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Нуклеиновые кислоты. Обмен веществ и энергии в клетке

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I????? ???u. I?? ???a e y??? a ?a?a

I????? ???u. AOO

I???a «?????a ???? ????? ? ????? ??a «????, o. a. y?i: ?e ???a ?? ?????
e ???? ? y?? ???. N????o ?a ?? ?????o ???: ??????????? ???u (????? —
AeIE) e ???????a e??? (?IE). AeIE ????ny ??e ??th???? a y?a ???, a ?IE e
a y?a, e a ?????. N????a AeIE a y?? ??? ??? ??iy?i, ????? ?IE ???
?e???y.

A?????? ???? ?????o ??? ??ue ???. I? ??tho ?????th ?eue a ???a ??? ???.
Eth?y ??? ????o a ????? ???y ?????e ???. I? y?i ???? ??? ???otho ???? e
???? ?????e. N???a ? e ???? ??? ???eyth?y ???i ???i ? ???e. AeIE e ?IE,
?e y? ?ae? ???? ???, ?????tho ??? ??? ?e ? ????u e ?? ? ???a, ???a
?ath?y o ?????e ???.

AeIE. Ii n?? ????a AeIE ????ey? ??????, ? ???a ? ? ?? ????a a ?i? ?????.
Ia ???a 69 ??i, ?i ?e??a AeIE ???o ? ?? ????i ?????o ?? ??? ??a ??e.
O??a ??e ???e ???e AeIE ??i ??i 20 A, ?? ??a ? ??th???? ???. I? ??o
????? ????? ?ny?? e ?? ??i ?????a. Aeey ?? ??u ???ue y? aa???, ??i, ?i
??a ??e ???e ???? ???? (a ?????i ??iy?e) ? ????o 0,1 ?i. O?? ???i, ??a
???? AeIE a ??e e ?ny? ?c ??? ??e ???e ???? ????. I???y?? ?n AeIE ????e
??e: ? ???ey? ?ny?e e ?? ??e ????a. Y? ??u ??ny?y e ???e ???e. Ia ??oth
?? ????ny ???? ??.

N ????? ???u ??ay ?? AeIE — ????, ????? ???? y?yth?y ?e ????? ?????.
Aeey ?? ??u ?????ue ??, ?i ??a i????, ? ???e ??i, ?i ????ae y?y?ny ????i
?????i ????ey ?? ??? ???a: ????? ????y, ???? ???? (???u) e ????e ???u.

A ??? AeIE ??yo ??? ??? ?? ?????a. I? ???ath?y ??o ??e ??? ? ????a ?????
????y, ????y ??ue ? ???e o ?? i????? ????a. I????u ?y?? e ???tho ?
??????y a ?o ????? ????th. O???, ?????ny ? ?? ??a??? AeIE, ????ny
???e???e.

A???? ????aI???a
?????I?????A??iA????eAA??iA????eAO??O????OOe???Oe?????Oe

N???? ?????a ??o ??e, ??a ?e ???yth?y a ?? AeIE, ????? ??c ????th ???o e
??????o. Ca n??????a ????e ???u ??? ????? e ????? ??????u ????i ?????
??ey?ny ???? ?? e i??? ?????a ???yth?y ???e ????i? ?y?th. Ec ?? ?????a
????ny ?????ae, ? ?? ?????a — ??o???ae, ? ??? — ??????ae. E??y ?? AeIE e
????ey? ??e ??????ae, o. a. ???th ??, a ???e a ??? ?????? e ?y ??? AeIE
??? ??iy?? ??y?a ??otho ?????. Ae????i ?????ue ?oy ? ?? ????ae — e ?c???
??y ????a, n ??? ?????. I????i i???? ???o. I???y?ay ??a ??? i????a a
???i ??a 330. I???y?oth ??o ??e ?? AeIE ??? ??? 10 “?i. I?th? ???o, ?i
??y ?? ???o ? 30 000 ?????a. O?y a ???? AeIE ???otho ??i 4 ?????, ? ?e
??i ???? ? ??a, ??y?i a ??oth ?? AeIE, ???? ?????ue ??, ??a ????? ??i
???? AeIE ??o ??????.

I?????y ???, ?e ????ath?y ?oa ?????? ??a ?? AeIE, ??a ????ny ???ue, e
??a ?? ????tho ?? ??o ??e.

Ia ???a 72 ????i ????e ???e ???e ???e AeIE. A???? ????y ??e ?? ????ath?y
??i ??? ????o ????e ???. I???a ????: a ?????? ??????? ?????a ?o ???
?????: ??? A ??e ?? ?????y ??? O ? ??? ??, a ??? A ??? Oe ? ???. I???
??? ????a ? ??ao. I?y?y?ny y? ?i, ?i a A e O, ?e ? ?e a A e Oe, ?ay ???e
????o ?ii??e ?????otho ?? ??o ??????e (?e ?a ???i? ????i ???), ?y?? ?e
??o ??i ????ny ?? n ??? e ????? ??o ??e ????? ?y?. I? y?i ??o A e Oe
???th?y 3 ????? ?yce, a ??o A e O ??? 2. Naycue A—Oe, ??i ???i, ??a
???y, /? A—O. I?y?i ???, ??? ???o, ?i a ?? A—O, a ??a a ?? A—Oe ??
????ae ???y? ???. N?? «ae????? ? ????i y?? — «?????». I?iy? ?y?? ????,
?i A y?y?ny ???????i ?????i e Oe, a Oe — ???????i e A; A — ??????? e O,
e ????, O ??????? e A. A?e ? ??i-??? ???a ?? AeIE ??otho ?? ? ???
????aeu: A, A, A, Oe, O, A, Oe, Oe, ? ? ??????? ???a ??? ?? ???ny
???i???? e ?i ?????: O, Oe, Oe, A, A, O, A, A. O?? i???, ?? ???? ??y?e
????ey ?????a a ??e ??, ? ? ???? e???????? ??o ? ?y?y?ny ??y?e ????ey
?????a a ??? ??.

N??a ?y?, ?????a ?????i, ?tho ???a ?????. Ae??ay ???ue AeIE, «???ay»
???????e «???? ????u? ?ycy?, ???? ????o, n ??e ???u, ????? ????oth, a n
??? n???, ????th: ?a ??i ??????ny e ??i ???????o ?ith ??y??th ????o. I??
?y AeIE ????ny a y?a ???. N????a AeIE a y?? ?e???y ??iy???. A y?a eth?e
??? ???? (??a ???o) ????ny 6,6X10-12 a AeIE, a y?? ???o ??? AeIE ??i ??a
??? – 3.3×10-12 a.

??????y AeIE

I??? ????????e, ???e a ??? ????u AeIE, ???y? ?iy?, ?e ????oth?y ??a ????
AeIE i? ???e ???.

Y?o ??? ???i ? ??????e n????? ???? AeIE e ???eth e ??o a ??? ????
??????? ?i?? ? ?????e ??? e ????. I??? ???ey ???e AeIE ????? a ??? ????i
??ae ? ????.

N????y ??y??y ?? AeIE ???? n ??? ??a ?????y, e ? ??? ?ie ? ??aey??y a
???th?e ??a ????o ?????a ????ny ??y ??. N??a ??e ?? ?? a ??? ?????? n
????i ????????e. I??a ???i A ??? O, ??? A — Oe e o. ae. A ????? ??? ??e
???? AeIE ???atho aeaa ??e?u ??? ? ??i ??????i ???a, ?e e ??????ay. Y?o
???n ????ny ??????e, o. a. ????i. I?a ?? a ??? ??ue ??????ny ???? AeIE
i????o ? ??????? ????, a ??ay ??????y ??ue.

N??c AeIE ????ey? ??e ???o???e ???n. Ii ????ey?ny a ????? ?y????e ????
AeIE — ?????. AeIE ??? ??? ??y?e ?????ey ?e????, a ???n ?????? ????ey?
??e- I??????y, ?i ???o ?e ? ??? ??ue ???e ??y??e ???eu AeIE ? ??? ??a ?
???i e ??? ?ay ???y? ?????e «???.

?IE. N????o ????i ??? ?IE- I? ?nyo ???? a ?????e ? ???y?? a ??? ???e.
I?i ?ae ?IE i????y ?????? ?IE (o-?IE), ?e ?e ?e ??????tho ?????? e ??o
???a ?e?. Ae??a ?IE ???th?y ???????e (e-?IE): y? ?IE ???nyo ????eth i
????a a??, ???e ??? ???????y.

N???? ?IE ??ue ??? ? ????? AeIE, ??? ?? e ???y. A n???? ?IE ?o ???e
???e, ? ??io ???eth ?a ??? n ??e ? ??e AeIE- ?IE, ?e e AeIE, — ????. Aa
?????, ?e ? ?e e o AeIE, n??o ?????. I????u ?IE ???, ?oy e ? ??????,
?????i AeIE. O? ? ?e e ????? AeIE, ????? ?IE ??iyo ? ???? ????? ?i??ey,
???u e ????e ???u. A???? ????y a ?? ?????o ?IE ??a ?, ?e o AeIE (???,
??? e ??c?). A ????i ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??ue ??e? e ?? ? ???eth ???, e
????ae ????ny ????? (O). I????u ?IE ???th?y ? ?????a AeIE e ? ????o
????: a ?????o AeIE ????i y?y?ny ??e-????, a a ?IE — ???. O??o? ????ey
?????a ?e ????iee ??e ?IE ??e ?, ?e ?e i????? ??e AeIE: ????? ??eyth?y
ae?a n ??? ?????? ?ycy? ??o ???? ??? ????? e ????e ???? ????i.

E? ?a ???i, ????? ????i ??a ?IE. O-?IE ?atho ??a ???? ????, ? ???ey?ay
??a ??i 25—30 ?n. E-?IE ? ???? ???i ???, /? o-?IE. Eo ???ey?ay ??a
????ny ? 100 000 ? 1000 000. N????a ?IE a ??? ???iy?i. I? ??? ??????y,
??a a e??? ????? ?????e ??? aa?a.

AOO. Y? ?????a ???? ?????????? ???u. AOO ????ny a ??? ??? ???? e ????.
E????i AOO ????ny e a ???i ???ey? 0,04% (? ??th ??o ???). I????a ?????
AOO ????ny a ????o ??? — 0,2—0,5%. Ii ????? ????a AOO y?y?ny ?????i, e,
?e o ?y?? ?????, a ?e ???y ????a ????a (???), ???a (???) e ?n??ay ???a.
I??i a ??e, ????? ????th ???o, ???? AOO ??o ???a??a ???y ? ???o ?????a.
O ?a a y?e ??e ???????u ?e ???? ????e ???u (?n. 74). Y? ??ue ?????ay
????a. N???????, a ???? ??i ?ae ?ey?? ???? a AOO ?????y ?y? ??o ? e I, e
e f ??????ny ?ycyi ????iy?ny ?? ?e ?a ???? ??, ??? ???y?ny ?? ?e ?a ????
????e ???u. A?e ???y?ny ?? ???? ????e e???, ? AOO ????o a AAeO, o. a. a
?????????th ???o; ?? ? ???yth?y ?a ???? ????e ???u, ? AOO ????o a AIO,
o. a. a ??????????th ???o. ???ey ????ey ??? ???? ????e ???u ? AOO
??????ny ???i y??????i yo???, a ??? ????? ??e ??i-???? ????e ???u
??????ny i?????? ??e 40 ?ae (10 000 ?e). Y? ??ue ???y ????. A? ???
y??????? ???e ??? ?????th?y ?????i ???i ???i Y???. N?? y????? ? ?o ?tho
? a?? 8—10 ?ae (2000—2500 ?e). *?? ?ae ???? ??th ???? ???th y??????th
y?????? ?????????e ?y? a AOO, ? ???tho ?y?th, ???e y???e, ?e ??iy????e
?y?th, e ???a ??e ?y? ????tho ? ????e, ?e ???, a ???. A AOO ?ath?y ?a
??iy????a ?y?.

C???a AOO a ??e ??? ?a? ???. E? ? ??? ???, ?a ??? ?????th ?? a ????o
?????yo y???. AOO a ???yo, ?e ???i, ??y? ?? ???? ????e ???u e ????o a
AAeO. Ec AAeO ? ??i ??i???ey ????e ???u ??a ??????y AOO. I?y?i, ?i y?
???y ?? n ?????i y??? (40 ?ae, ?e 10 000 ?e) ? ?a?-??.

1. I?? ???a e y??? a ???

Aeey ????? ???e, ?i??th?o a ???, ????? ????ay ???????? e ??y?????: ??ay
?a?ey ????o a ??? ?????? ??a. I???u ????a ?????u a ?? ?? ? ????? ????? —
????o ?????e e y????????e ??, ???ay ?, ?e ??? ???. I? y?i ??????? ????a
? ????: ?e ?????u a ?i ??y?a, a ???i ?? ???e. I???u ???, ????? ?????
????a, ????eytho ??? ?? «???o???e ????», ? ???i n ??th????e ????th
????eyth?y ????? ???e.

I?????e e y??????e ??i (???ey?y e ????y?y). A ??? ????? ???ii ?ny?
????a. N ???th y?? ???i ???????i ???? ????ey?ny ????ay e ??????y ????ay
?y????ue. Ec ????? ??a ????? ???e ??ee ??eyth?y ?a ???????o ? ????o ??
???e. I??e ? ?o ????ey? ???e ???a. A ??? ??iy?i ?? ??a?u ????y. Ec ???o
???a ???th?y ??a ???a, ? ??????y?? — ??????ey??. N????th?y ??e, ???a
????, ??, ?????a ???u. N??????? ???? ????th?y ?y ????ey ??? ??? ???, ?
?????, ???ia, ????a, ???? ???a. N?????? ???? ???? ????? ?? a ???? ???, ?
e o ??? ????, o. a. ?????e ?? e ????, e??e ??iy?i ????? ??? ???a ?y ???
???e, ???????o e ?????ny a ???? ???????ey ?e ?????o ?e ?????e. Ia ??i
??? ???a?? ???? ??a ?e ???-??? ??i? ???? ??? ??y ????. O?? ??i ??? ???y?
??iy?? ?ith ??o e ????? ???, ????y ia ?????a ? ????a a ???? ?c??y????e.

N??c ???a, ??? a ???, ????ny ??????i ???? ?e ????? ?????i.

A? ???e ????? ?oo n ?????i y???.

N?????ue ???e ????ca ????ny ?????? ???i ?e ???ey??. I??a ??i ????? ?
????? «?????, ?i ??? ?o????e. O? ? ?e ????? ? ??u ?e ???a ??o (????)
??y?a, ?e ? ???a, ??a????? a ???? ?????, ??? ???o ?? ??. A??a ??i
(???ey?y) i????o ? ????? «???? (???e, ????). N?? y?? ???a ???o a ?i, ?i
???ath?a a ??? ? ???e ??u ???a ????, ??i ???th??y ? ?u?? ???, a ?????
????? ?????e ???y?y ????e ????i ???.

A??e ?i ????? ???e ??? — ???e ?????y. N??? ???? ???ath?y ? ??a ???a,
??????ey?? — ? ??????y??. A?? ???ath?y ? ??????, ???e — ? ?th??. Y? ????
???eyth?y ? ?a ??a ??????y?? ????ey, e a ??a ??? ???th?y ??? ???a, ???
y???e ????: NI2 e I2I. ??e?e ?????y a ?????a ???a ?????th?y ????ai y???.
A?????? ???? y?o ???e ???o a ?????e ??? y???e, i????? ?y ? ?y????e.
Eth?y ??a ????? — ????, ???ey, ????c e ?. — ????y a ???a y???, ???y
????y ? y???, ??????e a ????? ????? ???e ????iey.

N?????ue ???e ????iey ????ny y??????i ???i ??? e? ????y??. Ae???ey?y ?y?
??????? ???ey?e: a ????? ?????y ???? ????tho ???? n ????? ???.

I?????e e y??????e ??? (???ey?y e ????y?y) ??aey?y ??o ??e a ?????e
?yce. Nay? y? ???o a ?i, ?i, n i?? ???u, ???e ????? ??ath?y a ???a y???,
???y ????y ? ???e ?????y. N ??? ???u, ?y ??????y ???e y??????? ??? ????i
??iy?? ????c ????ath?o y? ???e ????a, ?e ?e a ???? ??e ??? ?e ????th?y e
???ath?y.

Ia?i ???a e yi??e

N??? ???u ???e, ???eyth?a ???n ??????i e y??????? ???, ??i ?y?? ? ???
??o ??e, ? e n ???e ???. Ec a??? ??u a ??? ???atho ???a a???a, ???a ???
????? ?y ???e ??????i ???, a a ???yo ?????y ? ?o ??????y y??ey, ?????y
?y ???????ey ???. Ai ??ithth ? ??o, ??eyth?y ????, ???? ???e ??a ? ??o
?? ??????.

N?????ue ?? ??????? ???e e??e, o. a. ?????? ??????i e y??????? ???a
(???ey?e e ????y?e), ?y??? ??o ??e e n ???e ???, ????ny ???i ???a e
y???. Y?o ???n y?y?ny ???? ???? ?????y ??e ???, ????? ? ??a, ???ey e
???????ey.

AOO ?e ??? e ??????a y??????a ????. Eth?a ?iy??? ???ay????e, eth?y ???y
??ee ??otho ???u y???. Y??ey ??a aeey ???ey, ?y ???????? ???e e ????o
??? ?? e???? ???i?e.

E?? ? ???i y??ey ???e ??a??ey ?????ny ???e ?y ????o ? ???e?

Eth?y ?y????ue ??? ??? ??i ????o ? ???e n ??a?i AOO.

I? ????e, ? ???????e ???, ???? ?e ?? ? ???oth ??a?eth, ??a ???? ??e
??th???? ? ?? ?????ny a ?e AOO. I? ????e ???? a ?????o ???o ??a ??
e????? ?????a AOO. I? ???a ??i? ???a, ???? ?e ???a ???o o???? ?e ??a,
????a?i n ?i????? ???? ?? ??? AOO. I?th? ???o, ?i ???????? ????? y??ee e
?y ????ey ??, e ?y ???ee, e ?y ???a ???o ????? a ??? y?y?ny y??ey,
????ath?yny ?e ?????e AOO. O? ?e ??n AOO a ??? ????i, ? y?i, ?i ??a ???a
AOO’ ??? ????e ? ??o????a. O? ?i a ???????? e ?????. A y?i e ??th??ny
??????e ??e ????o ???e y??????? ???. O??ey y?o ???e ??: ? y??ey
??eue??ny ?y ?????y ??e AOO. I?y?i ?y??, ?i ?e ????? ??? ????? AOO a ???
????i? ? ??iy?ny. Y? ?uy?y?ny ?i, ?i ???e ?????y ????a e ??? a???
?????tho ???a e ??? ??????? ?????a?? AOO. O?? i???, AOO — ??? e ??????e
???? y??? ?y ?????ue?e ?y????e ???. I?thaea ?iy?i, ?i ???? ???? y??? ec
??o ??? ??? a ???. N??c AOO ??o ?????ue a ??i ??a ??? e a ?? ??y, a
??????ny ?a ??o a ??? ??a e a ?o?a ??y. N??c AOO a ???? ????eo a ?????yo
???. I?????yny ??ue AOO ? ???i y????????e ?? i???y?ny a ? ??a ???, ?a
???a? ?????ue a y???.

O? y?? y??????? ???. Aeey ???ey y??????? ??? ??? ?i ??? ????ue ? 3
???????? y??. ?????i y? y?? ? ???a ???? ???.

I??e y?i ????????. Ia y?i y?? ???a ???? ????a, ??a, ???, ?????o ???
???ath?y ? ????a ???eu: ? ???? ????ny ?th??, ? ??a — ???? e ??? ???u, ?
?e?a — ??????, ? ?????o ??? — ?????. ???ae ???a ? y?i y?? ??????ny
??????? y??????i y???i. Any ????ath?yny ?e y?i y??ey ?????ny a ?? ??a.

A??e y?i y??????? ??? ????ny ?c ?????i ?e ????. A???a, ??????ny a
???i????i y??, — ?th??, ????, ?????? ???u, ?????? e ?. — ???tho ? ??
?????i ???a. Y? ???e, ???????? ???n. Ii ???o ? ?y? ??oth?o ?? ? ???
??????? ???e. O???u, ????ath?a y?o ?i??, ?????u ? ???????o ????o ?????e
?y??. Aau??i, ??a ? ??? ???o y?? ?y?, ??????y, ?e ? ????a, ? ??? ???o,
??a ? ??? e o. Ae. Y? ?????? ???a e y????? ???a ????. ????i ?i ? ???a ?c
?????? ?????y ?th??, ???a ??o ?????a ???? — ????a. A???c ????ey? ??e
?????? ??a ?ny?a ???????? ??????? ???e. A ?i ???atho ???a 13 ????a e
i??oth?y 12 ??????o ???a. Ia ?????ay? ? ????o ???yo ????a, ?a?i, ?i ?
??oth ???ue ?????i ????a ???? ?th??, a n ????e ??yo ?a ???? ???? ???u.
N???? ????a ????a ??? ?? ???? ?e:

C6H12O6 = 2C3H6O3

Aeth?? I???y ???a

I??? ????a ????? o ?? ???? ??? e o ????? ???????a. A?i ????a ??????a
???? (?e ???? ???) ????ny ??????? ???? e ???ey?. Ii ????o ?i ??? ??????
????o. N???? ???? ?? ??? n ?????. A??ay ??ue ???e ????a e ???? ???atho
????th. ????a ???o ?? a ??th????e ???: ?e ????a ???n ??????y ?????? ????
???u, a ?e ???? ???y?ny ?a ?? ??i. Ec ???? ???u ?ae ?ey?? ???oa, ??????y
a ???o, ??ey?ny NI2 e ?????y y???e ??o:

C3H6O3 = CO2 + C2H5OH

O?? ???i, ????a ????a ????? ???ey ??? ?? ??n?i ?e:

C6H12O6 = 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH

Aeth?? Y???e ??o

E? ??i ? ????e ????a e ???ey, a y?o ????o ???? ? ????o, ??? ?e e
i??ath?y ?c ?????? ?????. A??a y?i ??a, ??? y? ???? ???th?y ????e: ???
?????? ?th?? ??o ????? ? ? ??a, o. a. ?????a ? a ???e?a ????ey (NI2 e
I2I), ?i ??????o ????th:

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O

I?? ?a ??????a ???e ?e ?c ?????i ?????e ?th?? ?? n ??????i y???. E??y
????y ???y ?? ????e ??ae y???, a a ??a ????ny ???y ????: ?????a ??e
??i-???? ?th?? (180 a) ? ?a ??i-???? ???? ???u ?? ??e 200 ?ae (50 000
?e). A?e ? y??ey, ????ath?yny ?e i????? ?th?? a ???oth ???o, ?????? ??o,
a ????? ??e ????, ? y? ???i ? e ???? i???? e ?????th ???. ?????a ? ????
? ?yae ??????o ???a ??????o ?????a ????a y???, ?i ????iy? ??? ? ????i
?????y.

I???n ????a ?? ??? a ?????e AOO e AAeO, ?e ?e ?a y? ????? y?yth?y
?y????? ?????e ????y?o ???e. AOO ????? a i??a ????a, AAeO — a ??a. AOO
??????o ?th??: ????y ?th?? ???e ????e ??iou, AOO ?e y?i ????o a AAeO.
AAeO ?????? ???ue ???n: ????????? ??????o ??o?? ????a. I????yy ???e
????e ???u, AAeO ?????ny a AOO. A ??a ????a AOO ??? ????ny ???, ?i ?
???ny a ??ea. A ?aea ?????y ??e ???? ?th?? ????? ?????a ?? ??o ???e AOO.
O?? ???i, a ??a ???? ????a AOO ??? ??????y.

O? ?e ??? AOO ????ey? y??a????e ???n, ? ????, ?i y??ey ?y ???a AOO ????y
? ?? y??? ???e ?c ?????? ?????y ?th??. N??????, y??ey, ????ath?yny a ??
???e ????a, ? ?y ????o a ??i. *?? ? ?? ? ??? ?? ???o y???e ????o ?y?e.

I????i ????e ??ao: ??i a ?? ?c ?????? ?????y ??i-?e??u ?th?? ??????y 200
?ae (50 000 ?e). Ia ?????a ??e ?y?, ???e y???e, ?e ?????e ??i-???? AAeO
a AOO ??????y 40 ?ae (10 000 ?e). A?? ?c ?????? ???e?ey ???th?y ?a ??a
?y?. O?? ???i, a y??eth ?? ??i-???e AOO ????o 2×40 = 80?ae (2X10 000 =
20 000 ?e). E?e, ? 200 ?ae (50 000 ?e) ??? 80 (20 000) ???ath?y a ??
AOO, a 120 (30 000) ????th?y a ?? ??a. N???o??i, a ?? ?c ?????? ???e?ey
?th?? 40% y??? ?????y ???e.

O??e y?i y??????? ??? — ??ey ????i?i, ?e ???i, ?????y, ?e ???y. I???u,
????a a ?????th?e ???, i??yth?y ? ??a, o. a. ? NI2 e I2I.

I???a ???a ??????y y?? ???? — ???a a ???th?e ??a ????a e ????? ?i ???e.
N??y ??i???i ?????y, ?e e ????ay ??ey ?c ?????? ?????y, ????ey? n?? ?yae
???????? ?????a?o ???e. E??y ???y ??????ny ??? ????i.

A?ue ??????? ?yae ?????? ?????y ?????? a ?????yo, ?a ???? ?????u ? ????o
?????e ?yae?e. N???ue ??? ? ???e ???o a ????e ?????? ????, ???y n ???
???ueth ????? ?????y e ?????ny a ???? ???? ????y: NI2 e I2I.

A? ??????a ???e ?????? ?????y, ?e e ??????a ???e ?c ?????? ????, ?? n
??????i y???. Ei???? y???, ??????e ? ??? ???e ?e ?????i ????, ???, ??i
???, ?i ? ??? n??? ?c ?????? ????. A ??a ?????a ?????a ?? ????th ???? —
2600 ?ae (650 000 a-?e) (? ?a ??i-???? ?e??e ???u). A?e ? ?e ?????e
?????ny a ??? ???? ???u ?y y??ey ?????? a ????? ??e ???e, ??? ?????ue ?
????o ?????th. I? ???????e ? ???? ? ?yae ??a???? ???a ??e ????e iao.

I???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????y ????, ?i a ?e, ?e e a ?c ?????i ????,
????? ?????a AOO ? AAeO. A ?? ?????? ?????y ?? ???e ???? ???u ????oth?y
36 ???e AOO, o. a. 36 ???o y???e ????o ?y?e.

O??ue ??? ?? y?? ???? ???e ??? y??????? ??? — ?????? ?????y ???? ???u.
A?e a ?? ?c ?????? ?????y ??????y 200 ?ae (50 000 ?e) (? ?? ?th??), ? a
??? ???i??i ?????y ??????y ?a 2600 ?ae (650 000 ?e) A?e a o?a ?c ??????
???? ????oth?y ae? ???? AOO, ? a ???? ?????ai ?????y ??????y ?a 36 ???e
AOO. E?? ???e, ? ??? ?????? ?????y i????y ??a 90% y???, ??/??e ???e a
???? ?????y ?th??.

C???y ??a ????. A?? a ???? ?????y ?th?? ? NI2 e I2I, o. a. a ?? ????a a?
?????? e ?????? ?????y, ??????y 2 + 36=38 ???e; AOO. O?? ???i, a
??????th y??eth AOO ????o 38X40=1520 ?ae (38×10 000 = 380 000 ?e). A?? ?
?e ?????e ?the?u (a ?c ?????th e ?????th ???), ??????y 200 + 2600 = 2800
?ae (50 000 + 650 000=700 000 ?e). N??????, ??e 55% ?? y???, ??????e ?e
?????e ?th??, ?????y ???e a ??a AOO. I???ay ??ue (45%) ?????ny a ?? ??a.
*?? ???ue ???? y?o ??, a???i, ?i a ???o ?o?? ? y???, ??????e ?e ????
?ey, a ??c?th ??o ??????y ? ??a 12—15%. A ??? ???? y?o ???o ????ny ?
20—25. A ????yo ?????i ???ey/ ii ????o ???? 35%. O?? ???i, ? y??????:
??????ey y??? ??y ??? ?????o ?a ??n?? ???a???? y??? a ???a.

I? ??????e ????? y???, ??????e a ?? ?c ?????? e ?????? ?????y ?th??, a
??a ??a ???e AOO, ??????o a ?a ???, ?i ?????e ???n ????i? ??a y????i, ?i
?c ?????e. A ??? ?c ?????? ?????y ??????y ???? 1/20 ??ue y???,
????ath??y ?e ?????i ????. Ai?? ?iy?i ?y??, ?i a ????? ?e?eyo ?y ?????e
y??? a ??? ??? ????a?y ?e ?c ?????e, ?e e ?n???? ?? ?????y. A?e ??????a
?????? ???? ????? ?e ??a ?????, i???? ?e ????? ????a, ??a ?y ??a??ey ??e
???ny ??? ?c ?????e ???n. Ii i? y?i ?y ????y AOO a ?????, ?????i ?y
???ay????e, ??? ????ny ???ey? ??ue ???a ????? ?th??.

Ae??? e ???a

?????? ?????? ??n?, ????y?a a ???, ??i ????tho n ????: a ??o ??ayo ?????
????? ????a e ????a ????a ????y — NI2 e I2I. I??i ??? ????a ???ey
??????? e ???iy??, ? ?iy?ny a ?????e ? ?????y ??ey??i ???? e ????a, ???o
? ?????u e ??? ???e. Ae??? ? ????? a ????? ?????y????i ????, ?y?
???????? ??????? ???e. I????? CO2 ?e ???e ????? a ????? ?y?? ??????y
???i? e ????, a ?e ??????i ???i? CO2 ????o ??i ???e?ey ??i???o ??? ?ae
?ey?? ????a.

O?? ???i, ??? y?i, ?i ??o ????? ???y e ????a??i ????y ????? ????,
??????? ????. Ae??? ? ????? a ????? ?????y????i ????, ?y? ????????
??????? ???e. I????? NIa ?e ???? ????? a ????? ?y?? ??????y ????a e
????, a ?e ??????i ????e NI2 ????o ??i ?????y ??i???o ??? ?ae ?ey??
????a.

O?? ???i, ??? y?i, /? ??o ????? ???y e ??????? ?e??ey ????? ????,
??????? ????.

N??e ?????

1. A??a A. E??ay ???y ????. I.,1997.

2. E?i I., A?n E. A???a a ???eth. I.,2000.

3. E??? Y. I?ay ???ey. I.,1978 E??e I. E??ey o??e. I.,2001.

4. I??o A.I. E???? ?????? ??????ey. O??? ??a?. I.,1999.

5. I?? A. I?? ? ???th?e ??a. E? ???i ??. I.,1993.

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