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?aoa?ao

ia oaio:

I?ienoiaeaeaiea i?aniueathueony

2009

Inoaoee iaeaieaa ae?aaieo i?aniueathueony ecaanoiu ec
aa?oiaeaiaiiioaieueiiai ia?eiaea (aa?oiaai ea?aiia ; aic?ano i?eia?ii
300 iei. eao). Iaeiaei eo iainiaeaiea io caiiiaiaeiuo i?aaeeia aeieaeii
auei ia/aoueny ?aiueoa, aeaeeii, a n?aaeiai ea?aiia (320 iei. eao),
eiaaea io i?eieoeaiuo yiaieiia?iuo noaaioeaoaeia – aio?aeicaa?ia,
iiaeiaiuo Diplovertebron, iainiaeyeenue oi?iu, aeaeeii, iaeaaeaaoea
aieueoae iacaiiinoueth. Eae e eo i?aaeee, iie auee aua naycaiu n
aeaaeiuie aeioiiaie e aiaeiaiaie, ieoaeenue iaeeeie aiaeiuie e iacaiiuie
aaniicaiii/iuie, ii iaeaaeaee aieueoae iiaeaeaeiinoueth e ianeieueei
aieueoei iicaii; aiciiaeii, o ieo oaea ia/aeinue i?iaiaaiea iie?iaia.

A n?aaeiai ea?aiia io iiaeiaiuo oi?i aicieeaao iiaay aaoaue –
naeio?eiii?o-Seymourioraorpha. Eo inoaoee iaia?oaeaiu a aa?oiai ea?aiia
– ieaeiae ia?ie. Iie caieiatho ia?aoiaeiia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo
caiiiaiaeiuie e i?aniueathueieny, eiay ianiiiaiiua ?aioeeueiua /a?ou;
iaeioi?ua iaeaiioieiae ioiinyo eo e aioeaeyi. No?iaiea eo iicaiieia
iaania/eaaei aieueooth aeaeinoue e iaeiia?aiaiii i?i/iinoue
iicaiii/ieea; iaiaoeeinue i?aia?aciaaiea aeaoo ia?auo oaeiuo iicaiieia a
aoeaio e yieno?ioae. Aeey iacaiiuo aeeaioiuo yoi nicaeaaaei aaaeiua
i?aeiouanoaa i?e i?eaioaoeee, ioioa ca iiaeaeaeiie aeiau/ae e caueoa io
a?aaia. Neaeao eiia/iinoae e eo iiynia iieiinoueth ieinoaiaaae; eiaeenue
aeeeiiua einoiua ?aa?a, iaeiaei aua ia caiueaaoeany a a?oaeioth eeaoeo.
Aieaa neeueiua, /ai o noaaioeaoaeia, eiia/iinoe i?eiiaeieiaee oaei iaae
a?oioii. *a?ai eiae caouei/iue iuuaeie ; o /anoe oi?i nio?aiyeenue
aeaaa?iua aeoae. Naeio?ey, eioeanney (iaeaeaia ia Naa. Aeaeia), eae e
ae?oaea naeio?eiii?ou, aua auee naycaiu n aiaeiaiaie; iieaaatho, /oi
iie, aiciiaeii, aua eiaee aiaeiuo ee/eiie.

Eiaaea neiaeeeny i?enouee aiieioai oa?aeoa? ?aciiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey
yeoea a aicaeooiie n?aaea, iiea ia ynii. Iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi yoi
i?iecioei a ea?aiia i?e noaiiaeaiee eioeeicaa?ia – Cotylosauria. N?aaee
ieo auee iaeeea iioiaeea ia yua?eoe oi?iu, ieoaaoeany, aeaeeii,
?acee/iuie aaniicaiii/iuie, e e?oiiua (aeeeiie aei 3 i) ianneaiua
?anoeoaeueiiyaeiua ia?aeacaa?u oeia naaa?iaeaeineiai neooicaa?a. *anoue
eioeeicaa?ia aaea iieoaiaeiue ia?ac aeecie, ianaeyy aeaaeiua aeioiiu, a
ae?oaea, aeaeeii, noaee ianoiyueie iacaiiuie iaeoaoaeyie.

Oaieue e aeaaeiue eeeiao ea?aiia aeaaii?eyonoaiaae caiiiaiaeiui. A
eiioea ea?aiia – ia/aea ia?ie eioaineaiia ai?iia?aciaaiea (iiaeiyoea ai?
O?aea, Ea?iao, Eaaeaca, Acee e Aia?eee – aa?oeeineee oeeee)
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue ?an/eaiaieai ?aeueaoa, oneeaieai ciiaeueiuo eiio?anoia
(iioieiaeaiea a aunieeo oe?ioao), oiaiueoaieai ieiuaaee aeaaeiuo e
aic?anoaieai aeiee nooeo aeioiiia. Yoi niinianoaiaaei noaiiaeaieth
iacaiiuo iicaiii/iuo.

Iniiaiie i?aaeeiaie a?oiiie, aeaaoae ana iiiaiia?acea eneiiaaiuo e
nia?aiaiiuo i?aniueathueony, auee iacaaiiua auoa eioeeicaa?u. Aeinoeaioa
?anoeaaoa a ia?ie, iie, iaeiaei, auia?ee oaea e na?aaeeia o?eana,
aeaeeii, iiae aicaeaenoaeai eiieo?aioia – iainiaeaoeony io ieo
?aciiia?aciuo i?ia?anneaiuo a?oii i?aniueathueony. A ia?ie io
eioeeicaa?ia ioaeaeeeenue /a?aiaoe – Chelonia – aaeeinoaaiiua eo i?yiua
iioiiee, nio?aieaoeany aei iaoeo aeiae. O ia?auo /a?aiao, eae, iai?eia?,
o ia?ineie Eunotosaurus, ?acei ?anoe?aiiua ?aa?a aua ia ia?acotho
nieioiie nieiiie iaioee?ue. Naeio?eiii?ou, eioeeicaa?u e /a?aiaoe
iauaaeeiythony a iiaeeeann Anapsida.

Aeaeeii, a aa?oiai ea?aiia io eioeeicaa?ia i?iecioee e aeaa iiaeeeanna
i?aniueathueony, aiiaue ia?aoaaeoeo e aiaeiiio ia?aco aeecie:

Io?yae iacicaa?ia.

Io?yae eooeicaa?ia.

A iiaeeeann neiaioicaa?ia – Synaptosauria aeeth/atho aeaa io?yaea.
io?yae i?ioi?icaa?u – Protorosauria io?yae cao?iioa?eaee – Sauropterygia
E iei ioiinyony iioicaa?u e ieaceicaa?u.

I?iaaiicaa?u e neiaioicaa?u auia?ee, ia inoaaea iioiieia.

A ia?ie io eioeeicaa?ia iainiaeeanue e?oiiay aaoaue aeeaineaeiuo
i?aniueathueony, a /a?aia eioi?uo ia?aciaaeenue aeaa aeni/iua yiu; yoa
a?oiia a aeaeueiaeoai ?aniaeanue ia aeaa iiaeeeanna: iiaeeeann
eaieaeicaa?ia e iiaeeeann a?oicaa?ia.

Iaeaieaa i?eieoeaiua aeeaineaeu – io?yae yicooee – Eosuchia iiaeeeanna
Lepidosauria – iaeeea (aei 0,5 i), iaiiieiathuea yua?eoe
i?aniueathueany; eiaee aioeoeaeueiua iicaiiee e iaeeea coau ia /aethnoyo
e iaaiuo einoyo; auia?ee a ia/aea o?eana. A ia?ie io eaeeo-oi yicooee
ioaeaeeeenue eethaiaieiaua – Rhynchocephalia, ioee/athueany aieueoeie
aeni/iuie yiaie, iaaieueoei eethaii ia eiioea aa?oieo /aethnoae e
e?th/eiaeaeiuie io?inoeaie ia ?aa?ao. Eethaiaieiaua auia?ee a eiioea
th?u, ii iaeei aeae – iiaicaeaiaeneay aaooa?ey – nio?aieeny aei iaoeo
aeiae.

A eiioea ia?ie io i?eieoeaiuo aeeaineae (aiciiaeii, iaiin?aaenoaaiii io
yicooee) iainiaeeenue /aooe/aoua – Squamata (yua?eoeu), noaaoea
iiiai/eneaiiuie e ?aciiia?aciuie a iaeo. A eiioea yoiai ia?eiaea io
yua?eoe i?iecioee ciae. ?anoeaao /aooe/aouo i?eoiaeeony ia eaeiicieneoth
y?o; iie ninoaaeytho iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai iuia aeeaoueo
i?aniueathueony.

Iaeaieaa ?aciiia?aciui ii oi?iai e yeieiae/aneie niaoeeaeecaoeee a
iacicieneoth y?o aue iiaeeeann a?oicaa?ia Archosauria. A?oicaa?u
canaeyee nooo, aiaeiaiu e caaiaauaaee aicaeoo. Enoiaeiie a?oiiie
a?oicaa?ia auee oaeiaeiiou – Thecodontia (eee inaaaeicooee),
iainiaeaoeany io yicooee, aeaeeii, a aa?oiae ia?ie e aeinoeaoea
?anoeaaoa a o?eana. Iie iioiaeeee ia yua?eoe aeeeiie io 15 ni aei 3-5 i,
aieueoeinoai aaei iacaiiue ia?ac aeecie; caaeiea eiia/iinoe iau/ii auee
aeeeiiaa ia?aaeieo. Iaeioi?ua ec oaeiaeiioia (i?ieoicooee), aa?iyoii,
eaceee ii aaoayi e aaee ae?aaaniue ia?ac aeecie; aeaeeii, io ieo
i?iecioae iioii eeann ioeoe. Ae?oaay /anoue oaeiaeiioia ia?aoea e
iieoaiaeiiio ia?aco aeecie; io ieo a eiioea o?eana aicieeee e?ieiaeeeu –
Crocodilia, ia?aciaaaoea a th?a – iaeo iiiai ?acee/iuo oi?i.

A na?aaeeia o?eana io oaeiaeiioia i?iecioee eaoathuea yua?u, eee
ioa?icaa?u, – Pterosauria ; Ioa?icaa?u auee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu e
iiiai/eneaiiu a th?neii e iaeiaii ia?eiaeao; iieiinoueth auia?ee, ia
inoaaea iioiieia, e eiioeo iaea. Auie?aieth, aiciiaeii, niinianoaiaaea
eiieo?aioeey ni noaiiayueieny a yoi a?aiy iiiai/eneaiiuie ioeoeaie.
Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ioa?icaa?u e ioeoeu – niaa?oaiii iacaaeneiua
aaoae yaiethoeee, i?aaeeiauie oi?iaie eioi?uo auee ?aciua naiaenoaa
io?yaea oaeiaeiioia.

A aa?oiai o?eana io oeuiuo, ia?aaeaeaaaoeony i?aeiouanoaaiii ia caaeieo
eiia/iinoyo inaaaeicooee (oaeiaeiioia), iainiaeeenue aua aeaa a?oiiu:
aeeiicaa?u yua?ioaciaua – Saurischia e aeeiicaa?u ioeoeaoaciaua –
Ornithischia, Aeeiicaa?u yua?ioaciaua e ioeoeaoaciaua ?acee/aeenue
aeaoaeyie no?iaiey oaca. Iaa a?oiiu ?acaeaaeenue ia?aeeaeueii; a th?neii
e iaeiaii ia?eiaeao iie aeaee iaiau/aeiia ?aciiia?acea aeaeia, ?acia?aie
io e?ieeea aei aeaaioia iannie a 30-50 o; iaeoaee ia nooa e i?ea?aaeiuo
iaeeiaiaeueyo. E eiioeo iaeiaiai ia?eiaea iaa a?oiiu auia?ee, ia inoaaea
iioiieia.

Iaeiiaoe, iineaaeiyy aaoaue i?aniueathueony – iiaeeeann caa?iiiaeiaiua,
eee neiaineaeu, – Theromorpha eee Synapsida, aaeaa ee ia ia?aie
ioaeaeeeanue io iauaai noaiea ?aioeeee. Iie iainiaeeenue io i?eieoeaiuo
eaiaiiioaieueiuo eioeeicaa?ia, ianaeyaoeo, aeaeeii, aeaaeiua aeioiiu e
aua nio?aiyaoeo iiiaea aioeaeeiua /a?ou (aiaaooth aeaeacaie eiaeo,
no?iaiea eiia/iinoae e ae?.). Neiaineaeu ia/aee iniaoth eeieth ?acaeoey
?aioeeee. Oaea a aa?oiai ea?aiia e ia?ie aicieeee ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu,
iauaaeeiyaiua a io?yae iaeeeicaa?ia – Pelycosauria. Iie eiaee
aioeoeaeueiua iicaiiee, /a?ai ni neaai ?acaeoie iaeiie yiie e iaeiei
caouei/iui iuuaeeii, coau eiaeenue e ia iaaiuo einoyo, auee a?thoiua
?aa?a. Ii aiaoiaio iaeeeo iie iioiaeeee ia yua?eoe, aeeeia eo ia
i?aauoaea 1 i; eeoue iaeeii/iua aeaeu aeinoeaaee 3-4 i aeeeiu. N?aaee
ieo auee ianoiyuea oeuieee e ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiua oi?iu; iiiaea aaee
iacaiiue ia?ac aeecie, ii ano?a/aeenue ieieiaiaeiua e aiaeiua oi?iu. E
eiioeo ia?ie iaeeeicaa?u auia?ee, ii ?aiueoa io ieo ioaeaeeeenue
caa?icoaua i?aniueathueany – oa?aineaeu – Therapsida. Aaeaioeaiay
?aaeeaoeey iineaaeieo oea a aa?oiae ia?ie – o?eana, i?e iai?a?uaii
aic?anoaaoae eiieo?aioeee ni noi?iiu i?ia?anneaiuo ?aioeeee – iniaaiii
a?oicaa?ia. ?acia?u oa?aineae aa?uee?iaaee a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao: io iuoe
aei e?oiiiai iini?iaa. N?aaee ieo auee ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiua – iinoiin –
Moschops – e e?oiiua oeuieee n iiuiuie eeueaie – eiino?aioeaaey –
Inostrancevia (aeeeia /a?aia 50 ni; ?en. 5) e ae?. Iaeioi?ua iaeeea
oi?iu eiaee, iiaeiaii a?ucoiai, aieueoea ?acoeu e, aeaeeii, aaee ?ithuee
ia?ac aeecie. E eiioeo o?eana – ia/aeo th?u ?aciiia?acii e oi?ioi
aii?oaeaiiua a?oicaa?u iieiinoueth auoanieee caa?icoauo oa?aineae. Ii
oaea a o?eana eaeay-oi a?oiia iaeeeo aeaeia, aa?iyoii, ianaeyaoay nu?ua,
aonoi ca?inoea aeioiiu e niiniaiay e ?uoueth oaaaeeu, iinoaiaiii
i?eia?aoaea /a?ou aieaa i?ia?anneaiie i?aaiecaoeee e aeaea ia/aei
ieaeiieoathuei.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ?acoeueoaoa aaeaioeaiie ?aaeeaoeee oaea a eiioea ia?ie
– ia/aea o?eana neiaeeeanue ?aciiia?aciay oaoia i?aniueathueony
(i?eia?ii 13- 15 io?yaeia), auoanieaoay aieueoeinoai a?oii caiiiaiaeiuo.
?anoeaao i?aniueathueony aue iaania/ai ?yaeii a?iii?oicia, neacaaoeony
ia anao nenoaiao i?aaiia e iaania/eaoeo oaaee/aiea iiaeaeaeiinoe,
eioaineoeeaoeeth iaoaaieecia, aieueooth onoie/eainoue e ?yaeo oaeoi?ia
n?aaeu (e nooinoe a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue), iaeioi?ia oneiaeiaiea iiaaaeaiey
e eo/oaa auaeeaaiea iioiinoaa. Ia?aciaaiea aeni/iuo yi nii?iaiaeaeaeinue
aic?anoaieai iannu aeaaaoaeueiie ioneoeaoo?u, /oi ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie
i?aia?aciaaieyie iicaieeei ?anoe?eoue niaeo? eniieuecoaiuo ei?iia,
iniaaiii ?anoeoaeueiuo. I?aniueathueany ia oieueei oe?iei inaieee nooo,
canaeea ?aciiia?aciua ianoiiaeoaiey, ii aa?ioeenue a aiaeo e iiaeiyeenue
a aicaeoo. Ia i?ioyaeaiee anae iacicieneie y?u – a oa/aiea aieaa 150
iei. eao – iie caieiaee ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea ii/oe ai anao
iacaiiuo e iiiaeo aiaeiuo aeioiiao. I?e yoii ninoaa oaoiu ana a?aiy
iaiyeny: ae?aaiea a?oiiu auie?aee, auoaniyaiua aieaa
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie iieiaeuie oi?iaie.

E eiioeo iaeiaiai ia?eiaea oaea noi?ie?iaaeenue aeaa iiauo eeanna
oaieie?iaiuo iicaiii/iuo – ieaeiieoathuea e ioeoeu. Aeiaeeaoea aei yoiai
a?aiaie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua a?oiiu e?oiiuo i?aniueathueony ia iiaee
i?eniiniaeoueny e iaiythueiny oneiaeyi aeecie. E oiio aea a eo auie?aiee
aeoeaioth ?ieue ea?aea aic?anoathuay eiieo?aioeey n aieaa iaeeeie, ii
aeoeaiuie ioeoeaie e ieaeiieoathueie. Yoe eeannu, i?eia?aoy
oaieie?iaiinoue, onoie/eai aunieee o?iaaiue iaoaaieecia e aieaa neiaeiia
iiaaaeaiea, oaaee/eee /eneaiiinoue e cia/aiea a niiauanoaao. Iie auno?aa
e yooaeoeaiaa i?eniinaaeeaaeenue e aeecie a iaiythueony eaiaeoaooao,
nei?aa inaaeaaee iiaua ianoiiaeoaiey, eioaineaii eniieueciaaee iiaua
ei?ia e ieacuaaee aic?anoathuaa eiieo?aioiia aicaeaenoaea ia aieaa
eia?oiuo i?aniueathueony. Ia/aeanue nia?aiaiiay eaeiicieneay y?a, a
eioi?ie ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea caiyee ioeoeu e ieaeiieoathuea, a
n?aaee ?aioeeee nio?aieeenue eeoue ioiineoaeueii iaeeea e iiaeaeaeiua
/aooe/aoua (yua?eoeu e ciae), oi?ioi caueuaiiua /a?aiaoe e iaaieueoay
a?oiia aiaeiuo a?oicaa?ia – e?ieiaeeeia.

Eneiiaaiua i?aniueathueany i?aaenoaaeytho eneeth/eoaeueiue eioa?an, oae
eae e iei i?eiaaeeaaeao iiiai/eneaiiua a?oiiu, eiaaea-oi
ainiiaenoaiaaaoea ia caiiii oa?a. Ae?aaiea a?oiiu yoiai eeanna aeaee
ia/aei ia oieueei nia?aiaiiui i?aniueathueiny, ii e ioeoeai e
ieaeiieoathuei. Ae?aaiaeoea i?aniueathueany, ioiinyueany e io?yaeo
eioeeicaa?ia, eee oeaeueii/a?aiiuo (Cotylosauria), ec iiaeeeanna
aiaineae, ecaanoiu oaea ec aa?oieo eaiaiiioaieueiuo ioeiaeaiee, ii
oieueei a ia?ineee ia?eiae iie aeinoeaee cia/eoaeueiiai ?acaeoey, a a
o?eana oaea auia?ee. Eioeeicaa?u auee ianneaiuie aeeaioiuie ia oienouo
iyoeiaeuo iiaao e eiaee aeeeio oaea io ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia naioeiao?ia
aei ianeieueeeo iao?ia. *a?ai aue iie?uo nieioiui iaioee?ai ec eiaeiuo
einoae n ioaa?noeyie eeoue aeey iicae?ae, aeac e oaiaiiiai i?aaia. Oaeia
no?iaiea /a?aia, a oaeaea iiiaea ae?oaea i?eciaee oeacuaatho ia
/?acau/aeioth aeecinoue eioeeicaa?ia e i?eieoeaiui noaaioeaoaeai,
eioi?ua, ianiiiaiii, auee eo i?aaeeaie. Iaeaieaa i?eieoeaiie ec aei neo
ii? ecaanoiuo aiaineae, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ?aioeeee aiiaua yaeyaony
ieaeiaia?ineay naeio?ey (Seymouria). Yoi n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoia (aei
0,5 i aeeeiu) i?aniueathuaany iaeaaeaei oeaeui ?yaeii i?eciaeia,
oa?aeoa?iuo aeey caiiiaiaeiuo: oay auea ii/oe ia au?aaeaia, aeeeiiua
ino?ua coau aua nio?aiyee i?eieoeaiia no?iaiea, eiaeny eeoue iaeei
e?anooeiaue iicaiiie, a einoe /a?aia iaia?oaeeaaee caia/aoaeueiia
noiaenoai aeaaea a aeaoaeyo n /a?aiiie e?uoeie noaaioeaoaeia. Eneiiaaiua
inoaoee naeio?eiii?oiuo ?aioeeee, auee iaeaeaiiua ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai
NNN? (Kotlasia e ae?.), aeaee aiciiaeiinoue niaaoneei iaeaiioieiaai
ii?aaeaeeoue eo nenoaiaoe/aneia iieiaeaiea eae i?aaenoaaeoaeae iniaiai
iiaeeeanna aao?aoicaa?ia (Batrachosauria), caieiathuaai i?iiaaeooi/iia
iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo caiiiaiaeiuie e eioeeicaa?aie. Eioeeicaa?u — aanueia
?aciiia?aciay a?oiia. Naiuie e?oiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aa yaeythony
iaoeethaeea ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiua ia?aeacaa?u (Pareiasaurus), aeinoeaaaoea
2—3 i aeeeiu. Iicaeiaa neaeaou eo auee iaeaeaiu a THaeiie Ao?eea e o ian
ia Naaa?iie Aeaeia. Eioeeicaa?u auee enoiaeiie a?oiiie, aeaaoae ia/aei
anai i?i/ei iniiaiui a?oiiai i?aniueathueony. Yaiethoeey a iniiaiii
i?ioaeaea ii iooe aicieeiiaaiey aieaa iiaeaeaeiuo oi?i: eiia/iinoe noaee
oaeeeiyoueny, a ia?aciaaiee e?anooea i?eiyei o/anoea ia iaiaa aeaoo
iicaiieia, aanue neaeao, nio?aiyy naith i?i/iinoue, noae eaa/a, a
/anoiinoe ia?aiia/aeueii nieioiie einoiue iaioee?ue /a?aia noae
?aaeooee?iaaoueny iooai aicieeiiaaiey aeni/iuo yi, /oi ia oieueei
iaeaa/eei /a?ai, ii, /oi iniaaiii aaaeii, niinianoaiaaei oneeaieth
iuooe, naeeiathueo /aethnoe, oae eae, anee a einoiie ieanoeiea, e
eioi?ie i?ee?aieythony ioneoeu, ia?acoaony ioaa?noea, iuooea i?e naiai
nie?auaiee iiaeao ianeieueei auiy/eaaoueny a yoi ioaa?noea. ?aaeoeoeey
/a?aiiiai iaioee?y iioea aeaoiy iniiaiuie iooyie: iooai ia?aciaaiey
iaeiie aeni/iie yiu, ia?aie/aiiie nieco neoeiaie aeoaie, e iooai
ia?aciaaiey aeaoo aeni/iuo yi, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ia?aciaaeenue aeaa
neoeiaua aeoae. Oaeei ia?acii, anao i?aniueathueony iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue
ia o?e a?oiiu: 1) aiaineaeu — n oeaeueiui /a?aiiui iaioee?ai
(eioeeicaa?u e /a?aiaoe); 2) neiaineaeu — n iaeiie neoeiaie aeoaie
(caa?iiiaeiaiua, ieaceicaa?u e, aiciiaeii, eooeicaa?u) e 3) aeeaineaeu —
n aeaoiy aeoaaie (ana i?i/ea i?aniueathueany). Ia?aay e aoi?ay a?oiiu
niaea?aeao ii iaeiiio iiaeeeanno, iineaaeiyy ?aniaaeaaony ia ?yae
iiaeeeannia e iiiaeanoai io?yaeia. A?oiia aiaineae yaeyaony ae?aaiaeoae
aaoaueth ?aioeeee, eiathueo ii no?iaieth /a?aia iiiai iaueo /a?o n
eneiiaaiuie noaaioeaoaeaie, oae eae ia oieueei iiiaea ?aiiea oi?iu eo
(eioeeicaa?u), ii aeaaea iaeioi?ua nia?aiaiiua (iaeioi?ua /a?aiaoe)
eiatho nieioiie /a?aiiie iaioee?ue. *a?aiaoe yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiuie
iuia aeeaoueie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie yoie ae?aaiaeoae a?oiiu ?aioeeee. Iie
ioaeaeeeenue, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaiin?aaenoaaiii io eioeeicaa?ia. Oaea a
o?eana yoa ae?aaiyy a?oiia aiieia neiaeeeanue e aeaaiaea?y naiae e?aeiae
niaoeeaeecaoeee aeiaeeea aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie, ii/oe ia eciaieaoenue,
oioy a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee iaeioi?ua a?oiiu /a?aiao ii ianeieueeo ?ac
ia?aoiaeeee io iacaiiiai ia?aca aeecie e aiaeiiio, a nayce n /ai iie oi
ii/oe oo?a/eaaee einoiua ueou, oi aiiaue i?eia?aoaee eo. Io a?oiiu
eioeeicaa?ia ioaeaeeeenue ii?neea eneiiaaiua ?aioeeee — eooeicaa?u e
ieaceicaa?u, aianoa n ae?oaeie aieaa ?aaeeeie oi?iaie ninoaaeaoea aeaa
naiinoiyoaeueiuo iiaeeeanna: Eomuonmepueuu (Ichthyopterygia) e
Neiaioicaa?u (Synaptosauria). Ieaceicaa?u (Plesiosauria), ioiinyueany e
neiaioicaa?ai, auee ii?neeie i?aniueathueieny. Iie eiaee oe?ieia,
ai/iieiia?aciia, oieiuaiiia ooeiaeua, aeaa ia?u iiuiuo eiia/iinoae,
aeaeieciaiaiiuo a ieaaaoaeueiua eanou, i/aiue aeeeiioth oath,
caeai/eaathuothny iaeaiueeie aieiaeie, e ei?ioeee oaino. Eiaea auea
aieay. Iiiai/eneaiiua ino?ua coau neaeaee a ioaeaeueiuo y/aeeao. ?acia?u
yoeo aeeaioiuo aa?uee?iaaee a i/aiue oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao: iaeioi?ua aeaeu
eiaee eeoue iieiao?a aeeeiu, ii auee e aeaaiou, aeinoeaaaoea 15 i.
Oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue eo neaeaoa caeeth/aeanue a iaaei?acaeoee
nieiiuo /anoae iiynia eiia/iinoae (eiiaoee, iiaeacaeioiie einoe) e
eneeth/eoaeueiie iiuiinoe a?thoiuo ioaeaeia iiynia (ei?aeieaea,
a?thoiiai io?inoea eiiaoee, eiaeiaie e naaeaeeuiie einoae), a oaeaea
a?thoiuo ?aaa?. Ana yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia eneeth/eoaeueii neeueiii
?acaeoee iuooe, i?eaiaeyueo a aeaeaeaiea eanou, eioi?ua neoaeeee eeoue
aeey a?aaee e ia iiaee iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oaei aia aiaeu. Oioy a i?aaeaeao
iiaeeeanna neiaioicaa?ia ia?aoiae io iacaiiuo oi?i e aiaeiui
ainnoaiiaeai aeiaieueii io/aoeeai, ii i?ienoiaeaeaiea a?oiiu a oeaeii ai
iiiaii aua iaynii. A oi a?aiy eae ieaceicaa?u, i?eniiniaeaoenue e
aiaeiie aeecie, aua nio?aieee iaeee iacaiiuo aeeaioiuo, eooeicaa?u
(Ichthyosauria), ioiinyueany e eooeiioa?eaeyi, i?eia?aee noiaenoai n
?uaaie e aeaeueoeiaie. Oaei eooeicaa?ia auei aa?aoaiiia?aciia, oay ia
au?aaeaia, aieiaa oaeeeiaiiay, oaino n aieueoei ieaaieeii, eiia/iinoe a
aeaea ei?ioeeo eanoia, i?e/ai caaeiea cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa ia?aaeieo.
Eiaea auea aieay, iiiai/eneaiiua ino?ua coau (i?eniiniaeaiiua e ieoaieth
?uaie) neaeaee a iauae ai?icaea, eiaeanue eeoue iaeia neoeiaay aeoaa, ii
e?aeia naiaia?aciiai no?iaiey. ?acia?u aa?uee?iaaee io 1 aei 13 i.
A?oiia aeeaineae aeeth/aao aeaa iiaeeeanna: eaieaeicaa?ia e a?oicaa?ia.
Iaeaieaa ?aiithth (aa?oiyy ia?iue) e iaeaieaa i?eieoeaioth a?oiio
eaieaeicaa?ia ninoaaeyao io?yae yicooee (Eosuchia). Iie aua i/aiue ieioi
eco/aiu, eo/oa ae?oaeo ecaanoia lounginia — iaeeia i?aniueathuaany,
iaiiieiathuaa oaeineiaeaieai yua?eoeo, ni n?aaieoaeueii neaauie
eiia/iinoyie, eiaaoeie iau/iia ?aioeeueiia no?iaiea. I?eieoeaiua /a?ou
aa au?aaeathony aeaaiui ia?acii a no?iaiee /a?aia, coau ?aniieiaeaiu eae
ia /aethnoyo, oae e ia i?aa. Ia?aua eethaiaieiaua (Rhynchocephalia)
ecaanoiu n ?aiiaai o?eana. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo auee /?acau/aeii aeecee e
nia?aiaiiie aaooa?ee. Ioee/athony eethaiaieiaua io yicooee i?enoonoaeai
?iaiaiai eethaa e oai, /oi coau eo i?e?auaiu e einoe, oiaaea eae
/aethnoiua coau yicooee neaeaee a ioaeaeueiuo y/aeeao. Ii iineaaeiaio
i?eciaeo eethaiaieiaua aeaaea i?eieoeaiaa yicooee e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
aeieaeiu auee i?iecieoe io eaeeo-oi aua ia iaeaeaiiuo i?eieoeaiuo oi?i
iineaaeiae a?oiiu. *aooe/aoua (Squamata), eiaiii yua?eoeu, ecaanoiu
eeoue n naiiai eiioea th?u. Io iniiaiiai noaiea /aooe/aouo — yua?eoe —
oaea a ia/aea iaea, aeaeeii, ioaeaeeeenue iicacaa?u (Mosasauria). Yoi
auee ii?neea i?aniueathueany, eiaaoea aeeeiiia ciaaaeaeiia oaei e aeaa
ia?u eiia/iinoae, aeaeieciaiaiiuo a eanou. Iaeioi?ua i?aaenoaaeoaee
yoiai io?yaea aeinoeaaee aeeeiu 15 i. A eiioea iaea iie aanneaaeii
auia?ee. Ianeieueei iicaea iicacaa?ia (eiiaoe iaea) io yua?eoe
ioaeaeeeanue iiaay aaoaue — ciae. Ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, io yicooee aea
aa?ao ia/aei aieueoay i?ia?anneaiay aaoaue a?oicaa?ia (Archosauria) —
eiaiii inaaaeicooee, ?aniaaoeany aiineaaenoaee ia o?e iniiaiua aaoae —
aiaeioth (e?ieiaeeeu), iacaiioth (aeeiicaa?u) e aicaeooioth (e?ueaoua
yua?u). Ia?yaeo n aeaoiy oeie/iuie aeni/iuie aeoaaie iaeaieaa
oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie yoie a?oiiu auea oaiaeaioeey ia?aoiaea e
«aeaoiiainoe», o. a. ia?aaeaeaeaieth ia iaeieo caaeieo eiia/iinoyo.
I?aaaea, iaeioi?ua ec iaeaieaa i?eieoeaiuo a?oicaa?ia oieueei ia/aee
eciaiyoueny a yoii iai?aaeaiee, e iioiiee eo iioee ii ae?oaiio iooe, a
i?aaenoaaeoaee ?yaea a?oii aoi?e/ii aa?ioeenue e ia?aaeaeaeaieth ia
/aou?ao eiia/iinoyo. Ii a iineaaeiai neo/aa i?ioeay enoi?ey inoaaeea
neaae ia no?iaiee eo oaca e naieo caaeieo eiia/iinoae. Inaaaeicooee
(Pseudosuchia) aia?aua iiyaeeenue eeoue a ia/aea o?eana. ?aiiea oi?iu
auee iaaieueoeie aeeaioiuie, ii oaea n ioiineoaeueii aeeeiiuie caaeieie
iiaaie, eioi?ua, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaeie e neoaeeee ei aeey ia?aaeaeaeaiey.
Coau, eiaaoeany oieueei ia /aethnoyo, neaeaee a ioaeaeueiuo y/aeeao,
aaeieue nieiu ii/oe anaaaea ?aniieaaaeenue a ianeieueei ?yaeia einoiua
ieanoeiee. Yoe iaeeea oi?iu, oeie/iuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioi?uo
yaeythony i?ieoicooe, e aaaeouea, ii-aeaeeiiio, ae?aaanioth aeeciue
Scleromochlus auee i/aiue iiiai/eneaiiu e aeaee ia/aei ia oieueei
aaoayi, iieo/eaoei ?anoeaao iicaea — a th?a e iaeo, ii e ?yaeo neeueii
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo a?oii, aanneaaeii auia?oeo aua a o?eana. Iaeiiaoe,
inaaaeicooee, a /anoiinoe anee ia nai i?ieoicoo, oi oi?iu, aeeceea e
iaio, iiaee auoue i?aaeeaie ioeoe. E?ieiaeeeu (Crocodylia) i/aiue aeecee
e iaeioi?ui o?eaniaui inaaaeicooeyi, iai?eia? aaeiaeiio (Belodon, eee
Phytosaurus). Ia/eiay n th?u iiyaeythony oaea ianoiyuea e?ieiaeeeu, ii
ieii/aoaeueii au?aaioaeny nia?aiaiiue oei e?ieiaeeeia eeoue a oa/aiea
iaeiaiai ia?eiaea. Ia yoii aeeeiiii iooe yaiethoeee iiaeii oaa ca oaaii
i?ineaaeeoue, eae ?acaeaaeny oa?aeoa?iue i?eciae e?ieiaeeeia — aoi?e/iia
i?ai. Nia?aa iiyaeeenue eeoue ai?eciioaeueiua io?inoee ia
aa?oia/aethnoiuo e i?aiuo einoyo, caoai yoe i?aiua io?inoee nioeenue, a
aua iicaea e iei i?eniaaeeieeenue i?aiua io?inoee e?ueiaeaeiuo einoae, e
iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei i?ioeannii oei ia?aaeaeaeaiea iicae?ae aia?aae, a
aoi?e/iuo oiai — iacaae. Aeeiicaa?u (Dinosauria) — iaeaieaa
iiiai/eneaiiay e ?aciiia?aciay a?oiia i?aniueathueony, eiaaea-eeai
aeeaoay ia naaoa. Nthaea ioiineeenue e iaaieueoea oi?iu, ?acia?ii n
eioeo e iaeue/a, e aeaaiou, aeinoeaaaoea ii/oe 30 i aeeeiu e 40 — 50 o
aana, eaaeea e ianneaiua, iiaeaeaeiua e iaoeethaeea, oeuiua e
o?aaiyaeiua, eeoaiiua /aooe e iie?uoua einoiui iaioee?ai n ?acee/iuie
au?inoaie. Iiiaea ec ieo aaaaee nea/eaie ia iaeieo caaeieo eiia/iinoyo,
iie?aynue ia oaino, ae?oaea ia?aaeaeaaeenue ia anao /aou?ao. Aieiaa o
aeeiicaa?ia auea iau/ii n?aaieoaeueii iaea, iieinoue aea /a?aiiie
ei?iaee — nianai e?ioa/iay. Caoi nieiiiiicaiaie eaiae a iaeanoe e?anooea
aue i/aiue oe?ie, /oi oeacuaaao ia ianoiia ?anoe?aiea nieiiiai iicaa.
Aeeiicaa?u ?acaeaeyeenue ia aeaa aieueoea a?oiiu — yua?ioaciauo e
ioeoeaoaciauo, eioi?ua aicieeee niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueii io
inaaaeicooee. ?acee/ey eo caeeth/athony aeaaiui ia?acii a no?iaiee iiyna
caaeieo eiia/iinoae. ssua?ioaciaua (Saurischia), ?iaenoaaiiua nayce
eioi?uo n inaaaeicooeyie ia aucuaatho niiiaiey, ia?aiia/aeueii auee
oieueei oeuiuie. A aeaeueiaeoai, oioy aieueoeinoai oi?i i?iaeieaeaei
inoaaaoueny oeuiuie, /anoue i?aa?aoeeanue a ?anoe-oaeueiiyaeiuo. Oeuiua,
oioy e aeinoeaaee ia?iiiuo ?acia?ia (aei 10 i aeeeiu), eiaee
n?aaieoaeueii eaaeia oaeineiaeaiea e iiuiue /a?ai n ino?uie coaaie.
Ia?aaeiea eiia/iinoe eo, neoaeeaoea, ii-aeaeeiiio, eeoue aeey
noaaouaaiey aeiau/e, auee neeueii oiaiueoaiu, e aeeaioiia aeieaeii auei
ia?aaeaeaaoueny, i?uaay ia caaeieo eiia/iinoyo e iie?aynue ia oaino.
Oeie/iue i?aaenoaaeoaeue oaeeo oi?i — oea?aoicaa? (Ceratosaurus). A
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oeuiui ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiua oi?iu ia?aaeaeaaeenue ia
iaaeo ia?ao eiia/iinoae, eioi?ua auee o ieo ii/oe ?aaiie aeeeiu e
ieai/eaaeenue iyoueth iaeueoeaie, ii-aeaeeiiio, iie?uouie ?iaiauie
ia?aciaaieyie a?iaea eiiuo. E iei ioiineeenue naiua e?oiiua /aoaa?iiiaea
aeeaioiua, eiaaea-eeai aeeaoea ia caiiii oa?a, iai?eia? a?iioicaa?,
aeinoeaaaoee nauoa 20 i aeeeiu e, aa?iyoii, 30 o aana, e aeeieiaeie.
Iineaaeiee aue no?ieiaa e, ianiiiaiii, cia/eoaeueii eaa/a, ii caoi
i?aainoiaeee a?iioicaa?a aeeeiie, eioi?ay o iaeiiai yecaiiey?a i?aauoaea
26 i; iaeiiaoe, iaoeethaeee a?aoeicaa?, aeeeiie ieiei 24 i, aeieaeii
auoue, aanee ieiei 50 o. Oioy iieua einoe iaeaa/aee aan yoeo aeeaioiuo,
ana aea o?oaeii aeiionoeoue, /oiau oaeea aeaaiou iiaee naiaiaeii
aeaeaaoueny ii nooa. Ii-aeaeeiiio, iie aaee eeoue iieoiacaiioth aeeciue
e, iiaeiaii nia?aiaiiui aaaaiioai, aieueooth /anoue a?aiaie i?iaiaeeee a
aiaea. Ia yoi oeacuaatho ieo i/aiue neaaua coau, i?eaiaeiua aeey
iiaaeaiey eeoue iyaeie aiaeiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe, e oi, /oi, iai?eia?, o
aeeieiaeiea iicae?e e aeaca auee naeaeioou eaa?oo, oae /oi aeeaioiia
iiaei aeaeaoue e aeuoaoue, aunoaaea ec aiaeu oieueei /anoue aieiau.
Ioeoeaoaciaua (Ornithischia), eiaaoea iiyn caaeieo eiia/iinoae,
/?acau/aeii iioiaeee ia ioe/ee, ieeiaaea ia aeinoeaaee oaeeo ia?iiiuo
?acia?ia. Caoi iie auee aua ?aciiia?aciaa. Aieueoeinoai yoeo aeeaioiuo
aoi?e/ii aa?ioeinue e ia?aaeaeaeaieth ia /aou?ao iiaao e iau/ii eiaei
oi?ioi ?acaeoue iaioee?ue, eiiaaea ineiaeiaiiue ?acee/iiai ?iaea
au?inoaie a aeaea ?iaia, oeiia e o. ae. Ana iie n naiiai ia/aea e aei
eiioea inoaaaeenue ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiuie, e aieueoeinoai nio?aieei eeoue
caaeiea coau, oiaaea eae ia?aaeiyy /anoue /aethnoae auea, ii-aeaeeiiio,
iie?uoa ?iaiaui eethaii. Eae oa?aeoa?iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo a?oii
ioeoeaoaciauo iiaeii oeacaoue eaoaiiaeiiia, noaaicaa?ia e
o?eoea?aoiinia. Eaoaiiaeiiu (Iguanodon), aeinoeaaaoea 5—9 i auniou,
aaaaee ia iaeieo caaeieo iiaao e auee eeoaiu iaioee?y, ii caoi 1-e
iaeaoe ia?aaeieo eiia/iinoae o ieo i?aaenoaaeye niaie einoiue oei,
eioi?ue iia neoaeeoue oi?ioei i?oaeeai caueou. Noaaicaa? eiae e?ioa/ioth
aieiao, aeaieiie ?yae aunieeo o?aoaieueiuo einoiuo ieanoei ia nieia, e
ianeieueei ino?uo oeiia neaeaei ia oainoa. O?eoea?aoiin (Triceratops)
aiaoia iioiaeee ia iini?iaa: ia eiioea aai ii?aeu ?aniieaaaeny aieueoie
?ia, e?iia oiai, ia?a ?iaia aicauoaeanue iaae aeacaie, a ii caaeiaio,
?anoe?aiiiio e?ath /a?aia neaeaee iiiai/eneaiiua caino?aiiua io?inoee.
Ioa?iaeaeoeee (Pterosauria), iiaeiaii ioeoeai e eaoo/ei iuoai, auee
ianoiyueie eaoathueie aeeaioiuie. Eo ia?aaeiea eiia/iinoe i?aaenoaaeyee
niaie ianoiyuea e?ueuey, ii e?aeia naiaia?aciiai ono?ienoaa: ia oieueei
i?aaeiea/uea, ii e n?auaiiua ae?oa n ae?oaii iynoiua einoe auee neeueii
oaeeeiaiu, ia?aua o?e iaeueoea eiaee ii?iaeueiia no?iaiea e ?acia?u,
iyoue ionoonoaiaae, oiaaea eae /aoaa?oue aeinoeaae /?acau/aeiie aeeeiu e
iaaeaeo iei e aieaie oaea auea iaoyiooa oiieay eaoaoaeueiay ia?aiiiea.
*aethnoe auee auaeaeioou, o iaeioi?uo oi?i eiaeenue coau, o ae?oaeo —
aaccoaue eetha. Ioa?iaeaeoeee iaia?oaeeaatho ?yae iaueo /a?o n ioeoeaie:
n?auaiiua a?oaeiua iicaiiee, aieueooth a?oaeeio n eeeai, neiaeiue
e?anoaoe, iieua einoe, eeoaiioth oaia /a?aiioth ei?iaeo, aieueoea aeaca.
Ieoaeenue e?ueaoua yua?u, ii-aeaeeiiio, ?uaie e aeeee, aa?iyoii, ii
i?ea?aaeiui neaeai, oae eae, noaey ii no?iaieth caaeieo eiia/iinoae,
iiaeiyoueny n ?iaiie iiaa?oiinoe iie ia iiaee. E ioa?iaeaeoeeyi ioiinyo
aeiaieueii ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu: n?aaieoaeueii i?eieoeaioth a?oiio
?aioi?eioia, eiaaoeo aeeeiiue oaino, e nianoaaiii ioa?iaeaeoeeae n
ca/aoi/iui oainoii. ?acia?u eieaaaeenue io aaee/eiu ai?iauey aei
aeaaioneiai ioa?aiiaeiia, ?aciao e?ueueaa eioi?iai aeinoeaae 7 i. A?oiia
neiaineae ninoaaeyao naiinoiyoaeueiue iiaeeeann ?aioeeee, eae iniaay
aieiaay aaoaue, ioaeaeeaoayny io ae?aaieo eioeeicaa?ia. Iie
oa?aeoa?ecothony oneeaieai /aethnoiiai aiia?aoa iooai ia?aciaaiey
naiaia?aciie aeni/iie aiaaeeiu aeey i/aiue iiuiie /aethnoiie ioneoeaoo?u
e i?ia?anneaiie aeeooa?aioee?iaeie coaiie nenoaiu — ?aciicoainoueth, eee
aaoa?iaeiioiinoueth. Yoi naycuaaao eo n aunoei eeannii iicaiii/iuo —
ieaeiieoathueie. Caa?iiiaeiaiua (Theromorpha) — yoi oa a?oiia,
i?eieoeaiua i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?ie auee aua i/aiue aeecee e
eioeeicaa?ai. Ioee/ea eo caeeth/aaony aeaaiui ia?acii a i?enoonoaee
neoeiaie aeoae e aieaa eaaeii oaeineiaeaiee. Caa?iiiaeiaiua iiyaeeenue a
eiioea eaiaiiioaieueiiai ia?eiaea, a ia/eiay n ieaeiae ia?ie noaee
i/aiue iiiai/eneaiiuie e a oa/aiea anaai yoiai ia?eiaea aianoa n
eioeeicaa?aie auee ii/oe aaeeinoaaiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie naiaai eeanna.
Ianiio?y ia ana naia ?aciiia?acea, ana caa?iiiaeiaiua auee no?iai
iacaiiuie aeeaioiuie, ia?aaeaeaathueieny eneeth/eoaeueii i?e iiiiue
iaaeo ia? eiia/iinoae. Iaeaieaa i?eieoeaiua i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeeeicaa?ia
(iai?eia?, Varanops) eiaee iaaieueoea ?acia?u e aiaoia aeieaeiu auee
iaiiieiaoue yua?eoe. Iaeiaei coau eo, oioy e iaeii?iaeiua, oaea neaeaee
a ioaeaeueiuo y/aeeao. Caa?iia?aciua (Therapsida), niaieaoea
iaeeeicaa?ia ni n?aaeiae ia?ie, iauaaeeiyee /?acau/aeii ?aciiia?aciuo
aeeaioiuo, ec eioi?uo iiiaea auee oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiu. O aieaa
iicaeieo oi?i oaiaiiia ioaa?noea en/acei, coau aeeooa?aioee?iaaeenue ia
?acoeu, eeuee e ei?aiiua, ia?aciaaeinue aoi?e/iia i?ai, iaeei iuuaeie
?acaeaeeeny ia aeaa, coaiay einoue neeueii oaaee/eeanue, i?i/ea aea
einoe ieaeiae /aethnoe oiaiueoeeenue. I?e/eiu auie?aiey ae?aaieo
?aioeeee aei neo ii? ia aiieia yniu. Iaeaieaa i?aaaeiiiaeiaiia
iauyniaiea yoiai yaeaiey neaaeothuaa. A i?ioeanna ai?ueau ca
nouanoaiaaiea ioaeaeueiua oi?iu ana aieaa i?eniinaaeeaaeenue e
ii?aaeaeaiiui oneiaeyi n?aaeu, ana aieaa niaoeeaeece?iaaeenue. Oaeay
niaoeeaeecaoeey e?aeia iieacia, ii eeoue aei oao ii?, iiea i?iaeieaeatho
nouanoaiaaoue oa oneiaey, e eioi?ui i?eniiniaeeny i?aaieci. Noieo aea ei
eciaieoueny— oaeea aeeaioiua ieacuaathony a ooaeoeo oneiaeyo, /ai iaiaa
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oi?iu, eioi?ua eo e auoaniytho a ai?ueaa ca
nouanoaiaaiea. E?iia oiai, a ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea iaeioi?ua a?oiiu
iiaoo i?eia?aoaoue naienoaa, iiauoathuea eo iauoth
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oceie aaeaioaoeee, eee
eaeeiaaeaioaoeee, yoi yaeaiea iieo/eei iacaaiea a?iii?oica. Iai?eia?,
oaieie?iaiinoue aeaea aiciiaeiinoue i?aaieciai, i?eia?aooei yoi
naienoai, iaiueoa caaenaoue io eeeiaoa ii n?aaiaieth n aeeaioiuie n
ia?aiaiiie oaiia?aoo?ie oaea. A oa/aiea aeieaie iacicieneie y?u
i?ienoiaeeee eeoue iacia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey eaiaeoaooia e eeeiaoa, a
nayce n /ai i?aniueathueany ana aieaa e aieaa niaoeeaeece?iaaeenue e
i?ioeaaoaee. Ii a eiioea yoie y?u caiiay iiaa?oiinoue noaea
i?aoa?iaaaoue oaeea ia?iiiua ai?iia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu e naycaiiua
n ieie eeeiaoe/aneea eciaiaiey, /oi aieueoeinoai i?aniueathueony ia
niiaei eo ia?aaeeoue e aanneaaeii auia?ei e eiioeo iaciciy, iieo/eaoaai
iacaaiea yiioe aaeeeiai auie?aiey. Iaeiaei auei au ioeaeie iauynieoue
yoio i?ioeann eneeth/eoaeueii oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeie i?e/eiaie. Ia
iaiueooth ?ieue nua?aea e ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea n ae?oaeie
aeeaioiuie, eiaiii n ioeoeaie e ieaeiieoathueie, eioi?ua aeaaiaea?y
oaieie?iaiinoe e auniei?acaeoiio iicao ieacaeenue eo/oa i?eniiniaeaiiuie
e yoei aiaoiei yaeaieyi e auoee iiaaaeeoaeyie a aeeciaiiie ai?ueaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Ai?iioeiaa I. A., Eeicia? E. Ae., Ia?eaeiaa E. A, Iooaeueneay A. *.
O?eoii e aenieioeue. I., 1952.

2. Ao?oiaie I. I., Iaoaaaa A. N., Aeca?aeeineee O. ss. I?aeoe/aneay
ciioiiey iicaiii/iuo.

3. Caiiiaiaeiua, i?aniueathueany. I., 1978. Oa?aioueaa I. A. Eyaooea.
I., 1950.

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