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Отряд ‘Насекомые’

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Eeann ianaeiiua (Insecta)

A eeann ianaeiiuo aeeth/atho anao o?aoaeiiaeuoaueo /eaienoiiiaeo,
eiathueo 3 ia?u iia. Eo i?eiyoi ?acaeaeyoue ia ia?ae/iiaane?ueuo e
e?ueaouo. Iaeiaei aeaoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey iniaaiiinoae no?iaiey,
?acaeoey e aeieiaee ia?ae/iiaane?ueuo, o. a. oaeeo oanoeiiaeo, i?aaeee
eioi?uo yaii oiaea ia eiaee e?ueueaa, iieacaee, /oi yoa a?oiia i/aiue
iaiaeii?iaeiay.

Iaeei io?yae oaeeo oanoeiiaeo — oae iacuaaaiua uaoeiioainoee (Thysanura)
— i/aiue aeecie ei anai «ianoiyuei» e?ueaoui ianaeiiui (iiaeeeann
ioe?uoi/aethnoiua—Insecta-Ectognatha). Inoaeueiua aea io?yaeu —
aannyaeeiauo (Protura), iiaioainoie (Collembola), aeeioainoie (Diplura)
— ii iiiaei aaaeiui i?eciaeai niaa?oaiii niaoeeoe/iu e caneoaeeaatho
auaeaeaiey a iiaeeeann ne?uoi/aethnoiuo (Insecta-Entognatha), eae yoi
caeeth/eee niaoeeaeenou, ianoaeaeaaoea aii?in i iecoeo ianaeiiuo ia
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiii yioiiieiae/aneii eiia?anna a Iii?aaea a 1956 aiaeo.
Eeann ianaeiiuo e?aoei iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii. Yoi
iacaiiua /eaienoiiiaea, o eioi?uo oaei yaii ?acaeaeaii ia aieiao,
a?oaeue e a?thoei, a iniiaiua, neoaeauea aeey ia?aaeaeaeaiey eiia/iinoe
iaoiaeyony a /enea 3 ia? ia a?oaeiii ioaeaea. Aeuoaiea inouanoaeyaony n
iiiiuueth o?aoaeiie nenoaiu eee eiaeiia — anae iiaa?oiinoueth oaea. Oa
ianaeiiua, eioi?ua aeuoao n iiiiuueth anae iiaa?oiinoe oaea e eiatho
i?iieoeaaiua aeey aeuoaoaeueiuo aacia e aeey enia?aiey iie?iau,
ia?aie/aiu a naiai ?ani?ino?aiaiee oieueei aeaaeiuie n?aaeaie. Iie
ano?a/athony a iniiaiii a ii/aa e a aiethueo inoaoeao i?aaieciia. Oa
aunoea ianaeiiua, o eioi?uo iie?iau iai?iieoeaaiu e ?acaeoa o?aoaeiay
nenoaia, iiaoo iaeoaoue e a nooeo n?aaeao. Yoe ianaeiiua oe?iei
?annaeeeenue ii iaoae ieaiaoa. Eiaiii oaeea, aaaeouea ioe?uoue ia?ac
aeecie e /anoi y?ei ie?aoaiiua aunoea ianaeiiua e ecaanoiu aieueoeinoao
/eoaoaeae. Eeann ianaeiiuo ?acaeaeyaony ia 2 iiaeeeanna — ianaeiiua
ne?uoi/aethnoiua (Insecta-Entognatha) e ianaeiiua ioe?uoi/aethnoiua
(Insecta-Ectognatha).

IIAeEEANN NE?UOI*AETHNOIUA IANAEIIUA(INSECTA-ENTOGNATHA)

Ia?aue iiaeeeann — ianaeiiua ne?uoi-/aethnoiua — iauaaeeiyao
n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoia /enei aeaeia (anaai ianeieueei ouny/)
i?eieoeaiuo ianaeiiuo, aaaeoueo, eae i?aaeei, ne?uoue ia?ac aeecie e
oanii naycaiiuo n ii/aie. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ia iau/ii iacia/eoaeueiay
aaee/eia, iyaeinoue e iaaeiinoue iie?iaia, naycaiiay n iaeoaieai ai
aeaaeiie n?aaea e ia?aaeei ni niiniaiinoueth e eiaeiiio aeuoaieth, a o
iiiaeo e ?acaeoea ia a?thoea aeaeaaoaeueiuo i?eaeaoeia. Iiaeeeann /aoei
?acaeaeyaony ia 3 ?acei ioee/athueony ae?oa io ae?oaa io?yaea
(aannyaeeiaua, iiaioainoee, aeaooainoee), ii iauei aeey anao
i?aaenoaaeoaeae iiaeeeanna yaeyaony oi, /oi ?ioiaua /anoe o yoeo
ianaeiiuo aoyioou a aieiaioth eainoeo (ioeoaea e iacaaiea
«ne?uoi/aethnoiua»). Oae eae e ii no?iaieth, e ii ia?aco aeecie e
cia/aieth yoe iaei eiio ec ianiaoeeaeenoia ecaanoiua aeeaioiua
nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io inoaeueiuo ianaeiiuo, oianoii nia?aa
iciaeiieoueny n ieie, a caoai aeaoue iauoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo oao
ianaeiiuo, eioi?ua ioiinyony e iaoe?iiio iiaeeeanno ioe?uoi/aethnoiuo, n
eioi?uie o eaaeaeiai /eoaoaey annioeee?oaony i?aaenoaaeaiea i ianaeiiuo.
Ii iiaieth iiiaeo niaoeeaeenoia, oieueei ioe?uoi/aethnoiuo ianaeiiuo
neaaeoao n/eoaoue ianaeiiuie, a io?yaeu aannyaeeiauo, iiaioainoie e
aeaooainoie ioaeii auaeaeeoue a naiinoiyoaeueiua eeannu eee a iaeei
eeann, ii ia n/eoaoue eo ianaeiiuie. Oae eae yoa oi/ea c?aiey ia
ieii/aoaeueii i?eiyoa ciieiaaie, iu aoaeai n/eoaoue yoe a?oiiu iniaui
iiaeeeannii eeanna ianaeiiuo.

IIAeEEANN IOE?UOI*AETHNOIUA, EEE IANOIssUEA, IANAEIIUA
(INSECTA-ECTOGNATHA)

Ec iauaai /enea aeaeia aeeaioiuo, ianaeythueo Caieth, ia aeieth
ianaeiiuo i?eoiaeeony ieiei 70%. *enei oaea iienaiiuo aeaeia
i?eaeeaeaaony e ieeeeiio, ii aaeaaiaeii niaoeeaeenou ioe?uaatho e
iienuaatho ana iiaua e iiaua ouny/e aeaeia, e, ii i?eiyoui a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iiaen/aoai, ia caiiii oa?a iaeoaao aieaa 2 ieeeeiiia ?acee/iuo
aeaeia ianaeiiuo. Iniiaiay ianna ianaeiiuo — iaeoaoaee nooe, e caeanue
ianaeiiua ?ani?ino?aiaiu iaiau/aeii oe?iei. Eneeth/eoaeueii aiaao e
?aciiia?acai ie? ianaeiiuo a o?iieeao. A o?iie/aneeo eanao aiaaonoai
aeaeaie iiiaeo a?oii ianaeiiuo, a oii /enea iaeaieaa a?inathueony a
aeaca, iai?eia?, aaai/ae, oae aaeeei, /oi eaa/a ano?aoeoue iiaue aeae,
/ai ae?oaie yecaiiey? oaea ano?a/aiiiai! A aieaa oia?aiiuo oe?ioao /enei
aeaeia ianaeiiuo ia oae aaeeei, ii caoi iauay eo ianna ia?iiia.
Aeaaeaiee A. E. Aa?iaaeneee, nicaeaoaeue iaoee aeiaaioeiee, ia?acii
iieacae, /oi, iai?eia?, aan iaeiie noae na?ai/e, iaeiaaeaeu ia?aeaoaaoae
/a?ac E?aniia ii?a a ia/aea iaoaai aaea, i?aauoae aan anao oeaaoiuo
iaoaeeia, aeeth/ay naeiaoe e iaaeue, auieaaeaiiuo /aeiaa/anoaii ca anth
enoi?eth aei yoiai aeiy! Ianaeiiua caoiaeyo auniei a ai?u. Eo iiaeii
ano?aoeoue ia ia?iiiuo aunioao. Iai?eia?, iaeeay aeoaeaeeoea Bembidion
bracculatum a Aeiaeayo ianaeyao oieueei iiyn io 4300 aei 5000 i,
i?eniiniaeaoenue e aeecie a yoeo no?iauo oneiaeyo, a anaai ec ciiu
aa/iiai niaaa a Aeiaeayo iienaii 25 aeaeia oieueei yoiai ?iaea
aeoaeaeeoe! Ianaeiiua ianaeytho e aaniethoii aacaiaeiua ionouie, oaeea,
eae, iai?eia?, ionouiy Iaiea a THaeiie Ao?eea, aaea ieeiaaea ia auaaao
ie eaiee aeiaeaey, aaea iao ieeaeeo ?anoaiee e aaea aeeaoo
aeoee-/a?iioaeee (Gonopus, Syntyphlus subterraneus), ieoathueany oieueei
i?eiineiuie ca nioie eeeiiao?ia ciieiui aao?ii inoaoeaie ?anoaiee,
ioeaaathueieny o iniiaaiee aa?oaiia. Iaiaoiaeeioth aeey aeecie aeaao
/a?iioaeee iieo/atho aeioeie/aneei iooai, eniieuecoy aiaeo, eioi?ay
ia?acoaony i?e ieeneaiee oaeaaiaeia nooie, iaaeinooiiie ae?oaei
i?aaieciai ieue! Iiiai ?acee/iuo ianaeiiuo iaeoaao a iaua?ao. Oai, aaea
iao, eaaeaony, ieeaeiai iinooieaiey i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, a ianoaiiaea
aa/iie oueiu, ano?a/athony neaiua i?aaenoaaeoaee yoie a?oiiu, /aua anaai
aeoee, eniieuecothuea oa ie/oiaeiua caianu ieue, eioi?ua oaeaaony
iouneaoue. Ia?aia iaua?iia ianaeiiia auei ioe?uoi a iaua?a Iinoieia ia
oa??eoi?ee THaineaaee — aeoe Leptodirus hohenwarti— a 1831 aiaeo, a n
oao ii? ec ?aciuo no?ai iienaia aiaaoay e oaeeaeoaeueiay oaoia
ianaeiiuo-o?iaeiaeiioia. I/aiue aeaeaei caoiaeyo ianaeiiua e a aunieea
oe?iou: ca iiey?iui e?oaii, ia ii/oe aieuo neaeao, iie?uouo aieueooth
/anoue aiaea niaaaie e eueaeii e eeoue ia i/aiue ei?ioeee ia?eiae
inaiaiaeaeathueony io ceiieo ieia, n?aaee eeoaeieeia e ioia iiaeii
ano?aoeoue iaeeeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoiai eeanna. Aeaaea ia ino?iaao
Aioa?eoeee iaaeaaii iaeaeaiu aane?ueua eiia?u-aea?aoiu, eae
aioa?eoe/aneee eiia? (Belgica antarctina) — ?iaee/ iaoaai iiouey,
e?aniua ee/eiee eioi?iai oi?ioi ecaanoiu ?uaieiaai e ethaeoaeyi
aeaa?eoiiuo ?ua. I?eniiniaeaoeany e iieaoo e?ueaoua ianaeiiua caaiaaaee
aicaeooioth n?aaeo — eo/oea eaooiu n?aaee ieo aeoeaii iiaeieiathony ia
aunioo ianeieueeeo nioai iao?ia (aeaoe?ueua, aaai/ee), ii iiaeii
ano?aoeoue ianaeiiuo e auoa, ia aunioa ianeieueeeo eeeiiao?ia. Nthaea
iie caiinyony ainoiaeyueie oieaie iaa?aaathuaainy o iiaa?oiinoe caiee
aicaeooa e caoai aao?ii ia?aiinyony ia ia?iiiua ?annoiyiey. A aunieeo
neiyo aoiinoa?u /aua ano?a/athony ia oi?ioi eaoathuea, a eaaei ia?yuea a
aicaeooa ianaeiiua — iaeeea iooee, a iniiaiii ceaeiaua iooee
(Agromyzidae), oee, o?einu. Ii ia oieueei e?ueaouo ianaeiiuo iiaeii
ano?aoeoue ia aunioa ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia e nioai iao?ia. Eaaeea
ieineea iaeaiueeea ee/eiee ueoiaie (Coccidae), naeoaaaiua ii?uaaie aao?a
n aaoaae aea?aaueaa, oiaea iiaeieiathony n iueueth auniei aaa?o e oae
?annaeythony. Aunieie niiniaiinoueth e ?annaeaieth ianaeiiuo iauyniyaony
oi, /oi ia anyeii ieaaie/aneii ino?iaea, oaeaeaiiii ca ouny/e eeeiiao?ia
io inoaeueiie nooe, iiaeii iaeoe ianaeiiuo. A ia iiaa?oiinoe nooe iie
canaeytho ana ?anoaiey, iiaeieiaynue e aa?oeiai naiuo aunieeo
aea?aaueaa. A o?iie/aneeo eanao Ao?eee, iai?eia?, anoue oaeea ianaeiiua,
eioi?ua aua iaaeaaii n/eoaeenue eneeth/eoaeueii ?aaeeeie, a ieacaeenue
iau/iuie, ii iinoiyiii iaeoathueie auniei a e?iiao aeaaioneeo
aea?aaueaa; iie iaaeinooiiu aeey nai?ia aac iiaea?iuo eanoieoe eee
aa?oieaoia. Ana o/anoee e?ii aea?aaueaa, aanue eiaa? o?aayienouo
?anoaiee, ioia e eeoaeieeia, any ii/aa ia aeoaeio oiai neiy, eoaea
i?iieeatho ei?ie ?anoaiee, e aeaaea aeoaaea inaaeaathony ianaeiiuie. A
Oo?eiaiee, iai?eia?, caeanieeneee oa?ieo (Anacanthotermes ahngerianus)
i?ieeaaeuaaao naie oiaeu ia aeoaeio aei 12 iao?ia! Iaeioi?ua ianaeiiua
i?eniiniaeeenue e aeecie a oeaiyo ?anoaiee, e ?acaeoeth a oaea ?acee/iuo
aeeaioiuo — io aoaie aei ieaeiieoathueo e /aeiaaea, e eniieueciaaieth
anaaiciiaeiuo i/aiue – niaoeeoe/aneeo ianoiiaeoaiee, naiuo ?aciuo
enoi/ieeia ieue. Ii niiniaiinoe aeeoue ia nooa a naiuo ?acee/iuo
oneiaeyo eeann ianaeiiuo ia eiaao naaa ?aaiuo e eiaiii aeaaiaea?y oiio,
/oi ioaeaeueiua aeaeu i?eniiniaeeenue e aeecie a naiuo ?aciuo, eiiaaea
iaaa?iyoiuo oneiaeyo (iai?eia?, ee/eiee iaeioi?uo ioo a ai?y/eo
enoi/ieeao eee a ianuuaiiuo nieaauo ?anoai?ao), ianaeiiua a i?ioeanna
naiae ao?iie yaiethoeee, i?iaeieaeathuaeny oaea ai anyeii neo/aa aieaa
200 ieeeeiiia eao, aeaee oi eneeth/eoaeueiia aiaaonoai aeaeia, eioi?ia
iaania/eaaao nia?aiaiiia i?ioeaaoaiea yoie a?oiiu /eaienoiiiaeo.

Io aeecie ia nooa iiiaea ianaeiiua ia?aoee e aeecie a aiaea. Oaea a
eaiaiiioaieueiii ia?eiaea iaeaicieneie y?u a aiaea ?acaeaaeinue aieueoia
eiee/anoai aeaeia ianaeiiuo, e a /anoiinoe auia?oee a eiioea yoiai
ia?eiaea io?yae iaeaiaeeeoeiioa? (Palaeodictyoptera), iaeioi?ua
i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?iai auee iiiai e?oiiaa, /ai naiua e?oiiua ec iuia
aeeaoueo ianaeiiuo (aei 60 ni). Caaiaaaee i?aniua aiaeiaiu e noaee
aiaeiuie a iieiii niunea neiaa, o. a. aeuoaueie ca n/ao oiai eenei?iaea,
eioi?ue ?anoai?ai a aiaea, oieueei ee/eiee ianaeiiuo, ac?ineay
ie?ueaiiay noaaeey eioi?uo niiniaia inoaaeyoue aiaeo. Anee aea ianaeiiia
e ai ac?ineii ninoiyiee aeeaao a aiaea, oi iii aeuoeo eenei?iaeii
aicaeooa, iiaeieiaynue e iiaa?oiinoe. Oieueei iaeioi?ua, eae iai?eia?
iaeeea (0,2 ii) iaacaeieee — ea?ao?aeoonu (Caraphractus) e i?anoae/ee
(Prestwichia aquatica) ?acaeaathueany a yeoeao aeoeia-ieaaoioeia, aaaeoo
ai ac?ineii ninoiyiee niaa?oaiii iiaeaiaeiue ia?ac aeecie. Iaeioi?ua
ianaeiiua, eae iai?eia? eeiiu-aiaeiia?ee (Hydrometridae e Gerridae),
aeeaoo ia iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu, aaaay ii iae, iooaeeeaaynue aeeeiiuie, eae
o iaoeia, iiaaie io ieaiee iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey. Aeeceea e iaoei
aiaeiia?eai i?aaenoaaeoaee naiaenoaa Halobatidae — ii?neea aiaeiia?ee —
aaaatho ii iiaa?oiinoe ii?ae, a Halobates micans a o?iie/aneii iiyna
iaeoaao a ieaaiao ca nioie eeeiiao?ia io aa?aaa. I?aaaea, iaeuecy
ii?neeo aiaeiia?ie iacaaoue ianoiyueie aiaeiuie ianaeiiuie— iie aeeaoo
ia iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu, ieoathony anieuaathueie o?oiaie aeeaioiuo, a yeoea
ioeeaaeuaatho ia ieaaathuea aiaei?inee, ia?uey ioeoe e aeaaea ia naaa
iiaeiaiuo. Ianoiyueo ii?neeo ianaeiiuo, ?acaeaathueony a ii?neie aiaea,
i/aiue iaei — iaiiiaei aieaa aeanyoea, ana ec io?yaea aeaoe?ueuo.
Oieueei iaeei aeae eiia?ia-aeieaiiiaeae (Limonia monostromia),
iaeoathuee o aa?aaia ssiiineeo ino?iaia, a oa/aiea anaai oeeeea ?acaeoey
ia inoaaeyao ii?y.

Ianaeiiua eae eeann noi?ie?iaaeenue ia nooa e i?ienoiaeyo io oaea
iacaiiuo iiiaiiiaeeiia?aciuo aeeaioiuo, yoei e iauyniyaony iaeia
eiee/anoai n?aaee ieo ii?neeo oi?i. I?e yoii ana ii?neea ianaeiiua —
i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeaieaa aunieii?aaieciaaiiuo io?yaeia. ?acia?u ianaeiiuo
aa?uee?otho a i/aiue oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao: naiua e?oiiua i?aainoiaeyo ii
aeeeia oaea naiuo iaeeeo i?eia?ii a 1000 ?ac. Naiua e?oiiua
i?aaenoaaeoaee nia?aiaiiuo ianaeiiuo — iaeoaoaee o?iieeia. N?aaee aeoeia
aeoe-aa?eoean (Dynastes hercules) e aeoe-neii (Megasoma elephas)
aeinoeaatho aeeeiu 12 ni; iaei/iee Phybalostoma cervicornis eiaao aeeeio
26 ni; oeuiue aiaeiue eeii Belostoma grande — 11,5 ni; oaeeii?yae
Attacus atlas a ?aciaoa e?ueueaa aeinoeaaao 24 ni, a aaai/ea Thysania
agrippina — 26 ni. Aeaaea a oaoia Aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee anoue e?oiiua
ianaeiiua. Iao aieueoie aeoaiaue ona/ (Cerambyx cerdo) aeinoeaaao aeeeiu
5 ni, aieueoie ii/iie iaaeeiee aeac (Saturnia pyri)—15 ni a ?aciaoa
e?ueueaa. Naiua aea iaeeea ec ianaeiiuo eiatho aeeeio iaiueoa 0,25 ii
(aeoee-ia?enoie?ueee — nai. Ptiliidae, iaacaeieee-yeoeaaaeu — nai.
Mymaridae). Oaeei ia?acii, naiua iaeeea ianaeiiua iaeue/a, /ai naiua
e?oiiua i?inoaeoea, a naiua e?oiiua — aieueoa, /ai naiua iaeeea
ieaeiieoathuea. Ianiio?y ia ia?iiiia ?aciiia?acea oneiaee e ia?aca
aeecie, ia eneeth/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey ?acia?ia e iaeeea aeaeia, /aua
anaai, oaeaeaa ianaeiiia, iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue, /oi yoi
ianaeiiia. Aeey ianaeiiuo oa?aeoa?ii oi, /oi oaei eo ?acaeaeaii ia 3
ioaeaea — aieiao, a?oaeue e a?thoei, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo auiieiyao
ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth. Ia aieiaa iaoiaeyony iniiaiua i?aaiu /oanoa,
iicaieythuea i?eaioe?iaaoueny a i?ino?ainoaa, e ?ioiaua i?aaiu — i?aaiu
caoaaouaaiey ieue. A a?oaeiii ioaeaea o ianaeiiuo nin?aaeioi/aiu
iniiaiua i?aaiu ia?aaeaeaeaiey — aeaeaaoaeueiua eiia/iinoe (iiae), a o
ac?ineuo aunoeo ianaeiiuo— e?ueuey. A?thoei — ioaeae, a eioi?ii
nin?aaeioi/aia iniiaiay ianna aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, aeeth/ay n?aaeithth e
caaeithth eeoeo, aee?iaia oaei, auaeaeeoaeueiua e iieiaua i?aaiu,
niaieoieoaeueiue aiia?ao eee yeoeaeeaae e o. ae. Oaeia aeaeaiea oaea ia
ioaeaeu oi?ioi i?ineaaeeaaaony o aieueoeinoaa ac?ineuo ianaeiiuo e
auaaao ia au?aaeaii eeai o ee/eiie, eeai o oaeeo ac?ineuo ianaeiiuo,
no?iaiea eioi?uo aoi?e/ii eciaieeinue iiae aeeyieai iaiiaeaeaeiiai eee
ia?aceoe/aneiai ia?aca aeecie. Aieiaa ia?acoaony ec 6 naaiaioia,
caeeaaeuaathueony o ca?iaeuoa, ii o noi?ie?iaaaoaainy ianaeiiiai
a?aieoeu naaiaioia aieiau ia aeaeiu — naaiaiou iieiinoueth neeaathony.

A?oaeiuo naaiaioia o ianaeiiuo anaaaea 3. Eaaeaeue a?oaeiie naaiaio
ianao ii ia?a iia, a o iiiaeo ianaeiiuo ei aoi?iio e o?aoueaio naaiaioai
i?e/eaiythony i?aaiu iieaoa — e?ueuey, i?aaenoaaeythuea ia eiia/iinoe, a
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua neeaaeee. A a?oaeiii ioaeaea nin?aaeioi/aia iniiaiay
aeaeaaoaeueiay ioneoeaoo?a ianaeiiuo. A?thoei o ianaeiiuo ia?acoaony ca
n/ao caeeaaeee ia aieaa 12 ca?iaeuoaauo naaiaioia, o aieueoeinoaa aunoeo
aeanyoue naaiaio yaeyaony iineaaeiei. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ia?aaeiea
a?thoiua naaiaiou neeaathony n a?oaeiui ioaeaeii, yanoaaiii ioaeaeyynue
io inoaeueiiai a?thoea ia?aoaaoii. Oaeie neo/ae iaaethaeaaony o
aeaeiiiniuo ia?aiii/aoie?ueuo, iai?eia? o i/ae. Aua ?aaea ano?a/aaony
neeyiea a?oaeiuo naaiaioia n aieiaie, eae yoi eiaao ianoi o naiie
aaa?ie?ueuo (Strepsiptera), ii a yoii neo/aa neeyiea naycaii n iauei
?aa?annii a ?acaeoee. Ia?oaeiue iie?ia o ianaeiiuo i?aaenoaaeai neiaeiie
eooeeoeie, auaeaeyaiie neiai ?aniieiaeaiiuo iiae iae eeaoie —
aeiiaea?iie. Eooeeoea iie?uaaao ia oieueei ioe?uoua o/anoee oaea, ii
aunoeeaao e ia?aaeiee ioaeae eeoa/ieea (?io, aeioeo, ieuaaiae),
caaeithth eeoeo, aeeaeaeoea e aeuoaeueoeai o/anoee o?aoaeiuo o?oaie. O
iacaiiuo ianaeiiuo a eooeeoea ?acee/athony i?eeaaathuee e aeeaui eeaoeai
aioo?aiiee neie — yiaeieooeeoea, i/aiue yeanoe/iay, ninoaaeythuay
iniiaioth /anoue oieue iaioee?y, neaaeothuay ca iae iaoaie/anee i?i/iay
yecieooeeoea e naiay ia?oaeiay, niaea?aeauay iiiai aee?iiiaeiaiuo e
aineiiiaeiaiuo aauanoa yieeooeeoea, eiathuay ie/oiaeioth oieueio —
iau/ii iaiaa 1 ie. Yieeooeeoea ia i?iioneaao aiaeo. Iia ia ?acaeaaaony o
aieueoeinoaa ee/eiie ianaeiiuo, iaeoathueo ai aeaaeiie ii/aa, a aiaea
eee a oeaiyo ?anoaiee. *ai nooa oa n?aaea, aaea aeeaao ianaeiiia, oai
yniaa o iaai au?aaeaia yieeooeeoea. Anoanoaaiii, /oi a eooeeoea,
aunoeeathuae eeoa/iee, iao iai?iieoeaaiiai neiy — yieeooeeoeu. Ia oaea
ianaeiiuo eooeeoea ?acaeoa ia?aaiiia?ii. Iniaaiii neeueii iia au?aaeaia
ia naaiaioao; iaaeaeo naaiaioaie iaoiaeeony iaaeiay ia?aiiiea, ninoiyuay
ec ai?acaei aieaa oiieeo yiaeieooeeoeu e yecieooeeoeu. Oae eae neeaaeee
ia?aiiiee iau/ii auaatho ne?uou iiae aieaa oieioiaiiuie ueoeaie, ia iae
yieeooeeoeu eiiaaea iao. Oieioiaiiua oienoua ueoee ia naaiaioao
iacuaathony neea?eoaie. Iie ?acaeou neeueiaa oai, aaea aieueoa o?aaoaony
caueoa io iia?aaeaeaiee, e oai, aaea i?ee?aieythony iuooeu. Neea?eou
ooeiaeua o ianaeiiuo ?aniieiaeaiu neiiao?e/ii n i?aaie e eaaie noi?ii,
ii ia nieiiie noi?iia i?aaue e eaaue neea?eou /anoi neeaathony, ia?acoy
aaeeiue ueoie — oa?aeo. Neea?eou ii aieai oaea iacuaathony ieae?eoaie, a
ia a?thoiie noi?iia — noa?ieoaie. Aieiaa o ianaeiiuo ii/oe anaaaea
neeueii neea?ioeciaaia, /anoi neeueiaa, /ai ae?oaea ioaeaeu. Yoi
iauyniyaony oai, /oi i?i/iay nieioiay aieiaiay eainoea o ianaeiiuo
neoaeeo ianoii i?ee?aieaiey iiuiie /aethnoiie ioneoeaoo?u. Aniiiiei, /oi
aicieeiiaaiea /a?aiiie ei?iaee e o iicaiii/iuo auei naycaii n yoie aea
ooieoeeae. Neeyiea naaiaioia, ec eioi?uo ninoieo aieiaa, ianoieueei
aaeeei, /oi o noi?ie?iaaaoaainy ianaeiiiai ieeaeeo neaaeia a?aieoe
naaiaioia iao. Oau, eioi?ua iaaethaeathony ia aieiaa,— yoi ia a?aieoeu
naaiaioia, a eeai ianoa i?ee?aieaiey iuooe, eeai oa eeiee, ii eioi?ui
eaeao ?ano?aneeaaiea /a?aiiie eainoeu i?e eeiueea. Ii i?e eco/aiee
yia?eiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey ianaeiiuo onoaiiaeaii, /oi aieiaa o ieo
ia?aciaaia ca n/ao 6 ca?iaeuoaauo naaiaioia. Ia?aiio naaiaioo
niioaaonoaotho aeaca, aoi?ie naaiaio ianao oneee, o?aoee naaiaio
(«anoaai/iue») ia ianao i?eaeaoeia e neeaaaony ni aoi?ui, ia /aoaa?oii,
iyoii e oanoii naaiaioao ?acaeaathony ia?iua /anoe ?ioiaiai aiia?aoa —
aa?oiea /aethnoe (aeaaeu, eee iaiaeeaoeu), ieaeiea /aethnoe (iaeneeeu) e
ieaeiyy aoaa. Yoe ?ioiaua /anoe o ca?iaeuoa caeeaaeuaathony oi/ii oae
aea, eae caeeaaeuaathony iiae ia neaaeothueo naaiaioao oaea. Yoi aeaao
iniiaaiea n/eoaoue ?ioiaua /anoe ianaeiiuo eiia/iinoyie, aioaaeoeie a
ninoaa ?ioiaiai aiia?aoa. *oi eiia/iinoe iiaoo aoiaeeoue a ninoaa
?ioiaiai aiia?aoa, oi?ioi aeaeii ia i?eia?a aoaiiiaeo iiiaiiiaeae, o
eioi?uo ia?aay ia?a ooeiaeuiuo iia, nio?aiyy aua oeie/iia aeey iia
?an/eaiaiea, noaea aeaenoaiaaoue a nouiinoe eae iaiaeeaoeu. Oi, /oi
aieiaiay eainoea eiaao cia/aiea eae ianoi i?ee?aieaiey iuooe,
aeieacuaaaony oai, /oi, iai?eia?, o ee/eiie ioo, ieoathueony oaea
iieiinoueth ia?aaa?aiiie ieuae, aieiau iao.

Aeaca o ianaeiiuo auaatho aeaoo oeiia — oanaoi/iua, eae e o aunoeo
?aeiia?aciuo, e i?inoua. Oanaoi/iua aeaca anaaaea ?aniieaaathony ii
aieai aieiau e naienoaaiiu aieueoeinoao ac?ineuo ianaeiiuo. Eiiaaea iie
caieiatho aieueooth /anoue iiaa?oiinoe aieiau e o iiiaeo oi?ioi
eaoathueo ianaeiiuo /enei oanaoie a ieo ia?iiii. O no?aeic, iai?eia?, a
neiaeiii aeaco auaaao aei 28 000 oanaoie, o aaai/ae — aei 17 000, o
eiiiaoiie iooe — 4000. O aeaeia ianaeiiuo, ?aciua iniae eioi?uo aaaeoo
iaiaeeiaeiaue ia?ac aeecie, iiaeii iaaethaeaoue caaeneiinoue neiaeiinoe
oanaoi/iiai aeaca io aeieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae. Iai?eia?, o
io?aauey-ai?a (Solenopsis fugax) aane?ueua ?aai/ea iniae, aeeaouea a
oiaeao ii/au, eiatho aeaca, ninoiyuea ec 6—9 oanaoie. A aeacao naiie,
eaoathueo ai a?aiy ?iaiey, oanaoie ieiei 200, a o naioeia, eioi?ua ai
a?aiy iieaoa aeieaeiu iaeoe e iiiciaoue naiie naiaai aeaea, a aeaco
nauoa 400 oanaoie. O iaeioi?uo ?aai/eo io?aaueaa (?inara punctissima) a
eaaeaeii aeaco ii iaeiie oanaoea. O ee/eiie ianaeiiuo n iieiui
i?aa?auaieai e o oaeeo ia?aceoe/aneeo oi?i, eae aoe, a oaeaea o ee/eiie
ueoiaie (Nincidae) ia ianoa neiaeiuo aeac ?acaeaathony aieiaua i?inoua
aeacee. Eiiaaea i?inouo aeaceia auaaao iiiai (aieaa 30 o ee/eiie
nei?ieiiieoe) e iie auaeyaeyo eae oanaoi/iue aeac. Iaaeaeo oanaoi/iui
aeacii e neiieaieai aeaceia iniiaiay ?acieoea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
eaaeaeue i?inoie aeacie eiaao naith eooeeoey?ioth ?iaiaeoeo, a a
oanaoi/iii aeaco ana iiiaoeaeee, o. a. ioaeaeueiua aeacee neiaeiiai
aeaca, eiatho iauoth ?iaiaeoeo. Ia?yaeo ni neiaeiuie aeacaie o iiiaeo
oi?ioi eaoathueo ianaeiiuo eiaaony ii 3 eee 2 i?inouo aeacea,
?aniieiaeaiiuo iaaeaeo neiaeiuie aeacaie ia eao.

Oneee (eia/a iacuaaaiua aioaiiaie) o ianaeiiuo ?aniieaaathony a
ia?aaeiae /anoe aieiau. Aa?eaoeee no?iaiey oneeia o ianaeiiuo iaaa?iyoii
oe?iee, ii, eae i?aaeei, oeaeua naiaenoaa, iiaeio?yaeu eee io?yaeu
ianaeiiuo oa?aeoa?ecothony oie eee eiie ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iie oneeia.
Iau/ii oneee ninoiyo ec aieueoiai /enea /eaieeia, ii eiiaaea iie
ei?ioeea e /eaieeia a ieo iaiiiai — o ioo e no?aeic, iai?eia?, a oneeao
anaai ii 3 /eaieea, a o iiiaeo ee/eiie, iai?eia? o ee/eiie aeieaiiineeia
e ?o/aeieeia, aianoi oneeia eiathony oieueei aaeaa caiaoiua
?oaeeiaioa?iua niai/ee, o ee/eiie ioo oneeia iao. O aeoeia oneee iau/ii
11-/eaieeiaua, o a ia?aiii/aoie?ueuo iie ninoiyo ec 12—13 /eaieeia.
Eiiaaea /enei /eaieeia a oneeao auaaao i/aiue aaeeei, oae eae /anoi
enoiaeiua /eaieee ?aniaaeathony ia iiiaeanoai eieaoe. O oaeeo ianaeiiuo,
eae, iai?eia?, eocia/eee e iaeioi?ua aeoee-ae?iainaee, oneee auaatho
aeeeiiaa oaea. ?acee/atho iiiai oi?i oneeia. Noaeathueany ?aaiiia?ii e
aa?oeia iacuaathony uaoeieiaeaeiuie (eae o oa?aeaia). Oneee ieoaaeaeiua,
anee ana /eaieee iaeeiaeiaie oieueiu e eaaeaeue /eaiee oeeeeiae?e/aneee.
I?eia?ii iiaoo neoaeeoue oneee aeoaeaeeoe. Anee o /eaieeia oneeia
na?aaeeia oneea oieua, /ai iniiaaiea e aa?oeia, oneee /aoeiaeaeiua, eae
o oa?ieoia. O oaeeo aeoeia, eae uaeeoiu, oneee a?aaai/aoua. Anee io
eaaeaeiai /eaieea oneeia a iaa noi?iiu iooiaeeo ii oiieiio au?inoo,
oneee ia?enoua, eae o ii/iuo aaai/ae-oaeeii?yaeia. Auaaao, /oi onee ia
aieueoae /anoe naiae aeeeiu aieaa eee iaiaa iaeeiaeiaie oieueiu, a o
aa?oeiu ?anoe?yaony — yoi aoeaaiaeaeiue onee (o aeiaaiuo aaai/ae). Anee
ia?aue /eaiee oneea aeeeiiue, a iineaaeothuea ?aniieaaathony iiae oaeii
e iaio, oneee eieai/aoua. Eiiaaea o eieai/aouo oneeia auaaao aoeaaa,
ninoiyuay ec aaa?iia?acii neiaeaiiuo ieanoeiie (ieanoei/aoionua aeoee)
eee ec a?aaaoeia (aeoe-ieaiue). Auaatho ?acee/iie oi?iu iai?aaeeueiua
oneee, eiiaaea n i?e/oaeeeauie au?inoaie, eae o aeoea-ia?uaieea ec ?iaea
Cerocoma. ?ioiaie aiia?ao aeeth/aao 3 ia?u i?eaeaoeia, ?acaeaathueony
eae eiia/iinoe. Iaeaieaa oi?ioi au?aaeaiu ana ?ioiaua /anoe o
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aieaa ae?aaieo a?oii ianaeiiuo, eiathueo a?ucouee
?ioiaie aiia?ao, i?e ieoaiee ioa?ucathueo oaa?aeua eoni/ee ieue Oaeiau
oa?aeaiu, na?ai/iaua e iiiaea ae?oaea. Ia?aay ia?a /aethnoae — aa?oiea
/aethnoe o anao ianaeiiuo ninoieo ec oeaeueiuo, ia?an/eaiaiiuo ieanoeiie
(aeaae). Ii oi?ia aeaae auaaao aeiaieueii eaaei onoaiiaeoue, eaeie ieuae
ieoathony ianaeiiua. O iio?aaeoaeae ?anoeoaeueiie ieue iiaa?oiinoue
aa?oei aeaae oe?ieay, cacoa?aiiay, i?eniiniaeaiiay e io?uaaieth oaa?aeuo
oeaiae, a o iniiaaiey aeaae oe?ieay aoai?/aoay ia?aoe?athuay
iiaa?oiinoue — iieiay aiaeiaey ?acoeai e ei?aiiui coaai o?aaiyaeiuo
ieaeiieoathueo. Oaeea aeaaeu — o na?ai/iauo, aonaieoe, iiiaeo aeoeia. A
o oeuieeia, oaeeo, eae aeoee-neaeoiu, ee/eiee ceaoiaeacee e ae?., aeaaeu
na?iiaeaeii eciaiooua n ino?uie eiioeaie. Oaeea aeaaeu aiaeiae/iu
na?iiaeaeii eciaiooui eeueai oeuiuo ieaeiieoathueo — eeueai,
i?eniiniaeaiiui e i?iicaieth oaea aeiau/e e ?ac?uaaieth aai.
AEoee-neaeoiu ii-aiaeeenee iaaea?ii aeaaea iacuaathony tigerbeetles —
«aeoee-oea?u» — e ca oeuiue ia?ac aeecie, e ca noiaenoai eo iaiaeeaoe n
eeueaie naaeacoaiai oea?a. Oae oa?aeoa? ieue iaeeaaeuaaao ioia/aoie ia
no?iaiea aa?oieo /aethnoae, ea?athueo iaeaieaa ioaaonoaaiioth ?ieue a
a?ucouai ?ioiaii aiia?aoa. Iaiaeeaoeu auaatho i/aiue i?i/iuie.
Aeinoaoi/ii neacaoue, /oi ecaanoiu neo/ae, eiaaea ee/eiee caieyiuo
ona/ae iia?aaeaeaee naieie iaiaeeaoeaie naeioeiaoth iaiei/eo iiaecaiiiai
yeaeo?e/aneiai eaaaey, a aeoee-ei?iaaeu e oi/eeueueee eaaei
i?ieeaaeuaatho oiaeu a oaa?aeie ae?aaaneia aeoaa. O oeuiuo ee/eiie
aeoeia-ieaaoioeia na?iiaeaeiua iaiaeeaoeu neoaeao ia oieueei aeey
i?ieaeuaaiey aeiau/e. A eaaeaeie iaiaeeaoea o ieo anoue aeaeiaie, /a?ac
eioi?ue ee/eiea nia?aa aaiaeeo ieuaaa?eoaeueiua niee a oaei aea?oau, a
caoai, eiaaea aioo?e oaea noaa/aiiiai aeeaioiiai aaeee aai iuooe
?acaeeaeathony e ia?aaa?eaathony ai?unioouie oa?iaioaie, ee/eiea
ieaaoioea ananuaaao iieo/athuothny ia?aaa?aiioth eaoeoeo /a?ac yoe aea
eaiaeu. Neaaeothuay ia?a /aethnoae — ieaeiea /aethnoe — o ianaeiiuo n
a?ucoueie ?ioiauie /anoyie i?aaenoaaeyao /eaienoua ia?aciaaiey. Eaaeaeay
/aethnoue ninoieo ec iniiaiiai /eaieea, noaieeea e ia aa?oeia ianao aeaa
aeaaaoaeueiua eiianoeiee — aioo?aiithth e ia?oaeioth. *anoi iie
neeaathony aianoa eee iaeia ec ieo iaaei?acaeaaaony. Io noaieeea
iooiaeeo e /eaienoue /oanoaothuee i?eaeaoie — uoiee. Uoieee eiiaaea
iioiaee ii no?iaieth e ooieoeee ia oneee (iai?eia?, o ee/eiie
aeoaeaeeoe), eiiaaea oeaeeeii ?aaeooee?othony (o no?aeic, ee/eiie
nao/aoie?ueuo).

I?eioeeieaeueii oae aea ono?iaia e ieaeiyy aoaa o ianaeiiuo, eioi?ay
?acaeaaaony ec aeaoo ca/aoeia eiia/iinoae, n?anoathueony caoai iiae
?ioiaui ioaa?noeai oae, /oi ec /anoae, niioaaonoaothueo iniiaiui
/eaieeai, ia?acoaony iaia?iue iiaeiiaeai??aeie, a ec noaieeeia —
iiaeai?iaeie. AEaaaoaeueiua ieanoeiee ieaeiae aoau ia n?anoathony, a
ia?acotho ycu/ee e i?eaeaoi/iua ycu/ee. Eiiaaea ieaeiyy aoaa noaiiaeony
iniiaiui oaaoaoaeueiui aiia?aoii, auiieiyy oaeoth ?ieue, eae
iai?aaeaiiua aia?aae iaiaeeaoeu o iiiaeo oeuiuo ee/eiie. Yoi oa?aeoa?ii
aeey ee/eiie no?aeic. A ?yaea neo/aaa ?ioiaie aiia?ao nio?aiyao oeie/iia
aeey a?ucouaai oeia no?iaiea, a ooieoeeiie?oao eae ninouee, i?e/ai eaiae
aeey aaaaeaiey a oaei aeiau/e oa?iaioa ia?acoaony ia aioo?e iaiaeeaoeu,
a o?oaeiia?aciui i?inaaoii iaaeaeo iaiaeeaoeie e niioaaonoaothuae
iaeneeeie. Oaeea eaiaeu eiathony o ee/eiie io?aaueeiiai eueaa, ee/eiie
naaoeyeia. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa a ninoaa a?ucouaai ?ioiaiai aiia?aoa
aoiaeyo ia oieueei 3 ia?u eiia/iinoae, ii e i?ee?uaathuay ?ioiaia
ioaa?noea naa?oo iaia?iay neeaaeea iie?iaia — aa?oiyy aoaa, iiaeaeaeii
ni/eaiaiiay n ia?aaeiei ioaeaeii aieiaiie eainoeu. O ee/eiie aeoeia,
i?ieeaaeuaathueo oiaeu iai?aaeaiiie aia?aae aieiaie, aa?oiyy aoaa /anoi
?aaeooee?iaaia (ee/eiee uaeeoiia, aeoaeaeeoe). A ?ioiaie aiia?ao aoiaeyo
oaeaea iaia?iua ooieuaiiua /anoe noaiie ?ioiaie iieinoe — iaaeaeioi/iee,
/anoi neeaathueeny n aa?oiae aoaie, e iiaeaeioi/iee, iiaeoiaeyuee e
na?aaeeia ieaeiae aoau. O oao ianaeiiuo, eioi?ua aeiauaatho ieuo
aunanuaay niee ec oeaiae ?anoaiee eee aeeaioiuo, ?ioiaua /anoe
i?aia?acothony a eiethua-ninouee aiia?ao — a oiaioie. O
iieoaeanoeie?ueuo, iai?eia?, auoyiooay ieaeiyy aoaa i?aa?auaaony a
o?oa/aoue oooey? ni ni?yoaiiuie aioo?e niiniaiuie auaeaeaaoueny
eiethueie uaoeieaie, a eioi?ua i?aa?aoeeenue aa?oiea e ieaeiea /aethnoe.
O eiia?a eiethueie uaoeieaie noaiiayony e ae?oaea /anoe ?ioiaiai
aiia?aoa — iiaeaeioi/iee e aa?oiyy aoaa n iaaeaeioi/ieeii. AEeaeeay ieua
(niee ?anoaiee, e?iaue) iinooiaao ec ?aiee a ?io ianaeiiiai ii
eaieeey?ai, ia?aciaaiiui nii?eeanathueieny eiethueie uaoeieaie, eee ii
aeaeiaeai a ieo. O aaai/ae, ninoueo iaeoa? (/oi ia o?aaoao i?ieaeuaaiey
oaa?aeuo oeaiae), ?acaeaaaony oiaioie, ninoiyuee ec neiaeaiiuo, i/aiue
neeueii auoyioouo ieaeieo /aethnoae. Aa?oiea /aethnoe iieiinoueth
en/acatho, ieaeiyy aoaa i?aaenoaaeaia iaeaiueeie ieanoeieie, io eioi?ie
iooiaeyo oi?ioi ?acaeoua ieaeiaaoaiua uoieee, auiieiythuea ooieoeeth
i?aaiia oeie/aneiai /oanoaa.

Iienaiea anao oao i?aia?aciaaiee, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?iu aeey ?ioiaiai
aiia?aoa ?aciuo ianaeiiuo, o?aaoao ianeieueeeo niaoeeaeueiuo oiiia.
Ioiaoei oieueei, /oi eiiaaea ?ioiaua /anoe n oo?aoie iio?aaiinoe a ieo
neeueii eee oeaeeeii ?aaeooee?othony. Iineaaeiaa iaaethaeaaony o ee/eiie
iiiaeo ioo, aeeaoueo a oii aauanoaa, eioi?ia neoaeeo ei ieuae (iai?eia?,
ee/eiee iyniuo ioo Calliphora a o?oiao aeeaioiuo); iie ?acaeeaeatho
ieuo, io?uaeaay ieuaaa?eoaeueiua niee ia?oaeo. Ieua ia?aaa?eaaaony
ee/eieie aia i?aaiecia e ananuaaaony a aeeaeeii eaaei onaaeaaaiii aeaea.
O oaeeo ee/eiie aianoi 3 ia? /aethnoae inoaaony oieueei ia?a ?ioiauo
e?th/eia, iiiiaathueo i?e iiecaiee. Ia ?acaeaathony ?ioiaua i?aaiu e o
iiiaeo ac?ineuo iaieoathueony e?ueaouo ianaeiiuo (iiaeaiee, naioeu
ueoiaie, naioeu aaai/ae-/aoeiiinie).

O anao ianaeiiuo ca aieiaie neaaeoao a?oaeue. Eiiaaea aieiaa iacaiaoii
ia?aoiaeeo a a?oaeue, oe?iei n iae nii?eeanaynue, eiiaaea auaaao
ioaeaeaia oiieei ia?aoaaoii. Aieueoeinoai ianaeiiuo iiaeao aeaeaaoue
aieiaie oieueei naa?oo aiec eee iaeeiiyy aa a noi?iiu, e oieueei
aiaiiieu (Mantodea) iiaoo iiai?a/eaaoue aieiao, eae yoi aeaeaai iu.
A?oaeue ninoieo ec ia?aaeia-, n?aaeia- e caaeiaa?oaee. O
ia?ae/iiaane?ueuo naaiaiou a?oaee iiaeaeaeiu ae?oa ioiineoaeueii ae?oaa,
a a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa i?ienoiaeeo neeyiea n?aaeia- e caaeiaa?oaee a
aaeeiia oeaeia. ?acaeoea ioaeaeueiuo naaiaioia a?oaee caaeneo io noaiaie
o/anoey ?aciuo aa i?eaeaoeia a aeaeaeaiee. O ac?ineuo ianaeiiuo eaaeaeue
ec naaiaioia a?oaee ianao ii ia?a eiia/iinoae, ninoiyueo ec neaaeothueo
ioaeaeia: oacee, aa?oeoa (o iaeioi?uo ia?aiii/aoie?ueuo ii aeaieiie —
anoue aua aa?oeoaeie), aaae?i, aieaiue e eaeea. *enei /eaieeia eaiee
auaaao 1—5, ii ia aieaa 5. Anee ana ia?u iia ?acaeou iaeeiaeiai,
eiia/iinoe iacuaathony oiaeeeueiuie eee aaaaoaeueiuie (iaei/ieee,
aeoee-aeoaeaeeoeu). Oaeea eiia/iinoe i?eniiniaeaiu e aaao ii oaa?aeie
iiaa?oiinoe. Eiiaaea «oaa?aeay» iiaa?oiinoue iiaeao auoue e i/aiue
cuaeie — aniiiiei aiaeiia?ie, o eioi?uo ia eaieao auaeaeyaony aee?iaie
neie, i?aiyonoaothuee nia/eaaieth e i?i?uao iiaa?oiinoiie ieaiee aiaeu.
I?e iaeoaiee a o?aaa eee eenoaa aea?aaueaa iiiai i?aeiouanoa aeaao
aeaeaeaiea neeueiuie i?uaeeaie. I?e i?uaeea iaeaieueoee yooaeo
iaania/eaaao auno?ia ?ani?yieaiea caaeieo eiia/iinoae, oieeathueo oaei
aia?aae (yoi iaaethaeaaony e o /aoaa?iiiaeo: eyaooea, cayoe, oooeai/ee
eiatho aieaa ?acaeoua caaeiea eiia/iinoe, /ai ia?aaeiea). O iiiaeo
ianaeiiuo, ia?aaeaeaathueony oaeei ia?acii, neeueii oaeeeiaiiua iiuiua
aaae?a e aeeeiiua aieaie caaeieo iia. Oaeea caaeiea iiae, eae o
na?ai/iauo, eocia/eeia, aeoeia caieyiuo aeioae, eeiiia-i?uaoiia
(Halticus), iacuaathony i?uaaoaeueiuie. AEeciue ac?ineuo ianaeiiuo a
ii/aa i?eaiaeeo e oneeaieth cia/aiey ia?aaeieo iia i?e aeaeaeaiee — e
?acaeoeth ?ithueo eiia/iinoae, oa?aeoa?ecothueony ?anoe?aieai
eiiaoiia?aciuo aieaiae (o iaaeaaaeie, o thaeiiaia?eeaineeo
oeeeeiae?ioao, aeoeia-ea?aioceeia e ae?.). O oao ianaeiiuo, eioi?ua
ia?aaeieie iiaaie eiayo aeiau/o, aaae?a e aieaie ia?aaeieo iia
oaeeeiaiiua, n oeiaie ia noi?iiao, naeeaeaaiuo i?e neeaaeuaaiee; oaeea
iiae iacuaathony oaaoaoaeueiuie (o iaioeni, aiaiiieia). O ianaeiiuo,
ia?aoaaeoeo e aeecie a aiaea, iiae /anoi auaatho n oaeeeiaiiuie ieineeie
aieaiyie, iie?uouie aeeeiiuie aieineaie. Oaeea ieaaaoaeueiua iiae
?aaioatho eae aanea. ?aaeoeoeey iia o ac?ineuo ianaeiiuo iaaethaeaaony
i?e ia?aoiaea e iaiiaeaeaeiiio ia?aco aeecie e iiaeao auoue iieiie (o
ianoiyueo ueoiaie — Diaspinae). O ee/eiie iiiaeo ianaeiiuo oo?aoa
eiia/iinoae auaaao naycaia n i?eniiniaeaieai e /a?aaia?aciiio
ia?aaeaeaeaieth a ii/aa e a noiaeiuo noano?aoao (iai?eia?, o ee/eiie
aeaoe?ueuo, aeieaiiineeia e ae?.). O ianaeiiuo n iieiui i?aa?auaieai
(aeoee, nao/aoie?ueua), anee ee/eiee aeaaea eiatho ?acaeoua aaaaoaeueiua
iiae, iie ieeiaaea ia eiatho oaeiai iieiiai ?an/eaiaiey, eae o ac?ineuo
oi?i,— /anoi i?ienoiaeeo neeyiea aieaie e eaiee (ia?acoaony
aieaiaeaiea), eaiea anaaaea iaeii/eaieeiaay e eiaao iaeei eiaioie
(eiiaaea aeaieiie). Eiiaaea iiae o ee/eiie nio?aiythony oieueei a aeaea
iaeii/eaieeiauo ia?aciaaiee (iai?eia?, o ca?iiaie).

Aeey aunoeo ianaeiiuo oa?aeoa?ia niiniaiinoue e aeoeaiiio iieaoo n
iiiiuueth e?ueueaa. E?ueuey ?acaeaathony iieiinoueth oieueei i?e
ia?aoiaea ianaeiiiai ai ac?ineia ninoiyiea, a caeeaaeuaathony eae
ieineea eenoiaeaeiua auiy/eaaiey iie?iaia n?aaeia- e caaeiaa?oaee. Yoi
auiy/eaaiea ?ac?anoaaony, aai i?ioeaiiieiaeiua noaiee ieioii
naeeaeathony, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ia?acoaony yeanoe/iay ieanoeiea,
oe?aieaiiay aeeeeaie, i?aaenoaaeythueie niaie caoaa?aeaaoea o/anoee oao
iooae, ii eioi?ui ai a?aiy oi?ie?iaaiey e?uea a iaai iaaiaoaeanue
aaiieeioa, ?ani?aaeyy e?ueiaoth ieanoeieo. AEeeee ?aniieaaathony oae,
/oi noaiiayony iaoaie/aneie iii?ie e?uea e iiiiaatho iaeeo/oei ia?acii
i?aiaeieaaaoue nii?ioeaeaiea aicaeooa i?e iieaoa. A /anoiinoe, o oi?ioi
eaoathueo ianaeiiuo ia?aaeiee e?ae e?uea oe?aieai iiuiie aeeeeie.
?aniieiaeaiea e /enei aeeeie — i?eciaee, oi?ioi oa?aeoa?ecothuea
eaaeaeoth nenoaiaoe/aneoth a?oiio ianaeiiuo. No?iaiea e?ueueaa a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a eeaaeaony a iniiao nenoaiaoeee e?ueaouo ianaeiiuo, a
oae eae a eneiiaaiii ninoiyiee io ianaeiiuo eo/oa anaai nio?aiythony
e?ueuey, iaeaiyioiiieiaey — iaoea ia eneiiaaiuo ianaeiiuo — iniaaiii
oe?iei eniieuecoao i?eciaee no?iaiey e?uea. A e?uea ?acee/athony
i?iaeieueiua aeeeee, /anoe/ii aaoayueany, e iiia?a/iua, niaaeeiythuea
i?iaeieueiua ae?oa n ae?oaii. I?inaaou ia?aiii/aoie /anoe e?uea,
caeeth/aiiua iaaeaeo aeeeeaie, iacuaathony y/aeeaie. Eaaeaeay aeeeea
niioaaonoaaiii aa ?aniieiaeaieth ia e?ueiaie ieanoeiea eiaao
ii?aaeaeaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea, oae aea eae e y/aeee. O aieaa i?eieoeaiuo
a?oii ianaeiiuo naoue aeeeie aoua, /ai o i?aaenoaaeoaeae aunoeo
io?yaeia. E?iia oiai, o i?aaenoaaeoaeae aunoeo io?yaeia ia?aaeiea e
caaeiea e?ueuey iau/ii cia/eoaeueiaa ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa, /ai o
aieaa i?eieoeaiuo, o eioi?uo iaa ia?u e?ueueaa aeiaieueii noiaeiu.
Ia?aaeei ?acaeaaaony eeoue iaeia ia?a e?ueueaa, /aua ia?aaeiea (o ioo,
naioeia ueoiaie, iaeioi?uo iiaeaiie), ii auaaao e iaiai?io — ?acaeou
oieueei caaeiea e?ueuey (o aaa?ie?ueuo). Ia?aaeei e?ueuey, iniaaiii
ia?aaeiea, i?eieiatho ia naay aeiiieieoaeueiua ooieoeee, a /anoi oaeea
aeiiieieoaeueiua ooieoeee noaiiayony iniiaiuie, a eaoiay ooieoeey
oo?a/eaaaony. Iai?eia?, ia?aaeiea e?ueuey o i?yiie?ueuo (na?ai/a,
eocia/ee) aieaa eiaeenoua, /ai caaeiea; a neiaeaiiii ninoiyiee aieaa
oiieea ia?aiii/aoua caaeiea e?ueuey i?ee?uou ia?aaeieie, caueuathueie io
iia?aaeaeaiee i?e ia?aaeaeaeaieyo a ca?ineyo ?anoaiee. O eeiiia caueoiay
ooieoeey ia?aaeieo e?ueueaa, i?aa?aoeaoeony a iaaee?ueuey, au?aaeaia aua
y?/a: o ieo oieueei naiay aa?oeia ia?aaeieo e?ueueaa ia?aiii/aoay. A
aeey naiiai aiaaoiai aeaeaie io?yaea ianaeiiuo — aeoeia oa?aeoa?ii oi,
/oi ia?aaeiea e?ueuey oeaeeeii i?aa?aoeeenue a aeanoeea caueoiua
iaaee?ueuey. I?e iieaoa iaaee?ueuey aeoeia ea?atho ?ieue oieueei
ieaie?othueo au?inoia, ia i?iecaiaeyueo nianoaaiiuo aeaeaeaiee, eaoiua
aeaeaeaiey niaa?oatho caaeiea e?ueuey. Aa?iyoii, yoi iaaethaeaee iiiaea,
eoi aeaeae, eae eaoatho aiaeuee ei?iaee, aeoee-ia?uaieee, aeoee-ieaie e
ae?. A eiiaaea o aeoeia i?e iieaoa iaaee?ueuey aeaaea ia ?ani?aaeythony
— caaeiea e?ueuey oieueei auniauaathony a noi?iiu ec-iiae iaaee?ueee (o
a?iiciaie). Ia?aaeee neo/ae oo?aou eaoiie ooieoeee e?ueueaa e eo
en/aciiaaiea. Aeey iiiaeo aeoeia, aeeaoueo a nooeo ianoiinoyo,
oa?aeoa?ii, /oi o ieo iaaee?ueuey iieiinoueth n?anoathony ae?oa n
ae?oaii, ia?acoy caueoiue «oeai» iaae a?thoeii. Anoanoaaiii, /oi ni
n?anoaieai iaaee?ueee caaeiea e?ueuey ia iiaoo aeaenoaiaaoue e
en/acatho. Yoi iaaethaeaaony o iiiaeo aeieaiiineeia – neina?ae,
aeoaeaeeoe (oeaaiay aeoaeaeeoea) e iniaaiii /anoi o noaiiuo e ionouiiuo
/a?iioaeie. O iaeioi?uo oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo aeaeia /a?iioaeie iiaeii
i?ineaaeeoue ?aciua noaiaie ?aaeoeoeee e?ueueaa. Oae, iai?eia?, ian/aiue
iaaeeye ai O?aioeee ianoaie niaa?oaao ia?aeaou, a ia iaoae oa??eoi?ee
yoi aeoe iaeaoathuee, o eioi?iai iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ana ia?aoiaeu io
?acaeouo, ii aacaeaenoaothueo e?ueueaa iiae iaaee?ueueyie aei aeaeeeo,
ii/oe iieiinoueth en/acioaoeo ?oaeeiaioia.

A ?aciuo a?oiiao ianaeiiuo iiaeii noieeiooueny n aane?ueuie oi?iaie,
oeaeeeii oo?aoeaoeie e?ueuey. Yoi ioiineony, e e oai a?oiiai,
aieueoeinoai i?aaenoaaeoaeae eioi?uo oi?ioi eaoaao: n?aaee aeaoe?ueuo,
aaai/ae, i?yiie?ueuo, eeiiia ecaanoiu oi?iu n en/acioaoeie e?ueueyie. A
oaeeo neo/ayo auaaao ynai oaeo oo?aou e?ueueaa, nouanoaiaaaoeo o
i?aaeeia yoeo ianaeiiuo. E ?anniao?eaay /a?ou aioo?aiiaai no?iaiey, e
n?aaieaay aane?ueua aeaeu n ?yaeii i?aaenoaaeoaeae oie aea a?oiiu,
eiathueo ?acaeoua e ?aaeooee?iaaiiua i?aaiu iieaoa, iiaeii onoaiiaeoue,
/oi aane?ueua oi?iu i?iecioee io e?ueaouo i?aaeeia. Oaeay oo?aoa
e?ueueaa iiaeao auoue aucaaia ?aciuie i?e/eiaie (ia?aoiaeii e
ia?aceoecio, e aeecie a ii/aa, i?e iaeoaiee ia ino?iaao eee a ai?ao e o.
ae.). Aeaaea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea oeaeua io?yaeu aeeth/atho niaa?oaiii
aane?ueuo ianaeiiuo (aoe, iooiaaeu, aeioe), eco/aiea eo no?iaiey e
?acaeoey a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie a?oiiaie ianaeiiuo iicaieyao n/eoaoue o
ieo ionoonoaea, e?ueueaa neaaenoaeai ?aaeoeoeee e oo?aou. Aa?iyoii, o
i?aaeeia, iai?eia?, aeio auee e?ueuey, en/acioaoea n i?eniiniaeaieai
ac?ineie noaaeee e ia?aceoecio. Ii n?aaee iecoeo ianaeiiuo anoue e oaeea
io?yaeu, i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?uo ieeiaaea e ia eiaee e?ueueaa: io?yae
uaoeiioainoie, iai?eia?, caneoaeeaaao iacaaiey ia?ae/iiaane?ueuo. Ana
iniaaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoiai io?yaea aeatho iniiaaiea n/eoaoue aai
i?ienoaaeoei io aeaeaeeo aane?ueuo i?aaeeia, auaoeo, iaeiaei, e
i?aaeeaie e?ueaouo ianaeiiuo. O ianaeiiuo, eiathueo aieaa eee iaiaa
noiaeiua ia?aaeiea e caaeiea e?ueuey, niaaaeaiiua aonoie naoueth aeeeie,
o. a. o aieaa i?eieoeaiuo (no?aeicu, nao/aoie?ueua, oa?ieou e ae?.),
ia?aaeiea e caaeiea e?ueuey i?e iieaoa aeaeaathony iacaaeneii ae?oa io
ae?oaa, a o aaai/ae, ia?aiii/aoie?ueuo, oeeeaae e ae?oaeo aieaa
aunieii?aaieciaaiiuo oi?i ia?aaeiaa e caaeiaa e?ueuey noeaieythony oae,
/oi ia?acotho aaeeioth niaeaniaaiii aeaeaathuothny iiaa?oiinoue. O ioo,
eiathueo oieueei ia?aaeiea ?acaeoua e?ueuey, caaeiea e?ueuey i?aa?auaiu
a iaaieueoea aoeaaiaeaeiua i?eaeaoee, aiaaoua /oanoaothueie aieineaie.
Iie ?aaioatho eae ae?ineiiu, neoaeao noaaeeecaoi?aie i?e iieaoa.
Eciaiaiea iai?aaeaiey i?e iieaoa aeinoeaaaony eciaiaieai iieiaeaiey
ieineinoe ia?aaeieo e?ueueaa (o aeiaaiuo aaai/ae) eee aiieeooaeu e
ieineinoe aea?aoeee (o i/ae).

Nei?inoue aea?aoeee e?ueueaa o ?aciuo ianaeiiuo cia/eoaeueii aa?uee?oao.
Aaai/ea iaoaii i?e iieaoa aeaeaao oieueei 5—9 aciaoia e?uea a naeoiaeo,
i/aea ieiei 200, a eiia?u-caiioeu — 1000. Oaeay nei?inoue nie?auaiee
iaania/eaaaony ?acei e aonoi en/a?/aiiuie iiia?a/ii-iieinaouie iuooeaie,
ia aeieth eioi?uo o oi?ioi eaoathueo oi?i i?eoiaeeony 15—25% aana oaea.
Nei?inoue iieaoa o ianaeiiuo i/aiue ?acee/ia: o ceaoiaeacee — 0,5 i, o
i/aeu — 3 i, o aaai/ae a?aaeieeia — 15 i a naeoiaeo. Naiua neeueiua
ianaeiiua, oaeea, eae a?aaeieee, aac iinaaeee eaoyo ia nioie eeeiiao?ia.
Ecaanoiu, iai?eia?, neo/ae caeaoa ieaaiae?iaiai a?aaeieea (Deilephila
nerii), ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai a n?aaeecaiiiii?neeo no?aiao (aaea ?anoao
ieaaiae?), a Eaieia?aae e Ynoiieth. Ia aoi?ii — aeaayoii a?thoiuo
naaiaioao oieueei o ia?ae/iiaane?ueuo anoue iaeii/eaieeiaua ?oaeeiaiou
eiia/iinoae. E?iia oiai, ia eiioea a?thoea o iecoeo ianaeiiuo auaatho
i?eaeaoee (oea?ee), auiieiythuea ?ieue i?aaiia /oanoa (iniaaiii yoi
au?aaeaii o yiaee) eee oaaoaoaeueiuo i?aaiia (o ooiaa?oie).
Aeaeieciaiaiiua ca/aoee eiia/iinoae naaiaioia ?yaeii n iieiaui
ioaa?noeai neoaeao aniiiiaaoaeueiuie i?aaiaie i?e iieiaeioai?aiee
(aiiiiiaeeyie). O iecoeo a?oii ianaeiiuo naiee aiiiiiaeeyie
iiaeoaaouaatho iaeao n naiaiiie aeeaeeinoueth — nia?iaoioi?. Eooeeoea
iiiaeo ianaeiiuo iie?uoa ?acee/iie aeeeiu aieineaie, eiiaaea i/aiue
aonoi. Oa aieinee, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho i?inoi au?inou eooeeoeu,
neoaeao aeaaiui ia?acii aeey oiai, /oiau i?e caoiieaiee ianaeiiiai (ai
a?aiy aeiaeaey e o. i.) nicaeaoue aie?oa oaea neie aicaeooa,
eciee?iaaoue oaei io nii?eeiniiaaiey n aiaeie. Ii e?iia ieo, ia oaea
ianaeiiuo iiiai aieineia e uaoeiie, iiaeaeaeii ni/eaiaiiuo n yieie a
eooeeoea, e iniiaaieth eioi?uo iiaeoiaeyo ieii/aiey ia?aia — yoi
iniiaiua inycaoaeueiua yeaiaiou ianaeiiiai. Ia?aaeei oaei (o /aooeieoe)
e e?ueuey (o aeoeia, aaai/ae e ae?.) auaatho iie?uou /aooeeaie. Aieinee
e /aooeee ii?aaeaeytho o iiiaeo ianaeiiuo ie?aneo. Iai?eia?, o aaai/ae
y?eay iano?ay ie?anea e?ueueaa caaeneo ia io i?enoonoaey eaeiai-eeai
ieaiaioa, a io yaeaiee naaoiaiai ?aciiaina i?e i?aeiieaiee naaoiauo
eo/ae /a?ac /aooeee — naie /aooeee aanoeaaoiu. Io no?oeoo?u eooeeoeu
caaeneo e iaoaeee/aneay ie?anea aeoeia, ia?aiii/aoie?ueuo e ae?oaeo
ianaeiiuo. Oaeay ie?anea, caaenyuay ia io ieaiaioa, a io no?oeoo?u
iie?iaia, iacuaaaony iioe/aneie. Iia auea ?anoeo?iaaia a- 1902 aiaeo
eeaaneei oeceeii E. E. Einiiiaiaui. Ia?yaeo n iioe/aneeie yaeaieyie
ie?aneo iiiaeo ianaeiiuo ii?aaeaeytho e ioeaaaaiua eeaoeaie aeiiaea?iu
ieaiaiou. *a?iay ie?anea /aua anaai caaeneo io ioeiaeaiee iaeaieia.
?ani?ino?aiaiiay o ianaeiiuo caeaiay ie?anea (o na?ai/iauo, iaei/ieeia e
ae?.) aeieaia a?aiy ?anniao?eaaeanue eae naycaiiay n oei?ioeeeii
?anoaiee, ii, ii iiaui aeaiiui, iia ii?aaeaeyaony iniauie ieaiaioaie.

Ie?anea iiiaeo ianaeiiuo, iniaaiii ii?aaeaeyaiay i?aeiieaieai eo/ae a
oeoeiiauo /anoyo iie?iaia, nio?aiyaony e o ia?oauo aunooaiiuo
yecaiiey?ia. Oae, aaai/ee, nia?aiiua e iaeieioua oaea aieaa 200 eao oiio
iacaae E. Eeiiaai, nio?aiytho oaeoth aea naaaeanoue e y?einoue oiiia,
eae aeeaua. I?ae?anii nio?aiytho iaoaeee/aneee aeane e iiiaea aeoee,
iai?eia? a?iiciaee. A y?eay ie?anea iaaee?ueee aiaeueeo ei?iaie,
i?yiie?ueuo e ae?oaeo ianaeiiuo, o eioi?uo iia caaeneo io i?aaie/aneeo
ieaiaioia, o nia?aiiuo aunooaiiuo yecaiiey?ia ooneiaao e auoeaaoaao.
Auoeaaoaao eiiaaea e iaoaeee/aneay ie?anea, iai?eia? o aeoea ueoiiinee
(Cassida nobilis). Ecoieoaeueii iiiaiia?acea ?anoeaaoie ianaeiiuo.
Iiiaea ec ieo ii ie?anea iiaoo niia?ie/aoue n iano?uie e y?eeie
oeaaoaie, a iiiaea eiatho ooneeoth iay?eoth ie?aneo, aeaeathuoth eo
iai?eaeaeaoaeueiuie e iacaiaoiuie. *ai aea iauyniyaony oaeia
iiiaiia?acea ie?anie ianaeiiuo? Ie?anea eiaao ia?iiiia aeieiae/aneia
cia/aiea. Ia caueuaiiua ae?oaeie niiniaaie ianaeiiua, anee eo ie?anea
iaiiieiaao oio oii, ia eioi?ii iie aea?aeaony, noaiiayony iacaiaoiuie
aeey eno?aaeythueo eo oeuieeia, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeey ioeoe. Eaaeaeue
niae?aoaeue ianaeiiuo ciaao, eae o?oaeii auaaao iaia?oaeeoue neaeyuoth
ia aaeoii a caieth iioaiiaaoai aea?aayiiii noieaeea iceioth niaeo, eae
iacaiaoiu auaatho neaeyuea ia iie?uoii eeoaeieeaie noaiea aea?aaa
aaai/ee iyaeaieoeu, eae eaaei i?ieoe ieii caeaiie aonaieoeu, neaeyuae ia
eenoa, eae oneieuecaao ec iiey c?aiey i?uaathuay ia iiaa?oiinoe na?ie
ii/au na?ay na?ai/a e o. i. Eoaeueyineee o/aiue *aniiea aeaeae oaeea
iiuou. Ii niae?ae e?oiiuo aiaiiieia, eiathueo na?iaaooth eee caeaioth
ie?aneo. Na?iaaoua iacaiaoiu ia oiia nooie o?aau, aaea iie aea?aeaony, a
caeaiua — ia caeaiie. Ii i?eaycuaae ?aaiia eiee/anoai aiaiiieia ?aciie
ie?anee e o?aaeieai oaeiai aea oeaaoa eee e o?aaeieai ae?oaiai (iieiaeio
na?iaaouo e nooie o?aaa, iieiaeio e caeaiie, iieiaeio caeaiuo e nooie,
iieiaeio e caeaiie). Ieacaeinue, /oi eiee/anoai neeaaaiiuo ioeoeaie
aiaiiieia auei aieueoa a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iie auee i?eaycaiu e
o?aaeieai ae?oaiai oeaaoa, /oi aieueoa auaeeei oao, eioi?ua auee ia
«naiai oeaaoa». Iiuou *aniieu o ian auee i?iaa?aiu I. I. Aaeyaaui.
Ie?anea, aeaeathuay ianaeiiia iacaiaoiui ia ie?oaeathuai oiia,
iacuaaaony iie?iaeoaeuenoaaiiie. Iaoaeee/anee aeanoyuea ianoa iie?iaia
ianaeiiuo a anoanoaaiiie ianoaiiaea io?aaeatho i?aiaeaaeathuee
ie?oaeathuee oii e oaeei ia?acii neoaeao oiaea naiaia?aciie caueoiie
ie?aneie. *anoi iie?iaeoaeuenoaaiiie auaaao ia oieueei ie?anea, ii e
oi?ia oaea — o oao aea aiaiiieia auoyiooia oaei iaiiieiaao noaaaeae
o?aaeiee. Aua y?/a au?aaeaia iie?iaeoaeuenoaaiiay ie?anea e oi?ia o
iaei/ieeia, o aonaieoe iyaeaieoe, oaei eioi?uo /anoi iioiaea ia no/ie, e
o. ae. Eioa?ania oae iacuaaaiay e?eioe/aneay ie?anea o ianaeiiuo.
Auaaao, /oi i?e/oaeeeaue oci?, iai?eia? ia e?ueueyo aaai/ee, ia
i?eaeaeaao aieiaiey oeuieea, a, iaiai?io, aeaeaao ianaeiiia iacaiaoiui.
Oae, aeac/aoua iyoia ia e?ueueyo aieueoiai ii/iiai iaaeeiueaai aeaca
aeaeatho e?ueuey iioiaeeie ia iiaa?oiinoue ei?u n oaeoaeaieyie — ?enoiie
eieoe?oao, anee niio?aoue ecaeaeaea, ia?iaiinoe iiaa?oiinoe, nicaeaao
noa?aineiie/aneee yooaeo. Oaeea i?eia?u «noa?aiii?oecia» eco/ae
eaieia?aaeneee i?ioanni? A. I. Oaaiae/. Ii auaaao, /oi ie?anea
ianaeiiiai eae au ia?i/ii i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea. A oaeeo neo/ayo ianaeiiia
iau/ii iaaeaaeii caueuaii io oeuieeia iooaeeeaathuei caiaoii eee aeonii,
yaeiaeouie aeaeacaie a o. i. Oae, y?eoth ie?a?eo eiatho iiiaea eeiiu,
iai?eia? nieaeaoeee; aeoee-ia?uaieee, aiaeuee ei?iaee auaeaeytho aaeeea
aauanoaa, iai?eia? eaioa?eaeei. ss?ei ie?aoaiu e caueuaiu yaeiaeoui
aeaeii inu, iai?eia?, oa?oie. Oaeay y?eay ie?anea iineo iacaaiea
i?aaeoi?aaeaeathuae. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, caia/aii, /oi ioeoeu iao/athony ia
o?iaaoue oaeeo caueuaiiuo ianaeiiuo. Neaaeoao, i?aaaea, eiaoue a aeaeo,
/oi ia?aaeei ie?anea, aini?eieiaaiay iaie eae iano?ay, aeey oeuieea,
eno?aaeythuaai aeaiiue aeae ianaeiiiai, iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoueny
iaeiioiiiie e auoue caueoiie. Ecaanoii, /oi niiniaiinoue ?acee/aoue
oeaaoa iaiaeeiaeiaa o ?aciuo aeaeia aeeaioiuo e, iai?eia?, niaaea oeaaoa
ia ?acee/aao. Niiniaiinoue aea ?aciuo aeaeia ioeoe ?acee/aoue oeaaoa
niaoeeaeueii ia eco/aeanue. Aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ie?a ianaeiiuo
eiaao oae iacuaaaiay ieiee?ey — noiaenoai i/a?oaiee e ie?anee aeaoo
aeaeia, ec eioi?uo iaeei oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?aaeoi?aaeaeathuae ie?aneie e
ianuaaeiaai eee iianai aeey i?aneaaeiaaoaeae, a ae?oaie, iacaueuaiiue,
eieoe?oao caueuaiiue. Iaiiuoiiio iaaethaeaoaeth auaaao o?oaeii ioee/eoue
ioo-ne?oeae io i/ae e in — ianoieueei niaa?oaiii e ?anoeaaoea, e
oa?aeoa? aeaeaeaiee yoeo aaccaueoiuo ioo eieoe?otho aeaeiiiniuo
yaeiaeouo ia?aiii/aoie?ueuo. Iaeneooaiiue niae?aoaeue ianaeiiuo ia?aaeei
iianaaony acyoue a ?oee ne?oeaeo, aeoiay, /oi eiaao aeaei n i/aeie, inie
eee oiaeai. Iioiaee ia in e aaai/ee-noaeeyiieoeu. I/aiue eioa?anai
i?eia? ieiee?ee thaeiiaia?eeaineeo aaai/ae-aaeyiie, «iiae?aaeathueo»
yaeiaeoui aaai/eai-aaeeeiieaeai, ieiei 100 eao oiio iacaae iienaiiue
Ayonii. Ai anao oaeeo neo/ayo iacaueuaiiia ianaeiiia iaiueoa
eno?aaeyaony ioeoeaie, yua?eoeaie e ae?oaeie a?aaaie, oae eae iie
i?eieiatho aai ca yaeiaeooth «iiaeaeue». Eiiaaea, eiia/ii, ie?anea eiaao
e i?yiia i?eniiniaeoaeueiia cia/aiea. Oae, aeoee-/a?iioaeee a ionouiyo
oa?aeoa?ecothony eeai aaeie ie?aneie (ia?aaeien — /a?iioaeee, a aaeua),
io?aaeathuae eo/e nieioea, eeai /aua (ionthaea e iacaaiea naiaenoaa)
eioaineaii /a?iie — ieioiua /a?iua iie?iau caaea?aeeaatho aoaeoaeueiua
ei?ioeea eo/e niaeo?a.

Ia iiaa?oiinoe oaea o ianaeiiuo iniauie eaiaeueoeaie ioe?uaathony
?acee/iua aeaeacu, auaeaeythuea iaoo/ea aauanoaa, eiiaaea aini?eieiaaiua
oieueei ae?oaeie ianaeiiuie, eiiaaea aeinooiiua e iaoaio iaiiyieth
(iai?eia?, o ?acee/iuo eeiiia, aeoeia-iaaeeyeia ?iaea Blaps e o. ae.).
*anoi iaoo/ea auaeaeaiey iiiiaatho iniayi iaeiiai aeaea iaoiaeeoue ae?oa
ae?oaa (auaeaeaiey naiie i?eaeaeatho naioeia, caiaoe caeaaathueo ia
ceiiaeo eeiiia-/a?aiaoae eee aiaeueeo ei?iaie iaania/eaatho neiieaiea
ceiothueo iniaae e o. ae.). Iaeioi?ua auaeaeaiey aeaeac eiatho ieuaaoth
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue aeey iniaae oiai aea aeaea (iai?eia?, auaeaeaiey
oaeiuo aeaeac naioeia eocia/eeia neecuaathony naieaie) eee aeey ae?oaeo
aeaeia (auaeaeaiey aeoeia, iaeoathueo a io?aaaeieeao, ioioii
neecuaathony io?aaueyie). Eiiaaea aeaeacu auaeaeytho yaeiaeoua aauanoaa.
Iinooiathuea a iieua aieinee yaeiaeoua auaeaeaiey neoaeao n?aaenoaii
caueou — ecaanoii, /oi yaeiaeoua aieinee iiiaeo aonaieoe, iai?eia?
ceaoiaocee, iiaoo aucuaaoue ainiaeeoaeueiua i?ioeannu eiaee /aeiaaea.
Aaeeea caueoiua aauanoaa auaeaeytho iiiaea aeoee (eaioa?eaeei —
aeoee-ia?uaieee, iaaea?ei — iaeioi?ua noaoeeeieaeu). Oaeea yaeu iiaoo
aucuaaoue yaeaiey ainiaeaiey e iia?oaaiey iie?iaia, anee iiiaaeatho ia
eiaeo. Ia?aaeee o ianaeiiuo aeaeacu, auaeaeythuea aine e aineiiiaeiaiua
aauanoaa, /anoi neoaeauea ianaeiiui aeey caueou io iioa?e aiaeu (ueoee o
ueoiaie, aineiaua ieoe o /a?aaoeia e iiaeooa/ieoe e o. ae.).
Ieuaaa?eoaeueiay nenoaia o ianaeiiuo, eae e o anao /eaienoiiiaeo,
ninoieo ec ia?aaeiae, n?aaeiae e caaeiae eeoee.

Ia?aaeiyy eeoea ia/eiaaony ?ioiaie iieinoueth, a eioi?oth aiaaeatho
nethiiua aeaeacu. Nethiiua aeaeacu o ?aciuo ianaeiiuo au?aaaouaatho
?aciua oa?iaiou. O ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiuo yoi /aua anaai oa?iaiou,
ia?aaiaeyuea aeenaoa?eaeu a iiiinaoa?eaeu (eiaa?oacu). O oeuieeia,
iai?eia? o aiaeiuo eeiiia, a nethia niaea?aeeony oa?iaio, ?anuaieythuee
aaeee ia aieiieeneiou (i?ioaaca). O e?iaininia /anoi a nethia anoue
oa?iaio, i?aiyonoaothuee naa?ouaaieth e?iae (iai?eia?, o iaey?eeiiai
eiia?a). Ia ieaeiae aoaa o ee/eiie aaai/ae, ?o/aeieeia e ?yaea ae?oaeo
ianaeiiuo ioe?uaathony aeaeacu, nae?ao eioi?uo auno?i caoaa?aeaaaao; yoi
oaeeiioaeaeeoaeueiua aeaeacee, i?iaeoeo eioi?uo oiio?aaeyaony aeey
ecaioiaeaiey ?acee/iuo caueoiuo (eieiiu) eee eia/eo (oaiaoa ?o/aeieeia)
ia?aciaaiee. O?oa/aoue ieuaaiae a caaeiae /anoe ia?aaeei ?anoe?yaony a
cia, eiiaaea i?eia?aoathuee aeae iaoea, iniaaiii ?acaeoue o oao
ianae?iuo, eioi?ua ieoathony aeeaeeie ieuae. N?aaeiyy eeoea yaeyaony oai
ianoii, aaea a iniiaiii ia?aaa?eaaaony ieua. AEaeacenoua noaiee
n?aaeiaai ioaeaea eeoa/ieea (aai ?anoe?aiiay /anoue iacuaaaony
aeaeoaeeii) au?aaaouaatho oa?iaiou, eioi?ua ?anuaieytho e ?acaeeaeatho
neoaeauea ieuae aauanoaa. E?iia oa?iaioia (au?aaaouaathueony e o ian),
?anuaieythueo aaeee, aee?u, e?aoiae e naoa?, iiiaea ianaeiiua
niioaaonoaaiii ?iaeo ieue au?aaaouaatho e ae?oaea yiceiu. Iiiaea ee/eiee
aeoeia-ae?iainaeia au?aaaouaatho oeaeetheaco, ?ac?ooathuoth eeao/aoeo,
ee/eiee eiaeaaaeia auaeaeytho ea?aoeiaco, aeaenoaothuoth ia ?iaiaua
aauanoaa, e o. i. I/aiue /anoi oaeea o?oaeii?ac?ooaaiua niaaeeiaiey, eae
eeao/aoea, ?ac?ooathony n iiiiuueth neiaeioe/aneeo aaeoa?ee e
i?inoaeoeo. Ecaanoii, /oi oa?ieou iio?aaeytho a iniiaiii eeao/aoeo, ii
naieo ?aceaaathueo aa oa?iaioia ia auaeaeytho — o ieo a eeoa/ieea iiiai
neiaeioe/aneeo iiiaiaeaooeeiauo (Trichonympha e ae?.), onaaeaathueo
oeaeetheico. O oao ianaeiiuo, eioi?ua eniieuecotho eeoa/ioth iee?ioei?o
aeey ia?aaa?eaaiey ieue, eeoea eiaao aieueoea neaiua au?inou eee
aeinoeaaao i/aiue aieueoie aeeeiu e ieua caaea?aeeaaaony a eeoa/ieea ia
aeeeoaeueiua n?iee iai?eia?, o ee/eiie iaeneiai o?oua). Iaaeaaii auei
auyniaii, /oi oa ianaeiiua, eioi?ua ieoathony aaaeiuie aaeeaie nieaie
?anoaiee (iai?eia?, oee), onaaeaatho acio aicaeooa n iiiiuueth
neiaeioe/aneeo aciooeene?othueo aaeoa?ee. A n?aaeiae eeoea ieuaaay ianna
iau/ii iaeaaaaony iniaie eaaeii?iieoeaaiie aaeeiaie iaiei/eie,
caueuathuae iaaeiua eeaoee eeoee io iia?aaeaeaiee. Iaiei/ea auaeaeyaony
naiui ia?aaeiei o/anoeii n?aaeiae eeoee. N?aaeiyy eeoea ia eiaao
eooeeoeu, a caaeiyy, eae e ieuaaiae, iie?uoa i?iieoeaaiie eooeeoeie. A
caaeiae eeoea i?ienoiaeeo ananuaaiea ia?aaa?aiiie ieue e, aeaaiia,
ananuaaiea aiaeu. ?aniieiaeaiiua a eiioea ieuaaa?eoaeueiiai o?aeoa o
iiiaeo ianaeiiuo oae iacuaaaiua «?aeoaeueiua aeaeacu» neoaeao aeey
eioaineaiiai ananuaaiey aiaeu. Auaeaeeoaeueiuie i?aaia i e o ianaeiiuo
neoaeao iaeueieaeaau ninoaeu — oiieea o?oa/aoua au?inou eeoa/ieea ia
a?aieoea n?aaeiae e caaeiae eeoee. *enei eo aa?uee?oao io 2 aei 150, eo
naiaiaeiua neaiua eiioeu eaaeao a iieinoe oaea, ia niiauaynue n iath.
?anoai?eiua i?iaeoeou iaiaia iiaeiuathony noaieaie iaeueieaeaauo
ninoaeia e ii eo i?inaaoai i?ioiaeyo a caaeithth eeoeo, iau/ii aua a ieo
ia?aoiaey a iaeeea e?enoaeeeee ii/aaie eeneiou. O oao aieaa i?eieoeaiuo
e?ueaouo ianaeiiuo, eioi?ua aeeaoo ai aeaaeiie n?aaea, iniaaiii o
aiaeiuo ianaeiiuo (no?aeicu, iiaeaiee), eee o oao, eioi?ua iio?aaeytho
iiiai ni/iie ?anoeoaeueiie ieue (i?yiie?ueua), iaeueieaeaauo o?oai/ae
iiiai — iie i?eieiatho ia naay ?ieue inii?aaoeyoi?iuo ia?aciaaiee,
auaiaeyueo ecauoie aiaeu. Neaiua eiioeu iaeueieaeaauo o?oai/ae o
ianaeiiuo, aeeaoueo a nooeo oneiaeyo,— o aeoeia e ee/eiie /a?iioaeie,
aonaieoe, ee/eiie io?aaueeiuo eueaia — i?e?anoatho e noaiea caaeiae
eeoee ieaea oiai ianoa, aaea yoe o?oai/ee aiaaeatho a eeoa/iee. I?inaaoa
a ianoa i?eniaaeeiaiey iao, iiaeiuaiea aiaeu eiioeii iaeueieaeaaa
ninoaea ec caaeiae eeoee i?ienoiaeeo iooai aeeooocee. Yoei
iaania/eaaaony iai?a?uaiia i?iiuaaiea iaeueieaeaaa ninoaea iaeiei e oai
aea iaaieueoei iauaiii aiaeu. O iaeioi?uo ia?ae/iiaane?ueuo ianaeiiuo
(Machilis) ia?yaeo n iaeueieaeaauie o?oai/eaie iaeioi?oth ?ieue a
auaeaeaiee ea?atho ioe?uaathueany ia ieaeiae aoaa aeaeacu — i?aaiu
auaeaeaiey, iaiiieiathuea iaeneeey?iua aeaeacu ?aeiia?aciuo. Iniiaiay
aeuoaoaeueiay nenoaia o ianaeiiuo — o?aoae. O aeeaoueo a aiaea, ai
aeaaeiie ii/aa e a oeaiyo ?anoaiee ee/eiie ianaeiiuo aieueooth ?ieue
ea?aao oaeaea eiaeiia aeuoaiea, io eioi?iai e i?iecioei o?aoaeiia
aeuoaiea. O iaeioi?uo aeaoe?ueuo auoaaeoay ec yeoea ee/eiea aua ia eiaao
o?aoae, eioi?ua ?acaeaathony oieueei iinea eeiueee. Ii /aua eiaeiia
aeuoaiea nouanoaoao ia?yaeo n o?aoaeiui, eee, eiaaea ianaeiiua aoi?e/ii
ia?aoiaeyo e eiaeiiio aeuoaieth, o ieo nio?aiyaony oi?ioi ?acaeoay
nenoaia o?aoae, ia eiathueo niiauaiey n aiaoiae n?aaeie. O?aoaeiay
nenoaia o ianaeiiuo i?aaenoaaeyao niiauathuothny nenoaio o?aoaeiuo
o?oai/ae, ioe?uaathueony ii aieai oaea ioaa?noeyie — aeuoaeueoeaie.
Oieueei o iaoeeenia (Machilis) io/ee o?aoae ia niiauathony ae?oa n
ae?oaii. Iaeaieueoaa /enei aeuoaeaoe o ianaeiiuo — 10 ia? (ii ia?a ia
ia?auo 8 a?thoiuo naaiaioao, 2 ia?u ia a?oaeiuo), ii eiee/anoai
aeaenoaothueo aeuoaeaoe (o ee/eiie ianaeiiuo, aeeaoueo a aiaea, ai
aeaaeiie caiea e o. i.) iiaeao oiaiueoaoueny aei 1 ia?u. O ianaeiiuo,
eae e o ae?oaeo iacaiiuo /eaienoiiiaeo, eenei?iae iiiaaeaao io aeuoaeaoe
e eeaoeai oaea iooai aeeooocee ii i?inaaoai o?aoae e eo oii/aeoeo
aaoi/ae — o?aoaie. Ii o iiiaeo aunoeo ianaeiiuo eiaaony nenoaia
aaioeeyoeee, i?ioaeeeaaiey aicaeooa /a?ac e?oiiua noaieu o?aoae, /oi
onei?yao aaciiaiai. I?e aeaeaeaieyo a?thoea oi ?anoe?ythony, oi
naeeiathony oe?ieea o?aoaeiua noaieu eee naycaiiua n ieie aicaeooiua
iaoee. A ii?aaeaeaiiia iai?aaeaiea oiea aicaeooa a o?aoayo i?e oaeeo
aeuoaoaeueiuo aeaeaeaieyo iaania/aii oai, /oi o oaeeo ianaeiiuo
aeuoaeueoea niaaaeaiu eeaiaiaie, oi cae?uaathueieny, oi ioe?uaathueieny.
O oao ee/eiie ianaeiiuo, eioi?ua aeeaoo a aiaea, ai aeaaeiie caiea e a
ae?oaeo aeaaeiuo n?aaeao, aeuoaeueoea anaaaea ioe?uou aeey aicaeooa.
Oi?ioi i?eniiniaeaoeany e aeecie a aiaea ee/eiee iiaeaiie, aaniyiie,
?o/aeieeia e ae?oaeo ianaeiiuo ia eiatho ioe?uouo aeuoaeaoe. Eenei?iae o
ieo i?iieeaao /a?ac iiaa?oiinoue anao o/anoeia oaea, aaea iie?iau
aeinoaoi/ii oiiee, iniaaiii /a?ac iiaa?oiinoue eenoiaeaeiuo au?inoia,
i?iiecaiiuo naoueth neaii caeai/eaathueony o?aoae. O oaeeo ee/eiie
oi?ioi ?acaeoa o?aoaeiay nenoaia, ii iaoaieci aeuoaiey neiaeiue —
eenei?iae i?iieeaao /a?ac iie?iau, ?anoai?yaony a iieinoiie aeeaeeinoe,
caoai ec iieinoiie aeeaeeinoe aeeoooiaee?oao a o?aoae, caoai oaea ii
o?aoayi aeioiaeeo aei anao aioo?aiieo i?aaiia. Iiiaea aeeaouea a aiaea
ianaeiiua (aiaeiua aeoee e eeiiu, ee/eiee e eoeieee eiia?ia e ae?.)
aeieaeiu a?aiy io a?aiaie iiaeieiaoueny e iiaa?oiinoe, /oiau caoaaoeoue
aicaeooa, o. a. o ieo aeuoaiea aicaeooiia. Ee/eiee eiia?ia, aiaeiua
ee/eiee aeieaiiiaeae e ae?. ia a?aiy iaiiaeaiey caiana aicaeooa a naiae
o?aoaeiie nenoaia iiaeaaoeaathony n iiiiuueth aai/eeia iania/eaaaiuo
aee?iuo aieineia e iiaa?oiinoiie ieaiea aiaeu. Aiaeiua aeoee —
aiaeiethau, ieaaoioeu,— e eeiiu, iai?eia? aeaaeuoe, iaiiaea caian
aicaeooa o iiaa?oiinoe, oiinyo aai n niaie aaeoaue— aicaeoo oiineony
iiae iaaee?ueueyie e a aeaea neiy, i?enoaaoaai e iania/eaaaiui aieineai
ia iiaa?oiinoe oaea. Ieacaeinue, /oi, iaoiaeynue iiae aiaeie, oaeea
ianaeiiua oo?aoyo ai?acaei aieueoa eenei?iaea, /ai niaea?aeeony a
caiana, oianaiiii eie ec aoiinoa?u. Aeaei a oii, /oi iaaeaeo
niaea?aeaieai eenei?iaea a nii?eeanathuainy n aiaeie neia aicaeooa ia
oaea iu?ioaoaai ianaeiiiai e ie?oaeathuae aiaeie onoaiaaeeaaaony
iaeioi?ia ?aaiiaanea: ii ia?a oiai eae iio?aaeyaony eenei?iae ec yoiai
neiy, a iaai i?iieeaao eenei?iae, iaoiaeyueeny a ?anoai?aiiii aeaea a
ie?oaeathuae aiaea! Oaeei ia?acii, neie aicaeooa ia oaea aiaeiiai
ianaeiiiai ea?aao ?ieue eae au iniaiai i?eniiniaeaiey e aeuoaieth iiae
aiaeie (eae aiaeieaciue eieieie) e aeaaea iacuaaaony «oece/aneie
aeaa?ie». Aniiiiei, /oi iania/eaaaiua aieinee ia oaea iacaiiuo ianaeiiuo
eiatho oaeia aea cia/aiea a neo/aa, iai?eia?, caoiieaiey oaeuie aiaeaie
a eiioea ceiiaee a ii/aa: aie?oa oaea ianaeiiiai nio?aiyaony neie
aicaeooa — «oece/aneay aeaa?a». O iiiaeo ianaeiiuo, iai?eia? o ee/eiie
eiia?ia-iioueae (Chironomus), iao o?aoaeiuo aeaa?, ii ia caaeiai eiioea
oaea anoue io?inoee n oiieeie iie?iaaie, eioi?ua n/eoaeenue oiaea
aeaa?aie («e?iayiua aeaa?u»). A ieacaeinue, /oi yoe io?inoee — ianoa
iiaeiuaiey nieae ec aiaeu, a ia aeaa?u; aeuoaiea o ee/eiie iioueae
eiaeiia, anae iiaa?oiinoueth oaea. Oaei eo eaaeaony e?aniui io
i?inaa/eaathuaai aaiiaeiaeia. Ii aaiiaeiaei o oaeeo ee/eiie neoaeeo ia
aeey ia?aiina eenei?iaea, a aeey aieaa i?i/iiai aai naycuaaiey e
caianaiey. Yoi auaaao aaaeii aeey aeeaoueo a eeenoii a?oioa ee/eiie —
oai /anoi nicaeathony aiay?iaiua oneiaey. E?iayiay aeeaeeinoue —
aaiieeioa, oee?eoee?othuay a iieinoe oaea ianaeiiuo,— aanoeaaoiay.
Aaiieeioa ia eiaao aieueoiai cia/aiey aeey niaaaeaiey anao oeaiae
eenei?iaeii — iia neoaeeo aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee ?anoai?aiiuo a iae
iinooiathueo ec eeoa/ieea ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa, aeey auiina ec eeaoie
i?iaeoeoia iaiaia, aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey a oaea ai?iiiia. A aaiieeioa
anoue eeaoee-oaaioeeou, iiiiaathuea ianaeiiui ni?aaeyoueny n
iiiaaeathueie a eo oaei iee?ii?aaieciaie, a eiiaaea e n aieaa e?oiiuie
ia?aceoaie. Oaaioeeou ie?oaeatho e /anoi «eieainoee?otho» ia?aceoa,
iiiaaoaai a oaei ianaeiiiai, /oi aucuaaao aai aeaaeue. Oee?eoeyoeey
aaiieeiou iaania/eaaaony /a?aaeothueieny ?anoe?aieyie e nie?auaieyie
o?oa/aoiai nieiiiai ninoaea— na?aeoea. I?e ?anoyaeaaiee noaiie ninoaea,
inouanoaeyaiiai e?ueiaeaeiuie iuooeaie, aaiieeioa, iaiaauaiiay
ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie, /a?ac aieiaua ioaa?noey (inoee) iiiaaeaao a
na?aeoea, a i?e nie?auaiee noaiie ninoaea eeaiaiu a inoeyo cae?uaathony
e aaiieeioa auoaeeeaaaony /a?ac ai?oo e aieiaiiio iicao.

Ia?aiay nenoaia o ianaeiiuo iino?iaia noiaeii n ia?aiie nenoaiie iecoeo
/eaienoiiiaeo e aeaaea eieue/aouo /a?aae: anoue aieiaiie iica —
iaaeaeioi/iua neiieaiey ia?aiuo eeaoie — e a?thoiay ia?aiay oeaii/ea.
Aieueoiai ?acaeoey e oneiaeiaiey aeinoeaaao o ianaeiiuo aieiaiie iica.
A?thoiay aea oeaii/ea ninoieo ec iiaeaeioi/iiai ocea e iau/ii 10
a?oaeiuo e a?thoiuo aaiaeeaa, i?e/ai ninaaeiea aaiaeee a?thoiie oeaii/ee
/anoi naeeaeathony e iieiinoueth neeaathony ae?oa n ae?oaii. A aieiaiii
iicaa, anaaaea i?aaenoaaeythuai neeoiia ia?aciaaiea, ?acee/atho 3 /anoe:
«ia?ae/iue» iica, iau/ii naiue aieueoie ioaeae, naycaiiue n i?aaiaie
c?aiey, «aoi?e/iue», naycaiiue n oneeaie, e «o?aoe/iue», aeathuee aaoae
e aa?oiae aoaa e ia?aaeiae /anoe eeoa/ieea. A iicaa ?acaeou a iniiaiii
annioeeaoeaiua eeaoee, e eioi?ui iiaeoiaeyo ia?au io i?aaiia /oanoa. A
oeaio?a «ia?ae/iiai» iicaa anoue «a?eaiaeaeiua oaea», ninoiyuea ec
neiieaiee annioeeaoeaiuo eeaoie. *ai neiaeiaa iiaaaeaiea ianaeiiiai, oai
neeueiaa o iaai ?acaeo aieiaiie iica. O i/aeu ii ninoaaeyao 1/174 iauaia
oaea, a o aeoea-ieaaoioea anaai 1/420. O iaeaiueeie i/aeu iica aeaaea
aaniethoii aieueoa, /ai o e?oiiiai aeoea-ieaiy. *ai iiiaiia?aciaa
?acae?aaeaiey, iieo/aaiua ianaeiiuie, /ai aeaoaeueiaa ianaeiiia niiniaii
eo ?acee/aoue e /ai niaa?oaiiaa aiciiaeiinoe ioaa/aoue ia ?acae?aaeaiea
iiiaiia?aciuie aeaeaeaieyie, oai neiaeiaa iiaaaeaiea. Iniaaiii neiaeiui
auaaao iiaaaeaiea iiiaeo ianaeiiuo a ia?eiae ?aciiiaeaiey. Eaeea aea
?acae?aaeaiey iuouathony ianaeiiuie? Iie i/aiue iiiaiia?aciu. O
aieueoeinoaa aaaeoueie i?aaiaie /oanoa ieacuaathony i?aaiu c?aiey, i /ai
iiaeii noaeeoue e ia iniiaaiee iniai neeueiiai ?acaeoey «ia?ae/iiai»
iicaa. Eiia/ii, ia o anao ianaeiiuo aeaca ?acaeou iaeeiaeiai, i/aiue
iaiiiaea aeaeu iiaeaa?aaeenue eco/aieth, ii oa iaoa?eaeu, eioi?ua anoue,
iicaieytho ioiaoeoue, /oi ianaeiiua (ee/eiea no?aeicu, i/aea)
aini?eieiatho niaio ecia?aaeaiee eae iaeueeaiea i?e ianeieueei aeaaea
aieueoae /anoioa, /ai aini?eieiaai iu. Neiaeiua aeaca aeatho aeinoaoi/ii
/aoeoth ea?oeio aeeceeo i?aaeiaoia e iicaieytho ?acee/aoue neeoyou
ioaeaeaiiuo. I?inoua aeacee, a o iiiaeo aaai/ae e neiaeiua aeaca oi?ioi
aini?eieiatho eciaiaiea eioaineaiinoe inaauaiey. Aeey iiiaeo ianaeiiuo
aeieacaia niiniaiinoue ?acee/aoue oeaaoa. Yoa niiniaiinoue ia anaaaea
iaeeiaeiaa, ii yenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, /oi oee ?aniiciatho
aeeeiiiaieiiaoth e ei?ioeiaieiiaoth /anoe niaeo?a (e?aniue — caeaiue
o/anoie ioee/atho io neiaai—oeieaoiaiai), /oi oaaaeneoth iooeo
i?eaeaeatho aieoaua iooaiee ia caeaiii oiia, /oi io?aauee ?acee/atho
oeueo?aoeieaoiaua eo/e, a i/aeu oi?ioi ?acee/atho /aou?a oeaaoa, ii
eiua, /ai ?acee/aai iu. Iaeei oeaao aeey i/ae — yoi e?aniue, aeaeoue e
caeaiue; a yoii o/anoea niaeo?a i/aeu, au?aaeaynue iaoeie iiiyoeyie,
aeaeueoiieee. Ae?oaie oeaao — neia-caeaiue, o?aoee — neia-oeieaoiaue, a
/aoaa?oue — iaaeinooiiue iai oeueo?aoeieaoiaue! Oaeeaeoaeueiay
niiniaiinoue iiiaeo /eaienoiiiaeo ?acee/aoue iiey?eciaaiiue naao e
aini?eieiaoue ieineinoue iiey?ecaoeee oi?ioi iieacaia ia ianaeiiuo: a
aeaco ioo anoue no?oeoo?u, i?eia?ii oae aea aeaenoaothuea, eae a
iiey?eneiia Ieeieaau i?eciu! Auynieeinue, /oi aeac ianaeiiiai eaa/a
?acee/aao aeaeaathueany i?aaeiaou, /ai iaiiaeaeaeiua, /oi caiiieiaiea
i/aeie eaoea aa oeuey naycaii n aeaeii ia oieueei oeuey e naiiai eaoea,
ii e n aini?eyoeai anaai eaiaeoaooa. Anee ia caiea ia?aaeaeiooue oeae ia
2 i, aica?auathueany a iaai i/aeu eniuouaatho caiaoaoaeuenoai, no?aiynue
ooaea, aaea eaoie aue aei ia?anoaiiaee oeuey. Ii anee aea?aeaoue oeae ia
ieioo ia ica?a e ia?aieuoue ia eeeiiao?, i/aeu eaaei iaoiaeyo naie oeae,
oae eae ia oiia aiaeiie aeaaee ieio n oeueai — aaeeinoaaiiue i?eaioe?.
Ia oae aeaaii auynieee, /oi i/aeu iiaoo ?acee/aoue e oi?io i?aaeiaoia,
i?e/ai eaa/a iie ?acee/atho oeao?u n ec?acaiiuie, eae o oeaaoea eee
niaaeeiie, e?ayie (noiaeiua n aai/eeaie oeaaoia), a o?oaeiaa, ii ana aea
?acee/atho aaiiao?e/aneea oeao?u, ia ?aniiciaaaiea eioi?uo i/ae iiaeii
auae?anne?iaaoue. ?aaeoeee ianaeiiuo ia c?eoaeueiua ?acae?aaeaiey i/aiue
auno?ua — i?eaioe?oynue ii aeaeo eaoyuaai ianaeiiiai, no?aeica iaiyao
iai?aaeaiea iieaoa e noaaouaaao aeiau/o ia eaoo. Aua ia ana auyniaii a
iaeanoe eco/aiey c?aiey ianaeiiuo, ii e oi, /oi ecaanoii, ii?aceoaeueii.

C?aiea ia aaeeinoaaiiue iooue iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee ianaeiiuie. Ana
ianaeiiua i/aiue /oanoaeoaeueiu e eciaiaieyi oaiia?aoo?u, aeeyiea
eioi?ie ia aeoeaiinoue, aeeeoaeueiinoue ?acaeoey e aeeeoaeueiinoue
aeecie ianaeiiuo eneeth/eoaeueii aaeeei. Eaeei ia?acii ianaeiiua,
iaeaoua a ieioiue iaioee?ue, auno?i aini?eieiatho eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u?
Ieacaeinue, /oi o ianaeiiuo anoue iniaua oaiei/oanoaeoaeueiua o/anoee ia
iiaa?oiinoe oaea, iai?eia? o ia?aeaoiie na?ai/e o iniiaaiey oneeia anoue
ianoa n iniai oiieie eooeeoeie, iiaenoeeaaiie /oanoaeoaeueiuie eeaoeaie.
O iiiaeo oaeeie i?aaiaie ieacuaathony iniaua ei?ioeea oienoinoaiiua
aieinee. Oaeea aieinee ia eaiea oa?aeaia aini?eieiatho eciaiaiea
oaiia?aoo?u iiaa?oiinoe, ii eioi?ie ii oiaeeo, a 1° — oi/iinoue,
o?oaeiiaeinooiiay iaoaio inycaieth. AEeaouea a aiaea ianaeiiua oi?ioi
?aaae?otho ia eciaiaiea aeaaeaiey, ii aaee/eia eioi?iai iie iieo/atho
eioi?iaoeeth i oie aeoaeia, ia eioi?ie iaoiaeyony, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeytho
iieiaeaiea oaea. Iai?eia?, o eeiia, iacuaaaiiai aiaeyiui nei?ieiiii
(Nepa cinerea), aeuoaeueoea ia 3 naaiaioao aaaeoo a eaia?o, aunoeaiioth
i/aiue oiieie eooeeoeie (iaia?aiie), iiae eioi?ie eaaeao /oanoaeoaeueiua
eeaoee. A ai?eciioaeueiii iieiaeaiee oaea a aiaea iaia?aiu ia anao
naaiaioao eniuouaatho iaeeiaeiaia aeaaeaiea, a i?e eciaiaiee iieiaeaiey
ia iaeie iaia?aiu aeaaeaiea oneeeaaaony, a ia ae?oaea ineaaeyaony. Yoa
?acieoea (?aaiay anaai 0,00015 am!) oaea oeaaeeaaaony aiaeiui eeiiii!
I/aiue /anoi o ianaeiiuo auaatho ?acaeou i?aaiu neooa. Neaaeoao oieueei
iaiai?eoueny, /oi neoo o ianaeiiuo — yoi niiniaiinoue e aini?eyoeth ia
oieueei caoeiauo eieaaaiee, aini?eieiaaiuo iaie, ii e ethauo eieaaaiee
n?aaeu. Ianaeiiua — aaeeinoaaiiua aaniicaiii/iua, aeey eioi?uo oi/ii
aeieacaia niiniaiinoue ?acee/aoue caoee. Eeanne/aneia
aeieacaoaeuenoai—iiuou ni naa?/eaie, eiaaea a iaeiii iiiauaiee ia?aae
iee?ioiiii naaeaee no?aei/ouaai naioea, a a ae?oaii — naieo ia?aae
oaeaoiiii. Eiaaea aeeth/aee iee?ioii, naiea ono?aieyeanue e oaeaoiio. Ia
iaaei oieueei aeoiaoue, /oi i?aaiu neooa o ianaeiiuo iioiaee ia iaoa
ooi. Iaoa ooi aini?eieiaao eciaiaiea aeaaeaiey aicaeooa, aucuaaaiia
enoi/ieeii caoeiaiai eieaaaiey, a o ianaeiiuo /aua aini?eieiaaony
aeaeaeaiea aicaeooa. Iaeaieaa niioaaonoaotho iaoaio ooo oeiiaiaeueiua
i?aaiu, ninoiyuea ec oiieeo ia?aiiiie, iaoyioouo ia neea?ioeciaaiiua
eieueoea (a?iaea iaoae aa?aaaiiie ia?aiiiee), iiae eioi?uie iaoiaeyony
iocu?aaeaeii ?anoe?aiiua o/anoee o?aoae n iiaeoiaeyueie e iei ia?aaie.
Oaeea i?aaiu anoue o eocia/eeia e naa?/eia ia aieaiyo ia?aaeieo iia, o
na?ai/iauo ia aieao ia?aiai a?thoiiai naaiaioa, o niaie ia aieao
caaeiaa?oaee, o iaiaaie ia ia?aii a?thoiii naaiaioa, o oeeeaae ia aoi?ii
e o. ae. I?iua iino?iaiiua oi?aeioiiaeueiua i?aaiu— iaoyiooua yeanoe/iua
aieieia, e eioi?ui iiaeoiaeyo ia?aiua ieii/aiey,— aeaeeii, anoue o anao
ianaeiiuo. Eioa?anii, /oi ii iiuoai, i?iaaaeaiiui iaae ianeieueeeie
aeaeaie aaai/ae niaie, ieacaeinue, /oi iie ?aaae?otho ia iiiaea caoeiaua
eieaaaiey (aaai/ee, oeaaeeaay caoe, onei?ytho iieao e iaiytho aai
iai?aaeaiea eee «i?eoai?ythony ia?oauie»). *anoioa eieaaaiee, ia
eioi?oth iie ?aaae?otho, io 15000 aei 175000 a naeoiaeo, i?e/ai neeueiaa
anaai ?aaeoeey ia eieaaaiey ii?yaeea 30000—80000, o. a. oaeiai ii?yaeea,
eae /anoioa oeueo?acaoeia, enioneaaiuo eaoo/eie iuoaie. Ecaanoii
oaia?ue, /oi i?eaioe?iaea eaoo/eo iuoae i?e iieaoa i?ienoiaeeo ii
i?eioeeio ?aaea?a: iie enioneatho oeueo?acaoee e oeaaeeaatho eo
io?aaeaiea io eaoyueo ianaeiiuo. E o ii/iuo aaai/ae au?aaioaeanue
caueoiay ?aaeoeey — eciaiaiea iieaoa — a ioaao ia yoe «?aaea?iua eo/e»
eo a?aaia. A iaeioi?ua ii/iua aaai/ee e naie ecaeatho oeueo?acaoee,
iiiiaathuea ?aniiciaaaoue ae?oa ae?oaa. O ianaeiiuo i?aaiaie neooa
neoaeao e niaoeeaeueiua aieinee, ?aniieaaathueany ia anae iiaa?oiinoe
oaea eee ia ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeao. Oi/iuie iiuoaie onoaiiaeaii, /oi, oioy
o naa?/ea iniiaiua neooiaua i?aaiu — oeiiaiaeueiua i?aaiu iaoiaeyony ia
aieaiyo ia?aaeieo iia, ineaaeaiiue neoo nio?aiyaony o iaai e iinea eo
oaeaeaiey. Aieinee, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia oea?eao i?yiie?ueuo, oeaaeeaatho
caoee /anoioie 50—400 eieaaaiee a naeoiaeo, a i?e neio?iiiii eieaaaiee —
aei 800. Iiaeaeaeii i?e/eaiaiiua aieinee — yoi e i?aaiu aeey aini?eyoey
iai?aaeaiey aao?a, oiea aicaeooa. O iniiaaiey oneeia e?ueaouo ianaeiiuo
anoue neiaeii ono?iaiiua i?aaiu /oanoa — aeaeiinoiiiau i?aaiu, n
iiiiuueth eioi?uo ianaeiiua eiio?iee?otho nei?inoue e iai?aaeaiea
iieaoa. Oa a?oiiu ianaeiiuo, o eioi?uo iaeaieaa oi?ioi ?acaeou neoo e
i?aaiu neooa, niiniaiu e ecaeaaaoue caoee. Yoi ioiineony e i?yiie?ueui,
o eioi?uo caoee ecaeathony iooai o?aiey ia?aaeiaai e?ay caaeiaai e?uea i
ieaeithth iiaa?oiinoue ia?aaeiaai e?uea eee i aioo?aiiee e?ae aaaea?
caaeieo iia (o na?ai/iauo) eeai iooai o?aiey iniauo o/anoeia ia?aaeieo
e?ueueaa ae?oa i ae?oaa (o naa?/eia, eocia/eeia), e oeeeaaeai, o eioi?uo
aea?e?oao iniaay iaia?aia, e o. ae. ssanoaaiii au?aaeaiu noiaeiua ii
no?iaieth «no?eaeoeyoeeiiiua» i?aaiu o iiiaeo ianaeiiuo, iai?eia? o
ee/eiie aeoeia (aeoeia-ieaiae, iaaicieeia, iannaeeae), eioi?ua aeeaoo a
iaaieueoeo iauaiao ieue. Eo caoeia iu ia neuoei, ii iie yaii
i?aaeoi?aaeaeatho ae?oa ae?oaa i acaeiii iianiii naeeaeaiee! Aei neo ii?
ieeoi ia eco/ae ecaeaaaaiua eie ia neuoeiua iaie caoee. Neaaeoao
o/anoue, /oi /anoi noaiaiue neuoeiinoe ?aciuo caoeia iaiaeeiaeiaa.
Aeiaieueii iiiai ethaeae a iauai n ii?iaeueiui neooii, eioi?ua ia neuoao
no?aeioa eocia/eeia; i?aaaea, e eocia/eee, aa?iyoii, ia neuoao
i?oaeeeiuo auno?aeia, oae eae eo no?aeio i?e no?aeueaa ia i?ae?auaaony.
I?e aini?eyoee caoeia aieineaie o?oaeii i?iaanoe a?aiue iaaeaeo neooii e
inycaieai. Iiiaea ianaeiiua aini?eieiatho eieaaaiey oie iiaa?oiinoe, ia
eioi?ie neaeyo. Iieaaie naa?/ie i?e /anoioa eieaaaiee ieiei 1500 a
naeoiaeo aini?eieiaao eo aeaaea i?e aiieeooaea a 0,1 ieeeeiee?iia
(ieeeeiee?ii — iaeia ieeeeiiiay ieeeeiao?a!). A naaeiaay aeoaeaeeoea
(Carabus hortensis) aini?eieiaao eieaaaiey /anoiou 200—400 a naeoiaeo
i?e aiieeooaea ia/eiay n 5500 ieeeeiee?ii! I?aaiu inycaiey ianaeiiuo —
aieinee, iniaaiii /oanoaeoaeueiua aieinee ia oneeao e oea?eao.

Eeann ianaeiiuo ioiineony e oeio /eaienoiiiaeo, aaea aianoa n
iiiaiiiaeeaie iie ia?acotho iiaeoei o?aoaeiiaeuoaueo. Io aeeceeo a?oii
/eaienoiiiaeo iie ioee/athony neaaeothuae eiiaeiaoeeae i?eciaeia: oaei
iiaeaeaii ia aieiao, a?oaeue e a?thoei, eiaaony o?e ia?u oiaeeeueiuo
iia, o aieueoeinoaa aeaeia ?acaeou e?ueuey.

Iaoea ia ianoiyuee iiiaio ecaanoii ieiei 1 ieeeeiia aeaeia ianaeiiuo,
i?e/ai aaeaaiaeii iienuaaaony io 3 aei 10 ouny/ iiauo aeaeia. Oaeei
ia?acii, ianaeiiua – naiay e?oiiay a?oiia i?aaieciia ec iaeoathueo iuia
ia Caiea. Eo aieueoa, /ai inoaeueiuo aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee aianoa acyouo.
I?aaeiieaaaaiia /enei aeaeia ianaeiiuo aua aiooeoaeueiaa. Ii ?aciui
ioeaieai iii ninoaaeyao io 3 aei 30 ieeeeiiia aeaeia.
Yioiiieiaai-nenoaiaoeeai i?aaenoieo ia?iiiay ?aaioa ii iienaieth e
eeanneoeeaoeee yoiai iio?ynathuaai iiiaiia?acey. Aieueoeinoai ioe?uoee
niaa?oaaony a iaeieco/aiiuo e iaeaieaa aiaaouo ianaeiiuie o?iie/aneeo
?aeiiao, iaeiaei e a Neae?e aeinoaoi/ii “aaeuo iyoai”, e nienie
neae?neeo aeaeia ianaeiiuo aaeaaiaeii iiiieiyaony.

I?e/ei ia?iiiiai aeaeiaiai ?aciiia?acey ianaeiiuo ianeieueei. I?aaeaea
anaai, yoi oeie/ii iacaiiua i?aaieciu, i?ae?anii i?eniiniaeaiiua e
oneiaeyi nooe. Any i?aaiecaoeey ianaeiiuo naycaia n caueoie io aunuoaiey
e yeiiiieae aeaae. Yieeooeeoea, oiieay aineiiiaeiaiay ieaiea ia
iiaa?oiinoe iie?iaia, i?aiyonoaoao enia?aieth aiaeu. O?aoaeiia aeuoaiea
a niunea yeiiiiee aeaae aieaa yooaeoeaii, /ai eaai/iia, iineieueeo
aeuoaoaeueiua ioaa?noey (aeuoaeueoea) i/aiue iaaieueoea ii ?acia?ai e
niiniaiu cae?uaaoueny. Auaeaeeoaeueiay nenoaia, i?aaenoaaeaiiay
iaeueieaeaauie ninoaeaie, i?iecaiaeeo e?enoaeeu ii/aaie eeneiou,
naycuaathuea iaaieueoia eiee/anoai aiaeu. A caaeiae eeoea ianaeiiuo
eiathony iniaua ?aeoaeueiua aeaeacu, eioi?ua ionanuaatho aiaeo ec
oi?ie?othueony yene?aiaioia e aica?auatho aa a iieinoue oaea. sseoea
iiiaeo ianaeiiuo oiaea oi?ioi caueuaiu io iioa?e aeaae. Oaeei ia?acii,
ianaeiiua i?ae?anii ni?aaeythony n iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai iaeoaiey a
iacaiiie n?aaea – caueoie io aunuoaiey. I?aaeee ianaeiiuo oaea auee
iacaiiuie i?aaieciaie, aio ii/aio n?aaee ieo iao iaeoaoaeae ii?ae e
ieaaiia.

N?aaee anao aaniicaiii/iuo oieueei ianaeiiua eiatho e?ueuey e inaieee
aicaeooioth n?aaeo. Iieao – yooaeoeaiia e yeiiiie/iia n?aaenoai
ia?aaeaeaeaiey. Niiniaiinoue ianaeiiuo e ?annaeaieth aia/aoeyao.
Iniaaiii oi?ioi ecaanoiu iea?aoeee ia?aeaoiie na?ai/e, iienaiiua aua a
Aeaeee. Na?ai/a eaaei ia?anaeaao N?aaeecaiiia ii?a, a n ei?aaeae
iaaethaeaee noae eaoyuae na?ai/e ca ouny/o eeeiiao?ia io aa?aaa.

Iaeia ec i?e/ei aeaeiaiai ?aciiia?acey ianaeiiuo – eo iaeeea ?acia?u. Ii
n?aaiaieth n e?oiiuie i?aaieciaie iie eiatho oeaeue ?yae i?aeiouanoa,
oaeeo eae inaiaiea iiauo n?aae iaeoaiey, yeiiiiey yia?aee e ieuaauo
?ano?nia aeey naiaai ?acaeoey. Aieueoeinoai ianaeiiuo e iniaaiii eo
ee/eiee aaaeoo ne?uoiue ia?ac aeecie. Iaeeea ?acia?u aeaeatho aiciiaeiui
aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea anoanoaaiiuo iieinoae a ii/aa, iiaenoeeea, iiae
ei?ie, a aiethueo noano?aoao, a oaeaea ia?aoiae e iaeoaieth a oeaiyo
aeeauo ?anoaiee e e ia?aceoecio. Inaiaiea iiauo yeieiae/aneeo ieo aaaeao
e ao?iiio aeaeiia?aciaaieth. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua ?acia?u ianaeiiuo
– io 3 aei 20 ii. Naiua iaeeea, oaeea eae aeoee-ia?ie?ueee, ia
i?aauoatho 0,2 ii, /oi iaiaiiiai aieueoa eiooci?ee-oooaeueee. Aeaaiou
ie?a ianaeiiuo aeeaoo a o?iieeao. E e?oiiui ianaeiiui a I?eaaeeaeuea
ioiinyony aaai/ee-ia?onieee, iaeioi?ua iaaeeiiaeacee e eieiiii?yaeu,
aeoee-aeoaeaeeoeu ec ?iaea a?ucaoi (Carabus), ieaaoioeu (Dytiscus),
iaeioi?ua ona/e (/a?iue ieooiaue, ineiiaue ne?eioi e ae?.), iaeneee
o?ou, aieueoay niniiaay ceaoea, no?aeicu-ei?iiunea, eocia/eee, eiaueea
o?auioea oe?ieie?ueay.

I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea ianaeiiuo o?oaeii ia?aioeaieoue. Aaeaaiaeii 1/5
/anoue o?iaeay ieaiaou eaeao ia i?iei?i a?iee a?aaeeoaeae. Nioie ouny/
aaeoa?ia eania oie/oiaeathony oaeeie a?aaeeoaeyie eae neae?neee e
iaia?iue oaeeii?yaeu, no?ieoaeueioth ae?aaaneio ii?oyo ei?iaaeu, ona/e,
ceaoee. ?acee/iua e?iaininu ia?aiinyo nia?oaeueii iianiua caaieaaaiey e
aeinaaeaeatho ethaeyi e aeeaioiui naieie oeonaie.

Iaeiaei iieaciay ?ieue ianaeiiuo oiaea ia?iiia. Iu ia iiaeai iieo/aoue
o?iaeae iiiaeo eoeueoo? aac iiueeoaeae. Ia?iiiay a?iey oeuieeia e
ia?aceoia naea?aeeaaao ?aciiiaeaiea ianaeiiuo-a?aaeeoaeae e
aeieiae/aneee iaoiae ai?ueau n eo eniieueciaaieai noeeo aieueoea
ia?niaeoeau. *aeiaae iieo/aao io ianaeiiuo iaae, aine, oaee, eaee,
e?aneoaee, iiiaea oeaiiua eaea?noaa. Iaeiiaoe ia ioaeii caauaaoue ia
ynoaoe/aneie ?iee ianaeiiuo, oe?aoathueo i?e?iaeo. Canooaiiuie aaai/eaie
noaei iiaeii oe?aoaoue aeeeeua, ii aua i?eyoiaa aeaeaoue yoeo nicaeaiee
ii?oathueie ia aiea.

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