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Ноосфера Тейяр де Шардена и Вернадского

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee Oe?aeiu

Iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaaeaiey i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai e eo?i?oiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa

Oaeoeueoao yeiiiieee e iaiaaeaeiaioa

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

Iiinoa?a Oaey? aea Oa?aeaia e Aa?iaaeneiai

Auiieieea nooaeaioea a?. IAA -102

?oaeiaa E.

Neioa?iiieue, 2005

IEAI

Aaaaeaiea

Oaey? aea Oa?aeai

Aa?iaaeneee

Iiinoa?a

Iaoea eae iniiaiie oaeoi? iiinoa?u

Caaea/e ii niceaeaieth iiinoa?u

Aa?iaaeneee i ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o: i?iaiic e ?aaeueiinoue

Caeeth/aiea

Aaaaeaiea

«*ai aieueoa i?ioiaeeo a?aiaie, /ai aeaeueoa i?iaeaeaaaony aia?aae
iaoea, oai y?/a ?ane?uaaaony cia/aiea, aaaeiinoue e aeoaeia aai eaeae…
Yoi, aa?iyoii, aacioeai/iue e?eoa?ee, ii eioi?iio iu ioee/aai aaeeeiai
o/aiiai»

N.?. Ieeoeeineee.

Iuea? Oaey? aea Oa?aeai (1881 – 1955)

Iuea? Oaey? aea Oa?aeai (1881 – 1955) – o?aioeocneee o/aiue, oeeinio e
oaieia. Aai eieaa «Oaiiiai /aeiaaea» aianea nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a
?ac?aaioeo oeeinioneie aio?iiieiaee. A yoie eieaa ii au?acee naie iunee,
eioi?ua ieacaeenue ianiaianoeiuie n iauanoaaiiuie eaeayie oiiecia eae
iniiaiiieaaathuaai o/aiey eaoiee/aneie oea?eae, ca /oi aaoi? aue eeoai
i?aaa i?aiiaeaaaiey e ioaeeeaoeee oeeinionei-oaieiae/aneeo ?aaio.

Oaey? aea Oa?aeai i?aaei?eiye iiiuoeo neioaca iao/iiai e ?aeeaeiciiai
iiuoa n oeaeueth ?ane?uoey yaiethoeee Anaeaiiie, i?eaaaeoae e iiyaeaieth
/aeiaaea n i?enoueie aio ?acoiii e /oanoaaie. Ii iieaaae, /oi yoio
?acoeueoao yaiethoeee yaeyaony ca?aiaa caieaie?iaaiiui nauoa eoiaii
einie/aneiai i?ioeanna eae aaeeii-oeaeueiie nenoaiu. No?aieaiea oynieoue
aeeaeaeoeeo «anaaaeeinoaa», ioaaouaathuaai yaeaiey nouaai, nii?yaeaiu o
iaai n iaioaenoe/aneie onoaiiaeie, ni no?aieaieai iaeoe Aiaa, eae au
?anoai?aiiiai a ie?a e i?iieeathuaai ai ana «ii?u» nouaai iiuueth naiaai
aaniethoiiai niunea: aeooiaiia ia/aei, i?iiecuaay ie?, iai?aaeyao aai
?acaeoea. Aeey naiaai aiaeeca Oaey? aea Oa?aeai eniieueciaae oa?iei
«yia?aey», eioi?oth iuneee eae iaiouaieaiia naienoai iaoa?ee, caaeathuaa
eiioeuen yaiethoeee Einiina. Ineoiyia?aaoe/aneee oaiiiai eaaeeo a
iainiiaaiee aaoi?ii aiaeanoaaiiiai enoi/ieea einie/aneie yaiethoeee.
Aunoei aa au?aaeaieai yaeyaony ?acoiiue /aeiaae. Iuneeoaeue n/eoae yoo
yia?aeth anoanoaaiiie oi?iie aiaeanoaaiiie aeaaiaeaoe. Oi/ea «Iiaaa» –
yoi oeiaeueiay oeaeue, neiaieece?othuay niaie O?enoa, nii?e/anoiiai
ie?icaeaieth. *aeiaae, eiioeaio?e?othuee a naaa ineoe/aneoth yia?aeth,
oai?eo iiinoa?o.

Aicc?aiey Oaey?a aea Oa?aeaia eniieiaiu aoiaienoe/anee-o?enoeaineie
iai?aaeaiiinoueth. Ii i?ecuaae e aaeeiaieth anao ia?iaeia, aaeeiaieth
iaoee e ?aeeaee, a oaeaea ienoeee a ea/anoaa caueou io anao aaaenoaee a
nia?aiaiiii ie?a.

Aeaaeeie? Eaaiiae/ Aa?iaaeneee (1863 – 1945)

?iaeeeny 12 ia?oa 1863 a. A Iaoa?ao?aa a naiuea i?ioanni?a E.A.
Aa?iaaeneiai e A.I. Aa?iaaeneie. Iaeaaeae eneeth/eoaeueii oe?ieei
aeeaiaciiii eioa?ania, aeoaieie eiooeoeeae e iienoeia i?i?i/aneei aea?ii
iiauo iooae ?acaeoey iao/iie iunee. Aa?iaaeneee caeiaeee iniiau
eiiieaena, iiauo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, ao?ii i?ia?anne?othueo iao/iuo
iai?aaeaiee e eiioeaioeee. I?aaeaea anaai, yoi aaiaoe/aneay ieia?aeiaey,
aaioeiey, aeiaaioeiey, ?aaeeiyeieiaey, o/aiea i aeeaii aauanoaa,
aeinoa?a e iiinoa?a, iiae?acaeaeaiea aaia?aoe/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo
iaoe, iaoai?eoeea, enoi?ey iaoee e iao/iiai ie?iaicc?aiey,
iaoeiaaaeaiea, enoi?ey oeeinioee.

Eae anoanoaieniuoaoaeue, ii aue oeie/iui enneaaeiaaoaeai enoi?ee
i?e?iaeu. Iaeiaei aa ?anniio?aiea oei o iaai a oaniie nayce n enoi?eae
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. Eiaiii yoi e ninoaaeyei, a eiia/iii n/aoa,
iniiao iao/iiai oai?/anoaa e ie?iaicc?aiey A.E. Aa?iaaeneiai.

Aaeeinoai aeinoa?u e /aeiaaea

Oeaio?aeueiie oaiie o/aiey i iiinoa?a yaeyaony aaeeinoai aeinoa?u e
/aeiaa/anoaa. Aa?iaaeneee a naieo ?aaioao ?ane?uaaao ei?ie yoiai
aaeeinoaa, cia/aiea i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa.
Yoi iicaieyao iiiyoue ianoi e ?ieue enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa
a yaiethoeee aeinoa?u, caeiiiia?iinoe aa ia?aoiaea a iiinoa?o.

Iaeiie ec eeth/aauo eaeae, eaaeaueo a iniiaa oai?ee Aa?iaaeneiai i
iiinoa?a, yaeyaony oi, /oi /aeiaae ia yaeyaony naiiaeinoaoi/iui aeeaui
nouanoaii, aeeaouei ioaeaeueii ii naiei caeiiai, ii ninouanoaoao aioo?e
i?e?iaeu e yaeyaony /anoueth aa. Yoi aaeeinoai iaoneiaeaii i?aaeaea
anaai ooieoeeiiaeueiie ia?ac?uaiinoueth ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e /aeiaaea,
eioi?oth iuoaeny iieacaoue Aa?iaaeneee eae aeiaaioeiee. *aeiaa/anoai
naii ii naaa anoue i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea e anoanoaaiii, /oi aeeyiea
aeinoa?u neacuaaaony ia oieueei ia n?aaea aeecie, ii e ia ia?aca iunee.
Ii ia oieueei i?e?iaea ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia /aeiaaea, nouanoaoao e
ia?aoiay naycue. I?e/ai iia ia iiaa?oiinoiay, io?aaeathuay oece/aneia
aeeyiea /aeiaaea ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, iia ai?acaei aeoaaea. Yoi
aeieacuaaao oio oaeo, /oi a iineaaeiaa a?aiy caiaoii aeoeaece?iaaeenue
ieaiaoa?iua aaieiae/aneea neeu. «…iu ana aieueoa e y?/a aeaeei a
aeaenoaee ie?oaeathuea ian aaieiae/aneea neeu. Yoi niaiaei, aaeaa ee
neo/aeii, n i?iieeiiaaieai a iao/iia niciaiea oaaaeaeaiey i
aaieiae/aneii cia/aiee Homo sapiens, n auyaeaieai iiaiai ninoiyiey
aeinoa?u — iiinoa?u — e yaeyaony iaeiie ec oi?i aa au?aaeaiey. Iii
naycaii, eiia/ii, i?aaeaea anaai n ooi/iaieai anoanoaaiiie iao/iie
?aaiou e iunee a i?aaeaeao aeinoa?u, aaea aeeaia aauanoai ea?aao
iniiaioth ?ieue». Oae, a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ?acei iaiyaony io?aaeaiea
aeeauo nouanoa ia ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaea. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio i?ioeann
yaiethoeee ia?aiineony a iaeanoue ieia?aeia. ?acei iaiythony ii/au,
aiaeu e aicaeoo. Oi anoue yaiethoeey aeaeia naia i?aa?aoeeanue a
aaieiae/aneee i?ioeann, oae eae a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee iiyaeeanue iiaay
aaieiae/aneay neea. Aa?iaaeneee ienae: «Yaiethoeey aeaeia ia?aoiaeeo a
yaiethoeeth aeinoa?u». Caeanue anoanoaaiii iai?aoeaaaony auaiae i oii,
/oi aaieiae/aneie neeie yaeyaony nianoaaiii aiana ia Homo Sapiens, a aai
?acoi, iao/iay iuneue nioeeaeueiiai /aeiaa/anoaa. A «Oeeinioneeo iuneyo
iaoo?aeenoa» Aa?iaaeneee ienae: «Iu eae ?ac ia?aaeeaaai aa y?eia
aoiaeaeaiea a aaieiae/aneoth enoi?eth ieaiaou. A iineaaeiea ouny/aeaoey
iaaethaeaaony eioaineaiue ?ino aeeyiey iaeiiai aeaeiaiai aeeaiai
aauanoaa — oeeaeeeciaaiiiai /aeiaa/anoaa — ia eciaiaiea aeinoa?u. Iiae
aeeyieai iao/iie iunee e /aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea aeinoa?a ia?aoiaeeo a
iiaia ninoiyiea — a iiinoa?o». Iu yaeyainy iaaethaeaoaeyie e
eniieieoaeyie aeoaieiai eciaiaiey aeinoa?u. I?e/ai ia?ano?ieea
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iao/iie /aeiaa/aneie iuneueth iin?aaenoaii
i?aaieciaaiiiai o?oaea a?yae ee yaeyaony noeoeeiui i?ioeannii. Ei?ie
yoiai eaaeao a naiie i?e?iaea e auee caeiaeaiu aua ieeeeiiu eao iacaae a
oiaea anoanoaaiiiai i?ioeanna yaiethoeee. «*aeiaae … ninoaaeyao
iaecaaaeiia i?iyaeaiea aieueoiai i?e?iaeiiai i?ioeanna, caeiiiia?ii
aeeyuaainy a oa/aiea, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaoo ieeeea?aeia eao». Ionthaea,
enoaoe, iiaeii caeeth/eoue /oi auneacuaaiey i naiieno?aaeaiee
/aeiaa/anoaa, i e?ooaiee oeeaeeecaoeee ia eiatho iiae niaie aaneeo
iniiaaiee. Auei au ii iaiueoae ia?a no?aiii, anee au iao/iay iuneue –
ii?iaeaeaiea anoanoaaiiiai aaieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna i?ioeai?a/eea au
naiiio i?ioeanno. Iu noiei ia ii?iaa ?aaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea: aeinoa?a iin?aaenoaii ia?a?aaioee iao/iie iuneueth
ia?aoiaeeo a iiaia yaiethoeeiiiia ninoiyiea – iiinoa?o. Canaeyy ana
oaieee iaoae ieaiaou, iie?aynue ia ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaieciaaiioth
iao/ioth iuneue e ia aa ii?iaeaeaiea, oaoieeo, /aeiaae nicaeae a
aeinoa?a iiaoth aeiaaiioth neeo, iiaeaea?aeeaathuoth ?aciiiaeaiea e
aeaeueiaeoaa canaeaiea ?acee/iuo /anoae aeinoa?u. I?e/ai aianoa n
?anoe?aieai iaeanoe aeeoaeuenoaa, /aeiaa/anoai ia/eiaao i?aaenoaaeyoue
naay ana aieaa niei/aiioth ianno, oae eae ?acaeaathuea n?aaenoaa nayce –
n?aaenoaa ia?aaea/e iunee ieoouaatho aanue Caiiie oa?. «Yoio i?ioeann –
iieiiai canaeaiey aeinoa?u /aeiaaeii – iaoneiaeai oiaeii enoi?ee iao/iie
iunee, ia?ac?uaii naycai ni nei?inoueth niioaiee, n oniaoaie oaoieee
ia?aaeaeaeaiey, n aiciiaeiinoueth iaiiaaiiie ia?aaea/e iunee, aa
iaeiia?aiaiiiai ianoaeaeaiey anthaeo ia ieaiaoa». I?e yoii /aeiaae
aia?aua ?aaeueii iiiye, /oi ii aeeoaeue ieaiaou e iiaeao e aeieaeai
iuneeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue a iiaii aniaeoa, ia oieueei a aniaeoa
ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe, naiuee eee ?iaea, ainoaea?noa eee eo nithcia, ii e
a ieaiaoiii aniaeoa. Ii, eae e ana aeeaia, iiaeao iuneeoue e
aeaenoaiaaoue a ieaiaoiii aniaeoa oieueei a iaeanoe aeecie — a aeinoa?a,
a ii?aaeaeaiiie caiiie iaiei/ea, n eioi?ie ii ia?ac?uaii, caeiiiia?ii
naycai e oeoe ec eioi?ie ii ia iiaeao. Aai nouanoaiaaiea anoue aa
ooieoeey. Ii ianao aa n niaie anthaeo. E ii aa iaecaaaeii, caeiiiia?ii,
iai?a?uaii eciaiyao. Iioiaea, /oi aia?aua iu iaoiaeeiny a oneiaeyo
aaeeiiai aaieiae/aneiai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, ioaaoeaoaai
iaeiia?aiaiii anth ieaiaoo. XX aae oa?aeoa?ai oai, /oi ethaua
i?ienoiaeyuaa ia ieaiaoa niauoea naycuaathony a aaeeiia oeaeia. E n
eaaeaeui aeiai nioeeaeueiay, iao/iay e eoeueoo?iay naycaiiinoue
/aeiaa/anoaa oieueei oneeeaaaony e oaeoaeyaony. «Oaaee/aiea
anaeaineinoe, niayiiinoe anao /aeiaa/aneeo iauanoa iai?a?uaii ?anoao e
noaiiaeony caiaoiui a iaiiiaea aiaeu /ooue ia aaeaaiaeii». ?acoeueoao
anao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo eciaiaiee a aeinoa?a ieaiaou aeae iiaiae
o?aioeocneiio aaieiao Oaey? aea Oa?aeaio caeeth/eoue, /oi aeinoa?a a
ianoiyuee iiiaio auno?i aaieiae/anee ia?aoiaeeo a iiaia ninoiyiea – a
iiinoa?o, oi anoue oaeia ninoiyiea a eioi?ii /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi e
iai?aaeyaiay ei ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iiaoth iiuioth
aaieiae/aneoth neeo. Yoi niaiaei, aeaeeii ia neo/aeii, n oai iiiaioii
eiaaea /aeiaae canaeee anth ieaiaoo, ana /aeiaa/anoai yeiiiie/anee
iauaaeeieeinue a aaeeiia oeaeia e iao/iay iuneue anaai /aeiaa/anoaa
neeeanue aiaaeeii, aeaaiaea?y oniaoai a oaoieea nayce.

Oaeei ia?acii:

1. *aeiaae, eae ii iaaethaeaaony a i?e?iaea, eae e ana aeeaua i?aaieciu,
eae anyeia aeeaia aauanoai, anoue ii?aaeaeaiiay ooieoeey aeinoa?u, a
ii?aaeaeaiiii aa i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie;

2. *aeiaae ai anao aai i?iyaeaieyo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /anoue aeinoa?u;

3. I?i?ua iao/iie iunee iiaeaioiaeai anai i?ioeui aeinoa?u e eiaao
yaiethoeeiiiua ei?ie. Iiinoa?a – yoi aeinoa?a, ia?a?aaioaiiay iao/iie
iuneueth, iiaeaioaaeeaathuaeny anai i?ioeui ieaiaou, a ia
e?aoeia?aiaiiia e ia?aoiaeyuaa aaieiae/aneia yaeaiea.

Aa?iaaeneee iaiaeiie?aoii ioia/ae, /oi «oeeaeeecaoeey «eoeueoo?iiai
/aeiaa/anoaa» — iineieueeo iia yaeyaony oi?iie i?aaiecaoeee iiaie
aaieiae/aneie neeu, nicaeaaoaeny a aeinoa?a,— ia iiaeao i?a?aaoueny e
oie/oiaeeoueny, oae eae yoi anoue aieueoia i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea,
ioaa/athuaa enoi?e/anee, aa?iaa, aaieiae/anee neiaeeaoaeny
i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u. Ia?acoy iiinoa?o, iia anaie ei?iyie
naycuaaaony n yoie caiiie iaiei/eie, /aai ?aiueoa a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa
a neieueei-ieaoaeue n?aaieiie ia?a ia auei». Iiiaia ec oiai, i /ai ienae
Aa?iaaeneee, noaiiaeony aeinoiyieai naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy. Nia?aiaiiu e
iiiyoiu iai aai iunee i oeaeinoiinoe, iaaeaeeiinoe oeeaeeecaoeee, i
aaeeinoaa aeinoa?u e /aeiaa/anoaa. Ia?aeiiiue iiiaio a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa, i /ai naaiaeiy aiai?yo o/aiua, iieeoeee, ioaeeoeenou, aue
oaeaeai Aa?iaaeneei.

Aa?iaaeneee aeaeae iaecaaaeiinoue iiinoa?u, iiaeaioaaeeaaaiie eae
yaiethoeeae aeinoa?u, oae e enoi?e/aneei ?acaeoeai /aeiaa/anoaa. N oi/ee
c?aiey iiinoa?iiai iiaeoiaea ii-eiiio aeaeyony e nia?aiaiiua aieaaua
oi/ee ?acaeoey ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee. Aa?aa?neia ioiioaiea e aeinoa?a,
oa?ica ie?iaie yeieiae/aneie eaoano?iou, i?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa
ianniaiai oie/oiaeaiey — ana yoi aeieaeii eiaoue i?aoiaeyuaa cia/aiea.
Aii?in i ei?aiiii iiai?ioa e enoieai aeecie, e i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u
a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aeieaeai cao/aoue eae iaaao, i?ecua e oiio, /oiau
iuneeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue, a aeinoa?iii — ieaiaoiii aniaeoa.

Iaoea eae iniiaiie oaeoi? iiinoa?u

Ianeieueei iaiau/ai iiaeoiae Aa?iaaeneiai e iaoea. Ii aa ?anniao?eaae
eae aaieiae/aneoth e enoi?e/aneoth neeo, eciaiythuoth aeinoa?o e aeeciue
/aeiaa/anoaa. Iia yaeyaony oai iniiaiui caaiii, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai
oaeoaeyaony aaeeinoai aeinoa?u e /aeiaa/anoaa.

Iniaia ianoi Aa?iaaeneee ioaiaeeo iaoea XX noieaoey. Eiaiii a yoi a?aiy
iaaethaeaaony aa iaauaaeue ?anoeaao, naiaai ?iaea ac?ua iao/iiai
oai?/anoaa. Iaoea noaiiaeony anaeaineie, ie?iaie iaoeie, ioaaouaathuae
anth ieaiaoo. Aa?iaaeneee ia?auae aieueoia aieiaiea ia aoiaienoe/aneia
niaea?aeaiea iaoee, ia aa ?ieue a ?aoaiee caaea/ /aeiaa/anoaa, ia
ioaaonoaaiiinoue o/aiuo ca i?eiaiaiea iao/iuo ioe?uoee. Yoe e iiiaea
ae?oaea eaeae Aa?iaaeneiai i ?iee iaoee a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa, a
ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o eiatho aeooaeueiia cia/aiea aeey iaoaai
a?aiaie. Eae oaea oeacuaaeinue, Aa?iaaeneee ?anniao?eaae iaoeo a
ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa. Iiyoiio i/aiue aaaeii, /oiau
iaoea ia i?eieiaea oi?io aano?aeoiie, eiathuae naia iacaaeneiia
nouanoaiaaiea nouiinoe. Iaoea – nicaeaiea /aeiaa/anoaa e aeieaeia
neoaeeoue ia aeaai /aeiaa/anoaa. «Aa niaea?aeaiea ia ia?aie/eaaaony
iao/iuie oai?eyie, aeiioacaie, iiaeaeyie, nicaeaaaaiie eie ea?oeiie
ie?a: a iniiaa iia aeaaiui ia?acii ninoieo ec iao/iuo oaeoi?ia e eo
yiie?e/aneeo iaiauaiee, e aeaaiui — aeeaui niaea?aeaieai yaeyaony a iae
iao/iay ?aaioa aeeauo ethaeae…» Oae /oi iaoea – nioeeaeueiia
ana/aeiaa/aneia ia?aciaaiea, a iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeeo neea oaeoia,
iaiauaiee e, eiia/ii, /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia. Iu iaaethaeaai, eae iaoea
ana neeueiaa e aeoaaea ia/eiaao eciaiyoue aeinoa?o Caiee, iia iaiyao
oneiaey aeecie, aaieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, yia?aaoeeo ieaiaou. Cia/eo, e
naia iao/iay iuneue yaeyaony i?e?iaeiui yaeaieai. A ia?aaeeaaaiue iaie
iiiaio nicaeaiey iiaie aaieiae/aneie neeu, iao/iie iunee, ?acei
aic?anoaao aeeyiea aeeaiai aauanoaa a yaiethoeee aeinoa?u. Aeinoa?a,
ia?a?aaaouaaynue iao/iie iuneueth Homo Sapiens, ia?aoiaeeo a naia iiaia
ninoiyiea – a iiinoa?o. Enoi?ey anae iao/iie iunee – nooue enoi?ey
nicaeaiey a aeinoa?a iiaie aaieiae/aneie neeu – iao/iie iunee, ?aiaa
ionoonoaothuae. E yoio i?ioeann ia neo/aai, ii caeiiiia?ai eae anyeia
i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea. «Aeinoa?a XX noieaoey i?aa?auaaony a iiinoa?o,
nicaeaaaaioth i?aaeaea anaai ?inoii iaoee, iao/iiai iiieiaiey e
iniiaaiiiai ia iae nioeeaeueiiai o?oaea /aeiaa/anoaa». Iaiaoiaeeii
iiae/a?eiooue ia?ac?uaioth naycue nicaeaiey iiinoa?u n ?inoii iao/iie
iunee, yaeythuaeny ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaeiinueeie yoiai nicaeaiey.
Iiinoa?a iiaeao nicaeaaaoueny oieueei i?e yoii oneiaee. Cia/aiea
i?ienoiaeyueo ia ieaiaoa a XX aaea eciaiaiee ianoieueei aaeeei, /oi
?aaiua ii ?iee i?ioeannu iiaeii iaeoe ?acaa oieueei a aeaeaeii i?ioeii.
A ianoiyuee iiiaio a?yae ee aiciiaeii ioeaieoue anth iao/ioth e
nioeeaeueioth aaaeiinoue yoiai yaeaiey, iioiio /oi iao/ii iiiyoue –
cia/eo iinoaaeoue yaeaiea a ?aiee ?aaeueiie einie/aneie ?aaeueiinoe. Ii
oi /oi iu iiaeai oaeaeaoue – yoi oi, /oi iaoea ia?ano?aeaaaony ia iaoeo
aeacao. Aeiaaiiue yooaeo ?aaiou iao/iie iunee ?aaeueii niiaoo oaeaeaoue
oieueei iaoe ioaeaeaiiua iioiiee: ii i?iyaeony y?ei e ynii oieueei /a?ac
nioie eao.

Iiyaeaiea ?acoia e ?acoeueoaoa aai aeayoaeueiinoe – i?aaiecaoeey iaoee –
aaaeiaeoee oaeo a ?acaeoee ieaiaou, aiciiaeii aeaaea i?aauoathuee ana,
iaaethaeaaiia aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie. Iao/iay aeayoaeueiinoue nae/an
i?eia?aea oaeea /a?ou, eae auno?ue oaii, ioaao aieueoeo oa??eoi?ee,
aeoaeio enneaaeiaaiee, iiuiinoue i?iaiaeeiuo i?aia?aciaaiee. Yoi
iicaieyao i?aaeaeaeaoue iao/iia aeaeaeaiea, ?aciaoa eioi?iai a aeinoa?a
aua ia auei. Ii aua aieaa ?aceia eciaiaiea i?ienoiaeeo nae/an a iniiaiie
iaoiaeeea iaoee. Caeanue aneaaenoaea aiiaue ioe?uouo iaeanoae iao/iuo
oaeoia aucaaee iaeiia?aiaiiia eciaiaiea naiuo iniia iaoaai iao/iiai
iiciaiey, iiieiaiey ie?oaeathuaai. Oaeeie niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiiuie e
iiauie iniiaiuie neaaenoaeyie iiauo iaeanoae iao/iuo oaeoia yaeythony
ane?uaoeany ia?aae iaie iaiaeii?iaeiinoue Einiina, anae ?aaeueiinoe e
iaiaeii?iaeiinoue iaoaai iiciaiey. Aa?iaaeneee ienae, /oi nae/an iaaei
?acee/aoue o?e ?aaeueiinoe: ?aaeueiinoue a iaeanoe aeecie /aeiaaea, oi
anoue iaaethaeaaioth ?aaeueiinoue; iee?ineiie/aneoth ?aaeueiinoue
aoiiiuo yaeaiee, ia iaaethaeaaioth /aeiaa/aneei aeacii; ?aaeueiinoue a
aeiaaeueiii einie/aneii ianooaaa. «?acee/aiea o?ao ?aaeueiinoae eiaao
iaioeaieiia cia/aiea eae aeey iiieiaiey nayce /aeiaa/anoaa n aeinoa?ie,
oae e aeey aiaeeca caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey iaoee». *aeiaae iaioaeaeei
io aeinoa?u, ii a iae aeeaao e oieueei aa e aa iauaeou iiaeao
enneaaeiaaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii naieie i?aaiaie /oanoa. «Ca i?aaeaeu
aeinoa?u ii iiaeao i?iieeaoue oieueei iino?iaieyie ?acoia, enoiaey ec
ioiineoaeueii iaiiiaeo eaoaai?ee aan/eneaiiuo oaeoia, eioi?ua ii iiaeao
iieo/eoue a aeinoa?a c?eoaeueiui enneaaeiaaieai iaaaniiai naiaea e
eco/aieai a aeinoa?a aea io?aaeaiee einie/aneeo eceo/aiee eee
iiiaaeathuaai a aeinoa?o einie/aneiai aiacaiiiai aauanoaa…» Oaeei
ia?acii, iao/iay iuneue /aeiaa/anoaa, ?aaioay oieueei a aeinoa?a, a
oiaea naiaai i?iyaeaiey a eiioea eiioeia i?aa?auaao aa a iiinoa?o,
aaieiae/anee ioaaouaaao aa ?acoiii. Oieueei oaia?ue noaei aiciiaeiui
iao/iia auaeaeaiea aeinoa?u, yaeythuaeny iniiaiie iaeanoueth ciaiey, ec
ie?oaeathuae ?aaeueiinoe.

Ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

1. Iao/iia oai?/anoai /aeiaaea – neea, eciaiythuay aeinoa?o.

2. Yoi eciaiaiea aeinoa?u – iaecaaaeiue i?ioeann, nii?iaiaeaeathuee
iao/iue ?ino.

3. Ii yoi eciaiaiea aeinoa?u – noeoeeiue i?e?iaeiue i?ioeann,
i?ienoiaeyuee iacaaeneii io /aeiaa/aneie aiee.

4. Aoiaeaeaiea a aeinoa?o iiaiai oaeoi?a aa eciaiaiey – /aeiaa/aneiai
?acoia anoue i?e?iaeiue i?ioeann ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o.

5. Iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaoynue, iaoea iiaeao i?iaeaeiooueny ana aeaeueoa
a eco/aiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Aicieeiiaaiea aaioeiee e aeiaaioeiee ioaa/aei iio?aaiinoyi oeaeinoiiai,
neioaoe/aneiai ?anniio?aiey yaeaiee i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u,
acaeiinaycae aeeaiai e einiiai aauanoaa. Yoe iaoee eiatho oaeaea
ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea aeey enneaaeiaaiey aaeeinoaa aeinoa?u e
/aeiaa/anoaa. Oai naiui aaioeiey e aeiaaioeiey niaaeeiytho iaoee i
i?e?iaea n iaoeaie i /aeiaaea. Oeaio?ii oaeie eioaa?e?iaaiiie iaoee, ii
iiaieth Aa?iaaeneiai, yaeyaony o/aiea i aeinoa?a. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
caaea/ae ia?ainoaiaiiie aaaeiinoe yaeyaony aic?iaeaeaiea eaeae
aeinoa?iiai anoanoaiciaiey, i?iaeieaeaiea iao/iie ?ac?aaioee i?iaeai
aeiaaioeiee.

Caaea/e ii niceaeaieth iiinoa?u

I?ioeann ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o iaecaaaeii ianao a naaa /a?ou
niciaoaeueiinoe, oeaeaono?aieaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oai?/aneie ?aaiou.
Aa?iaaeneee aeaeae noiyuea ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii caaea/e ia?iiiie
aaaeiinoe ii niceaeaieth iiinoa?u. N iiceoeee yoeo caaea/ ii ioia/ae
aanii/aaiiinoue noaeaeaiee i aiciiaeiinoe e?ooaiey oeeaeeecaoeee.
?anniio?ei ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa n oi/ee c?aiey
Aa?iaaeneiai.

Iae?ooeiinoue oeeaeeecaoeee Aa?iaaeneee iainiiauaaao neaaeothueie
oacenaie:

1. *aeiaa/anoai noieo ia iooe nicaeaiey a iiinoa?iie iaiei/ee Caiee, ana
aieueoa oe?aieyy naie nayce n aeinoa?ie. *aeiaa/anoai noaiiaeony
Anaeaineie eaoaai?eae.

2. *aeiaa/anoai a naiai ?acaeoee noaei aaeeiui oeaeui aeaaiaea?y oiio,
/oi eioa?anu anao, a ia ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, noaiiayony ainoaea?noaaiiie
caaea/ae.

3. Aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu /aeiaa/anoaa, oaeea eae niciaoaeueiia
?aaoee?iaaiea ?aciiiaeaiey, i?iaeeaiea aeecie, iiaaaea iaae aieaciyie,
ia/eiatho ?aoaoueny.

4. Noaaeony caaea/a ?ani?ino?aiaiey iao/iiai ciaiey ia ana /aeiaa/anoai.

Aa?iaaeneee ienae: «Oaeie niaieoiiinoe iaua/aeiaa/aneeo aeaenoaee e
eaeae ieeiaaea ?aiueoa ia auaaei, e ynii, /oi inoaiiaeaii yoi aeaeaeaiea
auoue ia iiaeao. A /anoiinoe, ia?aae o/aiuie noiyo aeey aeeaeaeoaai
aoaeouaai iaauaaeua aeey ieo caaea/e niciaoaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey
i?aaieciaaiiinoe iiinoa?u, ioieoe io eioi?ie iie ia iiaoo, oae eae e
yoiio iai?aaeyao eo noeoeeiue oiae ?inoa iao/iiai ciaiey». Oaa?aiiinoue
a aoaeouai, oaeei ia?acii, iniiaaia ia aic?anoathuai cia/aiee a ?acaeoee
/aeiaa/anoaa niaianoiuo iaua/aeiaa/aneeo aeaenoaee. Aa?iaaeneee,
eiia/ii, ia iia i?aaeaeaeaoue nia?aiaiiie ino?iou aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai
ie?iaiai ?acaeoey. Ii e iie eeoue oneeeaatho cia/aiea niaianoiiai
?aoaiey caaea/ niciaoaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey i?aaieciaaiiinoe iiinoa?u.
Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaieciaaiiinoe iiinoa?u
yaeyaony aii?in i ianoa e ?iee iaoee a aeecie iauanoaa, i aeeyiee
ainoaea?noaa ia ?acaeoea iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee. Aa?iaaeneee auneacuaaeny
ca ia?aciaaiea aaeeiie (ia ainoaea?noaaiiii o?iaia) iao/iie /aeiaa/aneie
iunee, eioi?ay yaeyeanue au ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii a iiinoa?a e nicaeaaaei
au aeey aeeaeaeoeo iieieaiee eo/oea oneiaey aeecie. Ia?aii/a?aaeiua
aii?inu, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue ia yoii iooe, yoi – «aii?in i
ieaiiaie, aaeeiiia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe aeey iaeaaeaiey i?e?iaeie e
i?aaeeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aiaaonoa, naycaiiue n niciaieai aaeeinoaa e
?aaainoaa anao ethaeae, aaeeinoaa iiinoa?u»; eaeay i ainoaea?noaaiiii
iauaaeeiaiee oneeee /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ii?aaeaao nicao/iinoue eaeae Aa?iaaeneiai iaoaio a?aiaie. Iinoaiiaea
caaea/ niciaoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeanna niceaeaiey iiinoa?u
/?acau/aeii aeooaeueia aeey naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy. E yoei caaea/ai
Aa?iaaeneee oaeaea ioiinee enei?aiaiea aiei ec aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii
aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeye ?aoaieth caaea/ aeaiie?aoe/aneeo oi?i
i?aaiecaoeee iao/iie ?aaiou, ia?aciaaiey, ?ani?ino?aiaiey ciaiee n?aaee
ia?iaeiuo iann.

Aa?iaaeneee i ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o: i?iaiic e ?aaeueiinoue

I?ioeannu iiaeaioaaeeaathueany iiiai ieeeea?aeia eao, ia iiaoo auoue
i?eoiaeyueie, ia iiaoo inoaiiaeoueny. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi aeinoa?a
iaecaaaeii ia?aeaeao a iiinoa?o, oi anoue a aeecie ia?iaeia, aa
ianaeythueo, i?iecieaeoo niauoey, ioaeiua aeey yoiai, a ia yoiio
i?ioeanno i?ioeai?a/auea.

A.E. Aa?iaaeneee

A eieaa «Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea» A.E. Aa?iaaeneee
aiaeece?oao aaieiae/aneoth enoi?eth Caiee e ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
iaaethaeaaony ia?aoiae aeinoa?u a iiaia ninoiyiea – a iiinoa?o iiae
aeaenoaeai iiaie aaieiae/aneie neeu, iao/iie iunee /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaeiaei
a o?oaeao Aa?iaaeneiai iao caeii/aiiiai e iai?ioeai?a/eaiai oieeiaaiey
nouiinoe iaoa?eaeueiie iiinoa?u eae i?aia?aciaaiiie aeinoa?u. A iaeieo
neo/ayo ii ienae i iiinoa?a a aoaeouai a?aiaie (iia aua ia ianooieea), a
ae?oaeo a ianoiyuai (iu aoiaeei a ia?), a eiiaaea naycuaae oi?ie?iaaiea
iiinoa?u n iiyaeaieai /aeiaaea ?acoiiiai eee n aicieeiiaaieai
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. ?.E. Aaeaiaeei ieoao: «Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi
eiaaea a ea/anoaa ieia?aeiaa Aeaaeeie? Eaaiiae/ ienae i aaieiae/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ii au? ia oiio?aaeye iiiyoee «iiinoa?a» e
aeaaea «aeinoa?a». I oi?ie?iaaiee ia Caiea iiinoa?u ii iaeaieaa
iiae?iaii ienae a iacaaa?o?iiie ?aaioa «Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia
yaeaiea», ii i?aeiouanoaaiii n oi/ee c?aiey enoi?ee iaoee».

Eoae, /oi aea iiinoa?a: ooiiey eee ?aaeueiay no?aoaaey auaeeaaiey?
O?oaeu A.E. Aa?iaaeneiai iicaieytho aieaa iainiiaaiii ioaaoeoue ia
iinoaaeaiiue aii?in, iineieueeo a ieo oeacai ?yae eiie?aoiuo oneiaee,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey noaiiaeaiey e nouanoaiaaiey iiinoa?u. Ia?a/eneei yoe
oneiaey, ?aca?inaiiua ii no?aieoeai eieae «Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia
yaeaiea» e io/anoe a ae?oaeo ioaeeeaoeeyo A.E. Aa?iaaeneiai:

1.1. Canaeaiea /aeiaaeii anae ieaiaou.

1.2. ?aceia i?aia?aciaaiea n?aaenoa nayce e iaiaia iaaeaeo no?aiaie.

1.3. Oneeaiea naycae, a oii /enea iieeoe/aneeo, iaaeaeo anaie

1.4. no?aiaie Caiee.

1.5. Ia/aei i?aiaeaaeaiey aaieiae/aneie ?iee /aeiaaea iaae ae?oaeie
aaieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, i?ioaeathueie a aeinoa?a.

1.6. ?anoe?aiea a?aieoe aeinoa?u e auoiae a einiin.

1.7. Ioe?uoea iiauo enoi/ieeia yia?aee.

1.8. ?aaainoai ethaeae anao ?an e ?aeeaee.

1.9. Oaaee/aiea ?iee ia?iaeiuo iann a ?aoaiee aii?inia aiaoiae e
aioo?aiiae iieeoeee.

1.10. Naiaiaea iao/iie iunee e iao/iiai eneaiey io aeaaeaiey
?aeeaeiciuo, oeeinioneeo e iieeoe/aneeo iino?iaiee e nicaeaiea a
ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ia oneiaee, aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey naiaiaeiie iao/iie
iunee.

1.11. I?iaeoiaiiay nenoaia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey e iiaeu?i
aeaaininoiyiey o?oaeyueony. Nicaeaiea ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe ia
aeiionoeoue iaaeiaaeaiey e aieiaea, ieuaou e /?acau/aeii ineaaeoue
aieacie.

1.12. ?acoiiia i?aia?aciaaiea ia?ae/iie i?e?iaeu Caiee n oeaeueth
naeaeaoue a? niiniaiie oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana iaoa?eaeueiua, ynoaoe/aneea e
aeooiaiua iio?aaiinoe /eneaiii aic?anoathuaai ianaeaiey.

1.13. Eneeth/aiea aiei ec aeecie iauanoaa.

I?ineaaeei, ianeieueei auiieiythony yoe oneiaey a nia?aiaiiii ie?a e
inoaiiaeiny aieaa iiae?iaii ia iaeioi?uo ec ieo.

2.1. Canaeaiea /aeiaaeii anae ieaiaou. – Yoi oneiaea auiieiaii. Ia Caiea
ia inoaeinue iano, aaea ia nooiaea au iiaa /aeiaaea. Ii iainiiaaeny
aeaaea a Aioa?eoeaea

2.2. ?aceia i?aia?aciaaiea n?aaenoa nayce e iaiaia iaaeaeo no?aiaie. –
Yoi oneiaea oaeaea iiaeii n/eoaoue auiieiaiiui. N iiiiuueth ?aaeei e
oaeaaeaeaiey iu iiiaioaeueii ocia?i i niauoeyo a ethaie oi/ea caiiiai
oa?a. N?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaothony, onei?ythony,
iiyaeythony oaeea aiciiaeiinoe, i eioi?uo iaaeaaii o?oaeii auei
ia/oaoue. E caeanue iaeuecy ia aniiiieoue i?i?i/aneeo neia Aa?iaaeneiai:
«Yoio i?ioeann – iieiiai canaeaiey aeinoa?u /aeiaaeii iaoneiaeai oiaeii
enoi?ee iao/iie iunee, ia?ac?uaii naycai ni nei?inoueth niioaiee, n
oniaoaie oaoieee ia?aaeaeaeaiey, n aiciiaeiinoueth iaiiaaiiie ia?aaea/e
iunee, a? iaeiia?aiaiiiai ianoaeaeaiey ia anae ieaiaoa».

2.3. Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie n?aaenoaa oaeaeiiioieeaoeee ia?aie/eaaeenue
oaeaa?aoii, oaeaoiiii, ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaieai, i eioi?uo ienae au?
Aa?iaaeneee. Eiaeanue aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua io iaeiiai
eiiiuethoa?a e ae?oaiio i?e iiiiue iiaeaia, iiaeeeth/aiiiai e oaeaoiiiie
eeiee, aeieoiaiou ia aoiaaa ia?aaeaaaeenue n iiiiuueth oaeneieeueiuo
aiia?aoia. Oieueei a iineaaeiea aiaeu ?acaeoea aeiaaeueiie
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie eiiiuethoa?iie naoe Internet aeaei ia/aei
ianoiyuae ?aaiethoeee a /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee, eioi?ay aoiaeeo
nae/an a y?o eioi?iaoeee. A.E. Aa?iaaeneee ienae: «Nei?i iiaeii aoaeao
naeaeaoue aeaeiuie aeey anao niauoey, i?ienoiaeyuea ca ouny/e
eeeiiao?ia». Iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi e yoi i?aaeneacaiea Aa?iaaeneiai
naueinue.

2.4. Oneeaiea naycae, a oii /enea iieeoe/aneeo, iaaeaeo anaie no?aiaie
Caiee. – Yoi oneiaea iiaeii n/eoaoue anee ia auiieiaiiui, oi
auiieiythueiny. Aicieeoay iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu I?aaiecaoeey
Iauaaeei?iiuo iaoeee (III) ieacaeanue ai?acaei aieaa onoie/eaie e
aeaenoaaiiie, /ai Eeaa iaoeee, nouanoaiaaaoay a AEaiaaa n 1919 a. ii
1946 a.

2.5. Ia/aei i?aiaeaaeaiey aaieiae/aneie ?iee /aeiaaea iaae ae?oaeie
aaieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, i?ioaeathueie a aeinoa?a. – Yoi oneiaea
oaeaea iiaeii n/eoaoue auiieiaiiui, oioy eiaiii i?aiaeaaeaiea
aaieiae/aneie ?iee /aeiaaea a ?yaea neo/aaa i?eaaei e oyae?eui
yeieiae/aneei iineaaenoaeyi. Iau?i ai?iuo ii?iae, ecaeaeaaiuo ec aeoaei
Caiee anaie oaooaie e ea?uea?aie ie?a, nae/an ii/oe a aeaa ?aca
i?aauoaao n?aaeiee iau?i eaa e iaieia, auiineiuo aaeaaiaeii anaie
aoeeaiaie Caiee.

2.6. ?anoe?aiea a?aieoe aeinoa?u e auoiae a einiin. – A ?aaioao
iineaaeiaai aeanyoeeaoey A.E. Aa?iaaeneee ia n/eoae a?aieoeu aeinoa?u
iinoiyiiuie. Ii iiae/??eeaae ?anoe?aiea eo a i?ioeii eae eoia auoiaea
aeeaiai aauanoaa ia nooo, iiyaeaiey aunieinoaieueiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe,
eaoathueo ianaeiiuo, a iicaeiaa eaoathueo yua?ia e ioeoe. A i?ioeanna
ia?aoiaea a iiinoa?o a?aieoeu aeinoa?u aeieaeiu ?anoe?youeny, a /aeiaae
aeieaeai aueoe a einiin. Yoe i?aaeneacaiey naueenue.

2.7. Ioe?uoea iiauo enoi/ieeia yia?aee. – Oneiaea auiieiaii, ii, e
niaeaeaieth, n o?aae/aneeie iineaaenoaeyie. Aoiiiay yia?aey aeaaii
inaiaia e a ie?iuo, e a aiaiiuo oeaeyo. *aeiaa/anoai (a oi/iaa iieeoeee)
yaii ia aioiai ia?aie/eoueny ie?iuie oeaeyie, aieaa oiai – aoiiiay
(yaea?iay) neea aioea a iao aae i?aaeaea anaai eae aiaiiia n?aaenoai e
n?aaenoai ono?aoaiey i?ioeainoiyueo yaea?iuo aea?aeaa. Aii?in ia
eniieueciaaiee aoiiiie yia?aee aeoaiei aieiiaae Aa?iaaeneiai au? aieaa
iieoaaea iacaae. A i?aaeeneiaee e eieaa «I/a?ee e ?a/e» ii i?i?i/anee
ienae: «Iaaeaeaei a?aiy, eiaaea /aeiaae iieo/eo a naie ?oee aoiiioth
yia?aeth, oaeie enoi/iee neeu, eioi?ue aeano aio aiciiaeiinoue no?ieoue
naith aeeciue, eae ii caoi/ao. <...> Noiaao ee /aeiaae ainiieueciaaoueny
yoie neeie, iai?aaeoue a? ia aeia?i, a ia ia naiioie/oiaeaiea? Aei?in ee
ii aei oiaiey eniieueciaaoue oo neeo, eioi?oth iaecaaaeii aeieaeia aio
aeaoue iaoea?» [10, n. 331]. Ia?iiiue yaea?iue iioaioeeae
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony /oanoaii acaeiiiai no?aoa e no?aieaieai iaeiie ec
noi?ii e cuaeiio i?aainoiaenoao. Iiaouanoai iiaiai enoi/ieea yia?aee
ieacaeinue niiieoaeueiui, ii i?eo?eny ia ei a?aiaie e iiiae ia a oa
?oee. Aeey ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa a iaeanoe ie?iiai
eniieueciaaiey aoiiiie yia?aee a 1957 aiaeo nicaeaii Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
Aaaionoai ii Aoiiiie Yia?aee (IAAAOY), iauaaeeiyaoaa e 1981 aiaeo 111
ainoaea?noa.

2.8. ?aaainoai ethaeae anao ?an e ?aeeaee. – Yoi oneiaea anee ia
aeinoeaiooi, oi, ai anyeii neo/aa, aeinoeaaaony. ?aoeoaeueiui oaaii aeey
onoaiiaeaiey ?aaainoaa ethaeae ?acee/iuo ?an e aa?ieniiaaaeaiee auei
?ac?ooaiea a eiioea i?ioeiai aaea eieiieaeueiuo eiia?ee.

2.9. Oaaee/aiea ?iee ia?iaeiuo iann a ?aoaiee aii?inia aiaoiae e
aioo?aiiae iieeoeee. – Yoi oneiaea niaethaeaaony ai anao no?aiao n
ia?eaiaioneie oi?iie i?aaeaiey.

2.10. Naiaiaea iao/iie iunee e iao/iiai eneaiey io aeaaeaiey
?aeeaeiciuo, oeeinioneeo e iieeoe/aneeo iino?iaiee e nicaeaiea a
ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ia oneiaee, aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey naiaiaeiie iao/iie
iunee. – O?oaeii aiai?eoue i auiieiaiee yoiai oneiaey a no?aia, aaea au?
nianai iaaeaaii iaoea iaoiaeeeanue iiae eieinnaeueiui ai?oii
ii?aaeae?iiuo oeeinioneeo e iieeoe/aneeo iino?iaiee. Nae/an iaoea io
oaeeo aeaaeaiee naiaiaeia, iaeiaei ec-ca oyae?eiai yeiiiie/aneiai
iieiaeaiey a ?inneeneie iaoea iiiaea o/?iua auioaeaeaiu ca?aaaouaaoue
naaa ia aeeciue iaiao/iui o?oaeii, ae?oaea oacaeatho ca a?aieoeo. Aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey ?inneeneie iaoee nicaeaiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oiiaeu. A
?acaeouo e aeaaea ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, /oi iu aeaeei ia i?eia?a
Eiaeee, ainoaea?noaaiiue e iauanoaaiiue no?ie nicaeatho ?aaeei
iaeneiaeueiiai aeaaii?eyonoaiaaiey aeey naiaiaeiie iao/iie iunee.

2.11. I?iaeoiaiiay nenoaia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey e iiaeu?i
aeaaininoiyiey o?oaeyueony. Nicaeaiea ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe ia
aeiionoeoue iaaeiaaeaiey e aieiaea, ieuaou e /?acau/aeii ineaaeoue
aieacie. – I auiieiaiee yoiai oneiaey o?oaeii noaeeoue iauaeoeaii,
iaoiaeynue a aieueoie no?aia, noiyuae ia ii?iaa aieiaea e ieuaou, eae ia
yoii ieooo ana aacaou. Iaeiaei A.E. Aa?iaaeneee i?aaeoi?aaeaeae, /oi
i?ioeann ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o ia iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue
iinoaiaiii e iaeiiiai?aaeaii, /oi ia yoii iooe a?aiaiiua ionooieaiey
iaecaaaeiu. E ianoaiiaeo, neiaeeaoothny nae/an a iaoae no?aia, iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae yaeaiea a?aiaiiia e i?aoiaeyuaa.

2.12. ?acoiiia i?aia?aciaaiea ia?ae/iie i?e?iaeu Caiee n oeaeueth
naeaeaoue a? niiniaiie oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana iaoa?eaeueiua, ynoaoe/aneea
2e aeooiaiua iio?aaiinoe /eneaiii aic?anoathuaai ianaeaiey. – Yoi
oneiaea, iniaaiii a iaoae no?aia, ia iiaeao n/eoaoueny auiieiaiiui,
iaeiaei ia?aua oaae a iai?aaeaiee ?acoiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeu ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia OO aaea ianiiiaiii ia/aee inouanoaeyoueny. A nia?aiaiiue
ia?eiae i?ienoiaeeo eioaa?aoeey iaoe ia aaca yeieiae/aneeo eaeae. Any
nenoaia iao/iiai ciaiey aea?o ooiaeaiaio aeey yeieiae/aneeo caaea/. Ia
yoii oaeaea aiai?ee Aa?iaaeneee, no?aiynue nicaeaoue aaeeioth iaoeo i
aeinoa?a. Yeieiaecaoeey caiaaeiiai niciaiey i?ienoiaeeea ia/eiay n 70-o
aiaeia, nicaeaaay oneiaey aeey aicieeiiaaiey yeioeeueiie oeeaeeecaoeee.
Nae/an yeno?aienoneay oi?ia cae?iiai aeaeaeaiey ieacaeanue oai oaea ia
ioaeiie, iineieueeo ca?aaioaee ainoaea?noaaiiua iaoaieciu ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai. A NNN? aei 80-o aiaeia n/eoaeinue, /oi
nioeeaeenoe/aneia oicyenoaiaaiea i?aiyonoaoao oa?ica yeieiae/aneiai
e?ecena. A ia?eiae ia?ano?ieee yoio ieo ?acaayeny, aeoeaece?iaaeinue
aeaeaeaiea cae?iuo. Iaeiaei a nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae iieeoe/aneia
?oeiaiaenoai ia?ai?eaioe?iaaeinue a iniiaiii ia ?aoaiea yeiiiie/aneeo
i?iaeai, i?iaeaiu yeieiaee ioioee ia caaeiee ieai. A ie?iaii ianooaaa
aeey ?ac?aoaiey yeieiae/aneie i?iaeaiu a oneiaeyo ?inoa ianaeaiey
ieaiaou o?aaoaony niiniaiinoue ?aoaiey aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai, /oi a
oneiaeyo noaa?aieoaoa ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noa eaaeaony niiieoaeueiui.

2.13. Eneeth/aiea aiei ec aeecie iauanoaa. – Yoi oneiaea A.E.
Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae /?acau/aeii aaaeiui aeey nicaeaiey e nouanoaiaaiey
iiinoa?u. Ii iii ia auiieiaii e iiea iaynii, iiaeao ee auoue auiieiaii.
Ie?iaia niiauanoai no?aieony ia aeiionoeoue ie?iaie aieiu, oioy
eieaeueiua aieiu au? oiinyo iiiaea aeecie.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei, /oi iaeeoei ana oa eiie?aoiua i?eciaee, ana
eee ii/oe ana oneiaey, eioi?ua oeacuaae A.E. Aa?iaaeneee aeey oiai,
/oiau ioee/eoue iiinoa?o io nouanoaiaaaoeo ?aiaa ninoiyiee aeinoa?u.
I?ioeann a? ia?aciaaiey iinoaiaiiue, e, aa?iyoii, ieeiaaea iaeuecy
aoaeao oi/ii oeacaoue aiae eee aeaaea aeanyoeeaoea, n eioi?iai ia?aoiae
aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o iiaeii aoaeao n/eoaoue caaa?o?iiui. Eiia/ii, iiaiey
ii yoiio aii?ino iiaoo auoue ?aciua. O.O. ssioeia ieoao: «O/aiea
aeaaeaieea A.E. Aa?iaaeneiai i ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o yaeyaony ia
ooiieae, a aeaenoaeoaeueiie no?aoaaeae auaeeaaiey e aeinoeaeaiey
?acoiiiai aoaeouaai aeey anaai /aeiaa/anoaa.» [11, n. 674]. Iiaiea ?.E.
Aaeaiaeeia ianeieueei eiia: «Aeinoa?a ia ia?aoiaeeo ia aieaa aunieee
o?iaaiue neiaeiinoe, niaa?oainoaa, a oi?iuaaony, caa?yciyaony,
aeaa?aaee?oao (iaauaaeay nei?inoue auie?aiey aeaeia, ?ac?ooaiea eaniuo
cii, no?aoiay y?icey caiaeue…). Iia ia?aoiaeeo ia aieaa ieceee
o?iaaiue, o.a. a iae iaeaieaa aeoeaiie i?aia?acothuae e ?aaoee?othuae
neeie noaiiaeony oaoiiaauanoai, niaieoiiinoue oaoie/aneeo nenoai,
iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo /aeiaae – i?aeiouanoaaiii iaaieueii – ia?aeia/eaaao
anth iaeanoue aeecie.» [8, n.98]. Nai Aa?iaaeneee, caia/ay
iaaeaeaoaeueiua, ?ac?ooeoaeueiua iineaaenoaey oicyenoaiaaiey /aeiaaea ia
Caiea, n/eoae eo iaeioi?uie ecaea?aeeaie. Ii aa?ee a /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi,
aoiaieci iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi?aeanoai aeia?a e e?aniou. *oi-oi ii
aaieaeueii i?aaeaeaeae, a /?i-oi, aiciiaeii, ii ioeaaeny. Iiinoa?o
neaaeoao i?eieiaoue eae neiaie aa?u, eae eaeaae ?acoiiiai /aeiaa/aneiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa a aeinoa?iua i?ioeannu iiae aeeyieai iao/iuo
aeinoeaeaiee. Iaaei a ia? aa?eoue, iaaeayoueny ia a? i?eoanoaea,
i?aaei?eieiaoue niioaaonoaothuea ia?u.

Caeeth/aiea

Eaeae Aa?iaaeneiai iaiiiai iia?aaeaee oi a?aiy, a eioi?ii ii oai?ee. A
iieiie ia?a yoi ioiineony e o/aieth i aeinoa?a e aa ia?aoiaea a
iiinoa?o. Oieueei nae/an, a oneiaeyo iaiau/aeiiai iaino?aiey aeiaaeueiuo
i?iaeai nia?aiaiiinoe, noaiiayony yniu i?i?i/aneea neiaa Aa?iaaeneiai i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iuneeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue a ieaiaoiii — aeinoa?iii —
aniaeoa. Iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi caaea/a niceaeaiey iiinoa?u —
yoi caaea/a naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy. Aa ?aoaiea naycaii n iauaaeeiaieai
oneeee anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, n ooaa?aeaeaieai iiauo oeaiiinoae
nio?oaeie/anoaa e acaeiinayce anao ia?iaeia ie?a. A iaoae no?aia eaeae
iiinoa?u i?aaie/ii naycaiu n ?aaiethoeeiiiie ia?ano?ieeie
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa. Ia?iaeiaeanoea, aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu
iauanoaaiiie aeecie, aic?iaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u, iaoee e ia?iaeiie aeecie,
ei?aiiie ia?aniio? aaaeiinoaaiiiai iiaeoiaea e i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieth e
o. i.— ana yoi e anoue neaaaaiua iiinoa?u. Ono?aieaiiinoue a aoaeouaa,
oaeei ia?acii,— oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa iiinoa?iiai o/aiey, eioi?ia a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeaaoue ni anao aai noi?ii. ss
n/eoath, /oi aii?in i niaa?oathuainy (eee niaa?o?iiii) ia?aoiaea
aeinoa?u a iiaia ninoiyiea iiinoa?o – yaeyaony aii?inii oeeinioneei, e
iiyoiio ia iaai iaeuecy aeaoue no?iaee, iaeiicia/iue ioaao.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Ianeieueei neia i iiinoa?a. // Aeaaeeie?
Aa?iaaeneee: AEeciaiienaiea. Eca?aiiua o?oaeu. Ainiiieiaiey
nia?aiaiieeia. Noaeaeaiey iioiieia./Nino. A.I. Aenaiia. – I.:
Nia?aiaiiee, 1993.

2. Aa?iaaeneee A.E. I ei?aiiii iaoa?eaeueii-yia?aaoe/aneii ioee/ee
aeeauo e einiuo oae aeinoa?u. // Aeaaeeie? Aa?iaaeneee: AEeciaiienaiea.
Eca?aiiua o?oaeu. Ainiiieiaiey nia?aiaiieeia. Noaeaeaiey iioiieia./Nino.
A.I. Aenaiia. – I.: Nia?aiaiiee, 1993.

3. Aa?iaaeneee A.E. I/a?ee aaioeiee. // Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Ia/aei e
aa/iinoue aeecie./Nino., anooi. no., eiiiaio. I.N. Aano?aeiaie, E.E.
Ii/aeiaa, A.N. Iaaiieeoaineie. – I.: Nia. ?inney, 1989.

4. Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Iauaa iiiyoea i aeinoa?a. // Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Ia/aei
e aa/iinoue aeecie./Nino., anooi. no., eiiiaio. I.N. Aano?aeiaie, E.E.
Ii/aeiaa, A.N. Iaaiieeoaineie. – I.: Nia. ?inney, 1989.

5. Nieieia A.N. Aa?iaaeneee e OO aae. // I?e?iaea. 1988, ?2.

6. Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Ia oneiaeyo iiyaeaiey aeecie ia Caiea. //Aeaaeeie?
Aa?iaaeneee: AEeciaiienaiea. Eca?aiiua o?oaeu. Ainiiieiaiey
nia?aiaiieeia. Noaeaeaiey iioiieia./Nino. A.I. Aenaiia. – I.:
Nia?aiaiiee, 1993.

7. Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Ia/aei e aa/iinoue aeecie. // Aa?iaaeneee A.E.
Ia/aei e aa/iinoue aeecie./Nino., anooi. no., eiiiaio. I.N. Aano?aeiaie,
E.E. Ii/aeiaa, A.N. Iaaiieeoaineie. – I.: Nia. ?inney, 1989.

8. Aaeaiaeei ?.E. Iooue eneaiee (iieaie/aneea caiaoee). //I?e?iaea.
1988, ?2.

9. Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea. // Aa?iaaeneee
A.E. Ia/aei e aa/iinoue aeecie./Nino., anooi. no., eiiiaio. I.N.
Aano?aeiaie, E.E. Ii/aeiaa, A.N. Iaaiieeoaineie. – I.: Nia. ?inney,
1989.

10. Aa?iaaeneee A.E. I?aaeeneiaea e eieaa «I/a?ee e ?a/e» //Aa?iaaeneee
A.E. Ia/aei e aa/iinoue aeecie./Nino., anooi. no., eiiiaio. I.N.
Aano?aeiaie, E.E. Ii/aeiaa, A.N. Iaaiieeoaineie. – I.: Nia. ?inney,
1989.

11. A?eooiei N., ?iaiaa Y. Aanaaeu ca «e?oaeui noieii». //Aeaaeeie?
Aa?iaaeneee: AEeciaiienaiea. Eca?aiiua o?oaeu. Ainiiieiaiey
nia?aiaiieeia. Noaeaeaiey iioiieia./Nino. A.I. Aenaiia. – I.:
Nia?aiaiiee, 1993.

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