Простейшие (Protozoa)

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?aoa?ao

I?inoaeoea (Protozoa)

I?inoaeoea (Protozoa), oei iaeiieeaoi/iuo aeeaioiuo ec a?oiiu
yoea?eioia. I. ioee/athony io anao ae?oaeo yoea?eioia, ioiineiuo e
iiiaieeaoi/iui, oai, /oi eo i?aaieci ninoieo ec iaeiie eeaoee, o. a.
aunoee o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee o ieo eeaoi/iue. Ii/oe ana I.
iee?ineiie/aneeo ?acia?ia, ii ?acee/iu ii o?iaith ii?oioeceieiae/aneie
aeeooa?aioee?iaee. Oae, ai?au ono?iaiu ioiineoaeueii i?inoi (ia eiatho
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo i?aaiieaeia caoaaoa ieue, aeaeaeaiey, nie?auaiey
e o.i.), eiooci?ee aea iaeaaeatho neiaeiie i?aaiecaoeeae (eiatho
iiaa?oiinoiua iaeeeeoey?iua no?oeoo?u, iii?iua e nie?aoeoaeueiua
oea?eeeu, i?aaiieaeu aeaeaeaiey — ?anie/ee e eo i?iecaiaeiua,
niaoeeaeueiua i?aaiieaeu caoaaoa ieue, caueou e o.i.). Anai I. i?enoue
oeie/iay eeaoi/iay oeueo?ano?oeoo?a e eiiieaen i?aaiieaeia iauaai
iacia/aiey: ieoioiiae?ee, yiaeiieaciaoe/aneay naoue, yeaiaiou aiia?aoa
Aieueaeaee, ?eainiiu, eeciniiu. ssae?i ie?oaeaii oeie/iie
aeaooiaia?aiiie iaiei/eie n ii?aie, niaea?aeeo ea?eiieacio, o?iiiniiu (a
eioa?oaciii yae?a iie iau/ii iaoiaeyony a aeanie?aeeciaaiiii ninoiyiee)
e ioeeaiee.

Ecaanoii 25—30 oun. aeaeia I. *enei aea nouanoaothueo a i?e?iaea aeaeia
I., aa?iyoii, a ianeieueei ?ac aieueoa, o.e. ec-ca iee?ineiie/aneeo
?acia?ia e oaoie/aneeo o?oaeiinoae oaoia I. iaaeinoaoi/ii enneaaeiaaia,
aaeaaiaeii iienuaathony nioie iiauo aeaeia. I. aeaeyo ia 5 eeannia:
na?eiaeiaua, aeaooeeiaua, nii?iaeee, eiooci?ee, eieaeinii?eaeee. Eiaaony
ianeieueei i?ia?anneaiuo oeeiaaiaoe/aneeo eeiee, aaaeoueo e ia?aciaaieth
e?oiiuo oaeniiia — oi?aieieoa?, ?aaeeiey?ee, eiooci?ee, o eioi?uo
ii?oi-oeceieiae/aneay aeeooa?aioee?iaea iaeaieaa neiaeiay. Iooe
ii?oi-oeceieiae/aneiai i?ia?anna a i?aaeaeao I. ioee/athony io oaeiauo o
iiiaieeaoi/iuo. Aeey i?ia?anneaiie yaiethoeee I. oa?aeoa?ia
iieeia?ecaoeey i?aaiieaeia, aunieee o?iaaiue iieeieieaeee,
aeeooa?aioee?iaea yaea? ia aaia?aoeaiua e aaaaoaoeaiua (o eiooci?ee eo
iacuaatho iee?iioeeaon e iae?iioeeaon). Aeey iiiaeo I. oa?aeoa?iu oeeeeu
?acaeoey, au?aaeathueany a caeiiiia?iii /a?aaeiaaiee aaniieiai e
iieiaiai ?aciiiaeaiey. Iniaie neiaeiinoe aeinoeaatho aeeciaiiua oeeeeu o
ia?aceoe/aneeo I. ec eeanna nii?iaeeia (ni. Eieoeeaeee).

I. oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu a i?e?iaea e caieiatho nouanoaaiiia ianoi a
oeaiyo ieoaiey ai iiiaeo aeioeaiicao e aeinoa?a a oeaeii. Iiiaea I.
(aeaooeeiaua, ?aaeeiey?ee, eiooci?ee) aoiaeyo a ninoaa ii?neiai
ieaieoiia, aaea ia?aaeei, auno?i ?aciiiaeaynue, aeinoeaatho ia?iiiiai
eiee/anoaa. Iie neoaeao aaaeiui caaiii a ieoaiee ii?neiai ciiieaieoiia,
iniaaiii aaneiiiaeo ?aeiia?aciuo. Iiiaea I. (oi?aieieoa?u, eiooci?ee)
aoiaeyo e a ninoaa ii?neiai aaioina, iaeoathuaai io eeoi?aee aei naiuo
aieueoeo aeoaei. Iienaia oaoia eiooci?ee, ianaeythueo iiaa?oiinoiua neie
ii?neeo ianeia. ?yae I. aoiaeeo a ninoaa i?aniiaiaeiiai ieaieoiia e
aaioina. Aeaeiaie ninoaa I. i?aniuo aiae neoaeeo iieacaoaeai noaiaie eo
nai?iaiinoe, o. a. caa?yci?iiinoe i?aaie/aneeie aauanoaaie. Iaeioi?ua
I., iniaaiii eiooci?ee, — aaaeiue enoi/iee ieoaiey iaeueeia ?ua (a o. /.
e i?iiuneiauo) ia naiuo ?aiieo noaaeeyo eo ?acaeoey.

I/aiue iiiaea I. ia?aoee e ia?aceoe/aneiio ia?aco aeecie, a 2 eeanna —
nii?iaeee e eieaeinii?eaeee — oeaeeeii ninoiyo ec ia?aceoia. N?aaee
ia?aceoe/aneeo I. iniaia cia/aiea eiatho ia?aceou /aeiaaea, aeiiaoieo e
i?iiuneiauo ieaeiieoathueo, a oaeaea ioeoe e ?ua. E caaieaaaieyi
/aeiaaea, aucuaaaiui I., ioiinyony iaey?ey, eaeoiaieicu, eyiaeeicu,
ai?aeac e ae?. Aeey ?iaaoiai neioa iaeaieaa oyae?euie,
nii?iaiaeaeathueieny aunieie eaoaeueiinoueth, yaeythony caaieaaaiey,
aucuaaaiua e?iaaia?aceoaie, — ie?iieacieaeicu, oaeea?eicu,
o?eiaiiniiicu. Aieueoie oua?a iaiinyo ia?aceoe/aneea I. e ioeoeaaiaenoao
(eieoeeaeeicu). A ?uaiaiaenoaa io i?ioicieiuo caaieaaaiee no?aaeaao
i?aeiouanoaaiii iieiaeue i?iiuneiauo ?ua. Oae, ia?aceoe/aneay eiooci?ey
eooeiooe?eon niiniaia aucaaoue iiaieiaioth aeaaeue iaeueeia. Eeann
eieaeinii?eaeee a cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ninoieo ec ia?aceoia ?ua (io?yae
ieeninii?eaeee), a oaeaea ia?aceoia iieaciuo ianaeiiuo — i/?e e oooiaiai
oaeeii?yaea (iee?inii?eaeee ?iaea iicaia). ?ac?aaaouaathony niiniau
i?eiaiaiey ia?aceoe/aneeo I., a eiaiii iee?inii?eaeee, aeey ai?ueau n
ianaeiiuie-a?aaeeoaeyie; a yoii iai?aaeaiee oaea iieo/aiu
iaiaae?aeeaathuea ?acoeueoaou.

Ii?neea I. — ?aaeeiey?ee e iniaaiii oi?aieieoa?u — ea?aee aaaeioth ?ieue
a oi?ie?iaaiee inaaei/iuo ii?iae. Iiiaea ecaanoiyee, iaeiaua ioeiaeaiey
e ae?. inaaei/iua ii?iaeu, oi?ie?iaaaoeany ia aeia ii?neeo aiaei?iia a
?acee/iua aaieiae/aneea ia?eiaeu, oeaeeeii eee /anoe/ii ia?aciaaiu
neaeaoaie (ecaanoeiauie eee e?aii?auie) eneiiaaiuo I. A nayce n yoei
iee?iiaeaiioieiae/aneee aiaeec eniieuecoaony i?e aaieiai-?acaaaei/iuo
?aaioao, aeaaiui ia?acii a ?acaaaeea ia iaooue.

?aciua aeaeu I. (ai?au, eiooci?ee) oe?iei i?eiaiythony a eaai?aoi?iie
i?aeoeea i?e enneaaeiaaiee oeeoieiae/aneeo, aaiaoe/aneeo e aeioece/aneeo
i?iaeai. Oi?ioi ?ac?aaioaia oaoieea eaai?aoi?iuo eoeueoo? iiiaeo aeaeia
I. Eco/aieai I. caieiaaony i?ioenoieiaey.

Ioaeae Yaaeaiiaua aiaei?inee Euglenophyta

Ioaeae Yaaeaiiaua aiaei?inee Euglenophyta ian/eouaaao ieiei 800 aeaeia.

Iaeoatho a i?aniuo noiy/eo aiaeao, aiaaouo i?aaieeie. I?e neeueiii
?aciiiaeaiee aucuaatho oeaaoaiea aiaeu. Anoue ia?aceou e
nai?ioeou.Iaeiieeaoi/iua i?aaieciu. Oi?ia oaea iaaeueiay,
aa?aoaiiia?aciay.

Eeaoea ia?aie/aia ieaciaeaiiie, iiae eioi?ie i?ioiaeyo ii nie?aee
ianeieueei aeaeeo aaeeiauo oyaeae. Aianoa n iaia?aiie iie ia?acotho
iaeeeeoeo. Ionoonoaea oienoie eeaoi/iie noaiee iicaieyao yaaeaiiaui
eaaei iaiyoue oi?io oaea. O iaeioi?uo aiaei?ineae iaeeeeoea
eie?onoe?iaaia nieyie aeaeaca e ia?aaioea.

Ia ia?aaeiai eiioea eeaoee iaoiaeeony oaeoaeaiea a aeaea o?oaee –
«aeioea». ?aniieaaathuayny ?yaeii nie?aoeoaeueiay aaeoieue niae?aao
ecauoie aiaeu ec anao /anoae oaea aiaei?inee e aua?anuaaao aai a aeioeo.
A aeioea iaoiaeyony 2 aeaooeea. Iaeei ec aeaooeeia ei?ioeee e ia
auoiaeeo ia?oaeo, a aoi?ie – aeeeiiue.

O?iiaoioi?u iiiai/eneaiiua niaea?aeao oei?ioeee a e b, ea?ioeiieaeu. 
Yaaeaiu niiniaiu i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia eioaineaiinoue inaauaiey,
aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth  noeaiu – naaoi/oanoaeoaeueiiai aeacea.

Caianatho oaeaaiaeu a aeaea iaiau/iiai aauanoaa ia?aieeiia, eioi?ue
iaia?oaeai oieueei o ieo. Ia?aieeii ioeeaaeuaaaony a oeeoiieacia.

?aciiiaeathony i?iaeieueiui ieoioe/aneei aeaeaieai. Iieiaie i?ioeann
iaecaanoai.

AEAOOEEIII?NOeU (aeaooeeiaua), iiaeoei i?inoaeoeo oeia na?eiaeaooeeiauo.
?acia?u io 2-5 iei aei 1 ii. Ia?aaeaeaathony n iiiiuueth iaeiiai eee
iiiaeo aeaooeeia, aeeeia eioi?uo o iaeiie iniae iiaeao auoue ?acee/iie.
Eeaoee iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa aeaooeeiiinoeaa iie?uou ieioiie
iaeeeeoeie e, a ioee/ea io na?eiaeiauo, anaaaea nio?aiytho iinoiyiioth
oi?io. Oieueei i/aiue iaiiiaea aeaeu iiaoo ia?aciauaaoue inaaaeiiiaeee.
N?aaee aeaooeeiiinoeaa ano?a/athony eae aaoio?iou, niiniaiua e
oioineioaco, oae e aaoa?io?iou, ieoathueany aioiauie i?aaie/aneeie
aauanoaaie. *anoue aeaeia yaeythony ieenio?ioaie, niaiauathueie iaa oeia
ieoaiey. ?aciiiaeathony, eae i?aaeei, aaniieui iooai a ?acoeueoaoa
i?iaeieueiiai aeaeaiey eeaoee; o iaeioi?uo iaaethaeaaony iieiaia
?aciiiaeaiea. Aieaa 8000 aeaeia, ?acaeaeythueony ia 2 eeanna:
?anoeoaeueiua aeaooeeiiinoeu (yaaeaiiaua, o?eciiiiaaeiaua,
i?eiiaceeaeiaua, aieueaieniaua e iaioee?iua aeaooeeiiinoeu) e aeeaioiua
aeaooeeiiinoeu (eeiaoiieanoeaeu, aeeieiiiiaaeu, iiiaiaeaooeeiaua e
ai?ioie/eiaua aeaooeeiiinoeu). Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
aeaooeeiiinoeaa — naiaiaeiiaeeaouea aeaeu, ano?a/athueany a ii?neeo e
i?aniuo aiaeao, a oaeaea a ii/aa. Ieaieoiiiua oi?iu ea?atho aaaeioth
?ieue a e?oaiai?ioa aauanoa; iiiaea aeaeu yaeythony aeieiae/aneeie
eiaeeeaoi?aie caa?yciaiiinoe aiae.

Ai?aa i?ioae (eao. Amoeba proteus) eee ai?aa iaueiiaaiiay (ei?iaiiaeea)
— e?oiiue (200—500 iei) aiaaieaeiue i?aaieci, i?aaenoaaeoaeue eeanna
Lobosea (eiaiciua aiaau). Iieeiiaeeaeueiay oi?ia (oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iaee/eai iiiai/eneaiiuo (aei 10 e aieaa) inaaaeiiiaeee — eiaiiiaeee).
Inaaaeiiiaeee iinoiyiii iaiytho naith oi?io, aaoayony, en/acatho e
iiyaeythony aiiaue.

A. proteus nia?oaee iie?uou oieueei ieaciaeaiiie. Oeeoiieacia ai?au
io/?oeeai iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa ciiu.

Yeoiieacia

Yeoiieacia, eee aeaeiieacia oiieei neiai caeaaaao iaiin?aaenoaaiii iiae
ieaciaeaiiie. Iioe/anee i?ic?a/ia, eeoaia eaeeo-eeai aeeth/aiee. Oieueia
aeaeiieaciu a ?aciuo o/anoeao oaea ai?au ?acee/ia. Ii aieiaui
iiaa?oiinoyi e o iniiaaiey inaaaeiiiaeee yoi, eae i?aaeei oiieee neie, a
ia eiioeao inaaaeiiiaeee neie caiaoii ooieuaaony e ia?acoao oae
iacuaaaiue aeaeeiiaue eieia/ie, eee oaii/eo.

Yiaeiieacia

Yiaeiieacia, eee a?aioeiieacia — aioo?aiiyy ianna eeaoee. Niaea?aeeo ana
eeaoi/iua i?aaiieaeu e aeeth/aiey. I?e iaaethaeaiee ca aeaeaeouaeny
ai?aie caiaoii ?acee/ea a aeaeaeaiee oeeoiieaciu. Aeaeiieacia e
ia?eoa?e/aneea o/anoee a?aioeiieaciu inoathony i?aeoe/anee
iaiiaeaeaeiuie, a oi a?aiy eae oeaio?aeueiay a? /anoue iaoiaeeony a
iai?a?uaiii aeaeaeaiee, a iae oi?ioi caiaoiu oiee oeeoiieaciu n
aiaea/?iiuie a ieo i?aaiieaeaie e a?aioeaie. A ?anoouae inaaaeiiiaeee
oeeoiieacia ia?aiauaaony e a? eiioeo, a ec oei?a/eaathueony — a
oeaio?aeueioth /anoue eeaoee. Iaoaieci aeaeaeaiey aeaeiieaciu oanii
naycai n i?ioeannii ia?aoiaea oeeoiieaciu ec ninoiyiey ciey a aaeue e
eciaiaieyie a a oeeoineaeaoa.

Ai?aa i?ioae ieoaaony iooai oaaioeeoica, iiaeiuay aaeoa?ee,
iaeiieeaoi/iuo aiaei?ineae e iaeeeo i?inoaeoeo. Ia?aciaaiea
inaaaeiiiaeee eaaeeo a iniiaa caoaaoa ieue. Ia iiaa?oiinoe oaea ai?au
aicieeaao eiioaeo iaaeaeo ieaciaeaiiie e ieuaaie /anoeoeae, a yoii
o/anoea ia?acoaony «ieuaaay /aoa/ea». A? noaiee niueathony, a yoo
iaeanoue (n iiiiuueth eecinii) ia/eiatho iinooiaoue ieuaaa?eoaeueiua
oa?iaiou. Oaeei ia?acii oi?ie?oaony ieuaaa?eoaeueiay aaeoieue. Aeaeaa
iia ia?aoiaeeo a oeaio?aeueioth /anoue eeaoee, aaea iiaeoaaouaaaony
oieaie oeeoiieaciu

Oaei Ai?au i?ioae ia?acoao aunooiu – eiaeiiiiaeee. Auioneay eiaeiiiiaeee
a ii?aaeae?iiii iai?aaeaiee, ai?aa i?ioay ia?aaeaeaaaony ni nei?inoueth
ieiei 0,2 ii a ieiooo.

Aeaoaeaoeey

Aaeoieue n iaia?aaa?aiiuie inoaoeaie ieue iiaeoiaeeo e iiaa?oiinoe
eeaoee e neeaaaony n iaia?aiie, oaeei ia?acii aua?anuaay ia?oaeo
niaea?aeeiia.

Oieueei aaaiiia, aeia?iia aeaeaiea. Ia?aae aeaeaieai ai?aa ia?anoaao
iiecaoue, o ia? en/acatho aeeeoeiniiu aiia?aoa Aieueaeaee e
nie?aoeoaeueiay aaeoieue. Aia/aea aeaeeony yae?i, iioii i?ienoiaeeo
oeeoieeiac. Iieiaie i?ioeann o yoiai aeaea ia iienai

O?iiaoioi?u iiiai/eneaiiua niaea?aeao oei?ioeee a e b, ea?ioeiieaeu. 
Yaaeaiu niiniaiu i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia eioaineaiinoue inaauaiey,
aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth  noeaiu – naaoi/oanoaeoaeueiiai aeacea.

Caianatho oaeaaiaeu a aeaea iaiau/iiai aauanoaa ia?aieeiia, eioi?ue
iaia?oaeai oieueei o ieo. Ia?aieeii ioeeaaeuaaaony a oeeoiieacia. 

?aciiiaeathony i?iaeieueiui ieoioe/aneei aeaeaieai. Iieiaie i?ioeann
iaecaanoai.

Eiooci?ee

Eiooci?ee (Infusoria), eee ?anie/iua (Ciliophora) – a?oiia iaeaieaa
aunieii?aaieciaaiiuo aaoa?io?ioiuo i?inoaeoeo. Eiooci?ee ia?aiauathony
i?e iiiiue niaeaniaaiiie ?aaiou iiiai/eneaiiuo ?anie/ae. Iaeioi?ua
?anie/ee niiniaiu aini?eieiaoue iaoaie/aneea ?acae?aaeaiey. O ninoueo
eiooci?ee ?anie/ee ionoonoaotho, caoi anoue aieueoia eiee/anoai
uoiaeaoe, aieaathueony a aeiau/o.

?acia?u eiooci?ee eieaaethony io 12 iei aei 3 ii. Aiaoiee iaeee
eiooci?ee ?aciiia?acai: n?aaee ieo ano?a/athony neaey/ea e iiaeaeaeiua,
iaeeii/iua e eieiieaeueiua, iaiythuea e ia iaiythuea oi?io eeaoee.
?anie/ee nia?aiu a ?yaeu, eo iniiaaiey iaoiaeyony iiae eeaoi/iie
iaiei/eie. Eeaoea eiooci?ee iie?uoa ieioiie iaiei/eie e aeaeaia?aciie
yiaeiieaciie. Oi?ioi ?acaeou iee?ioea?eeeu. A oeeoiieacia iaoiaeyony
aeaa oeia yae?a – iae?iioeeaon e iee?iioeeaon. Ia?aia eiio?iee?oao
i?ioeannu iaoaaieecia e aeeooa?aioee?iaee eeaoee, aoi?ia – i?ioeann
?aciiiaeaiey. Iee?iioeeaon aea?o ia/aei iiaui iae?iioeeaonai.

Aieueoeinoai eiooci?ee – oeuieee. O iaeioi?uo ec ieo iaaeaeo ?anie/eaie
eiathony o?eoioeenou, i?e iaiaaeaiee aiicathueany a aea?oao. Ieua
(iaeeea aiaei?inee, a?eau, aaeoa?ee) caaeaouaaaony aeioeie (iaeioi?ua
eiooci?ee ieoathony ioo?i ieiioeeoica); ia?aaa?eaaiea i?ienoiaeeo a
aaeoieyo, «iooaoanoaothueo» ii oeeoiieacia, a iaia?aaa?aiiua inoaoee
aua?anuaathony ia?oaeo /a?ac ii?ioeoeo. Nie?aoeoaeueiua aaeoiee
?aaoee?otho iniioe/aneia aeaaeaiea (eiioeaio?aoeeth ?anoai??iiuo a aiaea
aauanoa) a eeaoea.

?aciiiaeaiea eiooci?ee aaniieia, ioo?i iiiaeanoaaiiiai aeaeaiey eee
aeaeaiey iaaeaia, eeai ii/eiaaieai. I?e iieiaii i?ioeanna – eiiuthaaoeee
– eiooci?ee niaaeeiythony ia ianeieueei /ania aeey iaiaia aaiaoe/aneei
aiia?aoii. Iae?iioeeaonu ?ac?ooathony, a eaaeaeue iee?iioeeaon
iaeioe/anee aeaeeony ia /aou?a eeaoee, o?e ec eioi?uo iiaeaatho, a
/aoa??oay aeaeeony n ia?aciaaieai noaoeeiia?iiai e iea?e?othuaai yaea?.
Iea?e?othuaa yae?i ia?aoiaeeo a eeaoeo ia?oia?a, neeaaynue oai n ae?oaei
iee?iioeeaonii. Ia eaaeaeua iyoueaeanyo ieoioe/aneeo aeaeaiee o
eiooci?ee-oooaeueee i?eoiaeeony iaeei iieiaie i?ioeann. Anee i?ioiaeeo
700 aeaeaiee, ia nii?iaiaeaeaaoeony iieiaui i?ioeannii, oi eiooci?ey
iau/ii aeaiao. Eiooci?ee i?iecioee io i?eieoeaiuo aeaooeeiiinoeaa; eo
6000–8000 aeaeia. Iie iaeoatho e a i?aniie, e a ii?neie aiaea (eae a
oieua aiaeu, oae e aicea aeia), a ii/aa e aeaaeiuo ioao. Iiiaea
eiooci?ee i?eniiniaeeenue e eiiiainaeecio eee noaee ia?aceoaie.

Nenoaiaoeea eiooci?ee e?aeia neiaeia e no?ieony ia oaeeo i?eciaeao, eae
oeueo?aoiieia no?iaiea iie?iaia eeaoee, no?iaiea e ?acaeoea ?ioiaiai
aiia?aoa, aeaoaee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea, a oaeaea aeaiiua i no?iaiee AeIE.
Ieaea i?eaaaeaiu naaaeaiey oieueei i iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iuo eeannao yoeo
i?ioenoia, auaeaeyaiuo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Eeann ea?ei?aeeeoeaeu (Karyorelictaa) aeeth/aao ieiei 100 aeaeia,
aieueoeinoai eioi?uo – ii?neea eioa?noeoeeaeueiua (o.a. aeeaouea a
ianea, iaaeaeo ian/eieaie) eiooci?ee n oaeeeiaiiui oaeii, ?aaiiia?ii
iie?uoui ?anie/eaie. Ii eiathony n?aaee ieo e i?aniiaiaeiua oi?iu –
iai?eia?, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiay a i?ea?aaeiii ianea ica?, ?ae e
i?oaeia eiooci?ey eieniaean (Loxodes).

?ioiaiai ioaa?noey o i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoiai eeanna eiooci?ee iao, a
ananuaaiea ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao ieiioeeoica, o.a.
iiaeiuaiey iaeue/aeoeo eaiaeae aeeaeeinoe n iaoiaeyuaeny a iae
?anoai?aiiie e acaaoaiiie i?aaieeie.

Eeann oeiaiinoiiaou (Hymenostomataa) aeeth/aao 200–300 aeaeia eiooci?ee,
iaeoathueo eae a ii?neeo, oae e a i?aniuo aiaeao. E yoiio eeanno
ioiineony oe?iei ecaanoiay eiooci?ey oooaeueea (Paramecium caudatum), a
oaeaea eeanne/aneee iauaeo aeioeie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee – Tetrahymena
pyriformis. Oeiaiinoiiaou eiatho ?ioiaia ioaa?noea, iia?oaeaiiia a
ai?iieo ia a?thoiie iiaa?oiinoe oaea e ie?oaeaiiia neaaa aeaoiy-o?aiy
na?eyie a?aaiuo ieanoeiie (iaia?aiaee), ia?aciaaiiuo neeioeieny
?anie/eaie, a ni?aaa – oiaeoee?othuae iaia?aiie (i?iaeieueiui ?yaeii ec
naeeaeaiiuo iiia?ii ?anie/ae). Iaia?aiaeeu aiiyo ieuaaua /anoeoeu e
oiaeoee?othuae iaia?aia, eioi?ay iai?aaeyao eo a iaeanoue ?oa.

Eeann nie?aeueii?anie/iuo eiooci?ee (Spirotrichea) aeeth/aao 2000 aeaeia
i?ioenoia, ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo eae a i?aniuo, oae e a ii?neeo aiaeao.
Nie?aeueii?anie/iua, eae e oeiaiinoiiaou, eiatho ?io, ie?oaeaiiue
noiaeyueieny iaia?aiaeeaie. Ieoathony iie i?aeiouanoaaiii aaeoa?eyie e
iaeiieeaoi/iuie aiaei?ineyie, ii iaeioi?ua ec ieo – oeuieee,
caaeaouaathuea ae?oaeo i?inoaeoeo. I?eia?ii nie?aeueii?anie/iuo iiaoo
auoue iau/iua a i?aniuo aiaeao eiooci?ee o?oaa/ (Stentor) e nie?inoiia
(Spirostomum), ?acia? eeaoie o eioi?uo iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 1 ii, e aieaa
iaeeea i?aaenoaaeoaee ?iaeia Stylonichia e Euplotes.

Eeann ninoueo eiooci?ee (Suctorea) aeeth/aao ieiei 1000 aeaeia
i?ioenoia, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo eae a i?aniuo, oae e a ii?neeo
aiaeao. Yoe eiooci?ee aaaeoo i?ee?aieaiiue ia?ac aeecie, iinaeyynue ia
naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo noano?aoao – eaiiyo, ei?yaao, iiaa?oiinoe ?anoaiee e
aiaeiuo aeeaioiuo. A /anoiinoe, iniaaiii iaeeueiu iie ia i?eiueathueo e
?ioiaiio aiia?aoo eiia/iinoyo aiaeiuo /eaienoiiiaeo

Ac?ineua» oi?iu ninoueo eiooci?ee iau/ii i?ee?aieaiu e noano?aoo oiieei
noaaaeueeii, oiaaea eae aaa?o e a noi?iiu io oaea eeaoee ?anoiaeyony
iiiai/eneaiiua aoeaaiaeaeiua eee noa?aeiaaeaeiua uoiaeueoea, ia eiioeao
eioi?uo nia?aiu aaoa?ae iiuiuo no?aeaoaeueiuo i?aaiaee. Ninouea
eiooci?ee – oeuieee e ieoathony eneeth/eoaeueii ae?oaeie eiooci?eyie,
eioi?uo ia?aeecotho e caoaaouaatho naieie uoiaeueoeaie.

?anie/iue iie?ia o i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoiai eeanna i?enoonoaoao oieueei o
ioii/eiauaathueony ?annaeeoaeueiuo noaaeee («a?iaeyaeae»), eioi?ua a
aeaeueiaeoai inaaeatho ia iiaeoiaeyuee noano?ao e oo?a/eaatho ?anie/ee.

E eeannai ia?aaeia?iouo e e?oai?anie/iuo (Peritrichia) ioiinyony
ianeieueei nioai aeaeia eiooci?ee – iaeoaoaeae ii?ae, i?aniuo aiae e
ii/au. N?aaee ieo eiathony e naiaiaeiiieaaathuea e i?ee?aieaiiua oi?iu,
oeuieee e aeaeu, ieoathueany i?iaeoeoaie ?aniaaea iia?oaaaoeo oeaiae
(aeao?eoioaae). A ea/anoaa iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
yoeo a?oii iiaeii iacaaoue oeuiuo ia?aaeia?iouo eiooci?ee Prorodon e
Didinium, iaiaaeathueo ia ae?oaeo eiooci?ee, aeaaea i?aainoiaeyueo eo ii
?acia?ai. Aeey yoiai aeeaeeieoi, iai?eia?, eiaao onayiiue iiuiuie
no?aeaoaeueiuie i?aaiaeeaie «oiaioie». Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu oaeaea
e?oaei?anie/iua eiooci?ee-noaieee (Vorticella), i?ee?aieythueany e
?acee/iui noano?aoai oiieei nie?aoeiui noaaaeueeii.

Eco/ay i?e iiiiue iee?ineiia nia?aiiue a i?oaeo iaoa?eae, iiaeii
oaeaeaoue iaiaei i?aaenoaaeoaeae eiooci?ee. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi
e?oiiua (ieiei 1 ii) i?aaenoaaeoaee eeanna nie?aeueii?anie/iuo – o?oaa/
e nie?inoiia. Ia?aue eiaao oi?io eiiona e iiaeao auoue caeaiiaaoiai
oeaaoa eee aieoaiaaoi-i?ic?a/iui. Nie?inoiia – aanoeaaoiay, ciaaaeaeii
auoyiooay, iiaeao iaiiaaiii nie?auaoueny ii anae aeeeia e oae aea auno?i
aica?auaoueny e enoiaeiie oi?ia. Iaa yoe eiooci?ee ioiinyony e io?yaeo
?acii?anie/iuo, e i?e iaee/ee iee?ineiia n oaaee/aieai a 50–100 ?ac au
niiaeaoa iiiyoue, ii/aio ie?oaeathuea eo ?ioiaia ioaa?noea iaia?aiaeeu e
iie?uaathuea oaei i?inoua ?anie/ee auaeyaeyo, eae aeaa ?aciuo oeia yoeo
i?aaiaee – «iaeua» e «aieueoea».

Aiaei?ineae nouanoaoao 13 eeannia, i?e/ai a Aaeii ii?a ec aieaa
i?eia/aoaeueiuo 4-o eeannia iaeaeai 121 aeae e 129 oi?i, iaeaeai oaea a
1925 a., a /enei iaoiaeeiuo aeaeia ana aic?anoaao. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
i?aeoe/. cia/aiea iaoiaeyo ae. i. ao?ua aiaei?inee (e eioi?ui ioiinyony
?aciua aeaeu eaieia?ee e ooeonia) e aaa?yiua (e eioi?ui ioiineony
aioaeueoeey). Iia i?eoiaeeony ?aaioaoue n yoeie o?aiy ?iaeaie. Ec
eaieia?ee (e io/anoe ooeonia) aeiauaathony eiae, aeueaei e ae?.
aauanoaa, a ec aioaeueoeee—aaa?-aaa?. Ni?aoeaaaoue, eae eo aueaaeeaatho.
A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia aueaaeeaatho, a i?inoi niae?atho ia aa?aao.
Iinea ooi?iia aa?aa iie?uo aua?inaie, aa?aaa Aae. Ii?y aoeaaeueii
caaaeaiu aiaei?ineyie, e aaeu aua?inia oyioony ia iiiai eeeiiao?ia, i?e
aunioa a 50 ni e aieaa e oe?eia io 1 i e cia/eo, aieaa. Aaeaaiaeii
aua?anuaaaony ia iaeieo oieueei Nieiaeao ia iaiaa 25 ouny/ oiii, aea e
oi yoi ia ana aua?inu, a iaeaieaa iieaciua — «ii?neay eaionoa»
(eaieia?ee), «oo?a» (ooeonu), «iioie» (aioaeueoeey). Aiaei?ineaaua
caianu Aae. Ii?y en/eneythony a 1 1/2 ieeeeiia oiii, i?e/ai
aiciaiiaeaiea caiania n/eoaaony a 3 aiaea. Ia 1 i2 iiaa?oiinoe aeia (o
aa?aaia) au?anoaao ie. 5—6 ea eaieia?ee e 9—10 ea ooeonia, — ii eiia/ii
— oai aaea iie aiiaua iiaoo ?anoe. Aaee/eia eaieia?ee i/. ?acee/ia, a
caaeneiinoe io aic?anoa e ?aciuo oneiaee. Iaeua—50—75 ni. E?oiiua
yecaiiey?u aei 350 ni ?inoii, i?e oieueia noaiea a 3,5—4 ni. Nae/an
ia?aaei iiith eaaeeo oaeie yecaiiey?. 5 ?anoaiee i?eninaeenue naieie
?ecieaeaie («iiaeiaea ei?iae») e iaeiiio eaiith—eoneo a?aieoa a 20 ea.
Aea?aeaony ia eaiiyo iie oae i?i/ii, /oi ia ioi?aaoue, oieueei iiaeii
iiaeii iiae?acaoue. A /ai aea?aeaony— iaiiiyoii, o. e. ?ecieaeu eeoue
naa?oo eaiiy, eae au i?eeeaaiu e iaio. Ia eaiia anyeea aeeoaee ii?y:
iaeeea aiaei?inee, ?iciaue iaeao—aa?iyoii oiaea aiaei?inee, iieeiu,
aoaee, ?aeooee, ee?a, ii?neay caacaei/ea e o. ae. Noaaee aeaaeeea,
ooaea, niaa?oaiii aac aieieii e ninoaeia, neiaii ?aceiiaua. E na?aaeeia
iie iane. iioieua, neaaea eciaioou aieienoie eeieae, eaaeao eae eeoaie
ciae. Noaaaeue ninoaaeyao 1/2 aeeeiu aiaei?inee, ae?oaay iieiaeia—ia/oi
a?iaea eenoa. O eaieia?ee aeeaeoaou yoi eae au ?oea n aeeeiiuie
iaeueoeaie—eo iiiai, yoeo iaeueoeaa. Naaaeaauoauaiiua ec aiaeu eee
aua?ioaiiua aiaei?inee ec ao?uo — ao?iai oeaaoa, ii ia aicaeooa i?eia?ii
/a?ac nooee noaiiayony oaiiicaeaiuie.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aeiaaeue A. A., Iieyineee TH.E., Oaenei A.I., Iauay i?ioiciieiaey, I.
— E., 1962; AEeciue aeeaioiuo, o. 1, I., 1968; Kudo R.R., Protozoology,
4 ed., Springfield (III.), 1954; OrelI K. G., Protozoology, 3 ed., B. —
HdIb.—  N. Y., 1973.

2. Oei?aineee I.A., nayuaiiee. Ni/eiaiey. A 4 o. O 4. Ienueia n
Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea e Nieiaeia. / Nino. e iau. ?aae. eaoiaia Aiae?iieea
(A.N. O?oaa/aaa), I.A. Oei?aineiai, I.N. O?oaa/aaie.- I.: Iuneue,
1998.-795 n., 1 e. ii?o?. – (Oeein. ianeaaeea)

3. Oeoiie?ia E.A., Aeia?iaieueneee A. A., A?aiiae/ A. E. Iaeue i?aeoeeoi
ii ciieiaee aaniicaiii/iuo. *anoue 1. — I.-NIa.: Oiaa?euanoai iao/iuo
ecaeaiee EIE, 2005. — 304 n

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