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Caii?iaeneay IO ? 15

?aoa?aoeaiay ?aaioa ii oaia:

?ACIIIA?ACEA IEAEIIEOATHUEO

?aaioo auiieieea o/aieoea 8-A eeanna

Eoeueyiiaa Aiia

?aaioo i?iaa?eee:

a. Caii?iaeuea

2009 a

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

Iaaeio?yae sseoeaeeaaeouea eee iaeiii?ioiaeiua (ooeiiin)

Oioia?aoey eiaea

Iaaeio?yae Noi/aoua (eiaea)

Io?yae Ianaeiiiyaeiua (aae aa?iiaeneee)

Io?yae ?oeie?ueua (eaoo/ay iuoue)

Io?yae A?ucoiu (oooeai/ee)

Io?yae Caeoeaia?aciua (cayoe – ?onae)

Io?yae Eeoiia?aciua (neiee eeo)

Naiaenoai Eanoiiiaea (aaeeaeueneay ia?ia)

Naiaenoai Aie/uee (aiee iaueiiaaiiue)

Naiaenoai Iaaeaaaeuee (iaiaea)

Naiaenoai Eioa/uee (e?aen)

Io?yae Ia?iieiiuoiua (aeaai?iaeiue ieaiue)

Io?yae Iaia?iieiiuoiua (/a?iue iini?ia)

Io?yae I?eiaou (ei?e)

Auaiae

Aaaaeaiea

I?aaeeaaaaony ia ?anniio?aiea ?aoa?aoeaiay ?aaioa ii oaia
«Ieaeiieoathuea». Ec iauaai eeanna «Ieaeiieoathuea» y aua?aea
ioaeaeueiua io?yaeu e oa?aeoa?iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae.

Ieaeiieoathuea – aunoee eeann iicaiii/iuo aeeaioiuo, aai/athuee anth
nenoaio aeeaioiiai ie?a. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie /a?oaie iauae i?aaiecaoeee
yoeo aeeaioiuo neoaeao:

aunieee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey ia?aiie nenoaiu, iaania/eaathuee neiaeiua e
niaa?oaiiua oi?iu i?eniiniaeoaeueiiai ?aaae?iaaiey ia aicaeaenoaey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e neaaeaiioth nenoaio acaeiiaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo
i?aaiia oaea;

aeeai?iaeiinoue, ni/aoathuayny n auea?ieeaaieai aeaoaiuoae iieieii. Iia
iaania/eaaao eo/ooth nio?aiiinoue iieiaeiyea e aiciiaeiinoue
?aciiiaeaiey a aanueia ?aciiia?aciie ianoaiiaea;

niaa?oaiiay nenoaia oa?ii?aaoee?iaaiey, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ie oaei eiaao
ioiineoaeueii iinoiyiioth oaiia?aoo?o, o.a. iinoiyinoai oneiaee
aioo?aiiae n?aaeu i?aaiecia.

Ana yoi niinianoaoao ii/oe iianaianoiiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth ieaeiieoathueo
ii Caiea, i?e eioi?ii iie canaeytho ana aeeciaiiua n?aaeu:
aicaeooii-iacaiioth, aiaeioth e ii/aaiii-a?oioiaoth.

ss acyeanue ca yoo ?aaioo, /oiau ?anoe?eoue naie ciaiey a oaeii ?acaeaea
aeieiaee, eae Ieaeiieoathuea. A yoie ?aaioa y iieoo iaeioi?ua io?yaeu ec
iauaai eeanna Ieaeiieoathueo. A iae niaea?aeeony iiiai eioa?aniuo
naaaeaiee, i?i aeeaioiuo, ni anaai ie?a, eioi?ua ie?oaeatho ian a
oa/aiea anae aeecie. N?aaee ieo anoue: yeoeaeeaaeouea, noi/aoua,
ianaeiiiyaeiua, ?oeie?ueua, eeoiia?aciua, oeuiua, ia?ii- e
iaia?iieiiuoiua, i?eiaou.

Iaaeathnue, /oi /oaiea aeinoaaeo aai oaeiaieuenoaea!

Iaaeio?yae Iaeiii?ioiaeiuo (eee yeoeaeeaaeoueo). Ooeiiin

Yoi iaeaieaa i?eieoeaiua n?aaee nia?aiaiiuo ieaeiieoathueo, nio?aieaoea
?yae a?oae/iuo iniaaiiinoae no?iaiey, oianeaaeiaaiiuo io ?aioeeee
(ioeeaaeea yeoe, iaee/ea oi?ioi ?acaeoie ei?aeieaeiie einoe,
ianiaaeeiaiiie n eiiaoeie, iaeioi?ua aeaoaee ni/eaiaiey einoae /a?aia e
ae?.). ?acaeoea o ieo, oae iacuaaaiuo, noi/aouo einoae oaeaea
?anniao?eaaaony eae ianeaaeea i?aniueathueony.

Aieinyiie iie?ia e iea/iua aeaeacu – yoi i?eciaee oa?aeoa?iua eiaiii
aeey ieaeiieoathueo. ss?eei i?aaenoaaeoaeai naiaenoaa yeoeaeeaaeoueo
yaeyaony ooeiiin. Yoi caa?ae n ei?e/iaaui iaoii. Aeeeiie aei 65 ni,
aeeth/ay aeeeio oieiuaiiiai oainoa, iioiaeaai ia oaino aia?a. Aieiaa
caeai/eaaaony ooeiui eethaii, eioi?ue ia naiii aeaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?inoi ii?aeo a oi?ia ?anoe?aiiiai eethaa, iie?uooth iniaiai ?iaea
eiaeae, aiaaoie ia?aaie. Eetha ooeiiina inycaoaeueiue i?aai, neoaeauee
oaeaea aeey aeiauaaiey ieue. Ooeiiin ieoaaony aeaaaeaeu oo?ii e a
aa/a?ieo noia?eao. A ieuo oiio?aaeyao iaeeeo aiaeiuo aeeaioiuo. Ii
acio/eaaao eethaii ee ia aeia aiaeiaia e eiaeo ianaeiiuo, ?aeiia?aciuo,
/a?aae e iieethneia. Eaaeaeue aiae ooeiiin aiaaeaao a e?aoeia?aiaiioth
ceiithth niy/eo, iinea eioi?ie o iaai ianooiaao ia?eiae ?aciiiaeaiey.
Naiea ioeeaaeuaaao yeoea a ii?a. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ianeaeeaaiey
iiaeao iaiyoueny, ii ia i?aauoaao 10 nooie. Aei ia?anaeaiey /aeiaaea a
Aano?aeeth a?aae ooeiiina auee iaiiiai/eneaiiu. Ec?aaeea ia iaai
iaiaaeaee eeoue aa?ai, ieoii e caieuaathuee a ?aee otheaiue ii?neie
eaiia?ae. Caaacaiiua eieiienoaie e?ieeee nicaeaee aeey iaai iianiia
iieiaeaiea. ?uoueai ii? e?ieeee iianthaeo aaniieieee ooeiiina, e ai
iiiaeo ?aeiiao ii en/ac, onooiea ei oa??eoi?eth. Aa?iiaeneea iinaeaioeu
noaee oaeaea i?aneaaeiaaoue ooeiiina ?aaee aai oeo?ee. Iiiai caa?ueeia
iiiaaeaei a eiaooee, iinoaaeaiiua ii aa?aaai ?ae ia e?ieeeia, e a aa?oe
?uaaeia.

Anthaeo, aaea ethaee oie/oiaeaee eee aaniieieee ooeiiina, ooeaeaaoea
caa?ueee ooiaeeee. Oai aea, aaea /aeiaae ia aeieo/ae aio, ooeiiin
i?ae?anii ia?aiinee ninaaenoai n iei.

*oiau iaania/eoue nouanoaiaaiea ooeiiina, iaeioi?ua ainoaea?noaa
nicaeatho nenoaiu caiiaaaeieeia e «oaaaeeu».

Iaaeio?yae noi/aouo. Eiaea

Noi/aoua ieaeiieoathuea, ca eneeth/aieai aia?eeaineeo iiinnoiia e
oeaiieanoiauo, ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia iaoa?eea Aano?aeee, ia Iiaie Aaeiaa e
aeeceaaeaueo ino?iaao. E yoiio io?yaeo ioiinyony ieiei 250 aeaeia.
Noi/aoua – yoi aieaa neiaeii i?aaieciaaiiua aeeaioiua, /ai
iaeiii?ioiaeiua. Oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa noi/aouo – iaee/ea noi/aouo einoae e
noiee aeey auiaoeaaiey aeaoaiuoae.

Eiaea, ianiiiaiii, naiia eioa?aniia e ethaeiia aano?aeeeoeaie noi/aoia
aeeaioiia. Neiai «eiaea» ia ycuea ieaiai Iiaiai THaeiiai Oyeuena
icia/aao «ia ieoue». O eiaea i/aiue no?aiiay aiaoiinoue: iooenoay oeo?a,
iaeaiueeea aeaca, anaaaea ianoi?iaeaiiua ooe, niaoiie iin, oieiuaiiue e
niaiooue. Eiaea iaiiieiaao iethoaaiai ieoeo. Iao o eiaea iaiaeueii-na?ue
eee na?i-ao?ue, eiiaaea ?uaeaaaoue eee e?aniiaaoue ia nieia, na?aa?enoue
aieaa naaoeue ia a?thoa. Aieiaa aieueoay, oe?ieay, eiaao iaeaiueeea,
aeaeaei ?annoaaeaiiua aeaca e aieueoea ooe, naiaiaeiue e?ae eioi?uo
iie?uo aeeeiiie oa?noueth.

Ia?ac aeecie yoiai caa?ueea i?aeiouanoaaiii ii/iie. I?e ano?a/a n
/aeiaaeii eiaea ae?oaeaethaiu, iie i?ae?anii i?e?o/athony.

Ieoaiea eiaea i/aiue niaoeeaeece?iaaiii: ac?ineue caa?ue ieoaaony
eneeth/eoaeueii eenoueyie yaeaeeioa, a nayce, n /ai o iaai /?acau/aeii
neeueii ?acaeoa neaiay eeoea. Aeaoaiuo eiaea aia/aea ia?aie/eaaaony
iieieii iaoa?e. Ca eneeth/aieai iieiea, eiaea ii/oe ieeiaaea ie/aai ia
iuetho, aeiaieuenoaoynue aeaaie, niaea?aeaueony a eenoueyo.

Eiaea ?aciiiaeathony oieueei iaeei ?ac a aeaa aiaea. Aa?aiaiiinoue
aeeeony 30-35 nooie. Naioeu iaiaa iiiai/eneaiiu e eiatho iau/ii aa?ai ec
ianeieueeeo iinoiyiiuo naiie. Noiea naiie ioe?uaaaony iacaae e eiaao
iaeio ia?o nineia. Iau/ii ?iaeaeaaony iaeei iaeuo, aeaieie ano?a/athony
i/aiue ?aaeei.

A i?e?iaea eiaea ia eiatho a?aaia. Oeuieee ioeacuaathony io aai iyna.
Iiaeao auoue iioiio, /oi iii /a?an/o? i?iieoaii caiaoii yaeaeeioa.
Oie/oiaeaiea yaeaeeioiauo eania nie?aoeei iiioeyoeeth caa?ueeia, iaeiaei
iniiaiie i?e/eiie yaeyaony ioioa ia iaai ?aaee oeo?ie.

Io?yae Ianaeiiiyaeiua. Aae aa?iiaeneee

Aeey aieueoeinoaa aeaeia io?yaea Ianaeiiiyaeiuo oa?aeoa?iu iaaieueoea
?acia?u, oaeeeiaiiay eiioniaeaeiay aieiaa n auoyiooui a iiaeaeaeiue
oiaioie iinii e aonoui aa?oaoenoui iaoii (ca eneeth/aieai aaeae). Yoio
io?yae ioiinyo e iaeiiio ec ae?aaiaeoeo.

A?aae Ianaeiiiyaeiuo caieiaao anth Ao?eeo, Aa?aceth, Naaa?ioth Aia?eeo e
e?aeiee naaa? THaeiie Aia?eee. A eaninoaiiie /anoe Oe?aeiu ec
ianaeiiiyaeiuo iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu aaee.

Aa?iiaeneee aae – yoi caa?ae n iannie 700-800 a?aii, aeeeia oaea io 20
aei 30 ni. Aeeeia oainoa ieiei 3 ni. Ooe ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoea, eaeu
ei?ioeea, aieiaa e a?thoi iie?uou a?oaiaaouie e iau/ii oaiii ie?aoaiiuie
aieinaie. Aaee iniaaiii ioioii iinaeythony a ia?aeaneao, ia iiooeao
eania, a eonoa?ieeiauo ca?ineyo. Eaoii aae ia no?ieo oaaaeeua. Ia a?aiy
ioaeuoa oe?uaaaony a ethauo oe?iiiuo ianoao. I?e iianiinoe nai?a/eaaaony
a ieioiue eeoaie e a?icii iuooeo. A ianoao, aaea ceia auaaao oieiaeiie e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie, yoio caa?ae, aeaeeii, ono?aeaaao aeoaieea ceiiai/iua
ii?u eee caieiaao /oaeea.

Ieuaaie ?aoeeii aaea ?aciiia?acai. A iai i?aiaeaaeatho ianaeiiua ec
?aciuo oac ?acaeoey. N?aaee iiaaeaaiuo ianaeiiuo ano?a/athony e aeaeu,
a?aaeyuea oicyenoao. Oaeiau iaeneea o?oue, aieinaoua aeoaeaeeoeu,
aonaieoeu iiiaoaiee e iaia?iiai oaeeii?yaea. Eiiaaea aae iiaeao
iieaeiieoueny aieaa iaeeeie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iuoae eee ioe/ueeie
yeoeaie. Ca eaoi aae iouaaeaaony e aeaaea iaeaieeaaao aieueoea caianu
aee?a.

A oneiaeyo oia?aiiiai e oieiaeiiai eeeiaoa ia ceio aiaaeaao a aeoaieoth
niy/eo. I?iaoaeaeaaony ?aiiae aaniie, eiaaea a eanao au? ia nioae
iieiinoueth niaa. Ca a?aiy niy/ee neeueii ooaeaao, oaei noaiiaeony
oieiuaiiui n aieia. A oaeii ninoiyiee aae iaianuoai, iienee ei?ia
noaiiayony aai aeaaiie caaioie.

Anei?a iinea auoiaea ec ceiiaai oaaaeeua o aa?iiaeneiai aaea ia/eiaaony
a?a/iay ii?a. Ia?eiae aa?aiaiiinoe aeeeony 49 nooie. A aiaeo auaaao
eeoue iaeei i?eieiae. Naiea ?iaeeo io 2 aei 8 aeaoaiuoae. Aaeaoa
?iaeyony neaiuie, aieuie n cae?uoui neooiaui i?ioiaeii, y?ei ?iciaie
eiaeae e aunooiathueie ia iae aoai?eaie. Iieieii iaoa?e aaeaoa ieoathony
ieiei ianyoea.

Io?yae ?oeie?ueua. Eaoo/ay iuoue

?oeie?ueua – iaeeea e n?aaeieo ?acia?ia caa?ueee, niiniaiua e
aeeeoaeueiiio, iaiaa?aiiiio iieaoo. Ia?aaeiea eiia/iinoe eo
aeaeieciaiaiu a e?ueuey: iea/e, i?aaeiea/uey, iynoiua einoe e oaeaiae
anao iaeueoeaa, e?iia ia?aiai, neeueii oaeeeiaiu. Iaaeaeo ia?aaeieie
eiia/iinoyie, aieaie oaea e caaeieie eiia/iinoyie iaoyiooa oiieay
yeanoe/iay eiaeenoay ia?aiiiea. Iia ia?acoao ianouoth iiaa?oiinoue
e?uea. Caaeiea eiia/iinoe auaa?ioou oae, /oi eieaie ia?auaiu eaa?oo.
Ooiua ?aeiaeiu i/aiue aieueoea, o iiiaeo n oi?ioi ?acaeoui eiaeiui
aunooiii – eicaeeii. Oaino o aieueoeinoaa aeaeia aeeeiiue, iieiinoueth
eee /anoe/ii caeeth/aiiue a iaaeaaae?aiioth ia?aiiieo.

Eaoo/ea iuoe – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee ?oeie?ueuo,
aeeaoo a o?iie/aneeo e noao?iie/aneeo no?aiao, ii ianeieueei aeanyoeia
aeaeia ano?a/athony a no?aiao n oia?aiiui e oieiaeiui eeeiaoii. ?acia?u
i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoiai iiaeio?yaea iaeeea e n?aaeiea: aeeeia oaea io 4
aei 16 ni, i?aaeiea/uea io 2,5 aei 11 ni, ?aciao e?ueueaa io 15 aei 75
ni, ianna io 2 aei 200 a. E?ae ooa ia ia?acoao nieioiiai eieueoea. Aeaca
ii/oe o anao iaeaiueeea e aeaeyo ieioi eae aeiai, oae e ii/ueth. A
i?ino?ainoaa eaoo/ea iuoe i?eaioe?othony aeaaiui ia?acii n iiiiuueth
oeueo?acaoeiaie yoieieaoeee. O iaeioi?uo aeaeia ?oeie?ueuo
yoieieaoeeiiiiai iaoaiecia ia iaia?oaeaii. Eaoaoaeueiue aiia?ao –
i?iecaiaeiue eiaee e iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa (neaeaoa e
ioneoeaoo?u). Eaoaoaeueiue aiia?ao e iieao – iniaaiiinoe, ioee/athuea
?oeie?ueuo io anao i?i/eo caa?ae. Ieineinoue e?uea ia ?iaiay, a a aeaea
iieiaineaoiiai eoiiea. I?e iioneaiee e?uea aicaeoo, iaiieiythuee eoiie,
nicaeaao a?aiaiioth iii?o, iiae aeaaeaieai auoaniyaony ec-iiae eoiiea e
niiauaao caa?ueeo iinooiaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea aia?aae.

Oaiia?aoo?a oaea ?oeie?ueuo eciaiyaony, ii a ioiineoaeueii oceii
aeeaiaciia. A aeoeaiii ninoiyiee, iai?eia?, o iaeiai iiaeeiaiiina
oaiia?aoo?a oaea eciaiyaony io 34 aei 370 N, iaeiaei. Noieei caa?ueeo
oniooue (a eaoiee aeaiue), eae oaiia?aoo?a aai oaea nieaeaeanue aei
15-200N, o.a. aei oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa a iiiauaiee, aaea caa?ae
iaoiaeeeny.

Ceiiyy niy/ea ianooiaao e ii?iaeueii i?ioiaeeo a oaaaeeuao, aaea
oaiia?aoo?a aea?aeeony a i?aaeaeao io 0 aei 8-100N. O iiiaeo ?oeie?ueuo
i?ienoiaeeo a aiaeo ii 2 a?a/iuo ia?eiaea e 2 i?eieiaea. A eaaeaeii
i?eieiaea o aieueoeinoaa nia?aiaiiuo ?oeie?ueuo, eae e o i?eiaoia,
?iaeeony oieueei ii 1 aeaoaiuoo, o iaiiiaeo – ii 2 e eeoue a
eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo ?iaeeony ii 3 aeaoaiuoa ca 1 ?ac.

Io?yae A?ucoiu. Oooeai/ee

Io?yae a?ucoiia iiyaeeny i/aiue aeaaii. Iaeaieaa i?eieoeaiua
i?aaenoaaeoaee a?ucoiia iaoeeiiii i?ioeaaoatho ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo
50 iei. eao e noaee naiui iaoe?iui io?yaeii nia?aiaiiuo ieaeiieoathueo
(e a?ucoiai ioiineony ieiei 40% anao aeaeia iuia aeeaoueo caa?ae).

?acia?u a?ucoiia i/aiue ?aciiia?aciu: aeeeia ninoaaeyao io 5 aei 130 ni.
Aiaoiee aeae a caaeneiinoe io ia?aca aeecie ?acee/ai: ooe iiaoo
ionoonoaiaaoue, auoue iaeaiueeeie, n?aaeieo ?acia?ia eee aeeeiiuie,
aeinoeaathueie ii/oe iieiaeiu aeeeiu ooeiaeua. Eiia/iinoe noiiioiaeyuea
eee iieonoiiioiaeyuea. Iaeueoeu aii?oaeaiu eiaoyie ?aciuo ?acia?ia e
oi?iu. Oaino nia?oaee iiaeao auoue ianoieueei ei?ioeei, /oi ii/oe
iacaiaoai, iiaeao auoue ei?ioeei, aeeeiiui eee i/aiue aeeeiiui, ?aca a
iieoi?a i?aauoathuei aeeeio oaea (iai?eia?, o oooeai/eeia).

?ani?ino?aiaiu a?ucoiu ii anaio caiiiio oa?o (e?iia Aioa?eoeaeu e
iaeioi?uo a?eoe/aneeo e ieaaie/aneeo ino?iaia). ?annaeeeenue yoe
aeeaioiua anthaeo, eoaea i?iiee /aeiaae. Aieueoeinoai iacaiiua,
iaeioi?ua iiaecaiiua, iieoaiaeiua, ae?aaaniua. Iaeioi?ua eiatho neeaaeu
eiaee ii aieai e niiniaiu e ieaie?othuaio iieaoo. Aieueoeinoai aeoeaiu
e?oaeue aiae, iaeioi?ua aiaaeatho a niy/eo. N?aaee a?ucoiia anoue aeaeu
ii/iua, aeiaaiua e aeoeaiua a ethaia a?aiy nooie.

A naiaenoai oooeai/eeiauo, i eioi?ii y oi/o ?anneacaoue, iauaaeeiytho
iaaieueooth a?oiio a?ucoiia, ianaeythueo noaie, iieoionouie e ionouie
thaa. A iauai iaeeea oooeai/eeia oa?aeoa?iu i/aiue e?oiiay aieiaa n
neeueii i?eooieaiiie ii?aei/eie, aeeeiiuie cae?oaeaiiuie ooaie,
a?iiaaeiuie e?oaeuie aeacaie e aeeeiiuie aea?enaie, ei?ioeia, eo?aocia
ooeiaeua, e?ioa/iua ia?aaeiea eaiee, iiuiua i?uaaoaeueiua caaeiea
eiia/iinoe e aeeeiiue, /anoi niaaaeaiiue eenoi/eie oaino. Oaino, iau/ii
ia?aaaoeaathuee ii aeeeia ooeiaeuo, ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue i?e
aeaeaeaiee: ii neoaeeo aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ?aaiiaaney oaea i?e i?uaeeao,
iniaaiii i?e ?aceeo iiai?ioao ia auno?ii neaeo. Oooeai/eee – oeie/ii
ii/iua aeeaioiua, iiyaeythueany ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee oieueei n
ianooieaieai oaiiiou. Ceiiee ia?eiae oooeai/eee i?iaiaeyo a aeoaieie
niy/ea a naieo ii?ao. Aaniie e eaoii i?ienoiaeeo ?aciiiaeaiea caa?ueeia.
Naiea ?iaeaeaao io iaeiiai aei ainueie aeaoaiuoae. Ieuae oooeai/eeai
neoaeao naiaia ?acee/iuo ?anoaiee, eoeiaeoeu eeeaeiuo, eioi?ua iie
aueaiuaatho ec a?oioa, inoaaeyy oa?aeoa?iua eiiaiee. A ieoaiea aoiaeyo
oaeaea e caeaiua /anoe, e ei?ie ?acee/iuo ?anoaiee, a o iaeioi?uo
aeaeia, cia/eoaeueioth aeieth a ?aoeeiia ninoaaeytho aeeaioiua ei?ia.
Oooeai/eeiaua ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a ionouiiuo aeioeaiicao. Iie
ieacuaatho cia/eoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia ?anoeoaeueiue e ii/aaiiue
iie?ia.

Io?yae caeoeaia?aciua. Cayoe-?onae.

E caeoeaia?aciui i?eiaaeeaaeao caa?e n?aaieoaeueii iaeiiia?aciie
aiaoiinoe, oioy ?acia?u oaea neeueii aa?uee?otho – io 12 aei 73 ni,
?aaeei aieaa. O aieueoeinoaa caeoeaia?aciuo e?oiiua o?oaeiia?aciua ooe.
Caaeiea eiia/iinoe aieaa aeeeiiua, /ai ia?aaeiea. Ia?aaeiea eiia/iinoe
iyoeiaeua, caaeiea – /aou?aoiaeua. Eiaoe oi?ioi ?acaeou, ii
n?aaieoaeueii neaai eciaioou, aeaaea o aeaeia, niiniaiuo eacaoue ii
aea?aaueyi. Oaino ei?ioeee, o iaeioi?uo nia?oaee ii aeaaea ia caiaoai.
Coau o caeoeaia?aciuo eeoaiu cae?uouo ei?iae e iinoiyiii ?anooo, /oi
naycaii n auno?ui niaoeaaieai eo ei?iiie. Aieinyiie iie?ia aanueia
?aciiia?acai io aunieiai iooenoiai e iyaeiai aei aeanoeiai e
uaoeienoiai. Ie?anea iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa aeaeia iay?eay.
I?aiaeaaeaao na?ue, ao?ue eee io?enoue oeaao. Naiaenoai Caeoeaauo
aeeth/aao iaeaieaa e?oiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae io?yaea, aeeeia oaea eioi?uo
30-60 ni, ?aaeei aieaa. Cayoe-?onae a aieueoeinoaa ?aeiiia
?ani?ino?aiaiey ianeieueei e?oiiaa aei 70 ni, /aua 55-60ni, ianna aei 7
ea. ?onae aiaoia ioee/aaony aeeeiiuie ooaie(100-120 ii), aieaa aeeeiiui
oainoii, ino?ieiia/iui e naa?oo /a?iui. Ie?anea iaoa o ?onaea
aeaeoiaaoi-iaeaai-?uaeay, eiiaaea ieeaeiai-?uaeay, ?aciuo iooaieia n
e?oiiuie /a?ii- ao?uie iano?eiaie. Eaiu o ?onaea ei?ioeea. Yoi
neaaenoaea oiai, /oi ?onae iaeoaao i?aeiouanoaaiii a iaeanoyo, aaea
aeoaeia niaaeiiai iie?iaa n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoay e ia?acoaony iano –
oaa?aeay iaeaia niaaa. Ia ei?ioeii ?annoiyiee ?onae niiniaai ?acaeaaoue
nei?inoue aaaa aei 50 ei//an.

?onae – enoiaeii noaiiia aeeaioiia, ?ani?ino?aieaoaany a noaiiuo
iaeanoyo Aa?iiu, Ia?aaeiae e Iaeie Acee e Naaa?iie Ao?eee. Inaiueth e a
ia/aea ceiu, eiaaea niaa aua ia i/aiue aeoaie, iiey ni anoiaeaie iceiuo
ethaeiua ianoa ?onaea. Caeanue ii iaoiaeeo iaeeueiue, aeoniue ei?i;
eiaeeony ia aeiaaioth eaaeeo a aeeaeaeoeo eonoao, ia o/anoeao cyae, ia
iiooea eana. Eaoii ?onae ano aanueia ?aciiia?aciua o?aayienoua ?anoaiey,
i?aaeii/eoay ceaee e aiaiaua. Ieoaiea yoeie ?anoaieyie nioc?aiyaony e
ceiie, anee iicaieyao aeoaeia niaaeiiai iie?iaa.

?aciiiaeaaony ?onae n na?aaeeiu ia?oa aei na?aaeeiu naioya?y /aua ia
iiaa?oiinoe caiee, ono?aeaay a oe?iiiii ianoa eeoue iaaieueooth yieo. Ca
yoi a?aiy ieiei 70% naiie aeatho ii 4 auaiaeea. ?aciiiaeathony
caeoeaia?aciua auno?i, i?eiiny iau/ii ii ianeieueeo iiiaoia a aiae.
Iieiaay c?aeinoue ianooiaao ?aii, ia neaaeothuaa iinea ?iaeaeaiey eaoi.
Ca aiae cae/eoa i?eiineo 9-11 cae/ao

Io?yae Eeoiia?aciua. Neiee eeo

Eeoiia?aciua – ?acei ioeeiieaoayny a?oiia aiaeiuo ieaeiieoathueo, aiaoia
iioiaeeo ia ?ua, ii ioee/athueony io ieo oaieie?iaiinoueth, eaai/iui
aeuoaieai, aioo?eoo?iaiui ?acaeoeai, auei?iii aeaoaiuoae iieieii e
iiiaeie ae?oaei /a?oaie.

Ca aeieaoth yaiethoeeth a ei?ia eciaieeinue eo no?iaiea e ia?ac aeecie.
Ia oaea en/acei ana, /oi iaoaao neieueaeaieth: oa?noiue iie?ia, caaeiea
iiae, ooiua ?aeiaeiu. Aieueoay oi?oainoue e yeanoe/iinoue eiaee
niinianoaoao auno?iio ieaaaieth. Eeoiia?aciua iiaoo aeieai (eaoaeiou e
aooueeiiinu aei 1,5 /ania) iaoiaeeoueny iiae aiaeie n iaeiei e oai aea
caianii aicaeooa.

Aeiau/o neiee eeo caaeaouaatho iau/ii oieueei aeeaoth, oeaeeeii, aac
ia?aaeaauaaiey; coaaoua eeou oaaoatho a? ii iaeeii/ea. Onaoua eeou
aeiauaatho ieuo n?aco aieueoeie ia?oeyie e i?ioeaaeeaatho a? /a?ac
eeoiaue on. Ana ieaaieee eeoiia?aciuo auiieiytho oaeaea ?ieue
oa?ii?aaoeyoi?ia, /a?ac eioi?ua a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioaeaaony ecauoie
oaiea i?e ia?aa?aaa oaea. Iioiauo e naeueiuo aeaeac iao. Oienoue
iiaeeiaeiue neie aee?a caueuaao oaei io ioeaaeaeaiey e eniieuecoaony eae
yia?aaoe/aneee caian ai a?aiy naciiiuo aieiaeiaie eeoiia?aciuo, iiyoiio
ii neeueii eieaaeaony ii naciiai aiaea. Iiae neiai aee?a a caaeiae
iieiaeia eee o?aoe oaea ?aniieiaeaiu aeaa iea/iua aeaeacu, eaaeaeay n
nineii. Ninee o eeoiia?aciuo iiiauathony a aeaoo i?iaeieueiuo eiaeiuo
ea?iaiao ii aieai ii/aiieiaie uaee e oieueei o ei?iyueo naiie aunooiatho
ia?oaeo. Ie?anea eeoiia?aciuo auaaao iaeiioiiiie, i?ioeaioaiaaie (oaiiie
naa?oo e naaoeie nieco) eee ?an/eaiythuae, n ?aceeie naaoeuie o/anoeaie
eiaee e iyoiaie ia iae.

Aieueoeinoai eeoiia?aciuo ?aciiiaeaaony /a?ac aeaa aiaea, ii ec?aaeea
iaeioi?ua aeaeueoeiu nia?eaathony, aua ia caeii/ea auei?i iioiinoaa, e
ieiaeyony aaeaaiaeii. Aa?aiaiiinoue o ?aciuo aeaeia eeoiia?aciuo
i?iaeieaeaaony io 10 aei 16 ianyoeaa. Aaeeinoaaiiue, oi?ioi ?acaeoue
aeaoaiuo ?iaeaeaaony i/aiue e?oiiui (io 1/4 aei 1/2 aeeeiu oaea iaoa?e).
Ec?aaeea a iaeiie naiea iaoiaeyo ianeieueei ca?iaeuoae. O oeiaaea
iaeiaaeaeu iaeaeaii 6 ca?iaeuoae, a o neiaai eeoa 7. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoai
aueiai iiiaiieiaeey i?aaeeia eeoiia?aciuo. Eeoiea ca?iaeuoe iau/ii
?annanuaathony, e oieueei i/aiue ?aaeei iiaoo ?iaeeoueny aeaieie. ?iaeu
eeoiia?aciuo i?ienoiaeyo iiae aiaeie. Ia?aue aeuoaoaeueiue aeo aeaoaiuo
niaa?oaao a iiiaio naiaai ia?aiai auiu?eaaiey ia iiaa?oiinoue, eae
aaconeiaiue ?aoeaen.

Naiaenoai Eanoiiiaea. Aaeeaeueneay ia?ia

I?ienoiaeaeaiea aaeeaeueneie ia?iu aei naai a?aiaie ia auyniaii.
Aa?iyoii, iia i?iieeea a ica?i aua a o?aoe/iia a?aiy /a?ac nenoaio
nouanoaiaaaoeo oiaaea e?oiiuo, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie e n ii?ai
aioo?aiieo aannaeiia, iaeiei ec /eaiia e iineaaeiei caaiii ?acaeoey
eioi?ie anoue Aaeeae.

Aaeeaeueneay ia?ia ?ani?ino?aiaia a naaa?iuo /anoyo Aaeeaea aieaa, /ai a
thaeiuo. Iniaaiii caiaoii yoi ceiie e a ia/aea aaniu. Ia iiaa?oiinoue
eueaea ia?ia ceiie ia auoiaeeo e aeuoeo a i?iaeooeiao, eioi?ua
nii?oaeaao a iieiaeii, aua oiieii eueaeo. Aa?o oaea yoie ia?iu
ao?iaaoi-na?ue n na?aa?enoui iooaieii; iec oaea ianeieueei naaoeaa.
Aieinyiie iie?ia, eae e o iaueiiaaiiie ia?iu, ioiineoaeueii aeeeiiue e
aonoie. Aeeeia oaea ac?ineuo io 110 aei 150 ni, a ii iaeioi?ui
niiauaieyi — aei 160 ni. Ianna, eae e o anao otheaiae, neeueii
aa?uee?oao ii naciiai: io 60 aei 100 ea.

A iaa — ethia ia eueaeo i?ienoiaeeo nia?eaaiea, a aneaae ca yoei
eeiueea. Uaiiua naiee nin?aaeioi/eaathony i?aeiouanoaaiii aeec ainoi/iuo
aa?aaia. Aa?aiaiiua naiee ia?iu ono?aeaatho ai eueaeo eacee e
nii?oaeatho a oieua niaaa ii?o, a eioi?ie e uaiyony. Uaiea auaaao a
oaa?aea — ia?oa. Aeaoaiuo (aeeeiie ieiei 60 – 70 ni e iannie 3 – 3,5 ea)
?iaeeony iaeaoue aaeueeiaui iaoii, nio?aiythueiny o iaai a oa/aiea
ianyoea. Iiei/iia ei?ieaiea aeeeony aieaa ianyoea, ii iaeioi?ui
naaaeaieyi — aei 3 ianyoeaa.

A eiioea ai?aey — a iaa iaaethaeaaony ianniaue auoiae caa?ae anao
aic?anoia ia eaae, aaea iie ia?acotho caeaaeee. Aieueoeo neiieaiee
aaeeaeueneea ia?iu ia ia?acotho. Iinea en/aciiaaiey eueaeia aea?aeaony
/aua a i?ea?aaeiie ciia, a ianoaie ia eaiiyo e einao ia?acotho
iaei/eneaiiua caeaaeee.

Aaeeaeueneay ia?ia ieoaaony ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii iai?iiuneiaie ?uaie
(au/eaie, aieiiyieie) e ?uaieianoao ia a?aaeeo. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy
/eneaiiinoue aaeeaeueneie ia?iu cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeeanue.

Naiaenoai Aie/uee

Aiee iaueiiaaiiue – ?ani?ino?aiai aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei. Ii ano?a/aaony ia
Ie?aiaeneii iieoino?iaa, a Eoaeee, Iieueoa, Neaiaeeiaaee, Oeieyiaeee,
ii/oe ii anae oa??eoi?ee ?innee, ia/eiay io ?yaea a?eoe/aneeo ino?iaia e
iiaa?aaeuey Naaa?iiai Eaaeiaeoiai ieaaia aei thaeiuo i?aaeaeia no?aiu
(eneeth/ay E?ui) e aieioue aei Oeoiai ieaaia. Ia Naoaeeia e Eo?eeueneeo
ino?iaao aiee ionoonoaoao. A Acee ii ianaeyao Ei?aeneee iieoino?ia,
/anoe/ii Eeoae e iieoino?ia Eiaeinoai, Aoaaienoai, E?ai, E?ae,
A?aaeeneee iieoino?ia, oie/oiaeai a ssiiiee. A Naaa?iie Aia?eea aiee,
eiaaea-oi ?ani?ino?aiaiiue ii/oe ii anaio iaoa?eeo, oaia?ue neeueii
eno?aaeai. Aiee ioee/aaony aieueoie yeieiae/aneie ieanoe/iinoueth. Ii
aeeaao a naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo eaiaeoaooao, ii i?aaeii/eoaao ioe?uoua
noaie, iieoionouie, ooiae?o, eaninoaiue, ecaaaay nieioiua eaniua
ianneau. Oiio i?e/eiie neoaeeo iaeeea ei?ia, i?aaeaea anaai iaee/ea
aeeeeo e aeiiaoieo eiiuoiuo aeeaioiuo, a oaeaea oneiaey ioiou ia ieo,
iniaaiii a aieiaeiia, ceiiaa a?aiy, eiaaea ia ?ani?aaeaeaiea e
/eneaiiinoue oeuieea ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ieacuaaao aeoaeia niaaeiiai
iie?iaa.

Aanue aiaoiee iaeee yoiai oeuieea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aai iiue e
ioee/iie i?eniiniaeaiiinoe e iaooiieiiio aaao, i?aneaaeiaaieth e
iaiaaeaieth ia naieo aea?oa. Ii aaee/eia iaoa?ue aiee aieueoa e?oiiie
ia/a?ee. Aeeeia oaea a n?aaeiai 105— 160 ni, oainoa — 35—50 ni, aunioa a
iea/ao 80—85 ni e aei 100 ni. Ianna iau/ii 32—50 ea.

Eiaaea ianoaao a?aiy nia?eaaiey, ieiei iieiaeuo e iaeeii/iuo noa?uo
aie/eoe iiaeao niae?aoueny a?oiia naioeia. Iaaeaeo ieie aicieeatho
iaeanoi/aiiua ae?aee, ii?ie ni nia?oaeueiui enoiaeii aeey aieaa neaauo,
iiea ia ia?acoaony ia?a. Aa?aiaiiinoue aeeeony io 62 aei 75 aeiae. A
auaiaeea a n?aaeiai ian/eouaaaony 5—6 aie/ao, ec?aaeea aei 14—15, a
eiiaaea anaai 1—2. Iie ?iaeyony aaniie, neaiuie, n cae?uouie ooiuie
ioaa?noeyie, iie?uoua ?aaeeie ao?ie oa?noeie. I?ic?aaatho /a?ac 9—12
aeiae; a 3-iaaeaeueiii aic?anoa ia/eiatho auiiecaoue ec eiaiaa; iieoi?a
ianyoea auea?ieeaathony iieieii, ii aua aei yoiai i?eieiathony anoue
iieoia?aaa?aiiia iyni, io?uaiooia naioeii, eioi?ue ana yoi a?aiy
niaaaeaao aie/eoeo e aie/ao aaeie. ?anooo iie auno?i: ca ia?aua 4
ianyoea eo ianna oaaee/eaaaony ii/oe a 30 ?ac, ii caoai oaii ?inoa
caiaoii iaaeaao. Iinoaiaiii aie/aoa i?eo/athony oia?uaeyoue iaeeeo
aeeaioiuo, eioi?uo ei i?eiinyo ?iaeeoaee, a caoai o/aony ianoiyuae
ioioa. Oioy ac?ineua aieee aanueia aieiaoaeueii caaioyony i naiai
iioiinoaa, oai ia iaiaa, iiiaea uaiee iiaeaatho a ia?aue aiae aeecie.

Naiaenoai Iaaeaaaeuee. Iaiaea

Aieueoay iaiaea eee aaiaoeiaue iaaeaaaeue — ieaeiieoathuaa, a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ioiineiia e naiaenoao iaaeaaaeae, ?iaeeiie eioi?iai yaeyaony
oeaio?aeueiue Eeoae. Aieueoay iaiaea aeea?o a ai?iuo ?aaeiiao, oaeeo eae
Nu/oaiue e Oeaao. Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu XX aaea iaiaea noaea /ai-oi a?iaea
iaoeeiiaeueiie yiaeaiu Eeoay.

A aeeeio aieueoay iaiaea aeinoeaaao 1,2—1,5 i e eiaao ianno io 30 aei
160 ea. A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo iaaeaaaeae eiaao aeiaieueii aeeeiiue oaino
(aei 12 ni). Oaei ianneaiia, iie?uoia aonoui aaeui iaoii n /??iuie
iyoiaie aie?oa aeac («i/eaie») e /??iuie iiaaie. Ei?ioeea oienoua
caaeiea eaiu eiatho ino?ua eiaoe. Ia iiaeioaao e a iniiaaiee eaaeaeiai
iaeueoea oi?ioi ?acaeou aieua iiaeooa/ee, iaeaa/athuea oaea?aeeaaiea
aeaaeeeo noaaeae aaiaoea.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iaiaeu ioiinyony e oeuiui, eo ?aoeeii a
iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa aaaaoa?eaineee. Oaeoe/anee, iie aaeyo iaeei
oieueei aaiaoe. A aeaiue ac?ineay iaiaea nuaaeaao aei 30 ea aaiaoea e
iiaaaia. Oaoie/anee aea, eae e iiiaea aeeaioiua, iaiaeu anayaeiu. Oae
ecaanoii, /oi iaiaeu aaeyo yeoea, a oaeaea iaeioi?uo ianaeiiuo ia?yaeo n
eo aaiaoeiaie aeeaoie. AEeaioiay ieua aeey iaiae yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui
enoi/ieeii aaeea.

Iaiaea ?aciiiaeaaony i/aiue iaaeeaiii. Aeey aieueoeo iaiae oa?aeoa?ia
ia?acai?/eaay nenoaia nia?eaaiey, eiaaea naioeu eiieo?e?otho aeey
aeinooia aieaa /ai e iaeiie ac?ineie naiea. Naiee a ia?eiae aioiaiinoe e
nia?eaaieth oaaee/eaatho caiaoiaoth ia?ee?iai/ioth aeoeaiinoue e
noaiiayony aieaa aieaeueiuie. Naioeu oaeaea eiieo?e?otho iaaeaeo niaie
ca aiciiaeiinoue aeinooia e aioiaie e nia?eaaieth e ca/aoeth naiea.
Aa?aiaiiinoue eieaaeaony io 84-97 aei 164-181 aeiae, a n?aaeiai ieiei
135 aeiae. Iau/ii ?iaeaeaaony 1-2, ?aaeei 3 aieuo aeaoaiuoa (iinea
?iaeaeaiey aeeciaoeia iaoue oaeaeyao aieiaiea oieueei iaeiiio ec ieo,
iiyoiio aoi?ie iiaeaaao ), eaaeaeue aanii oieueei 100-200 a e aeeeiie 15
– 17 ni. N?aco aea iinea ?iaeia iaoue iiiiaaao aaniiiiuiiio aeaoaiuoo
aeioyiooueny aei ninea.

A ?iaeaeaiee, aeaoaiuoe aeaaioneie iaiaeu, iiaeiaii anai ae?oaei
iaaeaaaeyi, neaiu e aaniiiiuiu, ii a ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa iaaeaaaeae,
iie iie?uou oiieei neiai iaoa.

Iaoue iaiaeu ioiineony i/aiue caaioeeai e naiaio iaeaiueeiio uaieo,
eioi?iai iau/ii ea/aao a iaeiie eaia eae etheueea, i?eaeeiay aai oanii e
naiae a?oaee.

Aieueoay iaiaea yaeyaony en/acathuei aeaeii, oa?aeoa?ecothueiny
iinoiyiii oiaiueoathueiny ?acia?ii iiioeyoeee e ieceei o?iaiai
?iaeaeaaiinoe.

Naiaenoai eioa/uee. E?aen

E?aen eee niaaeiue aa?n iaeoaao a ai?iuo ?aeiiao Acee io Aoaaienoaia aei
caiaaeiiai Eeoay, a Aeiaeayo, ia Oeaaoa, a ai?ao Iiiaieee, ia Aeoaa. Yoi
iaeii ec naiuo aunieiai?iuo aeeaioiuo.

Aeeeia oaea e?aena 110 – 125 ni, aan 20 – 40 ea. Anee n?aaieaaoue aeeeio
oainoa e oaea, oi ec anao eioa/ueeo o niaaeiiai aa?na naiue aeeeiiue
oaino, ii ninoaaeyao aieaa o??o /aoaa?oae aeeeiu oaea. Iauee oii ie?anee
nieiu e aieia oaea na?iaaoi-aeui/aoue, eiiaaea /ooue aeaeoiaaoue. Ia
yoii oiia – oaiiua iyoia n ia?aceeie i/a?oaieyie – e?oiiua
eieueoeaia?aciua e iaaieueoea nieioiua. Ia iaaieueoie aieiaa – ei?ioeea
oe?iei iinoaaeaiiua ooe e aieueoea, auniei ?aniieiaeaiiua aeaca. Iaoiaie
iie?ia caa?y i/aiue aonoie, iuoiue e iyaeee. Aonoay oa?noue ?ano?o
aeaaea iaaeaeo iaeueoeaie e caueuaao iiaeooa/ee eai ceiie – io oieiaea,
eaoii – io ai?y/eo eaiiae.

Iniiao ieoaiey e?aena ninoaaeytho e?oiiua eiiuoiua: neae?neee ai?iue
eic?e, a?oa?. A i?aaeai?ueyo e?aen ioioeony ia einoeth e eaaaia. Aa?n
aaccao/ii iiaee?aaeuaaaony e naiae aea?oaa e aiacaiii i?uaaao ia ia?. Ii
iiaeao niaa?oaoue i?uaeee aei 10 iao?ia a aeeeio e aei 3 – a aunioo. Ia
iieiaa aeiau/o n?aco, ii i?ae?auaao i?aneaaeiaaiea iinea ianeieueeeo
i?uaeeia. Oaea e?oiiia aeeaioiia, oeuiee caoaneeaaao aai iiae neaeo, eee
aea?aai e ia/eiaao anoue. Ca iaeei ?ac ii nuaaeaao anaai 2-3 ea iyna, a
iaeeueiua inoaoee o?aiacu a?inaao e aieueoa e iei ia aica?auaaony.

Caa?e aeeaoo iiiaeeii/ea. O/anoee iaeoaiey naioeia iiaoo /anoe/ii
ia?ae?uaaoueny n o/anoeaie 1 – 3 naiie. Aii o niaaeiiai aa?na
i?ienoiaeeo a ia?oa – iaa. Naiaoe ano?a/aaony n naieie oieueei a yoi
a?aiy e a iineaaeothuai a ainieoaiee aeaoae o/anoey ia i?eieiaao. *a?ac
o?e ianyoea a eiaiaa, eioi?ia naiea ono?aeaaao a iaua?a eee a ?anuaeeia
o?oaeiiaeinooiiiai ouaeuey, iiyaeythony ia naao 2 – 4 eio?iea.
Iiai?iaeae?iiua ?acia?ii n iaaieueooth aeiiaoithth eioeo, niaa?oaiii
aaniiiiuiua, iie?uou aonoui iaoii ao?iaaoiai oeaaoa, eniau??iiui o?iiuie
nieioiuie iyoiaie. Ioe?uaatho aeaca iie a aic?anoa iieooi?a iaaeaeue. A
aeaooiany/iii aic?anoa eioyoa ia/eiatho auoiaeeoue ec eiaiaa, /oiau
iiea?aoue o aai aoiaea, n yoiai a?aiaie iaoue aea?o ei iynioth ieuo. A
aic?anoa o??o ianyoeaa aeao?iuoe ia/eiatho neaaeiaaoue ca iaoa?ueth, a
iyoe – oanoeiany/iua oaea ioioyony aianoa n iae. E aeiau/a
iiaee?aaeuaaaony an? naiaenoai, ii ?aoathuee a?inie aeaeaao naiea. E
naiinoiyoaeueiie iaeeii/iie aeecie caa?e ia?aoiaeyo e ia/aeo neaaeothuae
aaniu.

Io?yae ia?iieiiuoiua. Aeaai?iaeiue ieaiue

Aeaai?iaeiue ieaiue aeeaao ai iiiaeo ianoao ie?a. A?aae aeinoaoi/ii
aaeee. Yoi aeeaioiia iiaeii ano?aoeoue ii anae oa??eoi?ee Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu, a Aeaee?a e Ia?ieei, a THaeiie Neaiaeeiaaee, Aoaaienoaia,
Iiiaieee, Oeaaoa, a THai-Ainoi/iii Eeoaa. Ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai
Niaaoneiai Nithca, yoi aeeaioiia ano?a/aeinue a I?eaaeoeea, a E?uio, ia
Oe?aeia, a Aaei?onnee. Caaacai a Aano?aeeth e Iiaoth Caeaiaeeth,
A?aaioeio e *eee. Oai Aeaai?iaeiue ieaiue aeeeeiaoece?iaaeny e ioee/ii
naay /oanoaoao.

Aii ia/eiaaony inaiueth. A yoio ia?eiae naioeu i?aaiecotho aa?aiu ec
ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa naiie, /ue? eiee/anoai iiaeao auoue io aeaoo
aei aeaaaeoeaoe. ??a ieaiae iiaeii neuoaoue ieiei ianyoea, ii ?aciineony
i/aiue aeaeaei, ca ianeieueei eeeiiao?ia.

Aa?aiaiiinoue aeeeony 8,5 ianyoeaa, ieaiyoa ?iaeaeathony a oaieia a?aiy
aiaea. Io?e i?ienoiaeeo a oe?iiiuo ianoao. Naiee ?iaeatho, eae i?aaeei,
iaeiiai oaeaiea, ?aaeei aeaa. Ie?anea iaeaiueeiai ieaiaiea iyoienoay,
i/aiue iiiiaathuay aio ianee?iaaoueny. Ia ia?auo ii?ao yoi iniiaiay
caueoa ieaiaiea. Naiinoiyoaeueii ieoaoueny iie ia/eiatho a aic?anoa
iaeiiai ianyoea, ii ia?aeeaeueii n o?aaie iie ninoo naieo, eiiaaea aei
aiaeiaaeiai aic?anoa. *a?ac aiae o iieiaeuo naioeia ia/eoatho
iiyaeyoueny ia eao aoai?ee, eioi?ua iicaea i?aa?aoyony a ?ineioiua ?iaa.
Oioy ia?aua ?iaa ia aoaeoo eiaoue ?acaaoaeaiee e aaniie aoaeoo na?ioaiu.
N eaaeaeui iineaaeothuei aiaeii eiee/anoai io?inoeia ia ?iaao aoaeao
oaaee/eaaoueny, a naie ?iaa aoaeoo noaiiaeoueny iiuiaa e neeueiaa.
Iaeaieueoeo ?acia?ia iie aeinoeaatho a aic?anoa naioeia io 5 aei 12 eao,
iioii iie noaiiayony n eaaeaeui aiaeii iaiueoa, neaaaa, oiaiueoaaony
eiee/anoai io?inoeia. ?iaa na?anuaathony a ia?oa—ai?aea, eiiaaea, a
oaieua ceiu — a yiaa?a—oaa?aea.

Ieoaaony aeaai?iaeiue ieaiue naiie ?aciiia?aciie ieuae. Iniiaiie aaeie
yoiai aeeaioiiai yaeyaony o?aayienoay ?anoeoaeueiinoue, ceaee, aiaiaua.
Aaniie, iinea neiaeiiai aeey aeeaioiuo a?aiaie aiaea – ceiu, iniaia
cia/aiea i?eaeaaony oiio?aaeaieth a ieuo aaeeiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoe, aeey
iiiieiaiey nee e iieo/aiey iieiioeaiiiai aeoaieiiiai ei?ia. A ceiiee
ia?eiae a?aiaie, anee niaaeiue iie?ia ia i/aiue aaeee, Aeaai?iaeiue
ieaiue iieuecoaony aiciiaeiinoueth aeiauaaoue oiaaoea inaiueth eenouey n
aea?aaueaa, ?acee/iua noaaee e ei?o eonoa?ieeia. Oiio?aaeytho oaeaea
oaith niniu e aee.

Io?yae iaia?iieiiuoiua. *a?iue iini?ia

*a?iue iini?ia ?ani?ino?aiai a THA?, a oae aea a Eaiee, Oaicaiee ia
ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee Oeaio?aeueiie, Ainoi/iie e THaeiie Ao?eee. AEeaao a
naaaiia, ca?ineyo eonoa?ieeia.

*a?iue iini?ia — e?oiiia e iiao/aa aeeaioiia, aeinoeaathuaa iannu 2 o,
aeeeiu aei 3,15 i i?e aunioa 150—160 ni. Ii?aeo aai oe?aoatho iau/ii
aeaa ?iaa, ii a iaeioi?uo ianoiinoyo (iai?eia?, a Caiaee) — o?e e aeaaea
iyoue. Ia?aaeiee ?ia naiue aieueoie, /aua aai aeeeia 40—60 ni. O
iini?iaia ianneaiia oaei e ei?ioeea, oienoua eiia/iinoe. Ia eaaeaeie ec
ieo ii o?e iaeueoea, caaa?oathueony oe?ieeie eiiuoaie. Eiaea oienoay n
na?ie eee ei?e/iaaie ie?aneie. O aceaoneeo aeaeia eiaea o oae e iia
nia?aia a neeaaeee, nicaeaaay aia/aoeaiea, aoaeoi ia caa?yo naiaai ?iaea
a?iiy. O iini?iaia neaaia c?aiea, iaeiaei, yoio iaaeinoaoie aiciauaaony
ooii/?iiui iaiiyieai e ioee/iui neooii. Iini?iae aeeaoo iiiaeeii/ea, ii
a naaaiiao iiaoo e iauaaeeiyoueny a iaaieueoea a?oiiu. Anee naiea aioiaa
e nia?eaaieth, iaaeaeo naioeaie iiaoo ia/aoueny na?ue?ciua iiaaeeiee.
Iiaaaeeoaeue iuoaaony i?eaea/ue naieo ia?ee?iaeie naiaai a?aaea
yene?aiaioaie.

O?aaiyaeai. Ieoaaony /a?iue iini?ia i?aeiouanoaaiii iieiaeuie iiaaaaie
eonoa?ieeia, eioi?ua, oi/ii iaeueoeai, caoaaouaaao aa?oiae aoaie. I?e
yoii aeeaioiua ia ia?auatho aieiaiey ie ia ino?ua oeiu, ie ia aaeeee
nie. Aeaaea ia ioe?uouo ?aaieiao iie i?aaeii/eoatho iouneeaaoue iaeeea
eonoa?ieee, eioi?ua auaea?aeaatho n ei?iai. Ei?ieony /a?iue iini?ia
oo?ii e aa/a?ii, a iaeaieaa aea?eea /anu iau/ii i?iaiaeeo a iieonia,
noiy a oaie aea?aaa

O /a?iuo iini?iaia iao ii?aaeaeaiiiai naciia ?aciiiaeaiey. Nia?eaaiea
auaaao a ?aciia a?aiy aiaea. Iinea 15—16 ianyoeaa aa?aiaiiinoe naiea
i?eiineo iaeiiai aeaoaiuoa. Iiai?iaeaeaiiue eiaao ianno 20—35 ea,
e?ioioiue (aei 1 ni) naaoeue ?ia e oaea /a?ac aeanyoue ieioo iinea
iiyaeaiey ia naao iiaeao oiaeeoue, a /a?ac 4 /ana ia/eiaao ninaoue
iaoue. A oa/aiea aeaoo eao aeaoaiuo ieoaaony iieieii iaoa?e. E yoiio
a?aiaie ii aeinoeaaao aeinoaoi/ii aiooeoaeueiuo ?acia?ia, e, /oiau
aeia?aoueny aei nineia, aio i?eoiaeeony noaiiaeoueny ia eieaie. Ia
?annoaaony n iaoa?ueth ii aei 3,5 eao.

Io?yae I?eiaou. Ei?e

?ani?ino?aiaiu a Eiaeee, ia Oeaeeiia, a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee e Ao?eea e
thao io Naoa?u. Iaeoaoaee o?iie/aneeo eania, iau/ii aonouo, aeaaeiuo eee
nooeo.

?acia?u iaaieueoea. Aeeeia oaea ei?e 11-39 ni. Oainoa iao eee ii
ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii o?aoue, iieiaeio eee /ooue aieueoa iieiaeiu aeeeiu
oaea. Ooeiaeua oaeeeiaiiia. Oay ei?ioeay, eiia/iinoe n?aaeiae aeeeiu eee
ianeieueei oei?i/aiiua. Ia?aaeiea e caaeiea eiia/iinoe iaeeiaeiaie
aeeeiu eee caaeiea ?acaeou neeueiaa. Ia?aue iaeaoe neaai eee neeueii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony inoaeueiui. Iaeueoeu niaaaeaiu iiaoyie, ca
eneeth/aieai aoi?iai iaeueoea caaeieo eiia/iinoae, eioi?ue eiaao
eiaoaia?aciue iiaioue. Eenoue e noiia oe?ieea. Aieiaa ie?oaeay, n
oei?i/aiiui eeoeaaui ioaeaeii. Aeaca aieueoea. Ooe ?acee/iuo ?acia?ia io
iaeaiueeeo, ne?uouo a iaoo aieiau, aei aeeeiiuo, caino?aiiuo,
ia?aiii/aouo e i/aiue iiaeaeaeiuo. Aieinyiie iie?ia ioiineoaeueii
ei?ioeee, aonoie e iyaeee. Ie?anea aai iau/ii na?ay, ao?ay eee
cieioenoay, aieaa naaoeay ia a?thoiie noi?iia. Iaeanoue aie?oa aeac
iau/ii oaiiay. Ia aieiaa eiathony eiiaaea oaiiua iieinu e naaoeua iyoia.

Aaaeoo a iniiaiii ae?aaaniue ia?ac aeecie. Aeoeaiinoue ii/iay. Aeaiue
i?iaiaeyo a aeoieao aea?aaueaa eee ia aaoayo, a e?iia. Niyo,
naa?ioaoenue eeoaeii e iiianoea aieiao iaaeaeo caaeieie eiia/iinoyie.
Ei?e ia?aaeaeaathony ii aea?aaueyi iaaeeaiii, ia?anoaaeyy eaio ca eaiie.
Aeey ei?e oa?aeoa?ia iiuiay oaaoea, oae /oi iie iiaoo iiaeniooue ia
aaoea, aea?aeanue oieueei caaeieie eaiaie. O ieo eneeth/eoaeueii
iiaeaeaeiua caiynouey e aieaiinoiiiua ni/eaiaiey, anoue “/oaeaniay
naoue” a eiia/iinoyo.

Aea?aeaony, iiiaeeii/ea, ia?aie eee iaaieueoeie a?oiiaie. Aeey
i?aaenoaaeoaeae naiaenoaa oa?aeoa?iu aeiaieueii ?aciiia?aciua caoee.

Ii oa?aeoa?o ieoaiey aeaaiui ia?acii ianaeiiiyaeiua eee oeuieee, oioy
iiaaeatho oaeaea yeoea ioeoe, ?acee/iua ?anoeoaeueiua iauaeou: ieiaeu,
eenouey e o. i. I?e aaea iiiiaatho naaa ia?aaeieie eiia/iinoyie.

*aoeie naciiiinoe a ?aciiiaeaiee ia ioia/aii. Iieiaic?aeinoue ianooiaao
i?eia?ii a 1,5 aiaea. Aa?aiaiiinoue io 6 iaaeaeue aei 6 ianyoeaa. A
iiiaoa 1-2 aeaoaiuoa. Iiai?iaeaeaiiua iie?uou aieinaie, aeaca ioe?uou.
Eaeoaoeeiiiue ia?eiae aeeeony i?eia?ii 3,5 ianyoea. N iaoa?ueth
inoathony a oa/aiea aiaea

Auaiae

Ia yoii y caeai/eaath naie ?anneac i ieaeiieoathueo. ss caiaoeea
ii?aaeaeaiiua noiaenoaa e ioee/ey iaaeaeo iaeioi?uie aeaeaie,
naiaenoaaie, ?iaeaie aeeaioiuo. Ii ana iie ioiinyony e iauaio eeanno
Ieaeiieoathueo.

ss i/aiue iaaeathnue ia oi, /oi eaaeaeue ec /eoaoaeae yoiai ?aoa?aoa
ociae /oi – oi iiaia aeey naay. Ee/ii iaiy yoa ?aaioa i/aiue
caeioa?aniaaea e y n oaeiaieuenoaeai acyeanue ca aa iaienaiea. *anaie y
neaeaea ca eiiiuethoa?ii, aueneeaay eioi?iaoeeth i?i oi eee eiia
aeeaioiia. Ia?a?uea anth aeaeeioaeo, noa?aynue iaeoe eioa?aniua
naaaeaiey e oaeou. Iia auei i/aiue eioa?anii ociaoue i iiaaaeeao
aeeaioiuo, eo aeecie a anoanoaaiiie n?aaea iaeoaiey, i nenoaia eo
ieoaiey, ?aciiiaeaiey, ianoao i?iaeeaaiey.

*aeiaae ?ane?ue iiiaeanoai caaaaeie i?e?iaeu, ii ia naiii aeaea yoi
eeoue iaeay eo /anoue. Anaaaea aoaeao inoaaaoueny /oi – oi, /oi
iaiiaeaeanoii /aeiaaeo.

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