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?aoa?ao ia oaio:

IO?ssAe

IAIA?IIEIIUOIUA

Auiieieea

o/aieea 8-A eeanna

IU ?17

Ne?iiaoaiei Aeaiena

Oaiaeiney 2009

Io?yae iaia?iieiiuoiua (Perissodactyla)

Yoio io?yae iauaaeeiyao eiiuoiuo, oa?aeoa?ecothueony oai, /oi
iaeaieueoaai ?acaeoey o ieo aeinoeaaao o?aoee iaeaoe, /a?ac eioi?ue
i?ioiaeeo inue eiia/iinoe, ae?oaea aea iaeueoeu ?acaeou neaai eee nianai
ionoonoaotho. O iaia?iieiiuoiuo iao eeth/eoe; aeaeoaeie i?inoie. Ia?a
nineia oieueei iaeia (a iaoiaie iaeanoe). I?aaeeaie iaia?iieiiuoiuo auee
i?eieoeaiua oeuieee — e?aiaeiiou (Creodonta). Iaia?iieiiuoiua auno?i
?acaeaaeenue, aeaa aieaa 500 aeaeia, iauaaeeiaiiuo a 12 naiaenoa, ec
eioi?uo 9 auia?ei a iicaeiao?aoe/iia a?aiy e aei iaoeo aeiae aeiaeeee
oieueei o?e: oaie?u, iini?iae e eioaaee, ian/eouaathuea anaai 16 aeaeia.
Aeeeea i?aaenoaaeoaee io?yaea iaia?iieiiuoiuo ianaeytho Aceth, Ao?eeo e
THaeioth Aia?eeo. Eiee/anoai iaia?iieiiuoiuo ca iineaaeiaa a?aiy ?acei
oiaiueoeeinue, a nayce n /ai a oie eee eiie ia?a iie iaoiaeyony iiae
io?aiie.

Iaia?iieiiuoiua eiatho eiia/iinoe ei?ioeea e oienoua, n?aaeiae aeeeiu
eee aeeeiiua, i?eniiniaeaiiua e auno?iio aaa. *enei iaeueoeaa eciai/eai:
/aou?a ia ia?aaeieo eiia/iinoyo (iao I iaeueoea) e o?e ia caaeieo (iao I
e V iaeueoeaa) – o oaie?ia; ii o?e ia ia?aaeieo e caaeieo eiia/iinoyo
(iao I e V) – o iini?iaia; ii iaeiiio ia anao /aou?ao eiia/iinoyo (anoue
eeoue III iaeaoe) – o eioaaeae. Eiioeu iaeueoeaa caueuaiu ?iaiauie
eiiuoaie. Aieinyiie iie?ia ieceee e a?oaue, eiiaaea neeueii ec?aaeaiiue
eee ii/oe iieiinoueth ?aaeooee?iaaiiue. A aiaeo aeaa eeiueee. A iiniaie
eee a iiniaie e eiaiie /anoyo iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny iaeei eee aeaa ?iaa
aeeeiie aei 155 ni yieaea?iaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. *a?ai ianneaiue n
aieueoei eeoeaaui ioaeaeii. AEaeoaeie i?inoie. Neaiay eeoea aieueoay.
AEae/iiai iocu?y iao. ?ani?ino?aiaiu a Oeaio?aeueiie e THaeiie Acee, ia
i-iaa Iaeaeea, i-aao Noiao?a, ssaa, Eaeeiaioai, a Ao?eea (e?iia Naoa?u),
thaeiie /anoe Naaa?iie Aia?eee, Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eea e naaa?iie /anoe
THaeiie Aia?eee.

Iaeoatho a ionouiyo, noaiyo, eaninoaiyo, iaeioi?ua ai aeaaeiuo e
aieioenouo o?iie/aneeo eanao. Eae i?aaeei, aea?aeaony iiiaeeii/ea eee
iaaieueoeie a?oiiaie, ?aaea aieaa e?oiiuie noaaeaie. Aeoeaiu a naaoeia
eee oaiiia a?aiy nooie. Ieoathony ?acee/iuie ?anoaieyie, aeaaiui ia?acii
o?aaaie. O iaeioi?uo eiatho ianoi naciiiua iea?aoeee. Naiee i?eiinyo a
iiiaoa ii iaeiiio aeaoaiuoo, eioi?ue anei?a iinea ?iaeaeaiey niiniaai
neaaeiaaoue ca iaoa?ueth.

Oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea iaaaeeei. Iaeioi?ua aeaeu neoaeao aei neo ii?
iauaeoaie ioiou. A i?ioeii eo cia/aiea a yoii ioiioaiee auei
cia/eoaeueii aieueoa. ?yae aeaeia noieo ia a?aie en/aciiaaiey, a
iaeioi?ua auia?ee.

Oa?iai e ao?eeaineee inae yaeythony ?iaeiia/aeueieeaie aeaoo aaaeiuo
aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo – eioaaee e inea.

Oieueei 15 aeaeia (e iyoue ?iaeia) aeeeeo iaia?iieiiuoiuo nio?aieeinue
ia Caiea. Ii i?aaeaea, a aeieaaeieeiaia a?aiy, e iiiai/eneaiiaa e
?aciiia?aciaa auea oaoia iaia?iieiiuoiuo. Eeoue eneiiaaiuo eo ?iaeia
ecaanoii iaeaiioieiaai 152.

Aeeeay eioaaeue

A 1877 aiaeo Ieeieae Ieoaeeiae/ I?aeaaaeueneee aa?ioeny ec Aeaeoiaa?ee e
i?eaac oeo?o aeeeie eioaaee. Ii e ?aiueoa, ai a?aiy ia?aiai naiaai
iooaoanoaey a Iiiaieeth, a 1870—1873 aiaeao, iiiai neuoae i aeeeeo
eioaaeyo, «eioi?uo iiiaieu iacuaatho «aeca?-eee-aaeo» («aeeeee oaaoi»)».
Iaiiiai iicaeiaa I?aeaaaeueneee a iiauo iooaoanoaeyo a Oeaio?aeueioth
Aceth i?ioae /a?ac ionouie .Aeaeoiaa?ee, e oai ii oaeaeae naieie aeacaie
iaoeiaeiuo aeca?eee-aaeo.

I?aeaaaeueneiio ia oaeaeinue i?eaeeceoueny «ia iaoeee auno?ae» ie e
iaeiie aeeeie eioaaee, ii /a?ai aa e oeo?o ii ana-oaee aeiaue. Eo
iiaea?ee aio A. E. Oe-oaiia, ia/aeueiee Caenaineiai iinoa. A e Oeoaiiao
oeo?a iiiaea io ee?aecia-ioioieeia, i?iiuoeyaoeo a Oeaio?aeueiie
Aeaeoiaa?ee.

Aeiai aeeeea eioaaee iau/ii aea?aeaony a aeooeo, ionouiiuo ianoao, a
ii/ueth, /ooei i?eithoeaaynue e o?aaiaeii ano?aiuaay, auoiaeyo ia
ianoaeua e aiaeiiie. Oiaeyo aonueeii ae?oa ca ae?oaii ii i?ioiioaiiui
eie aea o?iieieai. Ei/otho iau/ii iaaieueoeie noaaeaie, io iyoe aei
aeaaaeoeaoe eioaaeae. Aiaeeo einye noa?ue aea?aaaoe. Ii i/aiue niae e
aeee, ii i?aaeai naiaio einyeo.

E ia/aeo iaoaai aaea eeoue o?e aeeeea eioaaee (aeaa eiaueu e aea?aaaoe)
auee aeaaiiieo/ii aeinoaaeaiu a Aa?iio: a Aneaieth-Iiaa, a eiaiea
O?eae?eoa Oaeueoe-Oaeia. Iie ianeenue a i?inoi?iuo caaiiao a oe?aeineie
noaie, aucuaay caaenoue anao aeaaeaeueoeaa ciiia?eia.

A eiioea eiioeia aa?oeia Aaaeoi?ae oaiai?ee Ea?ea Aaaaiaaea, ecaanoiiai
eiaoea caa?ae, iieiaoue aeeeeo eioaaeae aeey iniiaaiiiai Aaaeoi?aeii
ia?ea Aiaa?i-Aaaae, a eioi?ii aeeee ?aaeeinoiua aeeaioiua.

Iineaiiua Aaaaiaaeii ethaee i?eaacee a Aaiao?a 28 aea?aayo aeeeeo
eioaaeae. Iie, ii nouanoao, auee iineaaeieie, eioi?uo oaeaeinue i?eaacoe
ec Iiiaieee. Io iaeioi?uo ec ieo i?iecioee oa eioaaee I?aeaaaeueneiai,
eioi?ua aeeaoo nae/an a ciiia?eao, anaai ie?a. Ia aiea, a Oeaio?aeueiie
Acee, ii/oe ia inoaeinue aeeeeo eioaaeae. Ianeieueei aeanyoeia eo
aeiaeeaatho naie aae a ionouia Aiae, a Iiiaieee e a ninaaeieo ?aeiiao
Eeoay. Ianiio?y ia cai?auaiea ioioeoueny ia aeeeeo eioaaeae, ieoao
i?ioanni? A. A. Aaioia?, iie ia?a/aiu, aa?iyoii, ia nei?oth aeaaeue.

Aeeeea ineu e caa?u

O caa? ioee/ea io eioaaeae yniia: /aoeea /a?iua iieinu. O ineia oaeeo
y?eeo ciaeia iao, ii ciaiaieoua aeeeiiua ooe e oaino n eenoi/eie ia
eiioea i?aaenoaaeytho inea aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi. E?iia oiai, oio, o eiai
inoaioony aua niiiaiey — inae ia?aae iei eee eioaaeue, — iiaeao
acaeyiooue ia caaeiea iiae aeeaioiiai. Anee ia eo aioo?aiiae noi?iia iao
eaooaiia, oi yoi inae. O eioaaee eaooaiu ia anao /aou?ao iiaao. Eaooaiu
— ?oaeeiaiou, i/aaeaeii, eaeeo-oi eiaeiuo aeaeac: ie?oaeua, aacaieinua
aeyoee nii?uaiiie, neiaii caiaeoaeny, eiaee.

*oi eanaaony ooae, oi ii-ianoiyuaio aeeeiiua iie oieueei o ao?eeaineiai
aeeeiai inea, ?iaeiia/aeueieea ineia aeiiaoieo. O iaai e e?ee iioiae ia
iaaeaaicao/iue ?aa aeiiaoiaai inea. Aceaoneee aeeeee inae e?e/eo eia/a,
e ooe o iaai ei?i/a.

Ao?eeaineea aeeeea ineu e?oiiaa aceaoneeo (eiiaaea iacuaatho eo na?uie,
a aceaoneeo — aeaeouie). AEeaoo a oaeeo aanieiaeiuo aeeienouo e
eaiaienouo iieoionouiyo THaeiie Ioaee e Niiaee (e a aeeaeaeoeo ?aeiiao
Ainoi/iie Ao?eee), /oi i?inoi oaeeaeoaeueii, /ai nuou auaatho! Ieiicu,
?aciua aeanoeea e eieth/ea o?aau, eioi?ua ie iaeei eiiuoiue caa?ue ia
noae au anoue, ei?iyo yoeo aeeeiiiooeo nia?oaioeaa.

Aceaoneea ineu oaeaea iao?aaiaaoaeueiu e aaea e ieoueth (iuetho aeaaea
nieaioth aiaeo!), e iaeii a?aiy, a III ouny/aeaoee aei iaoae y?u,
ae?aaiee ia?iae Ieaeiae Ianiiioaiee — ooia?u — i?e?o/eee yoeo ineia,
aiceee ia ieo a?ocu. Ii iioii iaeiiaoiaiiua eioaaee, aieaa i?eaiaeiua
aeey yoie ?iee, auoanieee ineia ec noa?u, oae neacaoue, o?oaea, inoaaea
ca ieie eeoue noa?o aano?iiiie/aneoth: ana aaea, n ae?aaiinoe e ii iaoe
aeie, iyni aeeeeo ineia n/eoaaony aanueia aeoniui (?eieyia aai iniaaiii
oeaieee).

Ii yoie e ae?oaei i?e/eiai aceaoneee aeeeee inae anthaeo ?aaeie, ii/oe
eno?aaeai, oioy oa??eoi?ey, ia eioi?ie ii aeee e ianoaie aua aeeaao,
i/aiue iaoe?ia: iieoionouie e ionouie, ?aaieiiua e ai?iua, io Naaa?iie
A?aaee, Ne?ee aei Iiiaieee e Oeaaoa. A Iiiaieee e N?aaeiae Acee aeeeiai
inea iacuaatho eoeaiii eee aeaeaaaoaai, a Oeaaoa — eeaiaii, a E?aia e
Ia?aaeiae Acee n ae?aaiinoe aai eiy — iiaa?. Ai?i/ai, ?acieoea caeanue
ia oieueei a iacaaieyo: iie iaicia/atho o?e ?aciuo iiaeaeaea aeeeeo
ineia. Eeaia naiue e?oiiue, oaiiue e aunieiai?iue: ii e?o/ai e neeiiai
ouaeee eeaiae eacatho ia ooaea aeeeeo eic. Iiaa? iaeue/a eoeaia e eeaiaa
e naaoeaa eo.

Eiaaea-oi oaaoiu eoeaiia neaeaee ii noaiiiio ?acaeieueth Oe?aeiu, E?uia
e Caeaaeacuey. A i?ioeii aaea iiiai auei aeeeeo ineia a Eacaonoaia,
Ocaaeenoaia, Oo?eiaiee. Ii ?yaeu eo auno?i ii?aaeaee, e oaia?ue
nio?aieeenue o ian eoeaiu, eae iieaaatho, eeoue naiuenio aieia, oieueei
ia thaa Oo?eiaiee, a iniiaiii a Aaaeoucneii caiiaaaeieea. A 1953 aiaeo
aeeeeiaoece?iaaee eoeaiia ia ino?iaa Aa?na-Eaeueian a A?aeueneii ii?a.

Aeeeee inae eoeai — iaeii ec naiuo auno?uo (anee ia naiia auno?ia!)
eiiuoiuo aeeaioiuo: iaioaaiiua, nea/oo eo oaaoiu n ?acainoueth, eioi?oth
ia eaaeaeay neaeiaay eioaaeue niiniaia iieacaoue, — 70 eeeiiao?ia a /an!

Ia?aia oiiieiaiea i caa?ao a aioe/iie eeoa?aoo?a iiyaeeinue ai II aaea
iaoae y?u, eiaaea enoi?ee Eanneon Aeei ienae i «eioaaeyo nieioea,
eioi?ua iaiiieiatho oea?a».

?aciua enneaaeiaaoaee iienaee iiiai aeaeia caa?, ii nia?aiaiiay
nenoaiaoeea i?eciaao iaeaieaa ?aaeueiuie ec ieo /aou?a: eaaaaa, iau/iay
caa?a ?aaiei, ai?iay caa?a e caa?a A?aae.

Eaaaaa aiaoiei aeaeii nia?aaee a?iaea au caa?a, a ncaaee — eioaaeue,
iioiio /oi iieinu o iaa auee oieueei ia aieiaa, oaa, e iaiaa yniua ia
oieea. Any caaeiyy /anoue ooeiaeua, io oieee e aei oainoa, aac iiein,
iaeiioiiii ao?ay eee iani/ii-ao?ay. Iiae e oaino aaeua.

Iiiaiouny/iua noaaea yoeo caaaaiuo iieocaa? aei oiai eae aa?iiaeoeu
iiyaeeenue a Ao?eea, ei/aaaee a aane?aeieo noaiyo, i?inoe?aaoeony io
iuna Aeia?ie Iaaeaaeaeu aei ?aee I?aiaeaaie e aeaeueoa e, naaa?o ii/oe
aei naiiai Eeiiiii. Eaaaae (eae e caa?u nae/an) iau/ii ianeenue a
eiiiaiee n aaeioainouie aio e no?aonaie. No?aonu eo/oa aeaeyo, a eaaaae
e aio — /otho. Ioee/iia iieo/aeinue ni/aoaiea: eueaia e ethaeae
iauaaeeiaiiua oaeei ia?acii aeeaioiua caia/aee nei?aa, /ai a noaaeao, a
eioi?uo niaethaeaaony aeaeiaay naa?aaaoeey.

Ii e ae?oaeaneee aeueyin n aio e no?aonaie ia nian eaaaa io aeaaee.
Ao?ai, aieeaiaeneei iinaeaioeai a THaeiie Ao?eea, iio?aaiaaeenue oeo?u
aeey ao?aetheia: a ieo o?aieee ca?ii. A iynii eaaaa aieeaiaeoeu ei?ieee
iaa?ia, eioi?uo canoaaeyee ia?aaaouaaoue naie iiey. Aiai?yo, /oi aia/aea
eaaaa auei oae iiiai, /oi ao?ai ia oaaoaei naeioea, /oiau a ieo
no?aeyoue. Ec o?oiia iie au?acaee ioee, ca?yaeaee eie ?oaeuey e niiaa
iaeeee a aaccaueoiuo aeeaioiuo, eioi?ua ia oniaaaee aeaeaei
?acaaaeaoueny.

A ?acoeueoaoa /a?ac naiueaeanyo eao iinea i?eiauaiey e iaoea eaaaae oaea
noaee aeinoiyieai iaeaiioieiae/aneeo iocaaa: aeaa iineaaeiea eaaaae a
Eaineie i?iaeioeee auee oaeou ia ai?a Oeaa?aa?a a 1850 aiaeo. A
I?aiaeaaie ?anioaeeea ianeieueei aeeaioiuo a aeooe iieoionouiiuo noaiae
aeiaeeee aei ?ieiaiai 1878 aiaea, eiaaea iineaaeiea aeeeea eaaaae
iaanaaaea ?annoaeenue n aeeciueth.

Aua eao ca noi aei yoeo o?aae/aneeo niauoee oanoiaaeoeaoue eaaaa
i?eaacee a Aa?iio. Eaaaaa, eioi?ay aeaaaeoeaoue eao i?iauea ieaiieoeae
Eiiaeiineiai ciiia?ea, aeiaeeea aeaaea aei a?aiai Aeaaa?a e auea
noioia?aoe?iaaia /aou?a ?aca. Yoi aaeeinoaaiiua oioia?aoee aaeeinoaaiiie
noioia?aoe?iaaiiie a aeeaii aeaea eaaaae!

Ii e eiiaeiineay eaaaaa ia auea iineaaeiae a naiai ?iaea. Iineaaeiae
auea ainoa?aeaineay. E oiio a?aiaie ie o eiai oaea ia inoaeinue
niiiaiey, /oi yoa eaaaaa iineaaeiyy, A Ao?eea ie iaeiie, a Aa?iia eo
oiaea ia auei. Iieinaoay eioaaeue a ciieiae/aneii naaeo Ainoa?aeaia
iaeaioiee/anee aeiaeeaaea naie aae, a iaoo?aeenou e oa ethaee, aeey
eioi?uo ao?aethee ia ieeoeaoai?ytho eo/oeo oeaiiinoae ie?a, a
aanneeueiii io/ayiee nie?eeenue n iuneueth, /oi aoaeouea iieieaiey
ethaeae ieeiaaea oaea ia oaeaeyo yoeo i?ae?aniuo aeeaioiuo, /oi /a?ac
aiae, /a?ac aeaa ianooieo nia?oue aeaea e yaiethoeeiiiua ?ano?nu iaoae
ieaiaou iiianoo aua iaeio cia/eoaeueioth iioa?th.

Yoi neo/eeinue 12 aaaonoa 1882 aiaea: iineaaeiyy ia caiea eaaaaa, noa?ay
eiauea, oia?ea.

Ai?iua caa?u aioiau ?acaeaeeoue noaeueao eaaaae: oieueei ieiei 150
iineaaeieo oeie/iuo eo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeeaoo iiae io?aiie caeiia ia
caiaaea Eaineie i?iaeioeee. Iaaieueoea oaaoiu caa? Aa?oiaiia, eioi?uo
n/eoatho iiaeaeaeii ai?iuo caa?, ianoony aua a ai?ao THai-Caiaaeiie
Ao?eee e Aiaieu.

Ai?iua caa?u ?aaieiai i?aaeii/ee aicauoaiiinoe, n ii?aceoaeueiie
eiaeinoueth aaaatho iie ii neaeenoui neeiiai e ouaeueyi. Yoeo caa? (e
caa?o A?aae) iacuaatho ineiiiaeiaiuie. Ooe o ieo aieueoea, aieiaa
oyaeaeay, eiiuoa oceea — noaeai/eeaie. Ii no?aiiia aeaei: i?e anae naiae
aiaoiae ineiiiaeiaiinoe ?aeoo ai?iua caa?u ii/oe eae eioaaee, ii ia
aunieeo iioao. Anoue eaeea-oi ioe/uee caoee a eo ?aeaiee.

Io ae?oaeo caa? ioee/eoue eo eaaei. Iieinu aieaa oceea e «ia?eniaaiu»
aeeaea iaeia e ae?oaie, iaeiaei aei naiiai a?thoa ia aeioiaeyo, eae o
iau/iuo caa?. Caoi iiae io/aoeeai ?aceeiiaaiu aei naiuo eiiuo. I?eia?ii
oaeiai aea oeia iieinu e o caa? A?aae, ii ?enoiie eo ia aaae?ao e e?oia
eiie. (Ia ?enoieao: a e?aniii eiioo?a iau/iay caa?a, a aieoaii — ai?iay,
a caeaiii — A?aae.)

Ii naiia i?eiaoiia, /oi ioee/aao ai?iuo caa? io anao ae?oaeo, —
io/aoeeaue «eaaeue» nieco ia oaa.

Caa?a A?aae aeeaao a THaeiie Yoeiiee, Niiaee e a ninaaeieo iaeanoyo
Ainoi/iie Ao?eee. Ec anao caa? o iaa ia aaeeieoea, oae neacaoue, aeeaie
iiaa?oiinoe iaeaieueoaa /enei iiein: iie aua oaea e aeeaea iaeia e
ae?oaie, /ai o ai?iie caa?u. Yoi naiay e?oiiay ec caa?, naiay,
ii-aeaeeiiio, ae?aaiyy e iaeaieaa ineiiiaeiaiay: aieiaa o iaa ianneaiaa,
/ai o ae?oaeo caa?, oay e oaino ei?i/a, ooe oe?a, ia eiioeao ie?oaeua e
e?aneai ioi?i/aiu /a?iuie iieinaie. E?ee aa — ?aa, nei?aa aeaaea
io?uaenoia ?u/aiea. Ai?iay caa?a, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, ?aeao, a iau/iay
aoaeoi eaao, ii i/aiue ?eoie/ii. AEa?aayoa caa? A?aae ?iaeyony n a?eaie
ii anaio o?aaoo — io oieee aei oainoa. E iiaaaeea o caa?u A?aae eiay: ia
eyioa? (ei?ioeee aaeii), a o?io, oi anoue iaeeay o?yneay ?unue. (Ii,
nianay aaanoaii aeeciue, ia?aoiaeyo caa?u A?aae ia aieaa ?acaue aeeth? —
ea?uea?, oi anoue i/aiue auno?ue, noaethueeny aaeii.)

Caa?u yeaaoi?eaeueiuo e i?eyeaaoi?eaeueiuo ?aaiei, eee iau/iua caa?u,
iieinaooth ?ane?aneo iinyo ia oieoeoee?iaaiioth: o ?aciuo iiaeaeaeia e
?an (aeaaea o ?aciuo iniaae!) iia naiy e /ai-oi ioee/ia. Iaeiaei ana aa
aa?eaiou iauaaeeiytho e niaaeeiytho ia?aceea i?iiaaeooi/iua ia?aoiaeu. A
iauai, /ai naaa?iaa iaeoatho caa?u yoiai aeaea, oai io/aoeeaaa e y?/a o
ieo iieinu.

O naiiai thaeiiai iiaeaeaea, iuia, eae e eaaaaa, eno?aaeaiiie
ao?/aeeaaie caa?u, eioi?ay iaeoaea a THaeiie Ao?eea ii ninaaenoao n
eaaaaie, iiae auee nianai aac iiein, iieinu ia oaea aieaa ooneeua,
iniiaiie oii oeo?u ia aaeue, a aeaeoiaaoi-ao?ue.

Aoi?ie iiaeaeae — caa?a *yiiaia — aeeaao naaa?iaa. Ia iiaao iieinu o iaa
ia/aoeea, aei eiiuo ia «aei?eniaaiu», a iina?aaeeia aaeieue iaeioi?uo
aaeuo iiein i?iaaaeaiu aeaeoua oo?eoe. O aua aieaa naaa?iuo iiaeaeaeia
(Ainoi/iay Ao?eea, Noaeai), iai?eia? o caa?u A?aioa eee Aaia, iiae
io/aoeeai iieinaoua aei naiuo eiiuo, a aaeua iieinu aac anyeie
aeaeoeciu.

A Ao?eea iau/iuo caa? aua aeiaieueii iiiai. Ii, eae ie no?aiii, iu iaei
ciaai i ieo: o?aaiyaeiu, ianoony noaaeaie, /anoi niaoaiiuie (a
niae?oaeanoaa n ae?oaeie noaiiuie aeeaioiuie), ea?eau: nea/oo,
eyaathony, eonathony iaceiaii. Eueau — eo aeaaiua a?aae.

Iaaeaaii auynieee, /oi noaaea caa? ninoiyo ec ioaeaeueiuo naiae, /eaiu
eioi?uo i/aiue ae?oaeiu e aiaeaie ia ?annoathony, /oi iaiyoue o caa?
ioee/iay: ?aciua aaiiao?e/aneea oeao?u ?acee/atho iie aac o?oaea e
iiiiyo eo ii/oe aiae. Iao iaeeiaeiai iieinaouo caa? aeaaea a iaeiii
noaaea, iiyoiio aea?aayoa iaoiaeyo naieo iaoa?ae ii iaoeiaeiie ?acieoea
a eo iieinaoinoe. Aeieaieaoea o caa? iaiaeia. Iaeia i?iaeeea a
Aeoaeeineii ciiia?ea 46 eao.

Nea/oo caa?u ?acai: 50 eeeiiao?ia a /an aac iniaiai iai?yaeaiey.

Naiay ii?aceoaeueiay e aeiaieueii caaaaei/iay iniaaiiinoue caa?u — aa
iieinaoinoue. Nii?ia i aa niunea e cia/aiee auei iiiai, e aei neo ii?
aii?in yoio ia aeey anao enneaaeiaaoaeae ?aoai ieii/aoaeueii. Nooue
nii?a a oii: aeey eo/oae caiaoiinoe eee iacaiaoiinoe ?aceeiiaaia caa?a,
eae aa?noiaie noiea. Eiaiii yoa aiaeiaey canoaaeyao iaeioi?uo ciieiaia
ooaa?aeaeaoue: caa?ieaeiinoue ia n?aaenoai iniaie oeo?ie ianee?iaee, a,
iai?ioea, «aoeoe?iaaiea», iiiiaathuaa eo noaaeai eo/oa i?eaioe?iaaoueny
ia ianoaeuao, eo/oa e ?aaiiia?iaa ?ann?aaeioi/eoueny, ia oieieoueny anai
a iaeiii ianoa, inoaaeyy ionoothueie ae?oaea aiaeiua aeey i?iei?ia
o/anoee noaie. Iieinaoinoue eo noaae — aoaeoi au naiaai ?iaea
iia?aie/iua ciaee, ioia/athuea oa??eoi?eth eaaeaeiai oaaoia.

«ss n yoei niaa?oaiii ia niaeanai. Eae /anoi iu ia iiaee ioee/eoue n
naiieaoa noaaei ineia io caa?. Ec ieia aaoiiiaeey yoi oiaea o?oaeii
naeaeaoue. N ecaanoiiai ?annoiyiey /a?iua e aaeua iieinu ia/eiatho
neeaaoueny, ia?acoy iaeii?iaeiue na?ue oii» (Aa?iaa?ae A?aeeiae).

Niune eneeth/eoaeueiie iieinaoinoe caa?u aa?iaa anaai ?acuyniyao,
ii-aeaeeiiio, oai?ey ?an/eaiythuae ie?anee. Aaaeue ia oieueei caa?a
iieinaoay: a i?e?iaea i?eioeei ?an/eaiythuae ie?anee inouanoaeai ia
iiiaeo aeeauo iiaeaeyo. ?acei eiio?anoe?othuea /a?iua iieinu eee iyoia
ia naaoeii oiia oeo?u (eeai aaeua ia /a?iii) anoue e o oea?a, eaiia?aea,
yaoa?a, ioeaeioa, aee?aou, o aioeeii eoaeo, aiiai, ?ua, ciae, aaai/ae.
Neiaii, o iiiaeo aeeaioiuo.

Iau/ii iieinu e iyoia eaeoo ?yaeaie aieaa eee iaiaa iiia?ae oaea;
aeinoeaay a?aieoe neeoyoa, iie aiacaiii ia?uaathony. Nieioiay eeiey
eiioo?a ?an/eaiyaony /a?aaeothueieny aaeuie e /a?iuie iieyie ?anoeaaoie,
e aeeaioiia, oa?yy naie i?eau/iua aeaco i/a?oaiey, neeaaaony n oiiii
ianoiinoe. Yoiai aeiaeaathony e ethaee, eiaaea ?ane?aoeaatho aiaiiua
iauaeou naaoeuie e oaiiuie iyoiaie, ?an/eaiythueie eiioo?u ianee?oaiiai
nii?oaeaiey.

Anee aea /a?iua e aaeua iieinu eaeoo ia iiia?ae, a aaeieue eiioo?ia
oaea, oi iie ia ?an/eaiytho, a, iaiai?io, iiae/a?eeaatho eo. Oi?ioi
caiaoiay ie?anea auaiaeia yaeiaeoui eee aeo?ii iaoiouei nouanoaai, /oiau
oeuieee ia oaaoaee eo ii ioeaea. Iai?eia?, naeaiaiae?a, neoino, ci?eeea:
o ieo aeaenoaeoaeueii iieinu i?iaeieueiua.

Oiai aea iioe/aneiai yooaeoa aeiaeaathony no?aeee, ?ane?aoeaay ieoaie
eiioeaio?e/aneeie /a?ii-aaeuie iieyie: /a?aaeothueany e?oae eae au
iiae/a?eeaatho /a?iia yaei/ei a oeaio?a, oneeeaay aai aeaeeiinoue. A
?ac?enoeoa e?oa iiia?a/iuie (?aaeeaeueiuie) iieinaie eiio?anoiuo
oeaaoia, e aai o?oaeii aoaeao ?acaeyaeaoue oaeoth ieoaiue aeaaea ia
aeeceii ?annoiyiee.

Iini?ia — «Eocai» eiiy

N iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai ?ia iini?iaa neaaeeny ia Ainoiea eae eo/oay
iaiaoeay io iiiaeo aaae.

Yoa no?aiiay, ie ia /ai ia iniiaaiiay aa?a a iaae/aneea naienoaa ?iaa e
iiaoaeea iini?iaia. Eiaaea-oi eo auei i/aiue iiiai ai anao no?aiao
THaeiie Acee, a oaia?ue inoaeinue eeoue ianeieueei nio aieia.

E, ianiio?y ia io?aio, iini?iaia i?iaeieaeatho oie/oiaeaoue. Oeaeua
io?yaeu oi?ioi nia?yaeaiiuo ioioieeia i?i?uaathony /a?ac ei?aeiiu
caiiaaaeieeia e oaeaatho, oaeaatho ?iaaouo oienoieiaeeo, auetho neieueei
iiaoo. A 1958 aiaeo, iai?eia?, aieueoay aaiaea a?aeiiuea?ia i?eoea a
aeieeio ?aioe, iineaaeiaa oaaaeeua iaiaeueneeo iini?iaia, e ono?ieea
caeanue e?iaii?ieeoioth aieith: no?aeyee anyeiai iini?iaa, eioi?iai
oieueei aeaeaee, e oaeee iyouenio aeeaioiuo.

Aeaei a oii, /oi aei naiuo iaoeo aeiae, eioi?uie /aeiaa/anoai ioe?uaaao
einie/aneoth y?o, aua i/aiue iiiaea ethaee aa?yo a /oaeiaeaenoaaiioth
neeo iini?iaiaa ?iaa e ieaoyo ca iaai aieueoea aeaiueae. (Ii, e?iia
anaai i?i/aai, aoaeoi au aica?auaao e iieiaeinoue! Iiyoiio e oeaia oaeay
aieueoay: iiiaei eaaeaony aua, /oi thiinoue iiaeii eoieoue ca aeaiueae.)
Ia Noiao?a, iai?eia?, aieueoie ?ia noieo ouny/o ooioia noa?eeiaia, eae
ia?aieeanniue aaoiiiaeeue. Eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i oaeeo aeaiueaao,
iaeioi?ua ethaee oa?ytho aieiao e iieie, iiea ia ?acaeiaoaeoo eo, yoe
aeaiueae, aoeythuea a aeaeoiaeyo. Iiyoiio ieeaeay io?aia ia iiiiaaao.

Ia caiea ooeaeaei aua (iiea!) iyoue aeaeia iini?iaia: aeaa ao?eeaineeo,
aaeue e /a?iue, e o?e aceaoneeo — eiaeeeneee, yaaineee e noiao?aineee,
eee aeao?iaee aceaoneee. Aceaoneea iini?iae ioee/athony io ao?eeaineeo
oai, /oi o ieo oieueei ii iaeiiio ?iao ia iino, a o ao?eeaineeo ii aeaa.
Ii o noiao?aineiai oiaea aeaa. E?iia oiai, eiaea o aceaoneeo iini?iaia a
e?oiiuo neeaaeeao: aia/aoeaiea oaeia, aoaeoi aeeaioiia iaeaoi a
iaioee?ioth a?iith. O eiaeeeneiai iini?iaa aeaaea oaino, eiaaea i?eaeao,
aiauaaony oeaeeeii a inoaaeaiiia aeey iaai oaeoaeaiea a?iie. Eae o
/a?iiai iini?iaa Ao?eee, o iaai caino?aiiay iaaieueoei oiaioeii aa?oiyy
aoaa. Ii naiay caia/aoaeueiay aai /a?oa — caino?aiiua e oaeeeiaiiua
?acoeu ieaeiae /aethnoe. Aoaeoy, ii iau/ii eo ioneaao a aeaei, ?iaii
aueao ?aaea. Yoi e?oiiia aeeaioiia: aaneo aeaa oiiiu e aieueoa.
I?aaeii/eoaao oaaeeiaiea. O eaaeaeiai naiy no?iai io?aiyaiay oa??eoi?ey,
naie o?iiu ia iae e ianoaeua, aeaaea niaoeeaeueii eca?aiiua ianoa aeey
a?ycaauo aaii.

Aua ianeieueei noieaoee iacaae eiaeeeneea iini?iae aiaeeeenue anthaeo a
Eiaeee, a nae/an ooeaeaee oieueei a Annaia, Aaiaaeee e Iaiaea. A ia/aea
aaea a Annaia (i?iaeioeey Eace?aiaa) eo auei ieiei aethaeeiu, a a
Aaiaaeee e oiai iaiueoa.

A 1908 aiaeo a Eace?aiaa o/?aaeeee caiiaaaeiee. ?acia?u aai iaaaeeee: 30
eeeiiao?ia a aeeeio e ieiei 13 a oe?eio. Ii oniao aeaea i?aacioae anyeea
iaeeaeaiey: /enei iini?iaia ca aeaaaeoeaoue eao oaaee/eeinue aaeanyoa?i,
a a ni?ieiaua aiaeu eo auei oaea /aou?anoa! Caoai iie noaee aeaiooue io
eaeeo-oi ca?aciuo aieaciae, caianaiiuo aeiiaoiei neioii. Oae /oi oaia?ue
a Eace?aiaa ieiei 260 iini?iaia, a ai anae Eiaeee eo ieiei /aou?aonio.

E?iia Eiaeee, aieueoie aceaoneee iini?ia nio?aieeny eeoue a Iaiaea:
iaeie niaoeeaeenou ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi oai ieiei ouny/e yoeo aeeaioiuo,
ae?oaea — oieueei… iyoueaeanyo. Ii nei?aa anaai eo o?enoa, oae
iieaaatho yenia?ou Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nithca io?aiu i?e?iaeu

?aciua ciiia?ee ie?a iieo/eee iieiaeuo iini?iaia ec Eace?aiae. Iie
ia/aee ?aciiiaeaoueny a iaaiea. Aei yoiai a?aiaie, ii nouanoao, ie/aai
ia ciaee i ?aciiiaeaiee iini?iaia, oaia?ue ynii noaei: a?aee iie
caeeth/atho ?aiiae aaniie, e iinea yoiai aua ainaiiaaeoeaoue ianyoeaa
naiee iinyo aeaoaiuoae a naiai /?aaa.

ssaaineee iini?ia aiaoia iioiae ia eiaeeeneiai, ii iiiaiueoa aai. Anoue,
i?aaaea, iaeioi?ua ?acee/ey e a oi?ia ia?aaeieo neeaaeie eo eiaee e a
oii, /oi ?iaii ia iino aii?oaeaiu iau/ii oieueei naioeu. Aai iacuaatho
yaaineei, iioiio /oi nae/an ii aeeaao oieueei ia ssaa, ia iaeaiueeii
iieoino?iaa, eioi?ui eii/aaony caiaaeiay ie?aeia yoiai ino?iaa. A
eiaaea-oi, nioie eao iacaae, iaeoae ia oa??eoi?ee i/aiue iaoe?iie: io
Naaa?iie Eiaeee e THaeiiai Eeoay aei Noiao?u e ssau.

A ia/aea o?eaeoeaouo aiaeia ia iieoino?iaa, aaeeinoaaiiii ianoa, aaea,
ii-aeaeeiiio, ooeaeaee oaia?ue yaaineea iini?iae, aue o/?aaeaeai
caiiaaaeiee, a eioi?ii, e?iia iini?iaia, iniaaiii io?aiyee aua e oea?ia.
Iini?iaia caeanue nae/an, eae ooaa?aeaeatho, eeai aeaa aethaeeiu, eeai
iyoueaeanyo aieia (iineaaeiaa aa?iyoiaa). *eneaiiinoue eo aeecea e
e?eoe/aneiio o?iaith: neeoeii iaea aa?iyoiinoue eo ano?a/ a ii?o
?aciiiaeaiey, e iiyoiio iianathony, /oi, aiciiaeii, aeeaioiui ia
oaeanony iiiieieoue anoanoaaiioth oaueue ca n/ao iiai?iaeaeaiiuo e
iiaieiauea eo aoaeao ia aic?anoaoue, a oiaiueoaoueny.

O?aoee aceaoneee aeae, noiao?aineee aeao?iaee iini?ia, — naiue
iaeaiueeee ec anao: iau/ii ia auoa 120, ?aaea 150 naioeiao?ia. Ii oiaea
iaeoaao ia ia iaeiii eeoue ino?iaa, eiaiai eioi?iai iacaai. ?aiueoa aeee
aeao?iaee iini?ia e a Eiaeee e a Eeoaa, a nae/an, e?iia Noiao?u, — a
Ae?ia, Oaeeaiaea, Eaiaiaeaea, Eaina, Aueaoiaia, Iaeaea e ia Eaeeiaioaia.
Ii anthaeo — oieueei a i/aiue iaaieueoii /enea. A Ae?ia, iai?eia?, eae
iieaaatho, a 1959 aiaeo auei eeoue 40 iini?iaia yoiai aeaea, a anaai eo
ia Caiea ieiei 150.

A Ao?eea aeaea n iini?iaaie ianoiyo ianeieueei eo/oa. Ai anyeii neo/aa,
n /a?iui iini?iaii, eioi?ue aeiaieueii aua iau/iue caeanue caa?ue (ai
anae Ao?eea eo 12—13 ouny/) e ia iaai aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie ?ac?aoaee
aeaaea ioioo.

Aaeiai iini?iaa iacuaatho oae ia iioiio, /oi ii aaeue: o iaai oeo?a
a?ycii-na?ay, eae e o /a?iiai iini?iaa. Iaeie ciaoiee ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi
eiy «aaeue» iineo ii ii oie i?e/eia, /oi ii iau/ath anao iini?iaia
ethaeo aaeyoueny a a?yce, e eiaaea ooiaeeo iinea «aaiiu» e a?ycue ia iai
iiaenuoaao, oi auaeyaeeo ecaeaee naaoei-na?ui, ii/oe aaeui. *a?iue aea
iini?ia aoaeoi au aeeaao a aieaa eaniuo ?aeiiao e eeai oeaao a?yce oai
ae?oaie, eeai ii iaiueoa aaeyaony… Iaeiei neiaii, /a?iue iini?ia ia
oae /anoi iiaee?aoeaaaony.

Ae?oaea aiai?yo, /oi a?ycue caeanue ie i?e /ai: neiai «aaeue» iiyaeeinue
a ciieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a i iini?iaao ec-ca nicao/ey aiaeeeneeo neia
«oaeo» (aaeue) e «aaeae» (oe?ieee). Ao?u, aieeaiaeneea iinaeaioeu,
iacuaaee aaeiai iini?iaa Wijd, /oi cia/eo «oe?ieee»: o iaai aa?oiyy aoaa
i/aiue oe?ieay, iooiai e iicae?e ?annoaaeaiu cia/eoaeueii oe?a, /ai o
/a?iiai iini?iaa. Aieeaiaeneia Wijd i?aa?aoeeinue a aiaeeeneia Wide, a
caoai a White.

A 1900 aiaeo ciieiae n aieueoei niouaieai ociaee, /oi aaeua iini?iae
aiaeyony ia oieueei a THaeiie Ao?eea, e thao io Caiaace (oae aeoiaee),
ii e a o?ao ouny/ao eeeiiao?ia e naaa?o — a aieioao Aa?oiaai Ieea, a
Noaeaia.

Aaeue iini?ia — aoi?ie ii aaee/eia (iinea neiia) nooiiooiue caa?ue: iao?
ainaiueaeanyo — aai ?ino (ii auaatho e iiauoa!). Aan — o?e oiiiu e
aieueoa. Iaeei eeoue ?ia o iaai aeeeiie n iaaieueoiai /aeiaaea!

Ii caa?ue yoio i/aiue ?aaeeee. A 1920 aiaeo ia Caiea aeeei anaai eeoue
o?e ouny/e aaeuo iini?iaia: aeaaaeoeaoue oanoue a THaeiie Ao?eea,
inoaeueiua a Noaeaia. Neieueei eo nae/an?

«Red Data Book» — ecaeaiea, a eioi?ii aaaeaony o/ao en/acathueo
aeeaioiuo, — ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ii/oe /aou?a ouny/e: a THaeiie Ao?eea —
925, a Eiiai — 900, a Oaaiaea — 100 e a Noaeaia — 2000. Anee yoi oae, oi
aoi?ie oyaeaeiaan nooiiooiiai ie?a, iiaeaeoe, nianai. Ii iaaeieai ee?

Auaeeaaieth aaeuo iini?iaia ia aeaaii?eyonoaotho iaeioi?ua aeieiae/aneea
e yeieiae/aneea ianoiyoaeuenoaa. Oae i/aiue iaeay o ieo ieiaeiaeoinoue.
?iaeaeatho iaeiiai eeoue aeaoaiuoa (eae, ai?i/ai, e ana
iaia?iieiiuoiua). Yoi au aua ie/aai, ii aa?aiaiiinoue ?aei?aeii, iinea
neiia, aieueoay — 18 ianyoeaa. Aiae ei?ieo naiea iiai?iaeaeaiiiai
iieieii, a iioii aua ianeieueei eao ia iieeaeaao aai. Aaeua iini?iae
anyeeo ca?ineae ecaaaatho, i?aaeii/eoay ioe?uoua naaaiiu, e ei?i eo — a
iniiaiii o?aaa (ii yoie i?e/eia aoaeoi au e aoaa o ieo ieineay: /oiau
eo/oa o?aao ueiaoue. *a?iue iini?ia ano iiiai aaoie e eenoau, e
oaeeeiaiiie iaaieueoei oiaioeii aoaie n?uaaoue eo eaa/a). Ec ioe?uouo
noaiae ecaiiyao iini?iaia /aeiaae: e iaiano?aeueiui i?oaeeai e ?aniaoeie
iieae.

Ecaeaeaea, eae no?aonu, ia niiniaiu iini?iae caiaoeoue ioioieeia, iioiio
/oi aeaeyo ieioi (oioy iaiiyiea e neoo o ieo ioee/iua). Iaeioi?oth
iieueco a niunea noi?iaeaaie neoaeau iieo/atho iie io ae?oaeau n ci?eeie
e?aniieethauie ioeoeaie aooaaonaie, eioi?ua ethayo neaeaoue ia eo
oe?ieeo nieiao. Caiaoea a?aaa, aooaaonu e?e/ao, e iini?iae i?eieiatho
iaiaaeeaiiua ia?u i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoe.

Eae e ae?oaea aieueoea e neeueiua caa?e, o eioi?uo a i?e?iaea ia auei
a?aaia, iini?iae ieacaeenue niaa?oaiii ia i?eniiniaeaiiuie e yooaeoeaiie
iai?iia i?ioea iiaie iianiinoe, yaeaoaeny ia Ao?eeaineee eiioeiaio a
aeaea aaeiai no?aeea ni nia?oiiiniui i?oaeeai a ?oeao. Iniaaiii ia
o?aaiaeanue, iie iiaeioneatho no?aeea oaaia ia o?eaeoeaoue — ia aa?iue
auno?ae — e iaaeatho, iaoei n?aaeaiiua a aieiao eee na?aeoea. Anee
i?iiao eee ?aia ia nia?oaeueiay, iau/ii oaee?atho, ii auaaao e aoaeotho.
Ai?i/ai, aeiaieueii iaoi/ii: aeaeeo iini?ia ieioi, ia aaao iaiiai?ioeea,
e noieo ia aeaa oaaa ionei/eoue a noi?iio, eae any iaoeia ec iyna,
einoae e oienoie eiaee n ou?eaiueai «i?ii/eony ieii, a caoai inoaiiaeony
e aoaeao oaeeaeaiii ice?aoueny, eoaea aea aeaaaeny ioioiee». Ooo oae e
aoi?oth e o?aoueth ioeth iao?oaeii iineaoue a iini?iaa oi/ii a oaieiia
ianoi.

E nii o iini?iaia e?aieee, ia/ooeee. Ianaeneea iaeue/eoee a Na?aiaaoe,
?anneacuaaao A?aeeiae, o/eouaay yoo iaeoth aaeeoaeueiinoue niyuaai
iini?iaa, ea?atho a oaeoth ea?o. Iaeei oeoi iiaee?aaeaony e iini?iao e
iieiaeeo aio ia nieio eaiaiue. Aoi?ie aeieaeai iiaeieoe e yoio eaiaiue
caa?aoue. O?aoee e /aoaa?oue ia/eiatho ana nia/aea, e oae aei oao ii?,
«iiea iini?ia ia i?iniaony. Ea?a yoa ioithaeue ia aaciianiay, ii e ianae
ia o?oneeau».

Aoaeo iini?iaia e a?iaeaeaiiay eo i?eau/ea aea?aeaoueny iaeieo e oao aea
iano, eo eneeth/eoaeueiia «aeiiinaaenoai» (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay oa??eoi?ey
o /a?iiai iini?iaa — ieiei aeanyoe eaaae?aoiuo ieeue). Ia ionoothuea
caiee, aaea ia?aaeou ana iini?iae, |yoe oienoieiaeea ec ninaaeieo ?aaiei
ia ia?aoiaeyo ii naiae aeia?ie aiea. A eiaaea iaeoaaiua eie caiee
ii?aaeaao canooa e ana ae?oaea eiiuoiua aeeaioiua e, aeaaiia, neiiu
ooiaeyo eneaoue eo/oeo ianoaeu, iini?iae inoathony, aeaaea anee a ie?oaa
iao oaea ie eaiee aeaae.

Neiiu — aaeeinoaaiiua a naaaiia caa?e, niiniaiua, oa?iaeeai e oiaei
?uoue a caiea aeoaieea aiaaeeiu. A ieo iaaaaaao iinoaiaiii aiaea. Aa
iuetho iioii ana noaiiua /aoaa?iiiaea e ia?iaoua. Oae /oi oai, aaea
anoanoaaiiuo aiaeiiiaa iao, aeeciue aiciiaeia a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
aeaaiaea?y neiiai.

Iini?iae aeia?iaeooiu, oaa?yao A?aeeiae, oioy iiiaea aei iaai
ooaa?aeaeaee ia?aoiia, iaeaii iieaaay (eae iiaaaeae i oii Oaieiaoye),
/oi eneeth/eoaeueiay ?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoue iini?iaia i?ienoaeaao ii
i?e/eia aa/iuo caii?ia, eioi?ua io/atho oienoieiaeeo.

Aeieoi? A?aeeiae ?anneacuaaao: iieiaeua eueau ethayo, ea?ay, ae?acieoue
iini?iaia. Ie?oaeao oienoieiaeaai, oi iaeei, oi ae?oaie iiaeaaaeeo
ncaaee e, oaanenoi oeaiioa iini?iaa «ii caaeiaio ianoo», ionei/eo. Oio,
anoanoaaiii, aiciouai oaeie oaieeuey?iinoueth, e?ooi e a?icii
?acai?a/eaaaony, ii… ncaaee ieeiai iao: eueau i?eoaeeenue.

O eueaia ioiioaiey n iini?iaaie acaeiioaaaeeoaeueiua e aeiaieueii
ie?iua: cea ae?oa ae?oao iau/ii iie ia aeaeatho. Neii e iini?ia oiaea
niaethaeatho iaeo?aeeoao. Anee ano?aoyony ia oceie o?iia, oi iinea
iana?ueaciiai i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey n iaaeo noi?ii a aeaea oa?iaeathueo iic
ie?ii ?anoiaeyony. Iau/ii iini?ia ia?aui onooiaao neiio aei?iao. Ii
auaaao, /oi e neii.

Aua i oaeii eioa?aniii i?ienoanoaee n iini?iaaie ?anneacae A?aeeiae
(i?aaaea, n /oaeeo neia): caiaoeee o?ao iini?iaia, «ia nianai iau/iui
ia?acii auoiaeyueo ec eana e?aoa?a Iai?iiai?i. Iie oanii i?eaeeiaeenue
aieaie ae?oa e ae?oao». Yoi auee o?e naiee, e oa, eioi?oth,
iiaeaea?aeeaay n aieia, aaee iiae?oae, aeieaeia auea nei?i ?iaeeoue.
«Eiaaea iini?iae caiaoeee, /oi ca ieie iaaethaeatho, iie inoaiiaeeenue e
noaee ianoi?iaeaiii ice?aoueny. Ii iaeia ec naiie ana aea i?iaeieaeaea
?anoe?aoue aieiaie e ?iaii aie ?iaeaieoeu».

Oaie? — ?aeeeoiaue caa?ue

Ca iineaaeiea o?eaeoeaoue ieeeeiiia eao aiaoiinoue oaie?a ii/oe ia
eciaieeanue, e a iaoe aeie ii i/aiue iioiae ia ae?aaieo i?a?iaeeoaeae —
naieo e eioaaeeiuo. *ai-oi iaiiieiaao ii iini?iaa, ii /ai-oi e eioaaeue.
O oaie?a eiiuoa ia o?aoiaeuo (caaeieo) e /aou?aoiaeuo (ia?aaeieo) iiaao
— ii/oe eioaaeeiua (iioiaee aeaaea iee?ineiie/aneeie aeaoaeyie). E
iiciee anoue ia iiaao, ieaea eieoaaiai nonoaaa, noiaeea n eaooaiaie
eioaaeae. O aia?eeaineiai oaie?a iaaieueoay a?eaa ia oaa. Aieaa
iiaeaeaeiay, /ai o eioaaee, aa?oiyy aoaa auoyiooa a iaaieueoie oiaioie.
?iaeyony oaie?u a ia?yaea, a eioi?ii ?anoaaeeaaee, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?aaeee
iiiaeo caa?ae: naaoeua i?a?uaenoua iieinu oyioony ii oaiiiio oiio oeo?u
aaeieue io aieiau e oainoo. Oae aea ?anienaiu e iiae.

A aeieaaeieeiaia a?aiy aiaeeeenue oaie?u a Aa?iia, a Naaa?iie Aia?eea e
a Eeoaa. Ii iuia ooeaeaee eeoue a THaeiie Aia?eea (o?e aeaea) e a
THaeiie Acee (Iaeaey, Ae?ia, Oaeeaiae, Noiao?a) — iaeei aeae.

Oaie?ia iiiai aua a ieciaiiuo, caaiei/aiiuo eanao THaeiie Aia?eee.
Aonoua ca?inee, i?ioiaeeiua oieueei ii caiooaiiui o?iiai oaie?ia,
ne?uaatho yoeo ioaeeauo aeeaioiuo. Aieueoeo ?ae iie ia aiyony e ieaaatho
oi?ioi. Ii a aiaea e?ieiaeeeu ii?oyo ei aeeciue (e oeuiua ?uau ie?aee),
a ia aa?aao — yaoa?u e ioioieee ec eiaeaeneeo ieaiai.

O aceaoneiai oaie?a neiaii aaeue /ai?ae ia nieia. ?iaeeia aai — Ae?ia,
Eiaeieeoae e Noiao?a. A i?aae eaaeieeiaia a?aiy oaie?u aiaeeeenue e a
Aa?iia.

Iaeaoue aieaa aonoie oa?noueth ai?iue oaie? aeeaao auniei a Aiaeao
Eieoiaee, Yeaaaei?a e Ia?o. Eia-aaea oai aea, a oaeaea a ai?ao
Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee aua ia eno?aaeai oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeaineee oaie?.

A 1919 aiaeo ioaoe iaeaiioieiaee e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aeieiae/aneeo iaoe,
ciaiaieoue o?aioeocneee enneaaeiaaoaeue AEi?ae Ethauea ii?iiao/eai
cayaee, /oi, ii aai iiaieth, oaea ana e?oiiua aeeaioiua iaoeie ioe?uou.
A /a?ac ianeieueei eao aio i?eoeinue aeiaaaeoue a naith «Anoanoaaiioth
enoi?eth» iienaiea iiaiai aeaea e?oiiiai caa?y — /ai?a/iiai oaie?a,
eioi?iai niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiii iaoee aae?oa a eanao THai-Ainoi/iie
Acee. Aei yoiai ciieiae ciaee oieueei thaeiiaia?eeaineeo oaie?ia.

Ie?aoai /ai?a/iue oaie? ia ia?aue acaeyae neeoeii! caiaoii e y?ei.
Aieiaa, oay, oieea e iiae /a?iua, a any nieia, aiea, a?thoi, e?oi e
aaae?a a aa?oiae iieiaeia /enoi aaeua — neiaii aaeiniaaeiue /ai?ae
iaeeioo ia caa?y. Ianee?othuee yooaeo oaeie ie?anee ?acuyniyao aiaeiaey
n caa?ie: eiio?anoe?othuea oiia eae au ?an/eaiytho caa?y ia aanoi?iaiiua
iyoia, e i?eau/iua aeey aeac i/a?oaiey /aoaa?iiiaiai neeaathony n
ae?oaeie oeaaoiauie iyoiaie ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeu. Iniaaiii aeaenoaai
yoio iioe/aneee iaiai a eoiiii naaoa, ii/ueth, eiaaea oaie?u (e
aia?eeaineea oiaea) a iniiaiii e a?iaeyo ii eanai, ei?iynue eenoueyie,
aaoeaie e ni/iuie noaaeyie aieioiuo o?aa.

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