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Роль животных в почвообразовании

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AEeaioiua ianaeytho aanue caiiie oa?: iiaa?oiinoue nooe, ii/ao, i?aniua
aiaeu e ii?y. I?e ainoiaeaeaiee ia Aeaeiiieoiaio (Yaa?ano) aeueieienou
caiaoeee ia aunioa ieiei 8000 i ai?iuo ioeoe eeooeoe. *a?ae,
?aeiia?aciua, iieethnee e ae?oaea aeeaioiua iaia?oaeaiu a aeoai/aeoeo
aiaaeeiao Ie?iaiai ieaaia aieioue aei aeoaeiu 11000i. Iiiaea aeeaioiua
aeeaoo ne?uoii eee eiatho iee?ineiie/aneea ?acia?u, iiyoiio iu eo ia
caia/aai. Ae?oaea aeeaioiua, iai?ioea, iinoiyiii ano?a/athony iai,
iai?eia? ianaeiiua, ioeoeu, caa?e.

Cia/aiea aeeaioiuo a i?e?iaea noieue aea aaeeei, eae e cia/aiea
?anoaiee. Iiiaea ?anoaiey iiueythony oieueei aeeaioiuie, /oi aeeaioiua
ea?atho aieueooth ?ieue e a ?ani?ino?aiaiee naiyi iaeioi?uo ?anoaiee. E
yoiio neaaeoao aeiaaaeoue, /oi aeeaioiua ia?yaeo n aaeoa?eyie i?eieiatho
naiia aeoeaiia o/anoea a ia?aciaaiee ii/au. Aeiaeaeaaua /a?ae, io?aauee
e ae?oaea iaeeea aeeaioiua iinoiyiii aiinyo a ii/ao i?aaie/aneea
aauanoaa, eciaeue/atho eo e oai naiui niinianoaotho nicaeaieth ia?aaiiy.
*a?ac ii?ee yoeo ?ithueo aeeaioiuo eaa/a i?iieeatho e ei?iyi
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeecie ?anoaiee aiaea e aicaeoo. Ec aioaieee au
ciaaoa, /oi caeaiua ?anoaiey iaiaauatho aicaeoo eenei?iaeii,
iaiaoiaeeiui aeey aeuoaiey anao aeeauo nouanoa. ?anoaiey neoaeao ieuae
?anoeoaeueiiyaeiui aeeaioiui, a oa a naith i/a?aaeue oeuiui. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeeaioiua ia iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue aac ?anoaiee. Ii e aeeciue
?anoaiee, eae yoi auei neacaii, caaeneo io aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
aeeaioiuo. I/aiue aaeeei naieoa?iia cia/aiea aeeaioiuo – oie/oiaeaiea
eie o?oiia ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo, inoaoeia ioia?oeo ?anoaiee e iiaaoae
eenoau. Iiiaea aiaeiua aeeaioiua i/euatho aiaeo, /enoioa eioi?ie aeey
aeecie noieue aea aaaeia, eae e /enoioa aicaeooa.

Ie? aeeaioiuo anaaaea eiae e eiaao i/aiue aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey ian.
Iaoe ioaeaeaiiua i?aaeee, aeeaoea 100-150 oun. eao iacaae, ciaee aeeeeo
caa?ae, ioeoe, ?ua e ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo. Yoi e iiiyoii: aaaeue aeeciue
ethaeae ai iiiaii caaenaea io ioiou e ?uaieianoaa. Iyni aeiauouo
aeeaioiuo auei iaeiei ec iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia ieoaiey, ec oeo? oaeouo
caa?ae ecaioiaeyee iaeaaeaeo, ec einoae – iiaee, ne?aaee, eaeu,
iaeiia/ieee eiiee. Nooiaeeeey eniieueciaaee i?e oeouea oeo? aianoi ieoie
e aeey oaoeau eoea. Oniao ioiou caaenae ia oieueei io neeu e eiaeinoe
ioioieeia. Ii e io oiaiey iaia?oaeeoue aiacaei ioeoeu eee eiaiai caa?y,
iaeoe ioaeiue neaae. Aua?aoue iiaeoiaeyuaa a?aiy aeey iaeaau. Iaeieo
aeeaioiuo ioaeii auei eiaeoue a ?annoaaeaiiua neeee e naoe, ae?oaeo –
iiaenoa?aaaoue, i?eoaeaoenue, o?aoueeo – n ooiii i?aneaaeiaaoue anai
ieaiaiai e caaiiyoue a caianee?iaaiiua yiu. *aeiaaeo auei oaeaea aaaeii
nianaoueny io oeuieeia. Ioee/aoue yaeiaeouo ciae io aaca?aaeiuo. Eco/ea
iiaaaeee aeeeeo caa?ae, ae?aaiea ethaee noiaee i?e?o/eoue iaeioi?uo ec
ieo. Ia?aui aeiiaoiei aeeaioiui noaea niaaea, eioi?oth eniieueciaaee eae
iiiiuieea ia ioioa. Iicaeiaa iiyaeeenue aeiiaoiea naeiuee. ?iaaoue neio,
aeiiaoiea ioeoeu.

N oa/aieai a?aiaie ?ieue aeeaioiuo a aeecie /aeiaaea eciaieeanue.
Cia/aiea aeeeeo caa?ae a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea ieue caiaoii nieceeinue, oae
eae iyni, oa?noue e iieiei noaee iieo/aoue io aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo. Ii o
/aeiaaea iiyaeeenue iiaua a?aae ec ie?a aeeaioiuo – ?acee/iua ianaeiiua,
a?aaeeaoea eoeueoo?iui ?anoaieyi. Enoi?ey ciaao iiiai i?eia?ia
aieiaeaiey oeaeuo ia?iaeiinoae a ?acoeueoaoa eno?aaeaiey o?iaeay
iie/euaie na?ai/e. A 20 a. a ?acoeueoaoa ia?iiiiai ?aciaoa oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea – au?oaee eania. No?ieoaeuenoaa aeae?inoaioeee,
?anoe?aiey iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae e o.ae. – iiiaea aeeeea aeeaioiua
ieacaeenue a o?oaeiuo oneiaeyo nouanoaiaaiey, oiaiueoeeinue eo
eiee/anoai, iaeioi?ua aeaeu noaee ?aaeeinoueth, ae?oaea en/acee.
Oeuie/aneee i?iiunae eno?aaeye oeaiiuo aeeaioiuo. Aicieeea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eo io?aia. Ecaanoii, /oi aeeaioiua ea?atho i/aiue
aaaeioth ?ieue a iaania/aiee ianaeaiey Caiee i?iaeoeoaie ieoaiey e
nu?ueai aeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Cia/eoaeueioth aeieth i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, a
oaeaea eiaeo, aine, oaee, oa?noue e ae?oaia nu?uea /aeiaae iieo/aao io
aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo. ?uaieianoai, iniaaiii ii?neia, i?iiunae
?aeiia?aciuo e iieethneia oaeaea eiatho aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey iieo/aiey
ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia, aeoaieiia. Eaea?noa e o.ae. Ec iooiaeia i?iiunea
i?eaioiaeytho ei?iiaoth ioeo aeey ioei?ia neioa e oaeia?aiey. Iao aeeeeo
aeeaioiuo (eiaea, ?iaa, ?aeiaeiu e o.ae.). Iiiaea aeeaioiua (iai?eia?,
ioeoeu e oeuiua ianaeiiua) ea?atho aieueooth ?ieue a oie/oiaeaiee
a?aaeeoaeae eoeueoo?iuo e oeaiiuo aeeei?anooueo ?anoaiee. Ecaanoii iiiai
aeeaioiuo, iaiinyueo oua?a oicyenoao /aeiaaea. N?aaee ieo ?acee/iua
a?aaeeoaee eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee, aeeaioiua, oie/oiaeathuea caianu
i?iaeoeoia, iia?aaeaeathuea ecaeaeey ec eiaee, oa?noe, aea?aaa e o.ae.
Nouanoaotho e oaeea aeeaioiua. Eioi?ua aucuaatho ?acee/iua aieacie
(iaey?eth, aeenoiua caaieaaaiey, /anioeo e ae?.). Iaeioi?ua aeeaioiua
yaeythony ia?aiin/eeaie aieaciae (aoe ia?aiinyo io aieueiuo e caei?iaui
nuiiie oeo, eiia?u – iaey?eth, aeioe – /oio).

AEeaioiue ie? – aaaeiay ninoaaiay /anoue i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. Caaioa i iai
neoaeeo iniiaie aai ?acoiiiai eniieueciaaiey. Ciay iniaaiiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia. Eo ?ieue a i?e?iaea, /aeiaae iiaeao io?aiyoue
iieaciuo aio aeeaioiuo, niinianoaiaaoue oaaee/aieth eo /eneaiiinoe,
ia?aie/eaaoue ?aciiiaeaiea a?aaeeoaeae naeueneiai oicyenoaa,
ia?aiin/eeia e aicaoaeeoaeae aieaciae. A iaoae no?aia caaioa i aeeaioiii
ie?a i?eaeaaony aaaeiia ainoaea?noaaiiia cia/aiea

?ieue aeeaioiuo a ii/aiia?aciaaiee aua aieueoa, /ai o ?anoaiee, naycaia
n eo aeiaaioeaiieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Aeaaeaiee N. N. Oaa?oe n/eoae, /oi yaiethoeey i?aaieciia ia?ac?uaii
naycaia n ?ieueth eo a aeiaaioeaiica e n yaiethoeeae naiiai
aeiaaioeaiica. Yeinenoaia, aeiaaioeaiic ii?aaeaeytho onoie/eainoue aeaea
aeeaioiuo e ?aciui iaaeaaii?eyoiui aicaeaenoaeyi, eciai/eainoue eo, e
aeaaea naia i?iaeaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie naycaia eiaiii n ia?ae/iie
yeinenoaiie: oneiaey aicieeiiaaiey aeecie auee yeieiae/aneei eiiiiiaioii
ia?aie yeinenoaiu.

Naycue aeeaioiuo n ii/aie e o/anoea eo a ii/aiia?aciaaiee iiaoo auoue
?acee/iuie. AEeaioiua aeeaoo a naiie ii/aa, ia aa iiaa?oiinoe, iaae
iiaa?oiinoueth ii/au. *anoue ec ieo iaiyao ia?ac aeecie a caaeneiinoe io
naciia, io noaaeee naiaai ?acaeoey, io iaee/ey ei?ia. Ae?oaea aaaeoo
eeoue iaeei ia?ac aeecie. ssnii, /oi ioeaieaaoue ?ieue anao yoeo
aeeaioiuo neaaeoao enoiaey ec eiie?aoiuo oneiaee eo iaeoaiey.

E aeeaioiui, aeeaouei a ii/aa, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioiinyony
aaciicaiii/iua, ianaeiiua, aeiaeaeaaua /a?ae e i?. Iaeaieueoaa
eiee/anoai aeaiiuo iaeiieaii i aeayoaeueiinoe aeiaeaeaauo /a?aae. Oaea
oiiieiaeanue ioia/aiiay Aea?aeiii ?ieue /a?aae a ia?a?aaioea ii/au,
Aeanyoenaioeino?iaue neie naaeiaie ii/au, ?acaeoie ia ea?aiiaoiie
ii?iaea, ii Aea?aeio, a oa/aiea aeanyoe eao aanue i?ioiaeeo /a?ac
eeoa/iee /a?aae, iaiaauaynue aoionii, iee?ii?aaieciaie, oa?iaioaie.
*a?ae caoaneeaatho a ii/ao ?anoeoaeueiua inoaoee. *a?ae aeaeatho
aeoaieea oiaeu a aeoaue ii/au, ii eioi?ui i?iieeaao aiaea e eaeoo ei?ie
?anoaiee. *a?ae ino?oeoo?eaatho ii/ao, nicaeatho iaeeica?ienooth,
iaiaauaiioth aoionii ianno, eioi?ay onoie/eaa e ?ac?ooathuaio aeaenoaeth
aiaeu. Iaia?oaeaii, /oi o iaeioi?uo ii/a eae, iai?eia?, iiae aae?a/iuie
eanaie (eana, ?aniieiaeaiiua a aaeeao), aa?oiee neie /a?iicaia oeaeeeii
ninoieo ec eii?ieeoia — eiii/eia ii/au, i?ioaaeoeo /a?ac ieuaaie o?aeo
aeiaeaeaaiai /a?ay. Eii?ieeoiaay no?oeoo?a aoioniaiai ai?eciioa yoie
ii/au ioee/aao aa io niioaaonoaothuaai ai?eciioa iau/iiai /a?iicaia.
Aeiaeaeaaua /a?ae — aeaaiay i?e/eia ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe e?ioia,
eioi?ua a iieneao ieue (a /a?ae — eo aeaaiay aaea) i?ieeaaeuaatho naie
oiaeu a ii/aaiiie oieua.

AEoaeaeeoeu — oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua aeoee, iaeoathuea a aa?oiai neia
ii/au e ia aa iiaa?oiinoe, eae iieacaee aeaoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey,
iaeaieeaatho a naiai oaea naeiaoe. Anee o/anoue, /oi aeoaeaeeoeu —
oeuieee, oi i/aaeaeia neiaeiay o?ioe/aneay naycue, i?eaiaeyuay e oaeiio
iaeiieaieth.

Ee/eiee aeaoe?ueuo (?acee/iuo ioo e iooae, eiia?eeia e i?.) /anoi
iaeoatho a aa?oieo ii/aaiiuo neiyo e o/anoaotho a ?aceiaeaiee
iiaenoeeee. Iie, oae aea eae e /a?ae, oeo/oatho aoioniaia ninoiyiea
ii/au, iiauoatho auoiae aoieiiauo eeneio, oaaee/eaatho niaea?aeaiea
acioa, aiiiieeiuo niaaeeiaiee, iauoth aoione?iaaiiinoue. Iiae eo
aeeyieai ia?anoaao iiuiinoue aoioniaiai ai?eciioa a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae
aai ia?aciaaiey.

Aaconeiaii, aaniicaiii/iui aeeaioiui niioonoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay
iee?ioei?a, eioi?ay oneeeaaao oa?iaioaoeaioth aeoeaiinoue ii/a. Ana
aaniicaiii/iua e eo ee/eiee i?ieeaaeuaatho oiaeu, ?ac?uoeyy e
ia?aiaoeaay ii/ao.

A ii/aa iaeoatho oaeaea iaeioi?ua aeaeu ieaeiieoathueo. Yoi no?ee,
noneeee, iuoe, e?iou, caiea?ieee, oiiyee e iiiaea ae?oaea.

Eo aicaeaenoaea ia ii/ao aanueia caiaoii. E?iou ia?aiaoeaatho ii/ao,
aua?anuaatho ia iiaa?oiinoue iaoa?eae ec ieaeieo ai?eciioia. Ianna oaeeo
aua?inia iiaeao ninoaaeyoue oanoueaeanyo oiii ia aaeoa?. Aiaeiae/ii
e?ioai aaaeoo naay neaiuoe, aeeaouea ai aeaaeiuo, aeae?iii?oiuo ii/aao
noaiae, a eoaiai-/a?iicaiiuo, eoaiai-eaooaiiauo ii/aao ii aaeeai. Iie
oaeaea aua?anuaatho ii/ao ia iiaa?oiinoue e ia?aiaoeaatho aa?oiea
ai?eciiou, ii a ioee/ea io e?ioia iie ieoathony ?anoaieyie.

A Naaa?iie Aia?eea aeeaoo aioa?u, naiaenoai iaoao/aouo e?un. Iie a
iniiaiii ieoathony i?aoaie, ei?aiueyie, eioi?ua caoaneeaatho a naie ii?u
ia aeoaeio iieooi?a iao?ia. Ia iiaa?oiinoue ii/au aioa?u, eae e?iou,
aua?anuaatho iaoa?eae ec aieaa aeoaieeo ai?eciioia. Aioa?u niinianoaotho
oaeoaeaieth ii/aaiiie oieue, aieaa aeoaieiio i?iieeiiaaieth ei?iae
?anoaiee.

?ieue no?eia e noneeeia a ii/aiia?aciaaiee iiaeao aeinoeaaoue aieueoeo
ianooaaia e auoue aeaienoaaiiie. AEeay a noaiyo, iie ?itho aeoaieea ii?u
e aua?anuaatho ia iiaa?oiinoue ii/au iaoa?eae, /anoe/ii iaiaauaiiue
ea?aiiaoii eaeueoeey e ?aciuie ?anoai?eiuie nieyie. Ii aeaiiui ciieiaia
e ii/aiaaaeia, aua?inu noneeeia ia iiaa?oiinoue niinianoaotho
oaaee/aieth niaea?aeaiey nieae a aa?oieo neiyo ie?oaeathuae ii?o
oa??eoi?ee. Yoi oooaeoaao ii/ao, nieaeaao aa ieiaei?iaeea. Ii iineieueeo
noneeee aeieai aeeaoo ia iaeiii ianoa e ono?aeaatho a ii/aa oeaeoth
nenoaio ii?, oiaeia, oi, iinea oiai eae yoio o/anoie caa?anuaaaony
noneeeaie, ii ia/eiaao inaaeaoue, ia?acoaony caiaaeeia, a eioi?oth
noaeaao aiaea, e a eiia/iii n/aoa iiaeao ia?aciaaoueny aieueoay aiaaeeia
n aieaa ieiaei?iaeiuie, /ai ie?oaeathuea, ii/aaie, /anoi oaiiioeaaoiuie.

Iniaia ianoi a ii/aiia?aciaaiee caieiatho iuoaaeaeiua a?ucoiu, eaiieiae,
iieaaee e i?. Iie ono?aeaatho ii?u, o?iiu ia iiaa?oiinoe ii/au io ii?u
aei ii?u, oiiiaee e a iiaenoeeea e a aa?oieo neiyo ii/au. O yoeo
aeeaioiuo anoue «ooaeaou», aaea ii/aa eci aeiy a aeaiue iaiaauaaony
acioii e iiaeuaea/eaaaony. Iuoe niinianoaotho aieaa auno?iio
eciaeue/aieth iiaenoeeee, ia?aiaoeaaieth ii/au e ?anoeoaeueiuo inoaoeia.
A ooiae?iauo ii/aao aeaaioth ?ieue ea?atho eaiieiae, a eaniuo — iuoe e
e?iou, a noaiiuo — neaiuoe, noneeee, no?ee.

Neiaii, ana aeeaouea a ii/aa aeeaioiua, oae eee eia/a, ?ac?uoeytho,
ia?aiaoeaatho aa, iaiaauatho i?aaie/aneei aauanoaii, acioii.

Eeneoeu, aa?noee, aieee, niaiee e ae?oaea iacaiiua aeeaioiua ono?aeaatho
a ii/aa oaaaeeua — ii?u. Auaatho oeaeua eieiiee aeeaioiuo-ii?ieeia,
nouanoaothueo ia iaeiii ianoa a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo noieaoee, a eiiaaea
e ouny/aeaoee. Oae, auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi ii?a aa?noea ieiei
A?oaiaaeuenea aicieeea ia a?aieoea ?aiiaai e n?aaeiaai aieioeaia, oi
anoue ainaiue ouny/ eao iacaae. Iiae Iineaie aic?ano ii?u aa?noea
i?aauoae o?e ouny/e eao. Oaeei ia?acii, iinaeaiey aeeaioiuo-ii?ieeia
iiaoo auoue iniiaaiu ?aiaa aeaaea oaeeo ae?aaieo ai?iaeia, eae ?ei.

Ca aeieaee ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey ii? iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue naiua ?aciua
aeeyiey aeeaioiuo ia ii/ao. Iai?eia?, eciaiaiea ninoaaa ?anoaiee ieiei
ii?. Ca/euay ii?u, aeeaioiua iiiaie?aoii iia?aaaee ii/aaiiua aoioniaua
ai?eciiou, iiyoiio ?aneiiea ii? iicaieyao i?ineaaeeoue enoi?eth
aeiaaioeaiica a oa/aiea cia/eoaeueiiai io?acea a?aiaie.

Iiiaea ia ?ithuea ii? aeeaioiua ieacuaatho eae i?yiia, oae e einaaiiia
aeeyiea ia ii/ao. Iai?eia?, eaaaiu. Iie ia?aeaiuaatho aa?oiee neie,
ia?aiaoeaatho iiaenoeeeo e aoioniaue ai?eciio, i?eiaoeaatho e aoioniaiio
iaoa?eaeo noano?ao aieaa aeoaieiai ai?eciioa: iiaecieenoiai eee n
iaiueoei niaea?aeaieai aoiona. *a?ac aiae yoe ii?ie ca?anoatho o?aaie e
noaiiayony iacaiaoiuie. Ii naith aeiaaioeaiioe/aneoth ?ieue iie ea?atho:
ii ii?iyi i?ienoiaeeo inaiaiaiea ?anoaiee, iaiiaeaiea eo iiioeyoeee,
aiciaiiaeaiea aea?aaueaa.

Eaaaiu ono?aeaatho ii/eaa a oe?iiiuo ianoao, a aieiooeao, a iaaieueoeo
eaniuo ?o/ueyo, a aonouo o?aaao. I?e yoii iie oieioiytho ii/ao,
niinianoaotho aiciaiiaeaieth aea?aaueaa e ieacuaatho anyeea «iaeeea
oneoae» eaniui ?anoaieyi, oaeia?yy eo, iiiiaay a ai?ueaa n eiieo?aioaie.

A ii/aao, ia?a?uouo eaaaiaie, iau/ii a ia?aue aiae oiaiueoaaony
niaea?aeaiea i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa a neia aei iyoe naioeiao?ia e
oaaee/eaaaony a neia iyoue — aeanyoue naioeiao?ia. Eaaaiu nicaeatho a
eanao iniaoth yeieiae/aneoth ieoo aeey aea?aaueaa, o?aa, aeeaioiuo.
Eiiaaea iiae aeeyieai eaaaia ia?acoaony aieaa aoione?iaaiiay, aieaa
?uoeay ii/aa, eiiaaea aieaa iaieaiiay. Neo/aeiia eo ?ani?aaeaeaiea a
i?aaeaeao aeiaaioeaiica ia nieiaao eo aaaeiie ?iee a aai aeecie. Eaaaiu
iiaoo neoaeeoue i?e/eiie iiyaeaiey iiaie ia?oeaeeu ia aeaiiii ianoa, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaie ii/au.

Ae?oaea e?oiiua aeeaioiua (eine, ieaie) a iaiueoae noaiaie aeeytho ia
ii/ao, ii/oe ia ia?ooay aa. Ii iie /anoi iauaaeatho ineio, iaa?ucay aa
ei?o, neonuaatho aa?oooee o iieiaeuo ninai e aeae. Yoe aeaenoaey nia/aea
iiaoo iiaeeyoue ia ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia, a caoai e ia ii/aaiiue.

Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee o?iie/aneeo ?aeiiia n/eoatho, /oi oaeea
aeeaioiua, eae neiiu, o/anoaotho a iiiaieaoiai oeeeea, niinianoaoy
i?aa?auaieth o?iie/aneiai eana a naaaiio — nia/aea iie oie/oiaeatho
eonoa?ieee, iiaeeanie, a caoai e naie aea?aauey. Ec naaaiiu neiiu
ooiaeyo, eiaaea ei ia oaaoaao ieue. Iinea iiaea?a, /anoi neo/athuaainy a
naaaiia, iia niiaa ca?anoaao eanii. ssnii, /oi a yoii oeeeea iaiythony e
naie ii/au e ?yae eo naienoa (eeneioiinoue, niaea?aeaiea aoiona e o.
i.).

Niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiiia aeeyiea ieacuaatho ia ii/ao oea?u e iaaeaaaee.

Oea?u a iaoae no?aia ano?a/athony a iniiaiii a Onno?eeneii e?aa e
i?eaio?neie oaeaa. Iaeia aeaoaeue iiaaaeaiey oea?a eiaao i?yiia
ioiioaiea e ii/aa. Oea? a?iaeeo ia ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?ee ii naiei
ecethaeaiiui o?iiai, /anoi i?ioiaey ?annoiyiey a ianeieueei aeanyoeia
eeeiiao?ia. A?aiy io a?aiaie ii, eae eioea, ne?aaao eaiie ii/ao o naiie
o?iiu. I?e yoii, eiia/ii, naee?athony o?aaa, iiaenoeeea, iaiaaeaaony
?ac?uoue eiaoyie aa?oiee neie ii/au. *a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy nine?aa,
eae iacuaatho yoi ianoi ciieiae, ca?anoaao, e ii/aa ia iai, eae e ia
ii?ia eaaaia, iaiaauaaony i?aaie/aneei aauanoaii e iiaeao oaeaea
neoaeeoue iiaie yeieiae/aneie ieoae aeey aiciaiiaeaiey ?anoaiee.

Naie iaaethaeaoaeueiua ioieou e ianoa ioaeuoa oea?u a Neoioy-Aeeia
ono?aeaatho ia ieiuaaeeao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a aunieeo neaeao, iau/ii n
oi?ioei iaci?ii. Ia yoeo ieiuaaeeao nicaeaaony niaa?oaiii niaoeeoe/aneee
eiiieaen ?anoaiee, e ii/au ia ieo iau/ii iaei?acaeou e neaaea oieioiaiu.

Ia iaiaa eioa?ania ?ieue iaaeaaaey a i?ioeannao ii/aiia?aciaaiey.
Iaaeaaaeue ia ?iao aa?eiae, ii iaoiaeeo aeey iaa eeoue iiaeoiaeyuaa
ianoi iiae auaaeii aea?aaa, iiae ei?iyie e o. ae. A yoii niunea ii ia
aeeyao ia ii/ao. ?ieue aai a ii/aiia?aciaaiee einaaiiay. Iaaeaaaee
i?ieeaaeuaatho na?eth o?ii aaeieue aa?aaia ?ae, ca?inoeo aunieie o?aaie
e eonoa?ieeaie e o?oaeii i?ioiaeeiuo. Yoe o?iiu eniieuecotho caoai
ae?oaea aeeaioiua, a oii /enea o?aaiyaeiua, aeey iienea ieue. Iinoaiaiii
aeaaiaea?y auiano iaiyaony ?anoeoaeueiinoue i?ea?aaeiie /anoe, eiiaaea
iia ca?anoaao eanii. A ni niaiie aeiaaioeaiica, eae anaaaea, i?ienoiaeeo
niaia ii/a: aea?iiaua niaiythony eaniuie, aea?iiai-iiaecieenouie eee
eiuie, aiaeiae/iuie ia?aui.

Iaaeaaaee ?ac?uaatho io?aaaeieee, /oi, eiia/ii, a?aaeii aeey eana:
oie/oiaeathony a?aae anyeeo eaniuo a?aaeeoaeae. Ii yoio a?aae ia oae oae
aaeee, iineieueeo a anoanoaaiiii eano io?aaaeieeia aeinoaoi/ii. *anoi
io?aaaeieee aiciaiiaeythony ia oii aea ianoa, a eiiaaea ?uoeay
iiaenoeeea ec oaie e aaoie aeieai inoaaony aacaeeciaiiie, ia ca?anoay
o?aaie iinea aeaaee eaniiai io?aaaeieea.

Ioioynue ca aioa?aie, iaaeaaaee ?aneaiuaatho eo oiaeu e ii?u, /oi
nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?ac?uoeaieai ii/au, oaaee/aieai aieouaaiey aiaeu,
oneeaieai aoioniia?aciaaiey. Neonuaay aa?oooee yaiaeiuo iiaaaia,
iaaeaaaee niinianoaotho ?ac?anoaieth yaiaeieeia e nio?aiaieth
niioaaonoaothueo ei ii/a. ?ieue iaaeaaaey a iiaeaea?aeaiee yaiaeieeia,
i/aaeaeii, cia/eoaeueii aaaeiaa, /ai yoi eaaeaony ia ia?aue acaeyae.
Iaeioi?ua naiaia, i?ieaey /a?ac aeaeoaei/iue o?aeo iaaeaaaey, oa?ytho
naith anoiaeanoue, iaeiaei ae?oaea, iaiai?io, noaiiayony aieaa
anoiaeeie. Oaeei ia?acii, iaaeaaaee ?aaoee?otho iaii/aaiiue iie?ia, /oi
niioaaonoaaiii ia?aaeaaony e ii/aaiiiio.

Iaaeaaaee, eae e aieee, ioaeiu aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey iiaieiauey o?aaiyaeiuo
aeeaioiuo. Neiaii, ?ieue iaaeaaaey a aeiaaioeaiica aeinoaoi/ii aaeeea.

Ioeoeu, ianaeiiua, iaeioi?ua ieaeiieoathuea, iai?eia? aaeee, eoieoeu e
o. i., ninoaaeythuea aieueooth /anoue aeiaaioeaiica, iaeoatho iaae
ii/aie. *anoue yoeo aeeaioiuo iinoiyiii aaaeao ae?aaaniue ia?ac aeecie,
ii/oe ia nioneaynue ia caieth. Ii iaeioi?ua, eae, iai?eia?, aaeee,
nioneathony e ono?aeaatho a ii/aa eeaaeiaee aeey naieo caiania (i?aoia,
naiyi). Aaniie iao?iiooua caianu i?i?anoatho e niinianoaotho ?annayieth
?anoaiee. Aiaeiae/ioth ?aaioo auiieiyao eaae?iaea. Ia Eai/aoea eaae?iaea
niae?aao eaae?iaua i?aoe a eaae?iaii noeaieea, eioi?ue ?anoao a ai?ao ia
aunioa ainaiuenio — aeaayouenio iao?ia iaae o?iaiai ii?y. Eiia/ii,
eaae?iaea ano e naiaia o?aa, e ?yaeio, ii i?aoe aeey iaa iniiaiie ei?i.
Ia ceio eaae?iaea ono?aeaaao caianu, caeaiuaay a ii/ao eaae?iaua i?aoee,
i?e yoii i/aiue /anoi yoe caianieee iia aeaeaao a aeieeia ?aee Eai/aoee,
a ia a ai?ao, i/aaeaeii, ec-ca aeoaieiai niaaeiiai iie?iaa. Ii anee
caianu ieaaeoony iao?iioouie, oi aaniie iie i?i?anoatho, e n?aaee
eenoaaiie/iiai eana ia?acoaony eo?oeia eaae?iaiai noeaieea. Iiae
noeaieeii a naith i/a?aaeue oi?ie?oaony oi?oyienoi-a?oaiaoioniay ii/aa.

Iniai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue ?ieue ianaeiiuo a aeiaaioeaiica. Iie iiueytho
?anoaiey, neoaeao ieuae ae?oaei aeeaioiui, yaeyynue caaiii o?ioe/aneie
oeaie, ?aceaaatho i?aaie/aneea noano?aou: iiaae, iiaenoeeeo, oiaaoea
noaieu aea?aaueaa. Ianaeiiua onei?ytho e?oaiai?io aauanoa a
aeiaaioeaiicao. I ee/eieao ianaeiiuo, aeeaoueo a ii/aa, oaea
aiai?eeinue. Ii e oa, /oi aeeaoo iaae caieae, iiaoo ieacaoue
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ii/ao. *anoue ianaeiiuo — yoi oae iacuaaaiua
oeoioaae. Iie ieoathony caeaiie eenoaie ?anoaiee. Anoue eneeioaae,
ieoathueany ae?aaaneiie.

Eioa?ania aeayoaeueiinoue eenoiaa?oee aeoaiaie, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiie
a iaoeo eenoaaiiuo eanao. Aaai/ea eenoiaa?oee ioeeaaeuaaao eaoii ye/ee,
ec eioi?uo aaniie iiyaeythony aonaieoeu. Aonaieoeu ieoathony aeoaiauie
eenoueyie, naa?ouaay eo a o?oai/eo (n yoei naycaii iacaaiea ianaeiiuo).
A ethia aonaieoeu ieoeeeaathony e caoai ec eoeieie aueaoatho aaai/ee. A
ia/aea ethiy ?anioneathony eenouey aeoaa, e auaatho aiaeu, eiaaea any
eenoaa ia aeoaao ieacuaaaony nuaaeaiiie eenoiaa?oeie. Aeoaiaua eana
noiyo aieua, eae inaiueth. Ii n?aaaouaaao i?e?iaeiue iaoaieci, e oaea a
ethea aeoau niiaa iaeaou eenoaie, i?e yoii eenouey aoi?iai iieieaiey
iau/ii auaatho aieaa e?oiiuie, aieueoa ia?aiai a aeaa-o?e ?aca.
Aiciiaeii, yoi ?acoeueoao oiai, /oi aea?aauey iieo/atho oaeia?aiey a
aeaea yene?aiaioia eenoiaa?oie. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi iauay
ianna eenoau eeoue i?ioeaioia ia aeanyoue iaiueoa, /ai ianna eenoau a
iao?iioouo eenoiaa?oeie eanao. Yene?aiaiou eenoiaa?oee iaiaauatho ii/ao
aeinooiiuie oi?iaie acioa, oa?iaioaie e aoioniauie aauanoaaie. Iauaa
eiee/anoai oaea?iaea, iinooiathuaai a eiia/iii n/aoa a ii/ao, inoaaony
oai aea. E oioy ai a?aiy naiie aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe aonaieoe
eenoiaa?oee ean i?iecaiaeeo aiaoouaa aia/aoeaiea — aea?aauey noiyo aieua
e neuoai iinoiyiiue oi?io — aonaieoeu iiaaeatho eenouey, a eiia/iii
n/aoa eenoiaa?oea onei?yao e?oaiai?io aauanoaa a aeiaaioeaiica.

Iniaia ianoi a eaniuo, ooiae?iauo, aieioiuo e iieiaiiuo aeiaaioeaiicao
caieiatho eiia?u. Iie oiaea iiueytho ?anoaiey, neoaeao ieuae aeey ioeoe
e ae?oaeo ianaeiiuo, a /anoiinoe no?aeic. Iie eiioeaio?e?otho a naaa
iaeioi?ua iee?iyeaiaiou, iai?eia? iieeaaeai, e iaiaauatho eie ii/ao, /ai
noeioee?otho iiaeiuaiea acioa ec aoiinoa?u.

Iiiaea ae?oaea ia iacaaiiua caeanue aeeaioiua aeeytho ia ii/ao e
aeiaaioeaiic a oeaeii. A ionouiyo e iieoionouiyo, iai?eia?, io?aauee
auiinyo ia iiaa?oiinoue ianeieueei oiii ii/aaiiiai iaoa?eaea ec ieaeieo
ai?eciioia.

Niaoeeoe/ia aeeciue oa?ieoia. Iie iaeoatho a aeoaieeo neiyo ii/au ii/oe
anth aeeciue, ieoathony a?oaie eeao/aoeie, no?iyo niaoeeaeueiua
ie?aieaeu e oiiiaee.

Inu e oiaee, ?iy ii?u, iaiytho naienoaa ii/a, aeeytho ia aieouaaiea
aiaeu ii/aie, ia aa ieioiinoue.

Iiiaiia?acea naycae aeeaioiuo e ii/a o?aaoao enneaaeiaaiee, e ia yoii
iooe o/aiuo aeaeoo eioa?aniua ioe?uoey. I/aiue aaaeii ciaoue ia?aoioth
noi?iio nayce: eae ii/au aeeytho ia aeeaioiuo. ?aiueoa yoeie aii?inaie
caieiaeenue yeieiae e ciieiae, eco/athuea oneiaey aeecie aeeaioiuo. Ii
iiiaea aii?inu auee au yniaa, anee au eie caieiaeenue e ii/aiaaaeu.

Aeiaaioeaiioe/aneee iiaeoiae o?aaoao eco/aiey anao iiiaiia?aciuo naycae
a aeiaaioeaiicao, iiyoiio oae aaaeia ii/aaiiay ciieiaey, ane?uaathuay
?ieue ii/au a i?e?iaeiie nenoaia.

Aeiaaioeaiioe/aneee iaoiae iicaieyao iiaeieoe e aua iaeiie aaaeiie
i?iaeaia nia?aiaiiie iaoee — i?ienoiaeaeaieth aeecie. Nouanoaotho o?e
iao/iua aeiioacu i i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie. Iaeia ec ieo naycaia n
ii/aie. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaia e i?eciaia aeiioaca I. I. Ooaeyeiaa — A.
E. Iia?eia. I. I. Ooaeyeia, i?ioanni? iee?iaeieiaee e oeceieiaee
?anoaiee Oeie?ycaaneie aeaaeaiee, a 20-o aiaeao auneacae e ?acaee iuneue
i aicieeiiaaiee aeecie a «ia?ae/iii aoeueiia», ia?aciaaaoainy a oaieii
ieaaia iaoae ieaiaou. Iineaaeiaaoaee yoie aeiioacu n/eoatho, /oi aeeciue
ca?iaeeeanue eiaiii a ieaaia: a aiaea eee aea a ii?neie iaia (ioeoaea
iiyaeeanue Ao?iaeeoa), aaea auee naiua aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey
neioaca aeecie. Aiaeiay aeiioaca auea ?acaeoa A. E. Iia?eiui e iieo/eea
oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu aoeeaiieia A. E. Ia?oeiei auaeaeioe aoeeaie/aneoth
aeiioaco i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie. Ii onoaiiaee, /oi i?e ecaa?aeaiee
aoeeaiia a aaciaii iaeaea ia?acothony ?aciua aieiieeneiou,
neioace?othony ae?oaea i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa. A aaciaii aoeeaie/aneii
iaeaea caeeth/aiu a?iiaaeiua caianu yia?aee, eioi?ay iiaeao
niinianoaiaaoue neioaco aauanoa oeia ioeeaeiiauo eeneio.

Ii aua ?aiueoa, a 30-o aiaeao, aeaaeaieee I. A. Oieiaeiue e caoai A. ?.
Aeeueyin auneacaee aeiioaco i ca?iaeaeaiee aeecie a ii/aa, oi/iaa — a
?uoeii noano?aoa, i?iaeoeoa auaao?eaaiey ai?iuo ii?iae. Aeeueyia iacaae
aai ?ooeyeii auaao?eaaiey. A iieueco yoiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi aeeciue eae nenoaia naiiaini?iecaiaeyueony aaeeieoe,
eioi?ua no?iyo naay ec iaoa?eaea, iinooiathuaai a ia?aie/aiiii
eiee/anoaa anaai iaaeaaeiaa iiaea au ia?aciauaaoueny ia ii/aaiiie
/anoeoea, ii/aaiiie iao?eoea, eae nae/an ia iae oi?ie?othony iieeia?u
aoioniauo aauanoa. Anee yoa aeiioaca ni?aaaaeeeaa, oi iiaeii n/eoaoue,
/oi aeeciue e ii/aa ia iaoae ieaiaoa aicieeee iaeiia?aiaiii.

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