaeu nia. O?aioeocneee o/aiue A. Iuea?ii** a 30-o aiaeao OO aaea
iieaaae, /oi i?e aiae?noaiaaiee a i?aaiecia iaeaieeaathony eaeea-oi
oiene/aneea aauanoaa, eioi?ua ai a?aiy nia auaiaeyony ec i?aaiecia.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee ia aeaaaoue aeeaioiiio aeieai niaoue, a caoai
acyoue o iaai e?iaue e aaanoe aa auniaaoaiony aeeaioiiio, oi iii auno?i
canuiaao. Iaeiaei iaaethaeaiey ca n?inoeieny (neaineeie) aeeciaoeaie
iieacaee, /oi iaeei ec aeeciaoeia iiaeao niaoue, a ae?oaie –
aiae?noaiaaoue. O oaeeo aeeciaoeia ia?aiua nenoaiu ?acaeaeueiua, a
e?iaiia?auaiea – iauaa. Anee au a e?iae iaeaieeaaeenue niioai?iua
aauanoaa, oi iie aeaenoaiaaee au ia iaa iicaa e aeeciaoeu aeieaeiu auee
niaoue iaeiia?aiaiii.

Oaaeoea?neee oeceieia A. Aann***, eao?aao Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee
1949 a., iieaaae, /oi nii aicieeaao aeaaiaea?y iaeei eiiai-aeai
i?iiaaeooi/iiai iicaa e iaoiaeyuaainy oai niaoeeaeueiiai oeaio?a nia,
iinueathuaai niioaaonoaothuea eiioeuenu a ae?oaea ioaeaeu iicaa. A
?acoeueoaoa yoiai aeayoaeueiinoue iicaa aueeth/aaony e aicaoaeaeaiea
niaiyaony oi?iiciui ninoiyieai -niii.

E. I. Iaaeia aeieacae, /oi nii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia /oi
eiia, eae ninoiyiea oi?iiaeaiey, ioaaoeaoaa aieueooth /anoue eeaoie ei?u
aieiaiiai iicaa. Oaeia ?aceeoia oi?iiaeaiea ia?aiuo eeaoie ii
?anniao?eaae eae anoanoaaiioth i?eniiniaeoaeueioth,
_______________________________________________________

* Eaai Iao?iae/ Iaaeia (1849-1936) niaaoneee oeceieia, nicaeaoaeue
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai o/aiey i aunoae ia?aiie aeayoaeueiinoe, e?oiiaeoee
oeceieia nia?aiaiiinoe, iiauo iiaeoiaeia e iaoiaeia oeceieiae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee, aeaaeaiee AI NNN?.

** Ai?e Iuea?ii (1881-1964) o?aioeocneee ineoieia, iniiaae Einoeooo
ineoieiaee (1921) e Iaoeeiiaeueiue einoeooo o?oaea e i?ioi?eaioaoeee
(1928).

***Aaeueoa? ?oaeieueo Aann (1881-1973) oaaeoea?neee oeceieia. Ioe?ue
iaoaieci eii?aeeie?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey n?aaeiaai iicaa ia aioo?aiiea
i?aaiu.

caueoioth, io?aieoaeueioth ?aaeoeeth i?aaiecia[\4\,no?.93,94]. Iaaeia
eeanne/aneeie iiuoaie, i?eiaiea iaoiae ia?aciaaiey oneiaiuo ?aoeaenia,
aeieacae, /oi oaeoi?ii, aucuaathuei nii, yaeyaony oi?iiaeaiea ia?aiuo
eeaoie, ninoaaeythueo ei?o iicaiauo iieooa?ee.

?eoie/aneea ia?aiua eiioeuenu, iinooiathuea io i?aaiia /oanoa
e ia?aiui eeaoeai ei?u, iiaoo i?e ?aciuo oneiaeyo ieacuaaoue ia ieo
aeaiyeia aeaenoaea: eee i?eaiaeeoue a aeayoaeueiia, aicaoaeaeaiiia
ninoiyiea, eee, iai?ioea, oi?iiceoue yoi aeayoaeueiia ninoiyiea,
aueeth/aoue ia?aiua eeaoee ec ?aaiou. Aicaoaeaeaiea e oi?iiaeaiea –
iniiaiua ia?aiua i?ioeannu. Aac ieo ia iiaeao inouanoaeoueny ie iaeei
aeaeaaoaeueiue aeo, ie iaeii ineoe/aneia ia?aaeeaaiea.

Aicaoaeaeaiea e oi?iiaeaiea – aeaa noi?iiu, aeaa i?ioeanna,
inouanoaeythuea aunooth ia?aioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Aeaaiaea?y eo
acaeiiaeaenoaeth a ei?a i?ienoiaeeo aiaeec e neioac aiaoieo
?acae?aaeaiee a niioaaonoaee n eo cia/aieai aeey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecia; aeeiaieea aicaoaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeyao i?e yoii e oa?aeoa?
ioaaoiie ?aaeoeee i?aaiecia ia aicaeaenoaey aai aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae
n?aaeu.

Ninoiyieth aiae?noaiaaiey niioaaonoaoao oae iacuaaaiay
aeeiaie/aneay (iiaeaeaeiay) «iicaeea» i/aaia aicaoaeaeaiey e i/aaia
oi?iiaeaiey a ei?a iicaiauo iieooa?ee. I?ino?ainoaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
yoeo i/aaia iinoiyiii iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io inouanoaeyaiie a aeaiiue
iiiaio aeayoaeueiinoe, io ia?aaeeaaaiiai ineoe/aneiai ninoiyiey. Eiaaea
iu /eoaai eaeoeeth, i/aae onoie/eaiai aicaoaeaeaiey iaoiaeyony a oao
ioaeaeao ei?u, eioi?ua aaaeatho ooieoeeae ?a/e, inouanoaeytho aeo
iuoeaiey; ana inoaeueiua /anoe ei?u iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee aieaa eee
iaiaa aeoaieiai oi?iiaeaiey. Ii aio y ia?aoiaeo e ae?oaiio ?iaeo
aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?eia? ia/eiath ea?aoue ia ?iyea, e ei?eiaay «iicaeea»
oio/an iaiyaony; i?aaeiea i/aae aicaoaeaeaiey caoi?iaaeeaathony,
aicieeatho iiaua i/aae a ae?oaeo a?oiiao ei?eiauo eeaoie. A ei?a
aieueoeo iieooa?ee o /aeiaaea ian/eouaaaony 14-15 ieeeea?aeia ia?aiuo
eeaoie (iae?iiia). *enei aiciiaeiuo i?ino?ainoaaiiuo eiiaeiaoeee
aicaoaeaeaiiuo e caoi?iiaeaiiuo i/aaia a ei?a iienoeia iaecia?eii. A
aaaeue eaaeaeay

oaeay eiiaeiaoeey io?aaeaao oa eee eiua iiiaiou ?acee/iuo ineoe/aneeo
ninoiyiee.

*oi aea i?ienoiaeeo n yoie ei?eiaie «iicaeeie» aiae?noaiaaiey,
eiaaea iu canuiaai? A eaeii-ieaoaeue ioieoa ei?u aicieeaao iniaaiii
onoie/eaue i/aa oi?iiaeaiey. Neaaua, iaeiiia?aciua ?acae?aaeeoaee –
eieuaaeueiay ianiy, oea/eaaiea, oeeaiea /ania e i?. – iiaoo
niinianoaiaaoue ia?aciaaieth oaeiai i/aaa. Ec iaai, eae ec oeaio?a,
oi?iiaeaiea ia/eiaao «e??aaeee?iaaoue» – ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia ninaaeiea
a?oiiu iae?iiia, caoai ana aeaeueoa e aeaeueoa, aaneo ano?a/athueany ia
iooe i/aae aicaoaeaeaiey, caoaaouaaao iaeiiaoe anth ei?o, ana ei?eiaua
iae?iiu. Ianooiaao aeoaieee nii aac niiaeaeaiee, aac eaeeo-eeai
i?iyaeaiee ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iicaiaay ei?a – «i?aai ineoeee»
– iieiinoueth ioaeuoaao [\9\, no?.19].

INIIAIUA OACU NIA.

Eoae, nii yaeyaony ineoioeceieiae/aneei ninoiyieai, ai a?aiy
eioi?iai cia/eoaeueii eciaiyaony ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea iicaa e
anaai i?aaiecia.

Iniiaiui eino?oiaioii a enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeanna nia nae/an
yaeyaony yeaeo?iyioeaoaeia?aiia (YYA).

A neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey nia aieiu YYA noaiiayony aieaa
iaaeeaiiuie (iiyaeythony oae iacuaaaiua oaoa- e aeaeueoa- ?eoiu
niioaaonoaaiii 4-5 a 1nae. e 1-2 eieaaaiey a 1 nae.). *ai ?aaea ?eoi
yeaeo?e/aneeo eieaaaiee, oai aeoaaea nii. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
i?aaenoaaeaiea i nia eae i ?aceeoii i?ioeanna oi?iiaeaiey, ioaaoeaoai
aeaaioneea oa??eoi?ee ia?aiuo eeaoie ei?u aieiaiiai iicaa. Canuiay,
/aeiaae anaaaea aiaaeaao nia/aea a ninoiyiea oae iacuaaaiiai iaaeeaiiiai
nia, eioi?ue e oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiyaeaieai oaeeo iaaeeaiiuo ?eoie/aneeo
eieaaaiee yeaeo?iyioeaoaeia?aiiu (?en.1).

Caoai iaaeeaiiua aieiu YYA niaiythony aieaa /anouie
eieaaaieyie, oa?aeoa?iuie aeey aiae?noaiaaiey (aeueoa-?eoiu). Aicieeaao
e aeaneio?iiecaoeey, io?aaeathuay ninoiyiea iai?yaeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
iicaa (aaoa-?eoi). Noaey ii eciaiaieyi yeaeo?iyioeaoaeia?aiiu, iiaeii
aeoiaoue, /oi /aeiaae a yoio iiiaio i?inuiaaony. Iaeiaei a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ii i?iaeieaeaao niaoue. Ana yoi i?aaenoaaeyeinue
ia?aaeienii. Iiyoiio iiaeiaiua ia?eiaeu nia auee iacaaiu
ia?aaeienaeueiui eee auno?ui niii.

Ai a?aiy nia iaaethaeaaony /a?aaeiaaiea iaaeeaiiiai e
auno?iai nia. N?aco iinea canuiaiey ianooiaao ia?aay oaca iaaeeaiiiai
nia, eioi?ue aeeeony /an-iieoi?a, a caoai i?a?uaaaony ia 5-10 iei.
Ia?aie oacie aeoeaiiai nia, caoai niiaa iaaeeaiiue nii, e oae
i?ienoiaeeo /a?aaeiaaiea oac nia 4-5 ?ac ca ii/ue. Iaaeeaiiue nii
ninoaaeyao 70-80% anae aeeeoaeueiinoe nia, a aeoeaiue nii,
niioaaonoaaiii 20-30%.[\7\,no?.333,334]. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anee /aeiaae
nieo a ii/ue 8 /ania, oi ia?eiaeu iaaeeaiiiai nia a noiia caieiaao 5,5-6
/ania, a noiia?iia a?aiy ia?aaeienaeueiiai nia 2-2,5 /ana.

IAAeEAIIUE E AUNO?UE NII.

NOAAeEE IAAeEAIIIAI NIA.

Iaaeeaiiue eee i?oiaeienaeueiue nii oa?aeoa?ecoaony
nieaeaieai iauae oeceieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoe i?aaiecia e oi?iiaeaieai
aeoeaiinoe ei?u aieiaiiai iicaa. Ioneoeu niyuaai /aeiaaea
?anneaaeythony, ioeuen caiaaeeyaony, aeuoaiea noaiiaeony ?iaiui. Caoai
niyuee, ia i?inuiaynue, ia/eiaao ai?i/aoueny, o/auaaony aeuoaiea, iiae
cae?uouie aaeaie caiaoii auno?ia aeaeaeaiea aeaciuo yaeie. Eiiaaea
/aeiaae /oi-oi aiai?eo ai nia. Yoi auno?ue nii – noaaeey niiaeaeaiee.
Anee ?acaoaeeoue /aeiaaea ai a?aiy ia?aaeienaeueiiai nia, ii ?anneaaeao
i naiai niiaeaeaiee.

Niiaeaeaiey auaatho o anao ethaeae, ii iiiaea caauaatho eo e iiiaioo
oo?aiiaai i?iaoaeaeaiey. (Anee o/anoue, /oi a oa/aiee aeecie /aeiaae
nieo 25 eao, oi i?eia?ii 5 eao ec ieo- ii aeaeeo niu.) (?en.2).

A eiioea 30-o aiaeia iaoaai noieaoey aanue iaaeeaiiue nii aue
?acaeaeai aua ia /aou?a noaaeee, eioi?ua ?ani?aaeaeeeenue ia?aaiiia?ii.
Ii aeaiiui i?ioanni?a A. Aaeia:

1 noaaeey – ae?aiioa, caieiaao 12% io anaai ii/iiai nia;

2 noaaeey – iinoaiaiiiai oaeoaeaiey nia -38%;

3 noaaeey – ia?aoiaea e aeoaieiio nio – 14%;

4 noaaeey – naiiai aeoaieiai nia – caieiaao 12%.

Eioa?anai oio iau/iue aeey niiaeaeaiee oaeo, /oi aiaaoua
niaea?aeaieai niiaeaeaiey, eaaeoueany niyuaio aanueia
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuie, ia naiii aeaea i?ioaeatho i/aiue auno?i – anaai
ianeieueei naeoiae. I?aaenoaaeaiey i a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa ai nia ?acei
ia?ooaiu. Iienai, iai?eia?, oaeie neo/ae. Iaeei ecaanoiue ae?aiaoo?a,
yaeaoenue ia i?aaenoaaeaiea naiae iueanu, canioe io onoaeinoe e
iacaei?iauey. Ai nia ii aeaeae anth naith iueano io ia/aea aei eiioea,
neaaeee ca ?acaeoeai aeaenoaee ca oai, eae i?eieiaao aai i?iecaaaeaiea
ioaeeea. Iaeiiaoe caiaaan iioneaaony iiae iaeooeoaeueiua aieiaeeniaiou,
ae?aiaoo?a i?inuiaaony e, e naiaio oaeeaeaieth, neuoeo, /oi ia noeaia
i?ieciinyony aua oieueei ia?aua ?aieeee ia?aie noeaiu. Ana ia?eiaoee
iueanu, i?ioaaeoea ia?aae aai aeacaie ai a?aiy nia, caiyee, oaeei
ia?acii, anaai ianeieueei naeoiae.

CIA*AIEA NIA.

Eaeia aea cia/aiea aeey /aeiaaea eiaao iaaeeaiiue e auno?ue
nii? O/aiua a eaai?aoi?eyo iuoaeenue auynieoue cia/aiea eaaeaeie oacu
nia. N yoie oeaeueth i?iaiaeeeenue iiiaiaeiaaiua iiuou ii

eeoaieth ii?aaeaeaiiie noaaeee nia.

Eniieuecoy niaoeeaeueiue i?eai? – aaoiiaoe/aneee aiaeecaoi?

?eoiia yeaeo?iyioeaoaeia?aiiu e niioaaonoaothuaa ?aea e yoiio
aiaeecaoi?o, niiaee aoaeeoue /aeiaaea ii aai aeaeaieth a ethaie
caaeaiiue ia?eiae nia.

Iaeiaei i?a?aaiiue nii ia aiciaiiaeyeny a oie oaca, a eioi?ie
aai i?a?aaee. *aeiaae canuiae aiiaue, ii i?e yoii aia/aea ianooiaea oaca
iaaeeaiiiai nia. Aeieaeii i?ieoe iaeioi?ia a?aiy, iiea niiaa ia
aicieeiao noaaeey auno?iai nia. Ii a yoio iiiaio aai iiyoue aoaeeo
aaoiiao, e ana iiaoi?yaony nia/aea. N iiiiuueth oaeiai i?eaia iiaeii
aeiaeoueny oiai, /oi /aeiaae a oa/aiea ii/e aoaeao niaoue oieueei
iaaeeaiiui niii, i?ioaeathuei aac aeaeeiie aeoeaiinoe iicaa.

Auynieeinue, /oi eeoaiea auno?iai nia i?eaiaeeo e
aicaoaeaeaieth. Ethaee noaiiayony ?annayiiuie, eiiaaea aa?anneaiuie,
?acei nieaeaaony iaiyoue, eiiaaea aicieeaao no?ao, o iaeioi?uo aicieeaao
«aie/ee» aiiaoeo, ia 5-6-a nooee aiciiaeiu aaeethoeeiaoeee. Ia iniiaaiee
yoiai aue naeaeai auaiae, /oi auno?ue nii iaiaoiaeei aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey
aeieaeiiai o?iaiy na?ioiieia (aauanoaa-ia?aaeao/eea ia?aiiai eiioeuena
/a?ac eiioaeo iaaeaeo iae?iiaie a aieiaiii iicaa), caianu eioi?iai ca
aeaiue eaoano?ioe/anee iaaeaao, a aac iaai, eae ecaanoii, iu ia iiaeai
iuneeoue. N/eoaaony oaeaea, /oi ai a?aiy auno?iai nia a iicao
i?ienoiaeeo neioac aaeeia e ioeeaeiiauo eeneio. Inouanoaeythony
aeioeie/aneea i?ioeannu, iai?aaeaiiua ia ainnoaiiaeaiea ooieoeee ia?aiie
nenoaiu.

Iiiai/eneaiiua iiuou e ?aciiia?aciua enneaaeiaaiey nia?aiaiiuo
o/aiuo i?eaaee e oiio, /oi i?aaenoaaeaiey i nia naaiaeiy nouanoaaiiui
ia?acii aeiiieiaiu. Aea, nii auaeyaeeo eae aueeth/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe,
iieie. Ii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a oa/aiea nia aicieeatho ia?eiaeu e
aeoeaiie ?aaiou iicaa, eioi?ay i?ioaeaao ia oiia iaeneiaeueiiai
ioeeth/aiey aai ec acaeiiaeaenoaey n aiaoiei ie?ii. Yoa aioo?aiiyy
?aaioa iicaa iaiaoiaeeia aua e aeey cae?aieaiey iaiyoe, aeey nio?aiaiey
?aaioiniiniaiinoe ia?aiie nenoaiu.

Eioa?anii aua e oi, /oi anee ?acaoaeeoue /aeiaaea a ia?eiae
auno?iai nia, oi ii e?ani/ii ?anneaaeao i oieueei /oi ia?aaeeoii
niiaeaeaiee e iieoao aai a iaeue/aeoeo iiae?iaiinoyo. ?acaoaeaiiue aea a
oaca iaaeeaiiiai nia i niiaeaeaieyo eee ie/aai ia ?anneaaeao, eee
neaaeao, /oi ii i?iaeieaeae aeoiaoue, eai a iaaeeaiiii nia niiaeaeaiey
nianai eiua. Nei?aa iie iioiaee ia ?aaeueiua niiauaiey. Oaeei ia?acii,
niiaeaeaiey yaeythony noauaeoeaiui io?aaeaieai ia?aaeienaeueiie oacu nia
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ioaeiu i?aaiecio.

Aua a/a?a iu auee oaaaeaeaiu, /oi eo/oee nii – yoi nii aac
niiaeaeaiee, oae eae niiaeaeaiey, aeaneaoue, iaoatho ioaeuoo, iie –
i?iyaeaiea iaiieiiai oi?iiaeaiey. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea niiaeaeaiey
yaeythony i?iyaeaieai e noauaeoeaiui io?aaeaieai oai?/aneiai i?ioeanna a
aeayoaeueiinoe iicaa, eioi?ue, eae ieacaeinue, iaiaoiaeei aeey
noaiiaeaiey iaiyoe e ?aaioiniiniaiinoe iicaa.

*aeiaae, aeieai eeoaiiue nia, ia/eiaao aeaeaoue i?aaeiaou eae
au a e?eaii ca?eaea, neaicue ooiaiioth aeuieo. Ii aeaeeo niiaeaeaiey
iayao. Aeeeoaeueiia ( aieaa 10 aeiae) eeoaiea nia aeaaea iiaeao i?eaanoe
e nia?oe. Ie?iaie aea ?aei?ae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aiae?noaiaaiey,
iinoaaeaiiue niaoeeaeueii aeey «Eieae Aeiianna»,ninoaaee 12 nooie (288
/ania).

Aeey iaeioi?uo ethaeae aeinoaoi/ii e iieiaeiu aeicu. Oaeeie
ethaeueie, e i?eia?o, auee Iao? 1, Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o, Oiian Yaeenii.

Nooi/iue ?eoi aieueoeinoaa ethaeae ninoieo ec 8 /ania nia e 16
/ania aiae?noaiaaiey. Ii oaeie ?eoi – i?eia?aoaiiay a oa/aiee aeecie
i?eau/ea. Anoanoaaiiue aea ?eoi /aeiaaea – /a?aaeiaaiea 3-4 /ania nia e
oaeiai aea ia?eiaea aiae?noaiaaiey ( eae o a?oaeiuo aeaoae) [\1\,
no?.51].

AEAEAIA NIA.

Oae neieueei aea a?aiaie ioaeii niaoue? I?aaeaea anaai yoi
caaeneo io aic?anoa. Iiai?iaeaeaiiue nieo ii/oe ana a?aiy, ii
aiae?noaoao oieueei 2-3 /. a nooee; oanoeiany/iue nieo ieiei 14/.,
aiaeiaaeue – 13 /. A /aou?aoeaoiai aic?anoa aeaoe niyo aei 12 /. A
nooee, a naieeaoiai – 11 /. Iyoiaaeoeaoeeaoiea iiae?inoee aeieaeiu
niaoue 9 /. a nooee, a ia/eiay n 17-18 eao i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue nia
iiaeao ?aaiyoueny a n?aaeiai 7-8 /.

Iinoiyiiia iaaeinuiaiea iiaeao aucaaoue aieiaiua aiee,
iiauoaiioth ooiieaiiinoue e niiniaiinoue oooaeoaieth iaiyoe, iiyaeaieth
ia?aiuo e ae?oaeo aieaciae.

Ii eiiaaea e ii?iaeueiue ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe nii ia
i?eiineo iaeeaeaaiiai ioaeuoa, /oanoaa aiae?inoe. *aeiaae nieo
aaniieieii e i?inuiaaony ?acaeoui, onoaeui.

I?e/eiie oaeiai aaniieieiiai nia iiaoo auoue oyaeaeay
aeeciaiiay neooaoeey, ia?ac?aoeiua, ii aaaeiua i?iaeaiu, a ia?aaeei
i?inoi ia?aooiieaiea, ia?aa?ocea ia?aiie nenoaiu.

Eiiaaea i?e/eiie yoiai auaaao iai?yaeaiia oinoaaiiay ?aaioa
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae niii. Iiyoiio ia neaaeoao ioeeaaeuaaoue
i?eaioiaeaiea o?ieia ia iicaeiea aa/a?iea /anu. ?aaioo iaae o?ieaie
ioaeii i?ae?auaoue ca 1,5-2 /. aei nia. Ia?aae niii iieacia i?iaoeea,
i?eau/iue eaaeee oece/aneee o?oae. O nia aeaa a?aaa: «noie ienueiaiiue e
noie iaaaeaiiue», – aeaneo ia?iaeiay ioae?inoue. Iooiaey ei nio, aianoa
n iaeaaeaeie ioaeii noa?aoueny neeiooue n naay e ana aeiaaiua caaiou.

*oiau oiaiueoeoue iioie ?acae?aaeaiee, iaoathueo caniooue,
ioaeii aueeth/eoue eee i?eaeooeoue oaeaaeci?, ?aaeeii?eaiiee,
ioai?iaeeoue io y?eiai naaoa. Ii i?eaueaoue canuiaoue i?e aaniethoiie
oeoeia e oaiiioa iaaeaeaoaeueii. I?e oaeie i?eau/ea nii noaiiaeony
i/aiue /ooeei e ethaia ?acae?aaeaiea iiaeao aai i?a?aaoue.

Iaoaeiaiay iinoaeue, aeaayuea eiaeo neeaaeee e ?oaoeu ia
i?inouia, oaniia, iaoaeiaiia aaeuea – ?acae?aaeeoaee, iaoathuea nio.

Nio iiaoo iaoaoue e neeueiua ?acae?aaeaiey, iinooiathuea ec
aioo?aiieo i?aaiia. Ia?aiieiaiiue aeaeoaeie – ia?aaeeay i?e/eia
aaniieieiiai nia e eioia?iuo niiaeaeaiee. « Ia oaeeiaoue – nayoie oiio
caeii, eiio anaai aei?iaea eaaeee nii», – ienae A. N. Iooeei.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia ioaeii ieioii ia?aae naiui niii. Ii nianai

ioeacuaaoueny io oaeeia oiaea ia neaaeoao: aieiaeiue /aeiaae canuiaao
o?oaeiaa e nieo aieaa /ooei. Eo/oa anaai eaaeee oaeei /ana ca
iieoi?a-aeaa aei nia. Ia?aae niii ia neaaeoao ieoue iiiai aeeaeeinoe,
iniaaiii e?aieiai /ay eee eioa. Neeoeii oaieue, aeaaeiue aicaeoo,
aeooioa oaeaea iiaoo noaoue i?e/eiie aaniieieiiai nia. Eo/oa anaai
niaoue ia ioe?uoii aicaeooa, ia aa?aiaea eee a eiiiaoa n ioe?uouie
ieiaie. Aaeeeee ?onneee ooaeiaeiee E. ?aiei, iai?eia?, anth ceio niae a
eiiiaoa n ieiaie aac noaeie.

Na?ueaciua ?anno?ienoaa nia iiaoo auoue aucaaiu oaeaea
oiio?aaeaieai nie?oiuo iaieoeia e eo?aiea.

Aanniiieoea iiaeao auoue e ?acoeueoaoii neaey/aai ia?aca
aeecie, o. a. iaaeinoaoea aeaeaeaiee. E ioeai/ii iaaeayoueny , /oi
i?eiaiaiea niioai?iuo n?aaenoa ecea/eo io aanniiieoeu. Oeceoeueoo?iay
ca?yaeea, caiyoey nii?oii, ea?u ia ioe?uoii aicaeooa, i?iaoeee oe?aiyo
nii.

A. N. Iooeei ienae:

« Ii neaaeinoueth aanaeie ii/e niia

Ia aeoiaeoa au aea?ii ianeaaeeoueny

N?aaeue ie?iuo nae, aac anyeiai o?oaea.

*oi ae iaaeiaii? Aeaeaeaiuea, ainiiaea!..

… Ae?ocuey iie!

Aicueieoa iinio naie,

Eaeeoa a ean, a?iaeeoa ii aeieeia,

E?oouo oieiia onoaiueoa ia aa?oeia,

E a aeieao ii/ue aeoaie aao aoaeao nii.»

Aaaeii eiaeeoueny niaoue a ii?aaeaeaiiua /anu. A i?eau/iua
/anu oi/aony niaoue e nii i?eoiaeeo eaaei e auno?i. Aeey yoiai ioaeai
ii?aaeaeaiiue ?anii?yaeie aeiy. Ii naa?aaaao iiiai nee, oaaee/eaaao
?aaioiniiniaiinoue, oeo/oaao caei?iauea. I?e i?aaeeueii ninoaaeaiiii
?anii?yaeea ?aaiou, ioaeuoa e nia ca aeaiue iu oniaaaai ai?acaei aieueoa
naeaeaoue. Aacaeaaa?iinoue, ionoonoaea ?aaeeia aaaeoo e iioa?a a?aiaie,
e aieaa auno?iio ooiieaieth e ia?aoeeiiaeueiie o?aoa nee [\4\,
no?.106,107].

A E I I I C.

*OI OAEIA AEIIIC.

Ec anao ia?aii – ineoieiae/aneeo yaeaiee, ecaeaaia aucuaaaoeo
e aua nae/an aucuaathueo noaaa?iua oieee, ii/iie nii e niiaeaeaiey naiua
iauaeaiiua. Ian?aaieii ?aaea ano?a/athony ae?oaea ?aciiaeaeiinoe nia e
noia?a/iua ninoiyiey niciaiey. Nthaea ioiineony – eaoa?aey, eoiaoeci
eee niiiaiaoeeci, ia?eic, aeiiic.

Inoaiiaeiny iiae?iaiaa ia iineaaeiai.

A ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai ycuea «Hypnos» – icia/aao nii.

E. I. Iaaeia ?anniao?eaae aeiiic eae iniaue ?iae /anoe/iiai
nia. Ia?aie/aiiay iaeanoue iicaiaie ei?u, naycaiiay n aini?eyoeai aieina
aeiiioeca?a e n iiieiaieai aai neiaaniuo aiooaiee, i?iaeieaeaao
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue, nio?aiyaony eae «noi?iaeaaie i/aa aicaoaeaeaiey». Ana
aea inoaeueiua ioaeaeu ei?u caoi?iiaeaiu, eiiaaea aeaaea aieaa aeoaiei,
/ai i?e anoanoaaiiii nia [\9\, no?.52].

Oi/o i?eaanoe acaeyae ia aeiiic e?oiiaeoaai ineoiiaa?ieiaa A.
I. Aaooa?aaa. Ii Aaooa?aao*, iniiaiay iniaaiiinoue aeiiica ninoieo a
iiaeaaeaiee naiinoiyoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe aeiiioeea: aeiiioece?oaiue
oo?a/eaaao niiniaiinoue nin?aaeioi/eaaoue aieiaiea ia /ai-eeai ec
ie?oaeathuae aai aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e iioiio ia i?iyaeyao ieeaeiai
aeoeaiiai eee ee/iiai ioiioaiey e aiaoiei aicaeaenoaeyi ia aai i?aaiu
/oanoa. Iiiyoii, /oi iaoiaeynue a oaeii aaniiiiuiii ninoiyiee, aeiiioee
iiaeiaaeaao iiae aeanoue aeiiioeca?a. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi
oo?aoeaoaa naith naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, naith aeoeaiinoue aieiaiea
aeiiioece?oaiiai iiaeao oaia?ue iai?aaeyoueny ia oio eee ae?oaie iauaeo
oieueei aiooathuei neiaii aeiiioeca?a [\9\, no?.68,69].

Yoi aeaa ?aciuo aicc?aiey ia aeiiic. Iaeiaei iie ia
i?ioeai?a/ao iaeii ae?oaiio, a aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa.

_______________________________________________________

* Aeaaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/ Aaooa?aa (1857-1927) niaaoneee ineoeao? e
ineoieia, iniiaaoaeue iao/iie oeieu. Aaoi? ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo o?oaeia ii
aiaoiiee, oeceieiaee, iaoieiaee ia?aiie nenoaiu. Enneaaeiaae ea/aaiia
i?eiaiaiee aeiiica.

IOEE*EA AEIIICA IO II?IAEUeIIAI NIA.

Oae /ai aea ioee/aaony aeiiic io ii?iaeueiiai nia?

Eae iu ciaai, a ninoiyiee aeoaieiai nia /aeiaae iaaini?eei/ea
e aiaoiei aeeyieyi. Aai ninoiyiea eae au eciee?iaaii io ie?oaeathuaai
ie?a. Eniuooaiue, iia?oaeaiiue a aeoaieee aeiiic, ia ioaeaao naaa io/aoa
a oii, aaea ii iaoiaeeony, ia ?aaae?oao ia aiaoiea ?acae?aaeaiey, ia
ioaa/aao ia aii?inu i?enoonoaothueo, ii i?e yoii o iaai iaia?oaeeaaaony
iaino?aiiay aini?eei/eainoue ei anaio, /oi ioiineony e ee/iinoe
aeiiioeca?a. Caaeiiioece?iaaiiue neuoeo oieueei aiein aeiiioeca?a, aio
iaeiiio ioaa/aao, e, aieaa oiai, eaaeaeia neiai aeiiioeca?a aucuaaao a
niciaiee onuieaiiiai iaiau/aeii y?eea i?aaenoaaeaiey, eioi?ua eaaei
iiaoo ia?aeoe a eeethceth, aaeethoeeiaoeeth eee aucaaoue aaoiiaoe/anee
auiieiyaiua aeaeaaoaeueiua aeou. Anee iia?oaeaiiiai a aeiiic eniuooaiiai
iaaeieai i?aaeinoaaeoue naiiio naaa, oi eiioaeo ii ioiioaieth e
aeiiioeca?o iinoaiaiii ineaaaaaao e iiaeao i?a?aaoueny. Aeiiioee oaea ia
aoaeao ?aaae?iaaoue ia i?enoonoaea aeiiioeca?a, ia aoaeao ioaa/aoue ia
aai aii?inu. En/aciiaaiea eiioaeoa ciaiaioao ia?aoiae aeiiioe/aneiai
ninoiyiey a ninoiyiea anoanoaaiiiai nia. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, nionoy
iaeioi?ia a?aiy eniuooaiue naiinoiyoaeueii i?iaoaeaeaaony, eae
i?iaoaeeeny au iinea iau/iiai nia.

Iiaeii iaaethaeaoue e ia?aoiue ia?aoiae – anoanoaaiiiai nia e
aeiiioe/aneiio. Ecaanoii, /oi iaeioi?ua ethaee eiatho iaueiiaaiea
a?aaeeoue – i?ieciineoue ai nia ioaeaeueiua neiaa e oeaeua o?acu. A yoe
iiiaiou eiiaaea oaeaaony onoaiiaeoue ni niyuei neiaaniue eiioaeo,
inoi?iaeii caaeaaay aii?inu, naycaiiua n niaea?aeaieai a?aaea. Eae
oieueei niyuee ia/iao ioaa/aoue, oeaeue iiuoa aeinoeaiooa: anoanoaaiiue
ii/iie nii ia?aoae a aeiiic, niyuee i?aa?aoeeny a aeiiioeea,
yenia?eiaioaoi? – a aeiiioeca?a, eioi?ue iiaeao aeaeaoue aiooaiey [\9\,
no?.50] .

ENIIEUeCIAAIEA AEIIIOE*ANEIAI NINOIssIEss.

A iaeioi?uo no?aiao e iienaiiiio auoa i?eaio i?eaaaatho
?iaeeoaee, i?eiaiythuea aeiiioe/aneia aiooaiea n oeaeueth ioo/eoue naieo
aeaoae io a?aaeiuo i?eau/ae eee iaeeiiiinoae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaeie aea a nouiinoe i?eai i?eiaiyaony n
oeaeueth iao/aiey ai a?aiy nia (anoanoaaiiiai eee aiooaiiiai). Ii aue
iacaai aeiiiiaaeeae. Eae e ea/aiea aeiiicii, aeiiiiaaeey a ca/aoi/iie
oi?ia auea ecaanoia aua ae?aaiei ia?iaeai, ii n oa/aieai a?aiaie auea
caa?ioaia e caauoa. Iaoei nia?aiaiieeai i?eoeinue ioe?uaaoue aa caiiai.
Nia?aa o/aiua caeioa?aniaaeenue aiciiaeiinoueth neiaanii aiooaoue niyuei
ii?aaeaeaiiua niiaeaeaiey. Yoiai oaeaaaeinue aeiaeoueny, eae iieacuaaee
ii?inu ?acaoaeaiiuo iinea naaina neiaaniiai aiooaiey ( A. Iieeue,
1898a.). Cia/eo, /aeiaae, iia?oaeaiiue a iau/iue nii, aini?eieiaao, nai
oiai ia niciaaay, ia?auaiioth e iaio ?a/ue. A 1922 a. a iaeiie
aia?eeaineie ii?neie oeiea auea naeaeaia iiiuoea iao/aiey oaeaa?aoiiio
eiaeo ai a?aiy nia. A oa/aiea ii/e ii?aaeaeaiiua ciaee iiiaie?aoii
ia?aaeaaaeenue /a?ac oaeaoiiiua iaooieee niyuei o/aieeai, ia i?iaoaeaeay
eo. Oo?ii, eiaaea iie i?inioeenue, aeinoaoi/ii auei iaeiiai iiaoi?aiey
ciaeia aeey oiai, /oiau ioaaoeoue o?ie, onaiaiiue ai nia [\9\, no?. 51].

A aeaeueiaeoai aeiiioe/aneee iaoiae iao/aiey noae iinoaiaiii
?acaeaaoueny e a ae?oaeo no?aiao, a oii /enea e a iaoae no?aia. A
oaia?ue aeiiioe/aneia aiooaiea noaee eniieueciaaoue e a ea/aaiuo oeaeyo.
Ii yoi oaea ioaeaeueiay oaia , eioi?ay o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiiai
ianoaeaeaiey.

CAEETH*AIEA.

Inaauaiiua auoa iiiyoey ioiinyony io/anoe e i?iyaeaieth
aanniciaoaeueiiai. Aanniciaoaeueiia – yoi oaeiue enoi/iee aieueoeinoaa
iaoeo iuneae, /oanoa, iinooieia. A neea aai aicaeaenoaey ia ian aaeeea
aua e iioiio, /oi aicaeaenoaea yoi – iacaiaoiia. Ianiio?y ia ana iaoe
oneeey a iai?aaeaiee naiiiiciaiey, oieueei i/aiue iaeaiueeay /anoue
ia?iiiie yia?aaoe/aneie nenoaiu aanniciaoaeueiiai iiaeao auoue
iiaeeeth/aia e iniciathuaio ?acoio eee iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue ia
o?iaia niciaiey. E iu aeieaeiu iao/eoueny aeiae?aoueny aei
aanniciaoaeueiiai e iiieiaoue niune aai iineaiee: yoi aaeeinoaaiiue
niinia iinoe/ue iaecaaaeaiioth /anoue iaoaai nouanoaa.

I A E A A E A I E A.

Anooieaiea.

Niiaeaeaiey:

– Niiaeaeaiey eae ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe

iaiyoe e aiia?aaeaiey;

– Niiaeaeaiey eae ?acoeueoao aeaenoaey aiaoieo

?acae?aaeeoaeae;

– Niiaeaeaiey eae ?acoeueoao aeaenoaey

aioo?aiieo ?acae?aaeeoaeae.

Nii:

– I?e?iaea nia;

– Iniiaiua oacu nia;

– Iaaeeaiiue e auno?ue nii;

– Noaaeee iaaeeaiiiai nia;

– Cia/aiea nia;

– Aeaeaia nia.

Aeiiic:

– *oi oaeia aeiiic;

– Ioee/ea aeiiica io ii?iaeueiiai nia;

– Eniieueciaaiea aeiiioe/aneiai ninoiyiey.

Caeeth/aiea.

Neiaa?ue oa?ieiia – NII, NIIAEAeAIEss, AEIIIC.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

8. Yoi eioa?anii:

NEIAA?Ue OA?IEIIA.

AANNIIIEOeA – iicaeiaa canuiaiea, ?aiiaa i?iaoaeaeaiea,
i?a?uaiinoue ii/iiai nia, oiaiueoaiea aai aeoaeiu.

AICAOAEAeAIEA – ?aaeoeey aeeauo eeaoie ia aicaeaenoaea
?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae n?aaeu. A iniiaa aicaoaeaeaiey
eaaeao neiaeiua oeceei-oeie/aneea i?ioeannu.

AEIIIC – eneonnoaaiii aucuaaaiia niiiiaeiaiia ninoiyiea
/aeiaaea e aunoeo aeeaioiuo, i?e eioi?ii oi?iiaeaieai ioaa/aia ia any
ei?a aieiaiiai iicaa, a ioaeaeueiua aa o/anoee.

AEIIIIAAeEss – iao/aiea ai a?aiy anoanoaaiiiai nia.

AEIIIOEE – /aeiaae, iiaeaa?aathueeny aeiiioe/aneiio
aicaeaenoaeth.

EAOA?AEss – iieiay nia?oue – iioiaeaa ia nii ninoiyiea
iaiiaeaeaeiinoe, n ionoonoaeai ?aaeoeee ia ?acae?aaeaiey e ?aceei
oaiaoaieai anao i?eciaeia aeecie, eioi?ua, iaeiaei, i?e ouaoaeueiii
ianeaaeiaaiee iiaoo auoue auyaeaiu. Aeeeony io ianeieueeeo /ania aei
ianeieueeeo iaaeaeue.

EOIAOECI eee NIIIAIAOEECI ( niioiaeaeaiea) – ?anno?ienoai
niciaiey, i?e eioi?ii aaoiiaoe/anee ai nia niaa?oathony i?eau/iua
aeaenoaey. ( Iai?eia?, oiaeueaa, ia?aeeaaeuaaiea aauae).

IA?EIC – eneonnoaaiii aucuaaaiue aeoaieee nii n iioa?ae
niciaiey e aieaaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe. I?eiaiytho n oeaeueth
iaacaieeaaiey i?e iia?aoeeyo, aeinoeaaaony aicaeaenoaeai ia
oeaio?aeueioth ia?aioth nenoaio ?acee/iuie ia?eioe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie.

NII – ia?eiaee/anee ianooiathuaa oeceieiae/aneia ninoiyiea o
/aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo; oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii/oe iieiui ionoonoaeai ?aaeoeee
ia aiaoiea ?acae?aaeaiey, oiaiueoaieai aeoeaiinoe ?yaea oeceieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia.

NIIAEAeAIEss – aieaa eee iaiaa y?eea e neiaeiua niauoey,
ea?oeiu, aeeaua ia?acu, ia?eiaee/anee aicieeathuea o niyuaai /aeiaaea a
?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe ia?aiuo eeaoie, inoathueony ai a?aiy
iiaa?oiinoiiai nia aeoeaiuie.

OI?IIAEAIEA – aeoeaiue ia?aiue i?ioeann, au?aaeathueeny a
caaea?aeea aicaoaeaeaiey a ioaao ia ?acae?aaeaiea. Eiaao io?aieoaeueiia
cia/aiea, caueuay ia?aioth nenoaio io ia?aaicaoaeaeaiey.

YEAEO?IYIOeAOAEIA?AOEss – a?aoe/aneay ?aaeno?aoeey
aeiyeaeo?e/aneie aeoeaiinoe aieiaiiai iicaa yeaeo?iyioeaoaeia?aoii.

YEAEO?IYIOeAOAEIA?AIIA – caienuaaaiay i?e
yeaeo?iyioeaoaeia?aoee e?eaay, eniieuecoaiay a enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e
aeeaaiinoe/aneeo oeaeyo.

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