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Синергетика как универсальная научная парадигма

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OAAeA?AEUeIIA AINOAeA?NOAAIIIA IA?ACIAAOAEUeIIA O*?AAEAeAIEA

AUNOAAI I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI IA?ACIAAIEss

«IINEIANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE AA?I_EIAEAIA?IUE OIEAA?NEOAO ei.
A.I.AI?ss*EEIA»

?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

«NEIA?AAOEEA EAE OIEAA?NAEUeIAss IAO*IAss IA?AAeEAIA»

Auiieiee:

Nooaeaioea I eo?na EYO

Eoeaieia A. A.

I?iaa?ee:

Ianeia Aeaa Ieeieaaae/

1.AAAAeAIEA

A ia?aie o?aoe OO noieaoey iaoaie/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea, enoiaeyuaa ec
i?aaenoaaeaiee i eeiaeiinoe, ii?aaeaeaiiinoe e iaeiicia/iinoe
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae, ?aaeoeoeee ethaiai neiaeiiai iauaeoa e
noiia aieaa i?inouo enoiaeiuo yeaiaioia e auaaaeaiey ec ieo ?acee/iuo
eiiaeiaoeee anao naienoa iauaeoa, iioa?iaei ieii/aoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea.
Yoi iaia?oaeeeinue ia oieueei a iienaiee aeieiae/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo
yaeaiee, ii e a ooiaeaiaioa anoanoaiciaiey – oeceea. «A eeanne/aneie
iaoea OIO aaea ainiiaenoaiaaei oaaaeaeaiea, /oi iaoa?ee ecia/aeueii
i?enoua oaiaeaioeey e ?ac?ooaieth anyeie oii?yaei/aiiinoe, no?aieaiea e
enoiaeiiio ?aaiiaaneth (a yia?aaoe/aneii niunea yoi e icia/aei
iaoii?yaei/aiiinoue eee oain)»1. Iniiaaiiay ia aioe/iuo o?aaeeoeeyo
iienea ia?aiee?ie/eeia Ie?icaeaiey, oeceea eco/aea, aeaaiui ia?acii,
no?oeoo?o e naienoaa iauaeoa, iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua acaeiinayce iaaeaeo
aai ioaeaeueiuie yeaiaioaie. Iaeiaei iauaeou i?e?iaeu iaeuecy
i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea i?inoie noiiu ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia, iie ai?acaei
neiaeiaa. «E iienaieth iauaeoa i?e?iaeu ia anaaaea i?eiaieiu
eeanne/aneea iiaeaee e i?aaenoaaeaiey, eai ie? yaeyaony iaaeaeeiui
oeaeui, naoueth ioiioaiee, naoueth acaeiinaycaiiuo e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiuo
i?ioeannia, eioi?ua cao?oaeiythony iiciaoue e aaeaeaaoii iienaoue ia
oieueei eeanne/aneay, ii e iaeeanne/aneay iaoee»2. Eeanne/aneay iaoea
iiaeao iauynieoue eeoue, eae ec ii?yaeea aicieeaao oain, /ai iaoneiaeaiu
ac?uau caacae, ?ac?ooaiea ieaiao, noa?aiea e nia?oue i?aaieciia, ?aniaae
oeeaeeecaoeee.

1 Aeoaieuaaa O.I.: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey.- I.: THieoe,
1998, no?.231

2 A.I.Eiycaaa: Caeiiu yaiethoeee e naiii?aaiecaoeee neiaeiuo nenoai.
-Iaoea, 1994,no?65

3 A.I.?aoieeia: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey: o/aaiee
-THIEOE, 1997, no?.125

Yoa iai?aaeaiiinoue i?ioeannia naycuaaaony n ?inoii yio?iiee a
eciee?iaaiiuo nenoaiao e no?aieaieai aa e iaeioi?iio iaeneioio, i?e
eioi?ii nenoaia ia?aoiaeeo a ninoiyiea oaina. «Ec oaina, ooaa?aeaeaee
ae?aaiea a?aee, Anaeaiiay ?iaeeeanue, a oain aea, ii i?aaeiieiaeaieth
eeanne/aneie oa?iiaeeiaieee, e aica?aoeony»3.

I?e iiaeaioiaea yoiai ?aoa?aoa o iaiy aiciee ethaiiuoiue aii?in: anee
Anaeaiiay yaiethoeeiie?oao oieueei e oaino, oi eae iia iiaea aicieeiooue
e ni?aaieciaaoueny aei iuiaoiaai oii?yaei/aiiiai ninoiyiey? Ii yoei
aii?inii eeanne/aneay oa?iiaeeiaieea (eae ?acaeae oeceee) ia
caaeaaaeanue, eai noi?ie?iaaeanue a yiioo, eiaaea ia noaoeeiia?iue
oa?aeoa? Anaeaiiie ia ianoaeaeaeny. «A yoi a?aiy aaeeinoaaiiui iaiui
oei?ii oa?iiaeeiaieea neoaeeea aea?aeiianeay oai?ey yaiethoeee»1. Aaaeue
i?aaeiieaaaaiue ath i?ioeann ?acaeoey ?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai ie?a
oa?aeoa?eciaaeny aai iai?a?uaiui oneiaeiaieai, ia?anoaieai auniou
i?aaiecaoeee e ii?yaeea. Ca?iaeaeathony, ?anooo e oneiaeiythony
i?aaieciu, iiyaeythony eo iiaua aeaeu, aieaa i?eniiniaeaiiua e n?aaea
iaeoaiey, aicieeatho iiaua caacaeiua nenoaiu e iiaua oeeaeeecaoeee;
aanii?yaei/iay a?oiia ?ua ii/oe iaiiaaiii i?aa?auaaony a einye, ioeoeu
niae?athony a noath, i?e yoii e ioeoeu a noaa, e ?uau a einyea
aeaenoaotho noieue neio?iiii, eae aoaeoi yoi aaeeiue oeaeinoiue
i?aaieci. AEeaay i?e?iaea ii/aio-oi no?aieony i?i/ue io oaina. Iaeeoei
yaiay ianinoueiaea caeiiia ?acaeoey aeeaie e iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu.

«Eae iieo/aaony, /oi nenoaia naiii?iecaieueii ia?aoiaeeo ec ninoiyiey
oaina, iaeaieaa aa?iyoiiai e auaiaeiiai n yia?aaoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, a
ninoiyiea ii?yaeea, iaiaa aa?iyoiiai e iaiaa auaiaeiiai (n aieaa aunieie
yia?aeae)? Eae e ca n/ao /aai i?ienoiaeeo aa naiii?aaiecaoeey
(naiioii?yaei/aiea)?»2. Yoeie aii?inaie caaeaaaeenue o/aiua ec ?aciuo
iaeanoae anoanoaiciaiey, ?ac?aaioaiiua eeanne/aneie e iaeeanne/aneie
iaoeie iiciaaaoaeueiua iiaeaee ia iiaee ioaaoeoue ia yoe aii?inu. A
i/a?aaeiie ?ac anoanoaaiiua iaoee ieacaeenue a ooieea e auee iinoaaeaiu
ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia?aoiaea e iiaui ea/anoaaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi
ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a, /oi a iaiaeie noaiaie niinianoaiaaei aic?anoaieth
?iee eiiieaeniuo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii a i?aaiecaoeee iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee. Ae?oaay aaaeiaeoay i?e/eia iienea iiaiai iiaeoiaea e aai
eco/aieth eaaeeo a iaeanoe nia?aiaiiie oaoieee – i?iaeai ?ac?aaioee
n?aaenoa iieo/aiey, o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee, nicaeaiey
?acee/iuo nenoai oi?aaeaiey, ?aaoee?iaaiey e o.ae.

«Ioeac io iaoaienoe/aneie iaoiaeieiaee e i?aeoe/aneea ioaeaeu iauanoaa
iio?aaiaaee iienea iiauo eiioeaioeee e eaeae, o/eouaathueo
i?eioeeieaeueioth neiaeiinoue enneaaeoaiuo iauaeoia e i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia
iiciaiea eo oeaeinoiinoe e nenoaiiuo ea/anoa»1. A /enea ia?auo iao/iuo
aeenoeeieei, iinoaaeaoeo yoo i?iaeaio noaee yeiiiieea, aeieiaey,
ineoieiaey e eeiaaenoeea. Ii iiaeoiaeu e aa ?aoaieth auee iaeaeaiu i?e
enneaaeiaaiee iiaaaeaiey oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo nenoai. A i?ioeanna
?ac?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu e noi?ie?iaaeanue iinoiaeeanne/aneay iaoea.
«Iia aeoeaioe?oao aieiaiea ia enneaaeiaaiee anae niaieoiiinoe ea?a?oee
nenoai Ie?icaeaiey eae acaeiinaycaiiie oeaeinoiinoe eee naoe
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo yeaiaioia. Iauaeo aa enneaaeiaaiey – i?ioeann
?acaeoey, iauea i?eioeeiu naiii?aaiecaoeee e yaiethoeee neiaeiuo nenoai
?aciiai o?iaiy e ?aciie i?e?iaeu, iniaaiiinoe niaiu ea/anoaaiiuo
ninoiyiee, iaoaieciu, aeeiaieea e i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiay ?acaa?oea
yoiai i?ioeanna»2.

Iaeiaei ?a/ue eaeao ia oieueei ia ooaa?aeaeaiee eaeie-oi iiaie
eiioeaioeee, i?aoaiaeothuae ia iauaiao/iia cia/aiea, a i nicaeaiee iiaie
iiciaaaoaeueiie iiaeaee, i iiaii iai?aaeaiee enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, i au?aaioea iiaie nenoaiu i?eioeeiia iao/iiai iuoeaiey e
iiaiai eaoaai?eaeueiiai aiia?aoa, i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?ac?aaioee e
eniieueciaaiey iiaiai eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea e enneaaeiaaieth iauaeoia e
yaeaiee. Ana yoi auei iauaaeeiaii e iieo/eei oa?iei, aaaaeaiiue A.
Oaeaiii, «neia?aaoeea». «Neia?aaoeea – yoi iaeioi?ue
iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iue iiaeoiae. A ioee/ea io eeaa?iaoeee, aaea aeoeaio
aeaeaaony ia i?ioeannao oi?aaeaiey e iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae, neia?aaoeea
i?eaioe?iaaia ia enneaaeiaaiea i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey i?aaiecaoeee, aa
aicieeiiaaiey, ?acaeoey e naiioneiaeiaiey»3.

1 A.I.Ieoaeeaaneee: Aeeaeaeoeea oi?ie?iaiey nia?. iao/. Ea?oeiu
ie?a.-E.:EAO, 1989,n.45

2 O.I.Aeyaeeaa: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai
anoanoaiciaiey.-I.:THieoe,1998,no?.92

2.INIIAIAss *ANOUe

2.1 Oa?aeoa?enoeee naiii?aaiecothueony nenoai

Eoae, i?aaeiaoii neia?aaoeee yaeythony neiaeiua naiii?aaiecothueany
nenoaiu. Iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia neia?aaoeee A. Oaeai ii?aaeaeyao
iiiyoea naiii?aaiecothuaeny nenoaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii: «Iu iacuaaai
nenoaio naiii?aaiecothuaeny, anee iia aac niaoeeoe/aneiai aicaeaenoaey
ecaia ia?aoaao eaeoth-oi i?ino?ainoaaiioth, a?aiaiioth e
ooieoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o. Iiae niaoeeoe/aneei aiaoiei aicaeaenoaeai
iu iiieiaai oaeia, eioi?ia iaaycuaaao nenoaia no?oeoo?o e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea. A neo/aa aea naiii?aaiecothueony nenoai eniuouaaaony
ecaia ianiaoeeoe/aneia aicaeaenoaea. Iai?eia?, aeeaeeinoue,
iiaeia?aaaaiay nieco, niaa?oaiii ?aaiiia?ii ia?aoaao a ?acoeueoaoa
naiii?aaiecaoeee iae?ino?oeoo?o, ia?acoy oanoeoaieueiua y/aeee»1. Oaeei
ia?acii, nia?aiaiiia anoanoaiciaiea euao iooe oai?aoe/aneiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey naiuo neiaeiuo nenoai, eioi?ua i?enoua i?e?iaea,- nenoai,
niiniaiuo e naiii?aaiecaoeee, naii?acaeoeth.

Iniiaiua naienoaa naiii?aaiecothueony nenoai, ii iiaieth A. Oaeaia
yaeythony:

«1) enneaaeoaiua nenoaiu ninoiyo ec ianeieueeeo eee iiiaeo iaeeiaeiauo
eee ?aciiia?aciuo /anoae, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony ai acaeiiaeaenoaee ae?oa n
ae?oaii;

2) nenoaiu yaeythony iaeeiaeiuie;

3) ?a/ue eaeao ia ioe?uouo nenoaiao, aeaeaeeo io oaieiaiai ?aaiiaaney;

4)nenoaiu ianoaaeeueiu;

5)a ieo i?ienoiaeyo ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey;

1 TH.E.Eeeiiioiae/: Aac oi?ioe i neia?aaoeea.- Ieine, 1986,no?.48

2 Eiioeaioeey naiii?aaiecaoeee: noaiiaeaiea iiaiai ia?aca iuoeaiey.-
I.,1994, no?.36

3 A.Ieeieen, E.I?eaiaeei: Iiciaiea neiaeiiai.- I., 1990, no?.84

6)a yoeo nenoaiao iaia?oaeeaathony yia?aeaeaioiua (o.a. aiiaue
aicieeoea) iiaua ea/anoaa;

7)nenoaiu iiaeaa?aeaiu aiaoiei e aioo?aiiei eieaaaieyi;

8)aicieeatho i?ino?ainoaaiiua, a?aiaiiua, i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiua eee
ooieoeeiiaeueiua no?oeoo?u;

9)no?oeoo?u iiaoo auoue oii?yaei/aiiuie eee oaioe/iuie;

10)ai iiiaeo neo/ayo aiciiaeia iaoaiaoecaoeey»2

?anniio?ei iniiaiua ec yoeo naienoa: ioe?uoinoue, eeiaeiinoue e
aeenneiaoeaiinoue.

2.1.1 Ioe?uoinoue

Iauaeo eco/aiey eeanne/aneie oa?iiaeeiaieee – cae?uoua nenoaiu, o.a.
nenoaiu, eioi?ua ia iaiaieaathony ni n?aaeie aauanoaii, yia?aeae e
eioi?iaoeeae. Iaiiiiei, /oi oeaio?aeueiui iiiyoeai oa?iiaeeiaieee
yaeyaony iiiyoea yio?iiee. Iii ioiineony e cae?uoui nenoaiai,
iaoiaeyueiny a oaieiaii ?aaiiaanee, eioi?ia iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
oaiia?aoo?ie. Eiaiii ii ioiioaieth e cae?uoui nenoaiai auee
noi?ioee?iaaiu aeaa ia/aea oa?iiaeeiaieee. A niioaaonoaee n ia?aui
ia/aeii, a cae?uoie nenoaia yia?aey nio?aiyaony, oioy e iiaeao
i?eia?aoaoue ?acee/iua oi?iu. 1

Aoi?ia ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee aeaneo, /oi a caieiooie nenoaia yio?iiey ia
iiaeao oauaaoue, a eeoue aic?anoaao aei oao ii?, iiea ia aeinoeaiao
iaeneioia. Niaeanii aoi?iio ia/aeo oa?iiaeeiaieee, caian yia?aee ai
Anaeaiiie ennyeaao, a any Anaeaiiay i?eaeeaeaaony e «oaieiaie nia?oe».

E.I?eaiaeei, E.Noaiaa?n: Ii?yaeie ec oaina.- I.,1986, no?.87

2 I.O.Yoeein:Ii?yaeie e aanii?yaeie a i?e?iaea.-I., 1986, no?.39

«Oiae niauoee ai Anaeaiiie iaaiciiaeii iiaa?iooue aniyoue, aeaau
aini?aiyonoaiaaoue aic?anoaieth yio?iiee»1. Ni a?aiaiai niiniaiinoue
Anaeaiiie iiaeaea?aeeaaoue i?aaieciaaiiua no?oeoo?u ineaaaaaao, e oaeea
no?oeoo?u ?aniaaeathony ia iaiaa i?aaieciaaiiua, eioi?ua a aieueoae ia?a
iaaeaeaiu neo/aeiuie yeaiaioaie. «Ii ia?a oiai eae ennyeaao caian
yia?aee aic?anoaao yio?iiey, a nenoaia ieaaee?othony ?acee/ey. Yoi
cia/eo, /oi Anaeaiioth aeaeao ana aieaa iaeii?iaeiia aoaeouaa»2.

Aianoa n oai, oaea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. e iniaaiii a XX a.
aeieiaey, i?aaeaea anaai oai?ey yaiethoeee Aea?aeia, oaaaeeoaeueii
iieacaea, /oi yaiethoeey Anaeaiiie ia i?eaiaeeo e iiieaeaieth o?iaiy
i?aaiecaoeee e iaaaeiaieth ?aciiia?acey oi?i iaoa?ee. Nei?aa, iaiai?io.
«Enoi?ey e yaiethoeey Anaeaiiie ?acaeaatho aa a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
iai?aaeaiee – io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio, io iecoeo oi?i i?aaiecaoeee e
aunoei, io iaiaa i?aaieciaaiiiai e aieaa i?aaieciaaiiiio»3. Eia/a
aiai?y, noa?ay, Anaeaiiay ia?aoaao ana aieaa neiaeioth i?aaiecaoeeth.
Iiiuoee niaeaniaaoue aoi?ia ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee n auaiaeaie
aeieiae/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo iaoe aeieaia a?aiy auee aaconiaoiuie.
Eeanne/aneay oa?iiaeeiaieea ia iiaea iienuaaoue caeiiiia?iinoe ioe?uouo
nenoai. E oieueei n ia?aoiaeii anoanoaiciaiey e eco/aieth ioe?uouo
nenoai iiyaeeanue oaeay aiciiaeiinoue.

Ioe?uoua nenoaiu – yoi oaeea nenoaiu, eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaathony a
ii?aaeaeaiiii ninoiyiee ca n/ao iai?a?uaiiai iioiea ecaia aauanoaa,
yia?aee e eioi?iaoeee. Iinoiyiiue i?eoie aauanoaa, yia?aee eee
eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai nouanoaiaaiey ia?aaiiaaniuo
ninoiyiee a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue caieiooui nenoaiai, iaecaaaeii
no?aiyueiny (a niioaaonoaee ni aoi?ui ia/aeii oa?iiaeeiaieee) e
iaeii?iaeiiio ia?aaiiaaniiio ninoiyieth.

1 TH.E.Eeeiiioiae/:Noaoenoe/aneay oai?ey ioe?uouo nenoai.-I., Iaoea,
1994, no?.82

2 A.Oaeai:Eioi?iaoeey e naiii?aaiecaoeey.-I., 1993, no?.187

3 E.A.Oa?ania: Ie?, iino?iaiiue ia aa?iyoiinoe.-I., 1984, no?.113

«Ioe?uoua nenoaiu – yoi nenoaiu iaia?aoeiua; a ieo aaaeiui ieacuaaaony
oaeoi? a?aiaie»1.

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?enoiie ?1 Ioe?uoay nenoaia

A ioe?uouo nenoaiao eeth/aaoth ?ieue – ia?yaeo n caeiiiia?iui e
iaiaoiaeeiui  iiaoo ea?aoue neo/aeiua oaeoi?u, oeoeooaoeeiiiua
i?ioeannu. «Eiiaaea oeoeooaoeey iiaeao noaoue ianoieueei neeueiie, /oi
nouanoaiaaaoay i?aaiecaoeey ?ac?ooaaony»2.

1 N.Eo?aethiia:Neia?aaoeea:ia/aea iaeeiaeiiai iuoeaiey.-2,1993, no?.145

2 I.I.Iienaaa:Nia?aiaiiue ?aoeeiiaeecie ie?iaicc?ai/aneea
ia?aaeeaiu.-3,1994, no?.152

3 I.I.Iienaaa:Aeai?eoiu ?acaeoey.-I., 1987, no?.126

4 A.Ieeieen, E.I?eaiaeei:Iiciaiea neiaeiiai.- I., 1990, no?.184

2.1.2 Iaeeiaeiinoue

«Eeiaeiinoue aaniethoece?oao iinooiaoaeueiinoue, aacaeueoa?iaoeaiinoue,
oi?aeanoai iinoiyinoaa»3.

Ii anee aieueoeinoai nenoai Anaeaiiie iineo ioe?uoue oa?aeoa?, oi yoi
cia/eo, /oi ai Anaeaiiie aeiieie?oao ia noaaeeueiinoue e ?aaiiaanea, a
iaonoie/eainoue e ia?aaiiaaniinoue. «Ia?aaiiaaniinoue, a naith
i/a?aaeue, ii?iaeaeaao ecae?aoaeueiinoue nenoaiu, aa iaiau/iua ?aaeoeee
ia aiaoiea aicaeaenoaey n?aaeu»4. Ia?aaiiaaniua nenoaiu eiatho
niiniaiinoue aini?eieiaoue ?acee/ey ai aiaoiae n?aaea e «o/eouaaoue» eo
a naiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiee. Oae, iaeioi?ua aieaa neaaua aicaeaenoaey
iiaoo ieacuaaoue aieueoaa aeeyiea ia yaiethoeeth nenoaiu, /ai
aicaeaenoaey, oioy e aieaa neeueiua, ii ia aaeaeaaoiua nianoaaiiui
oaiaeaioeeyi nenoaiu.

I?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a iaeeiaeiuo nenoaiao, /anoi iinyo ii?iaiaue
oa?aeoa? – i?e ieaaiii eciaiaiee aiaoieo oneiaee iiaaaeaiea nenoaiu
iaiyaony nea/eii. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, a ninoiyieyo, aeaeaeeo io
?aaiiaaney, i/aiue neaaua aiciouaiey iiaoo oneeeaaoueny aei aeaaioneeo
aiei, ?ac?ooathueo neiaeeaoothny no?oeoo?o e niinianoaothueo aa
?aaeeeaeueiiio ea/anoaaiiiio eciaiaieth.

«Iaeeiaeiua nenoaiu, yaeyynue ia?aaiiaaniuie e ioe?uouie, naie
nicaeatho e iiaeaea?aeeaatho iaiaeii?iaeiinoe a n?aaea»1. A oaeeo
oneiaeyo iaaeaeo nenoaiie e n?aaeie iiaoo eiiaaea nicaeaaaoueny
ioiioaiey ia?aoiie iieiaeeoaeueiie nayce, o.a. nenoaia aeeyao ia naith
n?aaeo oaeei ia?acii, /oi a n?aaea au?aaaouaathony iaeioi?ua oneiaey,
eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue iaoneaaeeaatho eciaiaiey a naiie yoie nenoaia
(iai?eia?, a oiaea oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee eee eaeiai-oi ae?oaiai i?ioeanna
au?aaaouaaaony oa?iaio, i?enoonoaea eioi?iai noeioee?oao i?iecaiaenoai
aai naiiai). «Iineaaenoaey oaeiai ?iaea acaeiiaeaenoaey ioe?uoie nenoaiu
e aa n?aaeu iiaoo auoue naiuie iaiaeeaeaiiuie e iaiau/iuie»2.

2.1.3 Aeenneiaoeaiinoue

«Ioe?uoey ia?aaiiaaniie nenoaiu, aeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaothuea n aiaoiae
n?aaeie, iiaoo i?eia?aoaoue iniaia aeeiaie/aneia ninoiyiea –
aeenneiaoeaiinoue, eioi?oth iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae ea/anoaaiii
naiaia?aciia iae?ineiie/aneia i?iyaeaiea i?ioeannia, i?ioaeathueo ia
iae?io?iaia»3. Ia?aaiiaaniia i?ioaeaiea iiiaeanoaa iee?ii?ioeannia
i?eia?aoaao iaeioi?oth eioaa?aoeaioth ?acoeueoe?othuoth ia iae?io?iaia,
eioi?ay ea/anoaaiii ioee/aaony io oiai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo n eaaeaeui
ioaeaeueiui aa iee?iyeaiaioii. Aeaaiaea?y aeenneiaoeaiinoe a
ia?aaiiaaniuo nenoaiao iiaoo niiioaiii aicieeaoue iiaua oeiu no?oeoo?,
niaa?oaoueny ia?aoiaeu io oaina e aanii?yaeea e ii?yaeeo e i?aaiecaoeee,
aicieeaoue iiaua aeeiaie/aneea ninoiyiey iaoa?ee.

Aeenneiaoeaiinoue i?iyaeyaony a ?acee/iuo oi?iao: a niiniaiinoe
«caauaaoue» aeaoaee iaeioi?uo aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee; a «anoanoaaiiii
ioai?a» n?aaee iiiaeanoaa iee?ii?ioeannia, ?ac?ooathuai oi, /oi ia
ioaa/aao iauae oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey; a eiaa?aioiinoe (niaeaniaaiiinoe)
iee?ii?ioeannia, onoaiaaeeaathuae eo iaeee iauee oaii ?acaeoey, e o.ae.

1 A.A.Iaeeiaoeeee:Neia?aaoeea-oai?ey naiii?aaiecaoeee.-I.:Iaoea, 1983,
no?.146

2 N.O.Ea?iaieia: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai
anoanoaiciaiey.-I.:THieoe,1998, no?.147

3 I.Aeaaen:Neo/aeiay Anaeaiiay.-I.:Ie?, 1989, no?.165

2.2 Nenoaiiay iiaeaeue ie?a

«N oi/ee c?aiey nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea Ie?icaeaiea – yoi a?aiaeeiciay
noia?nenoaia, ninoiyuay ec iiiaeanoaa ea?a?oe/anee acaeiinaycaiiuo
iiaenenoai ?aciie i?e?iaeu e ?aciiai o?iaiy neiaeiinoe (einie/aneea,
oece/aneea, oeie/aneea, aaieiae/aneea, aeieiae/aneea, ineoieiae/aneea,
iieeoe/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea e o.ae.), iaoiaeyueony a ?aciiai ?iaea
ioiioaieyo e naycyo ae?oa n ae?oaii e ia?acothueo ii?aaeaeaiioth
oeaeinoiinoue»1. Noaiaoe/ii iia i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?enoiea ?2. A iae
auaeaeaiu ea?a?oee aeeaie e iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu e nioeeaeueiua nenoaiu.

Auno?iaiiay oaeei ia?acii iiaeaeue ie?oaeathuaai ie?a io?aaeaao aai
aeene?aoiinoue. Ia iae i?aaenoaaeai ie? eae iaeee noaoe/iue n?ac,
no?oeoo?a, a eioi?ie «ana naycaii ni anai». Iaeiaei ie?oaeathuee ian ie?
iai?a?uaai, iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii eciaiaiee e ?acaeoee. «Aai iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue eae anaeaineee i?ioeann naiii?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, eae
iineaaeiaaoaeueioth niaio ninoiyiee, iai?aaeaiiue iioie eciaiaiee, a
eioi?ii niceaeaiea (oneiaeiaiea, iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea,
onoie/eainoue) e ?ac?ooaiea (aeaa?aaeaoeey, iaonoie/eainoue)
ia?eiaee/anee iiaoi?ythony e acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii»2.
Oa?aeoa? eo acaeiiaeaenoaey ii?aaeaeyaony iiiaeanoaii neo/aeiuo
oaeoi?ia. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio, n iaeiie noi?iiu nouanoaoao oi aaeeeia
iiiaeanoai ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, eioi?ia iu iaaethaeaai aie?oa naay,
i?iyaeyaony aai iaiiaoi?eiinoue e iaiaeiicia/iinoue, a n ae?oaie –
nio?aiyaony ?iaenoai anaai nouaai, iaaethaeaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay
iai?aaeaiiinoue i?ioeannia. «Ie? i?aaenoaaeyaony eae ioe?uoay
aeeiaie/iay nenoaia, a eioi?ie «ana acaeiiaeaenoaoao ni anai, ana
i?iyaeyaony ai anai», e naiii?aaiecaoeeae, eioi?ie oi?aaeytho
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua caeiiu i?e?iaeu: caeii ieieioia iioaioeeaeueiie
yia?aee, eae ii?aaeaeythuee oneiaea onoie/eainoe; caeiiu nio?aiaiey
(iannu-yia?aee, yio?iiee-eioi?iaoeee e o.ae.)»1.

1 I.?.I?eaiaeei, E.Noaiaa?n:A?aiy,oain,eaaio.-I:Ie?, 1994, no?.138

2 ?.A.?aaaineee: ?acaeaathuayny Anaeaiiay.-I.:1995, no?.54

picscalex1420100090000032a0200000200a20100000000a201000026060f003a03574d
46430100000000000100da3d000000000100000018030000000000001803000001000000
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20454d460000010018030000120000000200000000000000000000000000000061130000
681b0000d200000029010000000000000000000000000000503403002888040016000000
0c000000180000000a0000001000000000000000000000000900000010000000b3100000
a1090000250000000c0000000e000080250000000c0000000e000080120000000c000000
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03010800050000000b0200000000050000000c024e014302040000002e0118001c000000
fb020200010000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00000000000000000000
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0000000043024e01207e0700040000002d010000040000002d010000030000000000

2.3 Naiii?aaiecaoeey e yaiethoeey neiaeiuo nenoai, aeaeaeeo io
?aaiiaaney

Neo/aeiinoue e neo/aeiua oeoeooaoeee ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu ea?atho iniaoth
?ieue a aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiee. «Ioaeii ioee/aoue aeaa oeia neo/aeiinoae.
Ia?aue oei aeaao ia/aei iai?aaeaiiie yaiethoeee nenoaiu e eiaao
niceaeathuee oa?aeoa?, aoi?ie – ii?iaeaeaao iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue,
iaiaeiicia/iinoue, ?ac?ooaao e ionaeaao ana eeoiaa»2.

1 A.Oaeai:Neia?aaoeea.-I.:Ie?, 1993, no?.201

2 I.Yeaai:naiii?aaiecaoeey iaoa?ee yaiethoeey aeieiae/aneeo
iae?iiieaeoe.-I.:Ie?, 1993,n.39

A ?acoeueoaoa eo aeaenoaey a nenoaia aicieeatho iaonoie/eainoe, eioi?ua
iiaoo neoaeeoue oie/eii aeey aicieeiiaaiey ec oaina ca?iaeuoae iiauo
no?oeoo?, eioi?ua i?e aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo aoaeoo ia?aoiaeeoue ai ana
aieaa oii?yaei/aiiua e onoie/eaua. Eo niiioaiiia (naiii?iecaieueiia)
ia?aciaaiea i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao aioo?aiiae ia?ano?ieee nenoaiu e
neio?iiiiai (iaeiia?aiaiiiai) eiiia?aoeaiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aa
yeaiaioia. Yoi yaeaiea e iieo/eei iacaaiea naiii?aaiecaoeee.
Naiioii?yaei/eaaiea nenoaiu naycaii n oiaiueoaieai aa yio?iiee.
«Aeaci?aaiecaoeey e neo/aeiinoue ia iee?io?iaia aunooiatho niceaeathuae
neeie, oii?yaei/eaathuae ninoiyiea nenoaiu ia iae?io?iaia,
eioaa?e?othuae aa yeaiaiou a onoie/eaia aaeeiia oeaeia»1. «Ii?yaeie e
aanii?yaeie, i?aaiecaoeey e aeaci?aaiecaoeey aunooiatho a
aeeaeaeoe/aneii aaeeinoaa, eo acaeiiaeaenoaea iiaeaea?aeeaaao
naii?acaeoea nenoaiu»2.

Eaeae naiii?aaiecaoeee auneacuaaeenue aua a o?aaeeoeeiiiie eeanne/aneie
iaoea XVIII-XIX aaeia (einiiaiie/aneay aeiioaca Eaioa-Eaieana, ?uii/iay
yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey Nieoa e o.ae.). Ii eeoue ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO
aaea, eiaaea aue iaeiieai aeinoaoi/iue oai?aoe/aneee e i?aeoe/aneee
iiuo, ?ac?aaioai iaiaoiaeeiue iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao (oai?ey
aa?iyoiinoae, iaeeiaeiay aeeiaieea, oai?ey eaoano?io, nenoaiiue aiaeec,
oiiieiaey e o.ae.) noaei aiciiaeiui aeaoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea iiaaaeaiey
ioe?uouo nenoai, iaoiaeyueony aaeaee io oa?iiaeeiaie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney,
iienaiea iaueo iaoaieciia e caeiiiia?iinoae eo ?acaeoey. Iniiau oai?ee
naiii?aaiecaoeee auee ?ac?aaioaiu a o?oaeao oeieeia, iieo/eaoeo ie?iaie
i?eciaiea – E. I?eaiaeeia, Ae. Ieeieena, A. Oaeaia a naieaeanyouo aiaeao
OO noieaoey.

1 I.Yoeein:Ii?yaeie e aanii?yaeie a i?e?iaea.-I.:Ie?, 1987, no?.141

2 A.I.?ocaaei: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai
anoanoaiciaiey.-I.:THieoe,1997,no?.68

Oa?iei «neia?aaoeea», noaaoee n iacaaieai iauaiao/iiai iai?aaeaiey,
eioi?ia eco/aao iauea i?eioeeiu naiii?aaiecaoeee e yaiethoeee neiaeiuo
nenoai ?aciiai o?iaiy e ?aciie i?e?iaeu, iniaaiiinoe i?ioeanna niaiu eo
ea/anoaaiiuo ninoiyiee ia iooe ?acaeoey, a iao/iue iaeoiae aaae A.
Oaeai. Aieueoie aeeaae a noaiiaeaiea eaeae neia?aaoeee aianee iaoe
niioa/anoaaiieee: oeiee A.I.?oaeaiei, oecee TH.E, Eeeiiioiae/,
iaoaiaoeee A.I.Eieiiai?ia e ss.A. Neiay. Iniiaiua caeiiu e i?eioeeiu
neia?aaoeee auee onoaiiaeaiu ia iniiaa iaaethaeaiey i?ioeannia
naiii?aaiecaoeee e yaiethoeee neiaeiuo nenoai e, i?aaeaea anaai,
onoaiiaeaiea caeiiiia?iinoae i?ioaeaiey oeceei-oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia.
Naaiaeiy yoi o?ainaeenoeeieeia?iay iao/iay oai?ey, eaeae eioi?ie,
ca?iaeeaoenue a oeiee e oeceea, n oniaoii eniieuecothony a yeieiaee,
aeieiaee, aaieiaee, yeiiiieea, iieeoeea, iaaeeoeeia e o.ae. «Iia aeaao
iiaue ia?ac ie?a i?e?iaeu, /aeiaaea e iauanoaa eae ioe?uouo nenoai,
?acaeaathueony ii iaeeiaeiui caeiiai, ?ane?uaaao aeaienoaaiioth i?e?iaeo
neo/aeiiai, aai niceaeathuaa e aeano?oeoeaiia ia/aea, iieacuaaao, /oi
/a?aaeiaaiea ii?yaeea e oaina yaeyaony ooiaeaiaioaeueiui i?eioeeiii
?acaeoey»1.

«A iniiaa neia?aaoe/aneie ia?aaeeaiu eaaeeo ooaa?aeaeaiea i
ooiaeaiaioaeueiie ?iee neo/aeiuo oeoeooaoeee a ?acaeoee ie?a, i?e yoii
neo/aeiinoue e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue aunooiatho iaiouaieaiia naienoai ia
oieueei iee?iie?a, ii e anaai Ie?icaeaiey, aeeth/ay naiiai /aeiaaea n
aai iai?aaeneacoaiuie yiioeeyie e iaaa?iyoiui ?aciiia?aceai aa?eaioia
iiaaaeaiey a eaeaioe/iuo oneiaeyo»2. Iiiyoea oaina a neia?aaoeea ioee/ii
io eeanne/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey aanii?yaeea. Oain, naycaiiue ni
neo/aeiui ioeeiiaieai ioaeaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu io iaeioi?iai
n?aaeiaai cia/aiey, eiaao aeoeaiia ia/aei. A iiaeoiaeyueo oneiaeyo
aeaaea iaeay oeoeooaoeey iaeiiai ec ia?aiao?ia iiaeao i?eaanoe e iiaiio
no?oeoo?e?iaaieth anae nenoaiu, oi anoue e iiaiio ii?yaeeo, e iiaiio aa
ea/anoao.

Iienuaay i?ioeann naiii?aaiecaoeee, A.Oaeai ioia/aao, /oi aicieeathuay
ec oaina oii?yaei/aiiay no?oeoo?a yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii eiieo?aioeee
iiiaeanoaa ae?ooaeueiuo ninoiyiee, caeiaeaiiuo a nenoaia. A ?acoeueoaoa
eiieo?aioeee i?ienoiaeeo naiii?iecaieueiue auai? oie no?oeoo?u, eioi?ay
iaeaieaa aaeaioeaia e neiaeeaoeiny ia aeaiiue iiiaio e aiaoiei e
aioo?aiiei oneiaeyi. A ?aieao yoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee I.I.Iienaaa
i?aaeeiaeee eiioeaioeey oieaa?naeueiiai yaiethoeeiiecia. A iae
aea?aeiianeay o?eaaea, auaeaeiooay ia iniiaa yiie?e/aneeo iaiauaiee –
eciai/eainoue, ianeaaenoaaiiinoue e ioai?, iieo/eea iaoiaeieiae/aneie
iainiiaaiea. «Auaaaey yoe oa?ieiu ca i?aaeaeu aeieiae/aneiai e ?anoe?ea
eo niune, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue eo aeey iauyniaiey iaoaiecia ?acaeoey
nenoai ethaie i?e?iaeu»3.

1 ENA/iiae ?aae.A.I.Eaa?eiaiei.-I.:THieoe,1997, no?.138

2 A.Oaeai:Neia?aaoeea.-I.:Ie?, 1993, no? 184

3 Eiioeaioeey naiii?aaiecaoeee: noaiiaeaiea iiaiai ia?aca iuoeaiey.-
I.,1994, no? 162

Neo/aeiinoue e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue – yoi ooiaeaiaioaeueiia naienoai
iaoa?ee iaoneaaeeaaao eciai/eainoue ie?oaeathuaai ie?a.
«Ianeaaenoaaiiinoue icia/aao caaeneiinoue ianoiyuaai e aoaeouaai io
i?ioeiai. Noaiaiue yoie caaeneiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony «iaiyoueth» nenoaiu,
eioi?ay a i?aaeaea iiaeao i?eieiaoue cia/aiey io ioey (oaioe/aneea
ia?aciaaiey, eeoaiiua iaiyoe) aei aaneiia/iinoe (aeanoei
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua nenoaiu)»1. Ii ?aaeueiua nenoaiu eiatho iaeioi?ue
«ei?eaei?» iaiyoe; oe?eia eioi?iai caaeneo io o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee.
«Eciai/eainoue nicaeaao aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeecaoeee iiiaeanoaa aiciiaeiuo
aa?eaioia ?acaeoey nenoaiu»2. Iaeiaei ianeaaenoaaiiinoue ia?aie/eaaao eo
/enei. Ec iiiaeanoaa aeiionoeiuo aa?eaioia «ioae?athony» oa, eioi?ua ia
i?ioeai?a/ao ooiaeaiaioaeueiui caeiiai i?e?iaeu, a ?acoeueoaoa ioai?a
«auaeeaatho» iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciua e onoie/eaua a neiaeeaoeony
oneiaeyo no?oeoo?u.

«A nenoaia iiae aeeyieai iinooiathueo ecaia ?ano?nia eaeao iaaeeaiiia
eiee/anoaaiiia iaeiieaiea ianouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
ineaaeaieth aiiainoaca»3. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeaea,
ca eioi?ui iaaethaeaaony ea?aeeiaeueiia eciaiaiea aa ninoiyiey, eioi?ia
inouanoaeyaony i?aeoe/anee iaiiaaiii, nea/eii. Nenoaia a?aiaiii
ieacuaaaony a iaonoie/eaii ninoiyiee, «oa?yao iaiyoue», e oa?aeoa? aa
iineaaeothuaai ?acaeoey ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei oaie neo/aeiuie oaeoi?aie,
eioi?ua a yoio iiiaio aeaenoaotho ia nenoaio. Aeey auoiaea ec iaai o
nenoaiu anoue aeaa aiciiaeiinoe: aeaa?aaeaoeey, ?ac?ooaiea, eiaiethoeey
eeai naiii?aaiecaoeey, oneiaeiaiea, yaiethoeey. Aanue i?ioeann ?acaeoey
nenoaiu iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue eae /a?aaeo niaiythueo ae?oa ae?oaa
iaaeeaiiuo e nea/eiia?aciuo eciaiaiee.

Noaiiaeaiea eaeae neia?aaoeee naycaii n oi?ie?iaaieai iiaiai
ie?iiiieiaiey. «Ie? neaicue i?ecio neia?aaoeee i?aaenoaao eae
?acaeaathuayny neiaeii i?aaieciaaiiay ea?a?oe/aneay nenoaia»4. Yoi
i?aaenoaaeaiea noaei iniiaie naeeaeaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiie aa?iiaeneie iunee
i no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiyo i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee n eaeayie ae?aaiae ainoi/iie
oeeinioee i aeiaaeueiie acaeiinayce anaai nouaai, i acaeiiaeaenoaee
iioaioeeaeueiiai e ?aaeueiiai. Yoi iiiuoea naeeaeaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai iuoeaiey n aoiaieoa?iui.

1 A.I.?aoieeia: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey: o/aaiee
-THIEOE, 1997, no? 179

2 A.I.Ieoaeeaaneee: Aeeaeaeoeea oi?ie?iaiey nia?. iao/. Ea?oeiu
ie?a.-E.:EAO, 1989,no?.54

3 O.I.Aeyaeeaa: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai
anoanoaiciaiey.-I.:THieoe,1998,no? 93

4 Aeoaieuaaa O.I.: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey.- I.: THieoe,
1998,no?. 138

2.4 Iniiau oai?ee naiii?aaiecaoeee nenoai

Ninoiyiea nenoaiu caaeneo io aa ia?aiao?ia e iiiaeanoaa aioo?aiieo e
aiaoieo oaeoi?ia. Iai?eia?, aeey iaoiaeaeaiey aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia
eieaaaiee oece/aneiai iayoieea ioaeii ciaoue anaai aeaa ia?aiao?a –
eii?aeeiaoo e nei?inoue. Eo cia/aiea a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyony naienoaaie naiiai iayoieea (aeeeia aai iiaeaana, ianna e
o.ae.) e aiaoieie oneiaeyie, a eioi?uo i?ienoiaeyo eieaaaiey (o?aiea,
onei?aiea e o.ae.)

Aeey iienaiey ?acaeoey aieaa neiaeiuo nenoai iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue aieueoaa
/enei ia?aiao?ia. Iai?eia?, aeey iienaiey nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu
iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue au?aaeaiiua a aaeeiie eiee/anoaaiiie oeaea
iieacaoaee ninoiyiey yeiiiieee e oaoiieiaee, o?iaaiue caei?iauey e
ia?aciaaiey ianaeaiey, ?iaeaeaaiinoue e nia?oiinoue, iaee/ea i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia e eo ea/anoai e o.ae. Oaciaia i?ino?ainoai oaeie nenoaiu
iiiaiia?ii, aai iao?eea ii?aaeaeyaony /eneii auaeaeaiiuo ia?aiao?ia.
Ieineinoue, a eioi?ie iie ?aniieaaathony, iacuaaaony oaciaui
i?ino?ainoaii, a yeeeinu yoeo ia?aiao?ia – oaciauie o?aaeoi?eyie.

A ?acoeueoaoa iaiaia ?ano?naie n ae?oaeie nenoaiaie, a oaeaea neo/aeiuo
oeoeooaoeee n oa/aieai a?aiaie ia?aiao?u nenoaiu eciaiythony,
i?ienoiaeeo iineaaeiaaoaeueiay niaia ninoiyiee. Oi/ea, niioaaonoaothuay
ninoiyieth nenoaiu, ia?aiauaaony aioo?e oaciaiai i?ino?ainoaa aaeieue
oaciaie o?aaeoi?ee, aeae eioi?ie caaeneo io eioaineaiinoe i?ioeannia
iaiaia, naienoa nenoaiu e oa?aeoa?a eciaiaiey aa aioo?aiiaai ninoiyiey.

«*oiau i?aaenoaaeoue oaciaoth o?aaeoi?eth a aiaeeoe/aneii aeaea,
iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo ia?aiao?aie»1. A neo/aa ioe?uouo
nenoai, aeaeaeeo io ?aaiiaaney, iacaaeneii io eo i?e?iaeu, yoa
acaeiinaycue iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia /a?ac niaieoiiinoue iaeeiaeiuo, o.a.
niaea?aeaueo ia?aiaiiua noaiaie, o?aaiaiee.

A iauai neo/aa ?aoaiea oaeeo o?aaiaiee a?aoe/anee iiaeao auoue
i?aaenoaaeaii naiaenoaii oaciauo o?aaeoi?ee.

1 A.I.?aoieeia: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey: o/aaiee
-THIEOE, 1997, no? 174

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Oaciaia i?ino?ainoai

Oi/ee eo ia?ana/aiey, anee oaeiaua anoue, iinyo iacaaiey oi/ae
aeoo?eaoeee – oi/ae «auai?a» aeaeueiaeoaai iooe ?acaeoey. Oi/ee
aeoo?eaoeee – iniaua oi/ee – oi/ee ?aaiiaaney, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue eae
onoie/eaui, oae e iaonoie/eaui. N iiceoeee neia?aaoeee eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeytho eiaiii iaonoie/eaua ninoiyiey. Eo iiyaeaiea icia/aao
iioaioeeaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea nenoaiu a iiaia ea/anoaaiiia
ninoiyiea, iiaue ?aaeei, eioi?iio aoaeao ioaa/aoue iiaue oei aa
iiaaaeaiey. Yoe ninoiyiey, eo oa?aeoa? e ia?aiao?u caaenyo io a?aie/iuo
oneiaee, caaeaaaaiuo naienoaaie n?aaeu, a eioi?ie iaoiaeyony
enneaaeoaiua nenoaiu.

A oaeeo ninoiyieyo /?acau/aeii aaaeiu neo/aeiua oeoeooaoeee. Io eo
aaee/eiu, iai?aaeaiey e a?aiaie aicaeaenoaey caaeneo, ii eaeie ec
aiciiaeiuo o?aaeoi?ee nenoaia aoaeao auoiaeeoue ec ninoiyiey
iaonoie/eainoe. Aieueoeinoai aicieeathueo oeoeooaoeee ?annaeaaaony.
Iaeiaei i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo (ii?iaiauo) oneiaeyo iie iiaoo oneeeaaoueny ca
n/ao neo/aeiuo (eee oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo) aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee, eioi?ua,
aeaenoaoy a ?aciiain, eae au «iiaeoaeeeaatho» nenoaio e auai?o
o?aaeoi?ee ?acaeoey. Oaeei iaoiaeii /anoi iieuecothony aeey oi?aaeaiey
nioeeaeueiuie, yeiiiie/aneeie, iaaeaaiae/aneeie, yeieiae/aneeie,
oaoiieiae/aneeie e ae?oaeie nenoaiaie.

«A oi/eao aeoo?eaoeee ia?aae naiii?aaiecothuaeny nenoaiie ioe?uaaaony
iiiaeanoai aa?eaioia iooae ?acaeoey»1. Iaeiia?aiaiii aicieeaao
iiiaeanoai aeenneiaoeaiuo aeeiaie/aneeo iee?ino?oeoo? – i?iia?acia
aoaeoueo ninoiyiee nenoaiu – o?aeoaeia. Ii, eae i?aaeei, aieueoeinoai ec
ieo ieacuaathony iaauaiaeiuie n oi/ee c?aiey ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo caeiiia
i?e?iaeu, e eeai ?ac?ooathony iieiinoueth, eeai inoathony eae
ioaeaeueiua inoaoee i?ioeiai, n eioi?uie iu ia ?aaeei noaeeeaaainy ia
oieueei a ie?a i?e?iaeu, ii e a aeecie iauanoaa, ycuea e eoeueoo?a
ia?iaeia. A oi/ea aeoo?eaoeee i?ienoiaeeo naiaia?aciay eiieo?aioeey
o?aeoaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee, a ?acoeueoaoa «auaeeaaao» oi, eioi?ia yaeyaony
iaeaieaa i?eniiniaeaiiui e aiaoiei oneiaeyi.

I?e aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo oaeie o?aeoae «?ac?anoaaony» e
ia?a?iaeaeaaony a iiaoth iae?ino?oeoo?o. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai nenoaia
ia?aoiaeeo a iiaia ea/anoaaiiia ninoiyiea. «Aua?aa» aai, iia
i?iaeieaeaao iinooiaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea aei neaaeothuae oi/ee
aeoo?eaoeee. 1

E.A.Oa?ania: Ie?, iino?iaiiue ia aa?iyoiinoe.-I., 1984, no? 142

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Aeoo?eaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? yaiethoeee nenoaiu.

«Iiaaaeaiea nenoaiu a yoii ninoiyiee iiaeiaii aeoaeaeaieth ii eaae?eioo
ni iiiaeanoaii ooieeia»1. ««Auai?» iooe ?acaeoey inouanoaeyaony iaoiaeii
i?ia e ioeaie aei oao ii?, iiea iia ia «iaoiaeeo» aa?eaio, iioeiaeueiue
n oi/ee c?aiey ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo caeiiia i?e?iaeu»2. Caeanue /?acau/aeii
aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho eiiia?aoeaiua (niaianoiua) i?ioeannu,
iniiauaathueany ia eiaa?aioiii (niaeaniaaiiii) acaeiiaeaenoaee yeaiaioia
ca?iaeaeathuaeny o?aeoaeueiie no?oeoo?u.

A n?aaea, iaoiaeyuaeny a iniaii ninoiyiee, yoio naiii?iecaieueiue
i?ioeann oneiaeiaiey e niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu ia?eiaee/anee
iiaoi?yaony e iiaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny aaneiia/ii aeieai1

A.I.Ieoaeeaaneee: Aeeaeaeoeea oi?ie?iaiey nia?. iao/. Ea?oeiu
ie?a.-E.:EAO, 1989,n158

2 A.Ieeieen, E.I?eaiaeei: Iiciaiea neiaeiiai.- I., 1990, no? 97

. I?e yoii ioie?atho noa?ua yeaiaiou e ?aoony noa?ua nayce, oi?iicyuea
aa ?acaeoea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea; a ?acoeueoaoa aaeaioaoeee e iiaui
aiaoiei oneiaeyi ca?iaeaeathony e oei?aiythony iiaua yeaiaiou e iiaua
nayce, i?ienoiaeeo ia?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey nenoaiu, iiyaeythony iiaua
ooieoeee. Yoi iiaia nio?aiythony neaaeu aueuo ninoiyiee e no?oeoo?, /oi
e iaoneaaeeaaao eo aaiaoe/aneia ?iaenoai.

Oeoeooaoeee aicieeatho oaioe/ii, eo ia?iiiia eiee/anoai, ii aieueoeinoai
ec ieo caoooaao, eae au ionaeathony ana eeoiea aeo?aaua iioiee,
inoathony oieueei oa, eioi?ua ia?aciauaatho iiaua onoie/eaua
iae?ininoiyiey – aoo?aeoi?u. Aoo?aeoi? eae au i?eoyaeaaao e naaa
iiiaeanoai o?aaeoi?ee nenoaiu, ii?aaeaeyaiuo ?aciuie ia/aeueiuie
cia/aieyie ia?aiao?ia. «Anee iaonoie/eaay iee?ino?oeoo?a iiiaaeaao a
eiion aoo?aeoi?a, oi iia iaecaaaeii yaiethoeeiie?oao e onoie/eaiio
ninoiyieth e iiaeao iaoiaeeony a iai aei oao ii?, iiea a neeo eaeeo-eeai
i?e/ei nenoaia aiiaue ia i?eaeao a iaonoie/eaia ninoiyiea»1. Yoe i?e/eiu
naycaiu n ianiioaaonoaeai aioo?aiiaai ninoiyiey ioe?uoie nenoaiu aiaoiei
oneiaeyi n?aaeu. E iiyoue o nenoaiu aicieeaao iiiaeanoai aa?eaioia
?acaeoey.

A ethaie nenoaiu o?aaeoi?ey ?acaeoey i?ioeanna, aaeoi? aai
iai?aaeaiiinoe ii?aaeaeytho aeeiaieeo yaiethoeee nenoaiu. Aia/aea eaeao
iaaeeaiiia eiee/anoaaiiia iaeiieaiea eciaiaiee. Iii aiciiaeii eeoue aei
ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeaea – ninoiyiey iaonoie/eainoe. A yoii ninoiyiee
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae eiee/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a ea/anoaaiiua, eioi?ue,
eae i?aaeei, inouanoaeyaony nea/eii. Iiiaio ia?aoiaea ii?aaeaeyaony
naienoaaie nenoaiu e o?iaiai oeoeooaoeee a iae. A ?acoeueoaoa nea/eia a
nenoaia i?ienoiaeyo ea?aeeiaeueiua (?aaiethoeeiiiua) eciaiaiey.
Nea/eiia?aciia eciaiaiea aioo?aiiaai ninoiyiey nenoaiu a ioaao ia
ieaaiia eciaiaiea aiaoieo oneiaee a iaoaiaoeea iacuaatho «eaoano?ioie».
Aeey nenoaiu yoi icia/aao iioa?th onoie/eainoe.

1 I.?.I?eaiaeei, E.Noaiaa?n:A?aiy,oain,eaaio.-I:Ie?, 1994, no? 54

«?acaeoea nenoaiu ethaie i?e?iaeu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /a?aaeo iienaiiuo
auoa eciaiaiee, a yaiethoeeiiiue i?ioeann – ii?aaeaeaiioth
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iaaeeaiiuo iinoaiaiiuo yoaiia ?acaeoey e
ea/anoaaiiuo nea/eia ?aciiai ianooaaa, ia?eiaee/aneee i?ioeann niaiu aa
ea/anoaaiiuo ninoiyiee, aeaeaeaiea io iaeiie iaonoie/eainoe e ae?oaie,
io iaeiie oi/ee aeoo?eaoeee e ae?oaie»1.

Iinooiaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea nenoaiu ii iooe yaiethoeee naycaii n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth au?aaioee ea/anoaaiii iiauo aaeaioeaiuo iaoaieciia.
«Anee nenoaia aeaaiaea?y aioo?aiiae ia?ano?ieea noiaea i?eniiniaeoueny e
iiaui oneiaeyi, oi iia ia?aoiaeeo e iiaiio onoie/eaii ninoiyieth, a
i?ioeaiii neo/aa iia aeaa?aaee?oao e ?ac?ooaaony»2. A onoie/eaii
ninoiyiee iia aoaeao iaoiaeeoueny aei i/a?aaeiie, aaaeiie aeey iaa,
neo/aeiie oeoeooaoeee, iiae aeeyieai eioi?ie neooaoeey aiiaue
iiaoi?eony. Yoio ia?eiaee/aneee i?ioeann i?ioaeaao aei oao ii?, iiea
nenoaiu iaiaieaaaony n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie ?ano?naie. A anoanoaaiiuo
oneiaeyo (a ionoonoaea niaoeeaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey) iia iiaeao
i?iaeieaeaoueny aaneiia/ii aeieai, /oi e iaaethaeaaony ia i?eia?a
anoanoaaiiuo oeie/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo nenoai, aaeeinoaaiiui
«oi?aaeoaeai» e «eniieieoaeai» i?aia?aciaaiee a eioi?uo yaeythony
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua caeiiu i?e?iaeu. Ii oaeiio iooe eaeao ?acaeoea
aaniethoii anao nenoai, ii nei?inoue yoiai i?ioeanna a ?aciuo nenoaiao
?acee/ia. Oeie/aneay yaiethoeey Anaeaiiie i?iaeieaeaaony ieiei
aeaaaeoeaoe ieeeea?aeia eao, aeeaiai aauanoaa – ieiei /aou?ao,
yaiethoeey /aeiaaea – ieiei aeaoo ieeeeiiia, a iauanoaa – ianeieueei
aeanyoeia ouny/ eao.

«I?ioeann oneiaeiaiey aaneiia/ai, iao i?aaeaea niaa?oainoao»3. Ii i?e
yoii anaaaea anoue aiaoiea oaeoi?u (iioiee eioi?iaoeee, yia?aee,
aauanoaa) eioi?ua eae au iiaeoaeeeaatho nenoaio e naiii?aaiecaoeee.
Iai?eia?, naiii?aaiecaoeey aeinoa?u inouanoaeyaony aeaaiaea?y yia?aee
Nieioea, ?aaioa eaca?a – aeaaiaea?y yia?aee iaea/ee e o.ae. A oeceea
eiiia?aoeaiuo yaeaiee (oeceea ieaciu, eaca?iay oeceea) oii?yaei/eaaiea
nenoai aeinoeaaaony ia i?inoi ca n/ao iinooiathuae ecaia yia?aee, ii e
ca n/ao oi?aaeaiey aa oa?aeoa?ii e iioieaie.

1 A.I.?ocaaei: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai
anoanoaiciaiey.-I.:THieoe,1997,no? 139

2 ENA/iiae ?aae.A.I.Eaa?eiaiei.-I.:THieoe,1997, no?. 59

3 A.Oaeai:Neia?aaoeea.-I.:Ie?, 1993, no? 184

2.5 Neia?aaoe/aneay ea?oeia ie?a

Iauea caeiiiia?iinoe i?ioaeaiey i?ioeannia naiii?aaiecaoeee
nioeeii?e?iaeiuo nenoai, auyaeaiiua neia?aaoeeie, iicaieytho iaeaieaa
iieii i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue aaeeinoai anaai nouaai, iino?ieoue Eaoeio
ie?a, a eioi?ie ana – aeeciue aeeaie e iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu, aeeciue e
oai?/anoai /aeiaaea, aeeciue iauanoaa – naycaii ni anai e iiae/eiaii
aaeeiui anaeaineei ooiaeaiaioaeueiui caeiiai i?e?iaeu. Yoi iaiauaiiay
neia?aaoe/aneay ea?oeia ie?a.

Aa yae?i ninoaaeytho eaeae:

v Ie? i?aaenoaaeyao noia?nenoaio, ninoiyuoth ec ea?a?oee acaeiinaycaiiuo
iiaenenoai ?aciiai o?iaiy neiaeiinoe, a eioi?ie nenoaiu aieaa ieceiai
ea?a?oe/aneiai o?iaiy yaeythony yeaiaioaie nenoai aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy.
Aeey iienaiey eo ninoiyiey iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue ia?iiiia /enei ia?aiao?ia,
oa?aeoa?ecothueo anth noia?nenoaio e eaaeaeoth iiaenenoaio a
ioaeaeueiinoe.

v Ie? iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii eciaiaiee. Yoi aeiaaeueiue i?ioeann
i?aaenoaaeyao ia?eiaee/aneoth niaio ?ac?ooaiee noa?iai e niceaeaiee
iiaiai ia iooe naiii?aaiecaoeee e yaiethoeee.

v Naiii?aaiecaoeey e oneiaeiaiea aiciiaeiu eeoue a ioe?uouo nenoaiao,
eioi?ua iaiaieaathony n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie aauanoaii, yia?aeae e
eioi?iaoeeae e iaoiaeyony aaeaee io oa?iiaeeiaie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney.

v Caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey nenoai iinyo aa?iyoiinoiue noioanoe/aneee
oa?aeoa?; neo/aeiinoue e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue aunooiatho eae
ooiaeaiaioaeueiia naienoai anaai nouaai. Neo/aeiia eciaiaiea ioaeaeueiuo
aiaoieo eee aioo?aiieo ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu, ioeeiiaiea eo io ?aaiiaaniiai
cia/aiey (oeoeooaoeee) iiaoo aucaaoue iaonoie/eainoue ninoiyiey anae
nenoaiu eee aa /anoae e iineoaeeoue eiino?oeoeaiui ia/aeii aeey
oneiaeiaiey e ia?aoiaea ia ea/anoaaiii iiaoth nooiaiue ?acaeoey.

v I?ioeann naiii?aaiecaoeee i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey
neo/aeiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe e anaaaea naycai n ia?aoiaeii ia
ea/anoaaiii iiaoth nooiaiue ?acaeoey.

v Naiii?aaiecaoeey iaoneiaeaia eiiia?aoeaiuie i?ioeannaie, eieeaeoeaiui
niaeaniaaiiui ?aciiainiui acaeiiaeaenoaeai yeaiaioia nenoaiu;
eioaa?aoeeae eo niaianoiuo oneeee ia iooe ?acaeoey nenoaiu; eiaiii
aeaaiaea?y yoiio ca?iaeaeathony iiaiia?aciaaiey, eioi?ua i?e
aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo iiaoo ia?a?anoe a iiaoth no?oeoo?o.

v ?acaeoea i?ienoiaeeo ii iaeeiaeiui caeiiai. Iaeeiaeiinoue icia/aao

v iiiaiaa?eaioiinoue iooae auai?a e aeueoa?iaoea auoiaea ec iaonoie/eauo
ninoiyiee.

Aeiaaeueiue i?ioeann naiii?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, aaneiia/iue a
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie i?iniao?eaaaony a o?ao o?iaiyo:

1. Naiii?aaiecaoeey e yaiethoeey einiie (iaaeeaie) iaoa?ee. A yoii
i?ioeanna iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa iai?aaeaiey:

– oeie/aneay yaiethoeey: yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu? aoiiu? iai?aaie/aneea
iieaeoeu?> i?inoua i?aaie/aneea iieaeoeu? aeiiieeia?u.

– no?oeoo?a yaiethoeee Anaeaiiie: aaciiueaaay ooiaiiinoue? caacaeiay
nenoaia? aaeaeoeea? iaoaaaeaeoeea? Anaeaiiay.

I?ioeann naiii?aaiecaoeee einiiai aauanoaa i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiaea?y
i?eieoeaiui niiniaai io?aaeaiey einiie iaoa?ee e iaiaio oece/aneie
eioi?iaoeeae (acaeiiaeaenoaeth), iineoaeai eioi?ie yaeythony
a?aaeoaoeeiiiia, yeaeo?iiaaieoiia, neaaie e neeueiie iiey. Yoi yoai
i?aaeaeieiae/aneie yaiethoeee.

2. Naiii?aaiecaoeey e yaiethoeey aeeaiai aauanoaa. «Ia ii?aaeaeaiiii
yoaia yaiethoeee einiie iaoa?ee, a eaeie-oi iiiaio a?aiaie, a eaeie-oi
oi/ea Anaeaiiie nicaeaeenue oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo i?aaie/aneia aauanoai
na?oiie?iaaeinue a nenoaiu, niiniaiua e naii?aaoeyoeee e
naiiaini?iecaaaeaieth»1. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiia oneiaeiaiea yoeo nenoai a
oa/aiea ieeeea?aeia eao i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth aunieii?aaieciaaiiuo
aeeaioiuo.

3. Ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia yaiethoeee io aunoeo aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaeo
aicieeatho niiauanoaa, iniiaaiiua ia ?acoia e eieeaeoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. «A i?ioeanna naiii?aaiecaoeee niiauanoa a oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo ieeeeiiia eao i?ienoiaeeea nioeeaeueiay e ineoe/aneay
yaiethoeey /aeiaaea»2. A yoio ia?eiae oneiaeiythony eiiioieeaoeaiua
ioiioaiey, oaoie/aneay iniauaiiinoue, o?iaaiue iiciaiey e eniieueciaaiey
i?e?iaeu. *aeiaae eciaiyao oa?aeoa? yia?aaoe/aneeo, aauanoaaiiuo e
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia, aeoeaii aoi?aaaony a aeioeie/aneea oeeeeu,
nicaeaao eneonnoaaiiua nenoaiu e oi?aaeyao eie.

1 A.I.?aoieeia: Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey: o/aaiee
-THIEOE, 1997, no? 89

2I.Yeaai:naiii?aaiecaoeey iaoa?ee yaiethoeey aeieiae/aneeo
iae?iiieaeoe.-I.:Ie?, 1993,n93

2.6 Naiii?aaiecaoeey Anaeaiiie

Aei ia/aea i?ioeanna ?aeiiaeiaoeee ?acaeoea Anaeaiiie oei /a?ac
iineaaeiaaoaeueiia i?aia?aciaaiea aaeooia e aauanoaa, aeinoeaeaiey a
oiaea oaeeo i?aia?aciaaiee ana aieaa aunieeo o?iaiae oii?yaei/aiiinoe e
neiaeiinoe. I?ioeann i?ioaeae iooai aeiaaeueiiai iaoaaoa anae Anaeaiiie
eae oeaeiai. Aeaeaeouae neeie naiii?aaiecaoeee neoaeeee aeoaeiiua
naienoaa aaeooia e aauanoaa e iniaaiiinoe eo i?iyaeaiey a yeno?aiaeueiuo
oneiaeyo ia/aeueiiai ia?eiaea ?acaeoey. I?aaeaea anaai, Anaeaiiay eae
nenoaia aeieaeia auoue ioe?uoie. Ii /oi iiaeii /eoaoue ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeie Anaeaiiie? Ai anao nea/eiia?aciuo ia?aoiaeao ?aiiae Anaeaiiie
enoi/ieeii yia?aee e aauanoaa auee oece/aneee aaeooi e oa oaciaua
ia?aoiaeu, eioi?ua a iai ia?aoaeaee. Acaeiiioiioaiey aauanoaaiiie
Anaeaiiie e aaeooia iiea inoathony aeey ian caaaaeeie, e oiio aea aaeooi
e aauanoai ia?acaeaeeiu, eae iaioaeaeeiu naaa?iue e thaeiue iiethn
iaaieoa.

Aeaeaa, aeenneiaoeaiua nenoaiu noaoai ia?aaiiaaniu. «Anaeaiiay aeinoeaea
?oaaaea ?aeiiaeiaoeee n caiaoiuie ioeeiiaieyie io ?aaiiaaniinoe: a iae
ia?ooai ?aaiiaaniue ninoaa aauanoaa e aioeaauanoaa, iia ninoieo ec o?ao
ii/oe ia acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iaaeaeo niaie /anoae (iaeo?eiiue aac,
?aeeeoiaia eceo/aiea, aa?eiiiia aauanoai), eaaeaeay ec ieo eiaao naith
oaiia?aoo?o, ioee/ioth io oaiia?aoo?u ae?oaeo /anoae, ia?ooaia
?aaiiaaniinoue ninoaaia»1. Ana yoi neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae oeie/iua
i?eciaee ia?aaiiaaniinoe nenoaiu, ii?iaeaeathuea a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo aa iaonoie/eainoue. Iaeiiaoe, aeinoeaeaiea aeenneiaoeaiie
nenoaiie e?aeiae iaonoie/eainoe, iiaeaioaaeeaathuae aa nea/eiia?aciue
ia?aoiae a iiaia onoie/eaia ninoiyiea, i?ienoiaeeo i?e aeinoeaeaiee
oa?aeoa?iuie ia?aiao?aie nenoaiu e?eoe/aneeo cia/aiee. Ninoiyiea
Anaeaiiie ia ?aiiai ia?eiaea aa ?acaeoey oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue oaiia?aoo?ie
ieiei 3000E e ieioiinoueth aauanoaa 3*10-22a/ni3. I?e oaeeo cia/aieyo
yoeo ia?aiao?ia aicieeea a?aaeoaoeeiiiay ianoaaeeueiinoue e ie iaeii ec
ae?oaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee ia iiaei aunooieoue a ea/anoaa
aeaeaaoaey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey Anaeaiiie.

1 A.Ieeieen, E.I?eaiaeei:Iiciaiea neiaeiiai.- I., 1990, no? 94

Iaaeaeo oai, iaaethaeaaiua aeaiiua i aaeaeoeeao canoaaeytho ano?ioeceeia
eneaoue nianai ae?oaea iiaeoiaeu e iauyniaieth eo ia?aciaaiey. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeoeaii ianoaeaeaaony iiaeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey aaeaeoee,
iacaaiiay «ai?y/ae». I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi i?ioiaaeaeoeee i?aaenoaaeyee
niaie aeaaioneea aaciaua iaeaea, ianna eaaeaeiai ec eioi?uo caiaoii
i?aauoaea ianno ia?aciaaaoaeny ec iaa aaeaeoeee. A eaaeaeii iaeaea a
neeo iniaaiiinoae aaciaeeiaie/aneeo i?ioeannia ianooiaea noaaeey ao?iiai
caacaeiia?aciaaiey: ai anai iauaia ?iaeaeaeenue aeanyoee e nioie
ieeeeiiia caacae, n?aaee eioi?uo n /anoioie a ouny/o ?ac aieueoa, /ai
oaia?ue, aniuoeaaee naa?oiiaua. Yoi ii?iaeeei iiuiue iioie ?aneaeaiiuo
aacia, aaeaeoe/aneee o?aaai n oaiia?aoo?ie aaca a aeanyoee e nioie
ieeeeiiia a?aaeonia. Ca a?aieoeu i?ioiaaeaeoeee auiineeenue ia?iiiua
iannu aauanoaa ii?yaeea nioie nieia/iuo iann a aiae. Aianoa n aauanoaii
ooea ia?iiiay yia?aey. Iaa?aa aaca a iaeaea inoaiiaee ao?iia
caacaeiia?aciaaiea, caoai ia/aeny i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey caacae
neaaeothuaai iieieaiey, ?anoyioaoeeny ia ieeeea?ae e aieaa eao.

«Ai?y/ay» iiaeaeue ia?aciaaiey aaeaeoee iauyniyao iniiaiua iaaethaeaaiua
eo iniaaiiinoe. A aa iieueco aiai?yo aeaiiua, iieo/aiiua n iiiiuueth
niooieeia.

1 E.A.Oa?ania: Ie?, iino?iaiiue ia aa?iyoiinoe.-I., 1984, no? 147

2 TH.E.Eeeiiioiae/: Aac oi?ioe i neia?aaoeea.- Ieine, 1986,no? 82

2.7 Naiii?aaiecaoeey e yaiethoeey aeeaiai aauanoaa.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iao aeinoaoi/ii /aoeiai ii?aaeaeaiey, /oi oaeia
aeeciue. «N oi/ee c?aiey iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee aeeciue – yoi
iniaay oi?ia aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee»1. N oi/ee c?aiey
nenoaiii-neia?aaoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea aeeciue – yoi «oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey
iae?ineiie/aneeo aaoa?iaaiiuo ioe?uouo nenoai, aeaeaeeo io ?aaiiaaney,
niiniaiuo e naiii?aaiecaoeee, naii?aaoeyoeee e naiiaini?iecaaaeaieth»2.
Ii iiaio iiaieth, yoi ii?aaeaeaiey yaeyaony iaeaieaa iieiui, oae eae
io?aaeaao i?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea aeeaie iaoa?ee io einiie. Ii
n?aaiaieth n iineaaeiae, aeeciue – yoi ea/anoaaiii iiaay oi?ia
i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, iniiaiua naienoaa eioi?ie – niiniaiinoue
onaaeaaoue yia?aeth Nieioea ca n/ao oioineioaca e aini?iecaiaeeoue ec
iaaeeaiai aeeaia.

Iaiaoiaeeii aeiaaaeoue, /oi a aeeauo nenoaiao i?ioeannu naii?aaoeyoeee
inouanoaeythony ia o?iaia aeoeaiiai iaiaia aauanoaii, yia?aeae e
eioi?iaoeeae. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi ?aaeoeee aeeaiai i?aaiecia ia
aicaeaenoaea n?aaeu iinyo iia?aaeathuee oa?aeoa?.

Yeaiaioa?iay aaeeieoea oaeiai i?aaiecia – eeaoea. «Ae i?enoue ana
i?eciaee aeeaiai – iaiai aauanoa, ?acae?aaeeiinoue, naiii?aaiecaoeey,
naii?aaoeyoeey, naiiaini?iecaaaeaiea, ia?aaea/a ianeaaenoaaiiuo
i?eciaeia. Iia yaeyaony naiii?aaiecothuaeny aeioeie/aneie nenoaiie,
ninoiyuae ec aieueoiai /enea niaeaniaaiii ooieoeeiie?othueo i?aaiieaeia.
Eeaoea, oioy e iaeaaeaao anaie ooieoeeyie aeeaiai, ianiiniaia e
naiinoiyoaeueiiio nouanoaiaaieth (ca eneeth/aieai iaeiieeaoi/iuo
i?aaieciia) a ioe?uoie n?aaea»1.

Aaaeiia i?iyaeaiea aeecie aeieiae/aneie nenoaiu – aeaeaiea eeaoee. N
?inoii eeaoee oooaeoathony oneiaey ieoaiey aa yeaiaioia, /oi aeieaeii
i?eaanoe e caiaaeeaieth i?ioeannia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. E?iia oiai,
?ino eeaoee naycai n iino?iaieai eiiee eaaeaeiai aa yeaiaioa.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai nieaeathony aiciiaeiinoe oi?aaeaiey aioo?aiieie
i?ioeannaie. Yoe yaeaiey i?eaiaeyo e iiauoaieth yio?iiee eeaoee e
niinianoaotho aa ia?aoiaeo a iaonoie/eaia ninoiyiea, auoiae ec eioi?iai
– aeaeaiea iaoa?eineie eeaoee ia aeaa aei/a?iea. Iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey aeaeaiey neeaaeuaathony a iiiaio oaeaiaiey iannu, i?e yoii
eeoiyy yio?iiey na?anuaaaony a ie?oaeathuaa i?ino?ainoai e
ia?aciaaaoeany aeaa iiaua nenoaiu aiiaue ia?aoatho onoie/eainoue aei
i/a?aaeiiai iiiaioa aeaeaiey. Iinea ianeieueeeo aeaeaiee eeaoee /anoi
aeaioo, oae eae eo aeeciue caaeneo io neaiaeia ae?oaeo eeaoie i?aaiecia.
Naie yoie caaeneiinoe aaaeao e iiyaeaieth ?aeiauo eeaoie. A
yia?ai-yio?iieeiii ieaia aieaa auaiaeiui yaeyaony iauaaeeiaiea eeaoie a
aieaa neiaeiua no?oeoo?iua ia?aciaaiey – iiiaieeaoi/iua nenoaiu: oeaiue,
i?aai, i?aaiiay nenoaia, iiiaieeaoi/iue i?aaieci. A ?aieao i?aaiecia
inouanoaeyaony naii?aaoee?iaaiea iiyaeythony iaoaieciu oi?aaeaiey.

1 A.A.Iaeeiaoeeee:Neia?aaoeea-oai?ey naiii?aaiecaoeee.-I.:Iaoea, 1983,
no? 164

3. CAEETH*AIEA

A iauai iiieiaiee naiii?aaiecaoeey – yoi i?enouay iaoa?ee niiniaiinoue e
oneiaeiaieth yeaiaioia e nicaeaieth ana aieaa oii?yaei/aiiuo no?oeoo? a
oiaea naiaai ?acaeoey. Eiie?aoiia i?iyaeaiea yoie niiniaiinoe caaeneo io
o?iaiy neiaeiinoe nenoaiu e oneiaee aa ?acaeoey. A oceii iiieiaiee
oa?ieia – yoi nea/ie, oaciaue ia?aoiae nenoaiu ec iaiaa a aieaa
oii?yaei/aiiia ninoiyiea. I?e aieaa iiae?iaiii ?anniio?aiee yoiai
yaeaiey ioia/aeinue, /oi aeai?eoi nea/ea eiaao iauea /a?ou o nenoai
naiie ?acee/iie i?e?iaeu.

*ai auoa o?iaaiue neiaeiinoe nenoaiu, oai neiaeiaa i?iyaeaiea nee
iauaaeeiaiey e o?aeoeeiie?iaaiey. *oi aea eanaaony iienea enoieia
naiii?aaiecaoeee, oi ii oaiaeeo ian aaeoaue no?iaiey aauanoaa,
ii?aaeaeythuaai niiniaiinoue aai yeaiaioia acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue ae?oa n
ae?oaii.

Ii-iiaio, n iiyaeaieai neia?aaoeee eae iaoee, a naaoa iiaie eiioeaioeee
eia/a, /ai ?aiueoa, ?aoaaony aii?in i niioiioaiee neo/aeiiai e
caeiiiia?iiai a ?acaeoee. Yaiethoeeiiiua yoaiu aanueia aeanoei
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu, iiaaaeaiea nenoaiu caeanue i?aaeneacoaii e aeaaea
oi?aaeyaii. «A e?eoe/aneeo oi/eao, aeinoeaaaiuo nenoaiie ia caaa?oathueo
noaaeeyo yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, ainiiaenoaoao neo/aeiinoue»1.

Noaiiaeaiea naiii?aaiecaoeee ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony oa?aeoa?ii
acaeiiaeaenoaey neo/aeiuo e iaiaoiaeeiuo oaeoi?ia nenoaiu e aa n?aaeu. A
ia?aeiiiue iiiaio naiii?aaiecaoeee i?eioeeieaeueii iaecaanoii, a eaeii
iai?aaeaiee aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea: noaiao ee
ninoiyiea nenoaiu oaioe/iui eee iia ia?aeaeao ia iiaue, aieaa aunieee
o?iaaiue oii?yaei/aiiinoe e i?aaiecaoeee (oaciaua ia?aoiaeu e
aeenneiaoeaiua no?oeoo?u – eaca?iua io/ee, iaonoie/eainoe ieaciu,
oeie/aneea aieiu e o.ae.). A oi/ea aeoo?eaoeee nenoaia eae au
«eieaaeaony» ia?aae auai?ii oiai eee eiiai iooe i?aaiecaoeee, iooe
?acaeoey. A oaeii ninoiyiee iaaieueoay oeoeooaoeey (iiiaio neo/aeiinoe)
niiaeao iineoaeeoue ia/aeii yaiethoeee (i?aaiecaoeee) nenoaiu a
iaeioi?ii ii?aaeaeaiiii (e /anoi iaiaeeaeaiiii eee i?inoi iaeiaa?iyoiii)
iai?aaeaiee, iaeiia?aiaiii ionaeay i?e yoii aiciiaeiinoe ?acaeoey a
ae?oaeo iai?aaeaieyo.

Neia?aaoeea oaaaeeoaeueii iieacuaaao, /oi aeaaea a iai?aaie/aneie
i?e?iaea nouanoaotho eeannu nenoai, niiniaiuo e naiii?aaiecaoeee.
Enoi?ey ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu – yoi enoi?ey ia?aciaaiey ana aieaa e aieaa
neiaeiuo iaeeiaeiuo nenoai. Oaeea nenoaiu e iaania/eaatho anaiauoth
yaiethoeeth i?e?iaeu ia anao o?iaiyo aa i?aaiecaoeee – io iecoeo e
i?inoaeoeo e aunoei e neiaeiaeoei (/aeiaae, iauanoai, eoeueoo?a).

A i?aaeeneiaee e naiae eieaa «Neia?aaoeea» A.Oaeai ieoao: «ss iacaae
iiaoth aeenoeeieeio «neia?aaoeeie» ia oieueei iioiio, /oi a iae
enneaaeoaony niaianoiia aeaenoaea iiiaeo yeaiaioia nenoai, ii e iioiio,
/oi aeey iaoiaeaeaiey iaueo i?eioeeiia, oi?aaeythueo naiii?aaiecaoeeae,
iaiaoiaeeii eiiia?e?iaaiea iiiaeo ?acee/iuo aeenoeeieei»1.

1 I.Yoeein:Ii?yaeie e aanii?yaeie a i?e?iaea.-I.:Ie?, 1987, no? 59

1 A.Oaeai:Neia?aaoeea.-I.:Ie?, 1993, no? 13

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