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Основные проблемы генетики и роль воспризводства в развитии живого

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Aaiaoeea eae iaoea i ianeaaenoaaiiinoe

Aaiaoeea (io a?a/. genesis – i?ienoiaeaeaiea), iaoea i ianeaaenoaaiiinoe
e eciai/eainoe aeeauo i?aaieciia e iaoiaeao oi?aaeaiey eie. Aaiaoeea ii
i?aao iiaeao n/eoaoueny iaeiie ec naiuo aaaeiuo iaeanoae aeieiaee. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee ouny/aeaoee /aeiaae iieueciaaeny aaiaoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie
aeey oeo/oaiey aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo e aicaeaeuaaaiuo ?anoaiee, ia eiay
i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaoaieciao, eaaeaueo a iniiaa yoeo iaoiaeia. Noaey ii
?aciiia?aciui a?oaieiae/aneei aeaiiui, oaea 6000 eao iacaae ethaee
iiieiaee, /oi iaeioi?ua oece/aneea i?eciaee iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny io
iaeiiai iieieaiey ae?oaiio. Ioae?ay ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaieciu ec
i?e?iaeiuo iiioeyoeee e ne?aueaay eo iaaeaeo niaie, /aeiaae nicaeaaae
oeo/oaiiua ni?oa ?anoaiee e ii?iaeu aeeaioiuo, iaeaaeaaoea ioaeiuie aio
naienoaaie.

Iaeiaei eeoue a ia/aea XX a. o/aiua noaee iniciaaaoue a iieiie ia?a
aaaeiinoue caeiiia ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e aa iaoaieciia. Oioy oniaoe
iee?ineiiee iicaieeee onoaiiaeoue, /oi ianeaaenoaaiiua i?eciaee
ia?aaeathony ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea /a?ac nia?iaoicieaeu e
yeoeaeeaoee, inoaaaeinue iayniui, eaeei ia?acii iaeue/aeoea /anoeoeu
i?ioiieaciu iiaoo ianoe a naaa «caaeaoee» oiai ia?iiiiai iiiaeanoaa
i?eciaeia, ec eioi?uo neaaaaony eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue i?aaieci.

Ia?aue aeaenoaeoaeueii iao/iue oaa aia?aae a eco/aiee ianeaaenoaaiiinoe
aue naeaeai aano?eeneei iiiaoii A?aai?ii Iaiaeaeai, eioi?ue a 1866 a.
iioaeeeiaae noaoueth, caeiaeeaooth iniiau nia?aiaiiie aaiaoeee.
Iaiaeaeue iieacae, /oi ianeaaenoaaiiua caaeaoee ia niaoeaathony, a
ia?aaeathony io ?iaeeoaeae iioiieai a aeaea aeene?aoiuo (iainiaeaiiuo)
aaeeieoe. Yoe aaeeieoeu, i?aaenoaaeaiiua o iniaae ia?aie, inoathony
aeene?aoiuie e ia?aaeathony iineaaeothuei iieieaieyi a ioaeneeo e
aeaineeo aaiaoao, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo niaea?aeeo ii iaeiie aaeeieoea ec
eaaeaeie ia?u. A 1909 a. aeaoneee aioaiee Eiaainai iacaae yoe aaeeieoeu
«aaaeai», a a 1912 a. aia?eeaineee aaiaoee Ii?aai iieacae, /oi iie
iaoiaeyony a o?iiiniiao.

Oa?iei «Aaiaoeea» i?aaeeiaeee a 1906 aiaeo O. Ayonii.

N oao ii? aaiaoeea aeinoeaea aieueoeo oniaoia a iauyniaiee i?e?iaeu
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e ia o?iaia i?aaiecia, e ia o?iaia aaia. ?ieue aaiia a
?acaeoee i?aaiecia ia?iiia. Aaiu oa?aeoa?ecotho ana i?eciaee aoaeouaai
i?aaiecia, oaeea, eae oeaao aeac e eiaee, ?acia?u, aan e iiiaia ae?oaia.
Aaiu yaeythony iineoaeyie ianeaaenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, ia iniiaa eioi?ie
?acaeaaaony i?aaieci.

A caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey auaeaeytho aaiaoeeo ?anoaiee,
aaiaoeeo aeeaioiuo, aaiaoeeo iee?ii?aaieciia, aaiaoeeo /aeiaaea e o. i.,
a a caaeneiinoe io eniieuecoaiuo iaoiaeia ae?oaeo aeenoeeieei –
aeioeie/aneoth aaiaoeeo, iieaeoey?ioth aaiaoeeo, yeieiae/aneoth
aaiaoeeo, e ae?.

Aaiaoeea aiineo ia?iiiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea oai?ee yaiethoeee
(yaiethoeeiiiay aaiaoeea, aaiaoeea iiioeyoeee). Eaeae iaoiaeu aaiaoeee
iaoiaeyo i?eiaiaiea ai anao iaeanoyo /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
naycaiiie n aeeauie i?aaieciaie. Iie eiatho aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey
?aoaiey i?iaeai iaaeeoeeiu, naeueneiai oicyenoaa, iee?iaeieiae/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iiaaeoea aeinoeaeaiey aaiaoeee naycaiiu n ?acaeoeai
aaiaoe/aneie eiaeaia?ee.

A nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa aaiaoe/aneea aii?inu oe?iei ianoaeaeathony a
?aciuo aoaeeoi?eyo e n ?aciuo oi/ae c?aiey, a oii /enea yoe/aneie,
i/aaeaeii, ii aeaoi i?e/eiai.

Ai-ia?auo, aaiaoeea cao?aaeaaao naiua ia?ae/iua naienoaa aeeaie
i?e?iaeu, eae au eeth/aaua iiceoeee a aeeciaiiuo i?iyaeaieyo. Iiyoiio
i?ia?ann iaaeeoeeiu e aeieiaee, a oaeaea ana iaeeaeaiey io iaai /anoi
oieone?othony ia aaiaoeeo. Ai iiiaii yoi oieone?iaaiea ii?aaaeaii.

Ai-aoi?uo, a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey aaiaoeea oae ao?ii ?acaeaaaony, /oi
ii?iaeaeaao e iao/iua, e ieieiiao/iua iiiaiiaauathuea i?iaiicu. Yoi
iniaaiii eanaaony aaiaoeee /aeiaaea, i?ia?ann eioi?ie noaaeo yoe/aneea
i?iaeaiu ino?aa, /ai a ae?oaeo iaeanoyo iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneie iaoee.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iniuneaiey yoe/aneeo aniaeoia eniieueciaaiey iiauo
oaoiieiaee aicieeaea anaaaea.

Ioee/ea nia?aiaiiiai ia?eiaea a oii, /oi nei?inoue ?aaeecaoeee eaeae eee
iao/iie ?ac?aaioee a ?acoeueoao ?acei iiauneeanue.

A aaiaoeea /aeiaaea /aoei i?ineaaeeaaaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiay naycue
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee n yoe/aneeie aii?inaie, a oaeaea caaeneiinoue
iao/iuo iieneia io yoe/aneiai niunea eo eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoia. Aaiaoeea
oaaioea ianoieueei aia?aae, /oi /aeiaae iaoiaeeony ia ii?iaa oaeie
aeanoe, eioi?ay iicaieyao aio ii?aaeaeyoue naith aeieiae/aneoth
noaeueao. Eiaiii iiyoiio eniieueciaaiea anao iioaioeeaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae iaaeeoeeineie aaiaoeee ?aaeueii oieueei i?e no?iaii
niaethaeaiee yoe/aneeo ii?i.

Aaiaoeea /aeiaaea, auno?i ?acaeaaynue a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey, aeaea
ioaaou ia iiiaea ec aeaaii eioa?aniaaaoeo ethaeae aii?inu: io /aai
caaeneo iie ?aaaiea? Ii/aio aeaoe iioiaee ia ?iaeeoaeae? Eaeea i?eciaee
e caaieaaaiey ianeaaeothony, a eaeea – iao, ii/aio ethaee oae ia iioiaee
ae?oa ia ae?oaa, ii/aio a?aaeiu aeecei?iaenoaaiiua a?aee?

Eioa?an e aaiaoeea /aeiaaea iaoneiaeai ianeieueeeie i?e/eiaie.
Ai-ia?auo, yoi anoanoaaiiia no?aieaiea /aeiaaea iiciaoue naiiai naay.
Ai-aoi?uo, iinea oiai eae auee iiaaaeaeaiu iiiaea eioaeoeeiiiua aieacie
– /oia, oiea?a, inia e ae?., – oaaee/eeanue ioiineoaeueiay aeiey
ianeaaenoaaiiuo aieaciae. A-o?aoueeo, iinea oiai eae auee iiiyou
i?e?iaea iooaoeee e eo cia/aiea a ianeaaenoaaiiinoe, noaei ynii, /oi
iooaoeee iiaoo auoue aucaaiu oaeoi?aie aiaoiae n?aaeu, ia eioi?ua ?aiaa
ia ia?auaee aeieaeiiai aieiaiey. Ia/aeinue eioaineaiia eco/aiea
aicaeaenoaey ia ianeaaenoaaiiinoue eceo/aiee e oeie/aneeo aauanoa. N
eaaeaeui aiaeii a auoo, naeueneii oicyenoaa, ieuaaie, einiaoe/aneie,
oa?iaeieiae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ae?oaeo iaeanoyo aeayoaeueiinoe
i?eiaiyaony ana aieueoa oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, n?aaee eioi?uo
eniieuecoaony iaiaei iooaaaiia.

A nayce n yoei iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea iniiaiua i?iaeaiu aaiaoeee.

Ianeaaenoaaiiua aieacie e eo i?e/eiu.

Ianeaaenoaaiiua aieacie iiaoo auoue aucaaiu ia?ooaieyie a ioaeaeueiuo
aaiao, o?iiiniiao eee o?iiiniiiuo iaai?ao. Aia?aua naycue iaaeaeo
aiiiaeueiui iaai?ii o?iiinii e ?aceeie ioeeiiaieyie io ii?iaeueiiai
?acaeoey auea iaia?oaeaia a neo/aa neiae?iia Aeaoia.

Iiieii o?iiiniiiuo ia?ooaiee, ianeaaenoaaiiua aieacie iiaoo auoue
iaoneiaeaiu eciaiaieyie aaiaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
aaiao.

Yooaeoeaiuo n?aaenoa ea/aiey ianeaaenoaaiiuo aieaciae iiea ia
nouanoaoao. Iaeiaei nouanoaotho iaoiaeu ea/aiey, iaeaa/athuea ninoiyiea
aieueiuo e oeo/oathuea eo naii/oanoaea. Iie iniiaaiu aeaaiui ia?acii ia
eiiiainaoeee aeaoaeoia iaoaaieecia, iaoneiaeaiiuo ia?ooaieyie a aaiiia.

Iaaeeei-aaiaoe/aneea eaai?aoi?ee. Ciaiea aaiaoeee /aeiaaea iicaieyao
ii?aaeaeyoue aa?iyoiinoue ?iaeaeaiey aeaoae, no?aaeathueo
ianeaaenoaaiiuie aieaciyie, a neo/ayo, eiaaea iaeei eee iaa noi?oaa
aieueiu eee iaa ?iaeeoaey caei?iau, ii ianeaaenoaaiiua caaieaaaiey
ano?a/aeenue o eo i?aaeeia. A ?yaea neo/aaa aiciiaeii i?iaiice?iaaiea
?iaeaeaiey caei?iaiai aoi?iai ?aaaiea, anee ia?aue aue aieai. Oaeia
i?iaiice?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony a iaaeeei-aaiaoe/aneeo eaai?aoi?eyo.
Oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea iaaeeei-aaiaoe/aneeo eiinoeueoaoeee ecaaaeo
iiiaea naiuee io ian/anouey eiaoue aieueiuo aeaoae.

Ianeaaeothony ee niiniaiinoe? O/aiua n/eoatho, /oi a eaaeaeii /aeiaaea
anoue ca?ii oaeaioa. Oaeaio ?acaeaaaony o?oaeii. Aaiaoe/anee /aeiaae ii
naiei aiciiaeiinoyi aiaa/a, ii ia ?aaeecoao eo iieiinoueth a naiae
aeecie.Aei neo ii? aua iao iaoiaeia auyaeaiey enoeiiuo niiniaiinoae
/aeiaaea a i?ioeanna aai aeaoneiai e thiioaneiai ainieoaiey, a iioiio
/anoi e ia i?aaeinoaaeythony niioaaonoaothuea oneiaey aeey eo ?acaeoey.

Aeaenoaoao ee anoanoaaiiue ioai? a /aeiaa/aneii iauanoaa? Enoi?ey
/aeiaa/anoaa – yoi eciaiaiea aaiaoe/aneie no?oeoo?u iiioeyoeee aeaea
Homo sapiens iiae aicaeaenoaeai aeieiae/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia.
Aieiu, yieaeaiee eciaiyee aaiioiiae /aeiaa/anoaa. Anoanoaaiiue ioai? ca
iineaaeiea 2 oun. eao ia ineaaae, a oieueei eciaieeny: ia iaai ianeieeny
ioai? nioeeaeueiue.

Aaiiay eiaeaia?ey eniieuecoao aaaeiaeoea ioe?uoey iieaeoey?iie aaiaoeee
aeey ?ac?aaioee iiauo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey, iieo/aiey iiauo
aaiaoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, a oaeaea a i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a
/anoiinoe a iaaeeoeeia.

?aiaa aaeoeeiu ecaioiaeyee oieueei ec oaeouo eee ineaaeaiiuo aaeoa?ee
eee ae?onia, niiniaiuo aucuaaoue o /aeiaaea au?aaioeo eiioieoaoa ca n/ao
ia?aciaaiey niaoeeoe/aneeo aaeeia-aioeoae. Oaeea aaeoeeiu i?eaiaeyo e
au?aaioea noieeiai eiioieoaoa, ii o ieo anoue e iaaeinoaoee.

Aaciianiaa aaeoeeie?iaaoue /enouie aaeeaie iaiei/ee ae?onia – iie ia
iiaoo ?aciiiaeaoueny, o.e. o ieo iao ioeeaeiiauo eeneio, ii aucuaatho
au?aaioeo aioeoae. Iieo/eoue eo iiaeii iaoiaeaie aaiiie eiaeaia?ee. Oaea
nicaeaia oaeay aaeoeeia i?ioea eioaeoeeiiiiai aaiaoeoa (aieacie Aioeeia)
– aieacie iianiie e o?oaeiiecea/eiie. Aaaeoony ?aaiou ii nicaeaieth
/enouo aaeoeei i?ioea a?eiia, neae?neie ycau e ae?oaeo aieaciae.

Ei??aeoeey iiea. Iia?aoeee ii ei??aeoeee iiea a iaoae no?aia ia/aee
aeaeaoue ieiei 30 eao iacaae no?iai ii iaaeeoeeineei iieacaieyi.

Ia?anaaeea i?aaiia. Ia?anaaeea i?aaiia io aeiii?ia – i/aiue neiaeiay
iia?aoeey, ca eioi?ie neaaeoao ia iaiaa neiaeiue ia?eiae i?eaeeaeaiey
o?ainieaioaoa. I/aiue /anoi o?ainieaioao iooi?aaaony e iaoeeaio
iiaeaaao. O/aiua iaaeathony, /oi yoe i?iaeaiu iiaeii aoaeao ?aoeoue n
iiiiuueth eeiie?iaaiey.

Eeiie?iaaiea – iaoiae aaiiie eiaeaia?ee, i?e eioi?ii iioiiee iieo/athony
ec niiaoe/aneie eeaoee i?aaeea e iiyoiio eiatho aaniethoii oaeie aea
aaiii.

Eeiie?iaaiea aeeaioiuo iicaieyao ?aoeoue iiiaea i?iaeaiu iaaeeoeeiu e
iieaeoey?iie aeieiaee, ii aianoa n oai ii?iaeaeaao iiiaeanoai
nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai.

O/aiua aeaeyo ia?niaeoeao aini?iecaaaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo oeaiae eee
i?aaiia oyaeaei aieueiuo ethaeae aeey iineaaeothuae o?ainieaioaoeee – a
yoii neo/aa ia aoaeao i?iaeai n iooi?aeaieai o?ainieaioaoa. Eeiie?iaaiea
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue e aeey iieo/aiey iiauo eaea?noa, iniaaiii
iieo/aaiuo ec oeaiae e i?aaiia aeeaioiuo eee /aeiaaea.

Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia caiai/eaua ia?niaeoeau, aucuaaao aaniieienoai
yoe/aneay noi?iia eeiie?iaaiey.

O?iaenoaa. ?acaeoea iiaiai aeeaiai nouanoaa i?ienoiaeeo a niioaaonoaee n
aaiaoe/aneei eiaeii, caienaiiui a AeIE, eioi?ay niaea?aeeony a yae?a
eaaeaeie eeaoee i?aaiecia. Eiiaaea iiae aicaeaenoaeai oaeoi?ia n?aaeu –
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo, oeueo?aoeieaoiauo eo/ae, oeie/aneeo aauanoa –
i?ienoiaeeo ia?ooaiea aaiaoe/aneiai eiaea, aicieeatho iooaoeee,
ionooieaiey io ii?iu.

Aaiaoeea e e?eieiaeenoeea. A noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ecaanoiu neo/ae
onoaiiaeaiey ?iaenoaa, eiaaea aeaoe auee ia?aiooaiu a ?iaeaeiia. Eiiaaea
yoi eanaeinue aeaoae, eioi?ua ?inee a /oaeeo naiueyo ia iaeei aiae. Aeey
onoaiiaeaiey ?iaenoaa eniieuecotho iaoiaeu aeieiae/aneie yenia?oecu,
eioi?oth i?iaiaeyo, eiaaea ?aaaieo eniieieony 1 aiae e noaaeeece?oaony
nenoaia e?iae. ?ac?aaioai iiaue iaoiae – aaiiay aeaeoeeineiiey, eioi?ue
iicaieyao i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec ia o?iiiniiiii o?iaia. A yoii neo/aa
aic?ano ?aaaiea cia/aiey ia eiaao, a ?iaenoai onoaiaaeeaaaony ni 100%-e
aa?aioeae.

Iaoiaeu eco/aiey aaiaoeee /aeiaaea

Aaiaaeiae/aneee iaoiae ninoieo a eco/aiee ?iaeineiaiuo ia iniiaa
iaiaeaeaaneeo caeiiia ianeaaeiaaiey e ioioaaeo onoaiiaeoue oa?aeoa?
ianeaaeiaaiey i?eciaea (aeiieiaioiue eee ?aoeanneaiue).

Aeeciaoeiaue iaoiae ninoieo a eco/aiee ?acee/ee iaaeaeo iaeiiyeoeaauie
aeeciaoeaie. Yoio ieooae i?aaeinoaaeai naiie i?e?iaeie. Ii iiiiaaao
auyaeoue aeeyiea oneiaee n?aaeu ia oaiioei i?e iaeeiaeiauo aaiioeiao.

Iiioeyoeeiiiue iaoiae. Iiioeyoeeiiiay aaiaoeea eco/aao aaiaoe/aneea
?acee/ey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie a?oiiaie ethaeae (iiioeyoeeyie),
enneaaeoao caeiiiia?iinoe aaia?aoe/aneiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey aaiia.

Oeeoiaaiaoe/aneee iaoiae iniiaai ia eco/aiee eciai/eainoe e
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe ia o?iaia eeaoee e noaeeaoi/iuo no?oeoo?. Onoaiiaeaia
naycue ?yaea oyaeaeuo caaieaaaiee n ia?ooaieyie a o?iiiniiao.

Aeioeie/aneee iaoiae iicaieyao auyaeoue iiiaea ianeaaenoaaiiua aieacie
/aeiaaea, naycaiiua n ia?ooaieai iaiaia aauanoa. Ecaanoiu aiiiaeee
oaeaaiaeiiai, aieiieeneioiiai, eeieaeiiai e ae?oaeo oeiia iaiaia
aauanoa.

?ieue aini?iecaiaenoaa a ?acaeoee aeeaiai.

Ana yoaiu a aeecie ethaiai aeeaiai nouanoaa aaaeiu, a oii /enea e aeey
/aeiaaea. Ana iie naiaeyony e oeeeee/aneiio aini?iecaiaenoao enoiaeiiai
aeeaiai i?aaiecia. E ia/aeny yoi i?ioeann oeeeee/aneiai aini?iecaiaenoaa
ieiei 4 ie?ae. eao iacaae.

?anniio?ei aai iniaaiiinoe. Ec aeioeiee ecaanoii, /oi iiiaeanoai
?aaeoeee i?aaie/aneeo iieaeoe ia?aoeiu. Iai?eia?, ec aieiieeneio
neioace?othony iieaeoeu aaeeia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ?anuaieaiu ia
aieiieeneiou. Oi anoue iiae aeeyieai eaeeo-eeai aicaeaenoaee i?ienoiaeyo
eae ?aaeoeee neioaca, oae e ?aaeoeee ?anuaieaiey. A aeeaie i?e?iaea
ethaie i?aaieci i?ioiaeeo oeeeee/aneea noaaeee ?anuaieaiey enoiaeiiai
i?aaiecia e aini?iecaiaenoaa ec ioaeaeeaoaeny /anoe iiaie eiiee
enoiaeiiai i?aaiecia, eioi?ay caoai niiaa aeaao ca?iaeuo aeey
aini?iecaiaenoaa. Eiaiii ii yoie i?e/eia acaeiiaeaenoaey a aeeaie
i?e?iaea aeeyony iai?a?uaii ieeeea?aeu eao. Naienoai aini?iecaaaeaiey ec
?anuaieaiiuo /anoae enoiaeiiai i?aaiecia aai eiiee ii?aaeaeyaony oai,
/oi iiaiio i?aaiecio ia?aaeaaony eiiieaen iieaeoe, eioi?ue iieiinoueth
eiio?iee?oao i?ioeann ainnicaeaiey eiiee.

Ia/aeny i?ioeann n naiiaini?iecaiaenoaa eiiieaenia iieaeoe. E iooue yoio
aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi caoeene?iaai a eaaeaeie aeeaie eeaoea. O/aiua oaea
aeaaii ia?aoeee aieiaiea ia oi, /oi a i?ioeanna yia?eiaaiaca
iiaoi?ythony yoaiu yaiethoeee aeecie. Ii oiaaea neaaeoao ia?aoeoue
aieiaiea e ia oi, /oi a naiie aeoaeia eeaoee, a aa yae?a, iaoiaeyony
iieaeoeu AeIE. Yoi naiia eo/oaa aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi aeeciue ia
Caiea ia/aeanue n aini?iecaiaenoaa eiiieaenia iieaeoe, eioi?ua iaeaaeaee
naienoaii nia/aea ?anuaieoue aeaieioth nie?aeue AeIE, a caoai
iaania/eaaee i?ioeann ainnicaeaiey aeaieiie nie?aee. Yoi e anoue
i?ioeann oeeeee/aneiai ainnicaeaiey aeeaiai iauaeoa n iiiiuueth iieaeoe,
eioi?ua ia?aaeaaaeenue a iiiaio ?anuaieaiey e eioi?ua iieiinoueth
eiio?iee?iaaee neioac eiiee enoiaeiiai iauaeoa. Iiyoiio ii?aaeaeaiea
aeecie aoaeao auaeyaeaoue oae. AEeciue – yoi aeae acaeiiaeaenoaey
iaoa?ee, iniiaiui ioee/eai eioi?iai io ecaanoiuo aeaeia acaeiiaeaenaee
yaeyaony o?aiaiea, iaeiieaiea e eiie?iaaiea iauaeoia, eioi?ua aiinyo
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue a yoe acaeiiaeaenoaey e ia?aaiaeyo eo ec neo/aeiuo a
caeiiiia?iua, i?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo oeeeee/aneia aini?iecaiaenoai aeeaiai
iauaeoa.

Ethaie aeeaie i?aaieci eiaao aaiaoe/aneee iaai? iieaeoe, eioi?ue
iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyao i?ioeann ainnicaeaiey eiiee enoiaeiiai iauaeoa,
oi anoue i?e iaee/ee iaiaoiaeeiuo ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa n aa?iyoiinoueth
aaeeieoea a ?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey eiiieaena iieaeoe i?iecieaeao
ainnicaeaiea eiiee aeeaiai i?aaiecia. Ii iieo/aiea ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa
ia aa?aioe?oaony, i?ienoiaeyo oaeaea a?aaeiua aiaoiea aicaeaenoaey e
ia?ooaiey acaeiiaeaenoaee aioo?e eeaoee. Iiyoiio anaaaea noiia?iay
aa?iyoiinoue ainnicaeaiey eiiee /ooue iaiueoa aaeeieoeu.

Oae aio, ec aeaoo i?aaieciia eee aeeauo iauaeoia yooaeoeaiaa aoaeao
eiie?iaaoueny oio i?aaieci, o eioi?iai aieueoa noiia?iay aa?iyoiinoue
inouanoaeaiey anao iaiaoiaeeiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee. Yoi e anoue caeii
yaiethoeee aeeaie i?e?iaeu. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, aai iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue
e oae: /ai aieueoa iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey eiie?iaaiey iauaeoa acaeiiaeaenoaee
eiio?iee?othony naiei iauaeoii, oai aieueoa aa?iyoiinoue aai
oeeeee/aneiai aini?iecaiaenoaa.

I/aaeaeii i?e yoii, /oi anee noiia?iay aa?iyoiinoue inouanoaeaiey anao
acaeiiaeaenoaee oaaee/eaaaony, oi aeaiiue iauaeo yaiethoeeiie?oao, anee
oiaiueoaaony, oi eiaiethoeeiie?oao, anee ia eciaiyaony, oi iauaeo
iaoiaeeony a noaaeeueiii ninoiyiee.

Aaaeiaeoae ooieoeeae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony ooieoeey
naiii?iecaiaenoaa. Eia/a aiai?y, aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue anoue i?ioeann
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoe ii aini?iecaiaenoao /aeiaaeii naiaai aeeaiai
nouanoaa a ?aieao oie nenoaiu, a eioi?oth ii aeeth/ai a ea/anoaa
yeaiaioa, o.a. a oneiaeyo ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. I?eieiay a ea/anoaa
enoiaeiiai oacena iinueeo, /oi aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue eiaao aaaeiaeooth
iio?aaiinoue a aini?iecaiaenoaa naiaai noauaeoa, eae iaeaaeaoaey
/aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aini?iecaiaenoai
inouanoaeyaony aeaiyeei ia?acii: ai-ia?auo, a i?ioeanna iio?aaeaiey
aauanoaa e yia?aee ec ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, e ai-aoi?uo, a i?ioeanna
aeieiae/aneiai ?aciiiaeaiey, oi anoue ?iaeaeaiey iioiinoaa. Ia?aue aeae
?aaeecaoeee iio?aaiinoe a caaia “aiaoiyy n?aaea-i?aaieci” iiaeii
au?aceoue eae aini?iecaiaenoai “aeeaiai ec iaaeeaiai”. *aeiaae
nouanoaoao ia caiea aeaaiaea?y iinoiyiiiio iio?aaeaieth ec n?aaeu
iaiaoiaeeiuo aauanoa e yia?aee.

A.E. Aa?iaaeneee a naiai ecaanoiii o?oaea “Aeinoa?a” i?aaenoaaee
i?ioeann aeecie ia Caiea eae iinoiyiiue e?oaiai?io aauanoaa e yia?aee, a
eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii aeeth/ai, ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie nouanoaaie e /aeiaae.
Aoiiu e iieaeoeu oece/aneeo aauanoa, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa aeinoa?u Caiee,
ca a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey aeecie ieeeeiiu ?ac aeeth/aeenue a aa e?oaiai?io
e auoiaeeee ec iaai. *aeiaa/aneee i?aaieci ia yaeyaony oiaeaeanoaaiiui
iio?aaeaiiiio ec aiaoiae n?aaeu aauanoao e yia?aee, ii nooue
i?aia?aciaaiiue ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii i?aaeiao aai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.
A ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeecaoeee iio?aaiinoae a aauanoaao, yia?aee, eioi?iaoeee
ec iaeiiai iauaeoa i?e?iaeu aicieeaao ae?oaie, iaeaaeathuee naienoaaie e
ooieoeeyie aiana ia i?enoueie enoiaeiiio iauaeoo. A yoii i?iyaeyaony
iniaue, iaiaoiaeeii i?enouee /aeiaaeo aeae aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeoth
aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae iio?aaiinoue, iai?aaeaiioth ia
aauanoaaiii-yia?aaoe/aneia aini?iecaiaenoai. Niaea?aeaieai ?aaeecaoeee
yoie iio?aaiinoe yaeyaony aeiauaaiea n?aaenoa aeecie ec ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu. Aeiauaaiea a oe?ieii niunea eae nianoaaiii aeiauaaiea, oae e
i?iecaiaenoai.

Aeaiiue aeae aini?iecaiaenoaa ia yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiui aeey
nouanoaiaaiey aeecie. A.E.Aa?iaaeneee ienae, /oi aeeaie i?aaieci,
“oie?ay, aeeay e ?ac?ooaynue ioaeaao ae naie aoiiu e iai?a?uaii aa?ao eo
o iaa, — ii ioaa/aiiia aeeciueth aeeaia aauanoai anaaaea eiaao ia/aei a
aeeaii aea”. Aoi?ie aeae aini?iecaiaenoaa oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii i?enou
anaio aeeaiio ia Caiea. Iaoeie n aeinoaoi/iie ii?aaeaeaiiinoueth
aeieacaii, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ca?iaeaeaiea aeeaiai ec iaaeeaie
iaoa?ee ia aeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey Caiee iaaiciiaeii.

Iinea aicieeiiaaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeecie ia Caiea aa aicieeiiaaiea a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia iniiaa iaeiie oieueei iai?aaie/aneie iaoa?ee
ieacuaaaony oaea iaaiciiaeiui. Ana nouanoaothuea ia Caiea aeeaua nenoaiu
aicieeatho nae/an eeai ia iniiaa aeeaiai, eeai i?e iin?aaenoaa aeeaiai.
Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeaea, /ai aeeaie i?aaieci aoaeao aini?iecaiaeeoue
naay aauanoaaiii-yia?aaoe/anee, ii aeieaeai auoue aini?iecaaaeai
aeieiae/anee, oi anoue auoue ?iaeaeaiiui ae?oaei aeeaui i?aaieciii.
Aini?iecaiaenoai aeeaiai aeeaui anoue, i?aaeaea anaai, ia?aaea/a iaeiei
iieieaieai ae?oaiio aaiiiai iaoa?eaea, eioi?ue aeaoa?ieie?oao a
iioiinoaa yaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie ii?oioeceieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u. Iiiyoii,
/oi aaiiue iaoa?eae ia ia?aaeaaony io iieieaiey e iieieaieth nai ii
naaa, aai ia?aaea/a oaeaea anoue ooieoeey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. A?o?iia A. *oi oaeia aai.  — Oaaai?ia.: Ecae-ai “E?aniay no?aieoea”,
1989.

2. Aeieiae/aneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. — I.: Nia.
yioeeeeiiaaeey, 1989.

3. Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Oeie/aneia no?iaiea aeinoa?u Caiee e aa ie?oaeaiey.-
I.: Iaoea, 1965.

4. Aaeneiiae/ A. E. Ca?iaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea aaiaoeee.  — I., 1988.

5. Aa?oaicii N. I. Iniiau nia?aiaiiie aaiaoeee.  — Eeaa, 1993.

6. Eeaa?iooa?i O. Aaiu e aaiaoeea.  — I.: Ecae-ai Ia?aa?ao, 1995.

7. Ooeeiia A.O. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. -I. : THIEOE,
2004.

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