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Нейроны как проводники электричества. Физиология синапсов

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AAEI?ONNEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

eaoaae?a oeceieiaee /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo

?AOA?AO

Ia oaio:

«Iae?iiu eae i?iaiaeieee yeaeo?e/anoaa. Oeceieiaey neiainia»

IEINE, 2008

Iae?iiu eae i?iaiaeieee yeaeo?e/anoaa.

Ii ia?aai (ioaeaeueiui ia?aiui aieieiai) neaiaeu ?ani?ino?aiythony a
aeaea iioaioeeaeia aeaenoaey e yeaeo?ioiie/aneeo iioaioeeaeia, ii ia
?aciua i?aaeaeueiua ?annoiyiey. Niiniaiinoue aeniiia e aeaiae?eoia, a
oaeaea iaia?ai iuoa/iuo eeaoie i?iaiaeeoue yeaeo?e/aneea neaiaeu
oa?aeoa?ecoaony eo eaaaeueiuie naienoaaie.

Eaaaeueiua naienoaa ia?aiuo i?iaiaeieeia i/aiue nouanoaaiiu aeey
?ani?ino?aiaiey neaiaeia a ia?aiie nenoaia. Iie iaoneiaeeaatho
aaia?aoeeth iioaioeeaeia aeaenoaey a naini?iuo ia?aiuo ieii/aieyo, eee
?aoeaioi?ao, i?e aeaenoaee ?acae?aaeeoaeae, i?iaaaeaiea neaiaeia ii
aeniiai, noiiaoeeth neaiaeia iaia?aiie niiu iae?iia.

A iniiao nia?aiaiiuo oai?ee eaaaeueiiai i?iaaaeaiey aicaoaeaeaiey
iieiaeaia aeiioaca Aa?iaiia i nouanoaiaaiee e?oaiauo oieia (oieia
Aa?iaiia), oaeoueo io iaaicaoaeaeaiiuo o/anoeia iaia?aiu e
aicaoaeaeaiiui i?e ?ani?ino?aiaiee eiioeuena ii aeniio.

Ec oeeoieiaee ecaanoii, /oi eaaeaeay aicaoaeeiay eeaoea ia?aie/aia
ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiie, e eioi?ie i?eiueatho ie?oaeathuea eeaoeo
iaiei/ee. Iaeaieaa /anoi ia?aiua aieieia ie?oaeaiu ieaeeiiaie iaiei/eie,
noi?ie?iaaiiie aeeaeueiie eeaoeie a OeIN eeai iaiei/eie, ia?aciaaiiie
Oaaiiianeie eeaoeie ia ia?eoa?ee. A ianoao ?acaaoaeaiey aeniia, eeai a
ia/aeueiie eee eiia/iie aai /anoe ieaeeiiaay iaiei/ea enoii/aaony. Naia
iaia?aia ninoieo ec eeieaeia e aaeeia. Ana yoi iaoneiaeeaaao aunieia
yeaeo?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea iaia?aiu eeaoie e aunieoth ?ani?aaeaeaiioth
yeaeo?e/aneoth aa aieinoue. Yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?aaeaeytho i?iaiaeyuea
naienoaa ia?aiiai aieieia.

Iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey iioaioeeaeia, yeaeo?ioiie/aneeo
i?aaeaea anaai, ii ia?aiui aieieiai iieo/aiu a yenia?eiaioao ia e?oiiuo
aeniiao eaeueia?ia. Auei iaia?oaeaii, /oi i?e iaianaiee i?yiioaieueiiai
noeioea a ii?aaeaeaiiie oi/ea aieieia ii ia?a oaeaeaiey io ianoa
noeioeyoeee neaiae ?aaeno?e?oaony n eneaaeaieai. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea oi?iu aai ia?aaeiaai e caaeiaai o?iioa
(caiacaeuaaiea aeinoeaeaiey iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiey) e oiaiueoaiea aai
aiieeooaeu. Ia?aay ec yoeo aaee/ei ii?aaeaeyaony iinoiyiiie a?aiaie,
aoi?ay – iinoiyiiie aeeeiu. Ec ?aaeeioeceee ecaanoii, /oi iinoiyiiay
a?aiaie yeaeo?e/aneie oeaie eiathuae aieinoue (N) e nii?ioeaeaiea R,
ii?aaeaeyaony oi?ioeie

?=RC

e ecia?yaony a naeoiaeao.

Ec /aai neeaaeuaaaony nii?ioeaeaiea eeaoi/iie iaia?aiu? A eeaoea
nouanoaoao o?e iooe, ii eioi?ui iiaeao oa/ue oie a i?iaeieueiii
iai?aaeaiee ii aeniio

a) aeniieacia

a)aiaeeaoi/iay aeeaeeinoue

a) naia iaia?aia

Aiaeeaoi/iay aeeaeeinoue –yeaeo?ieeo, aa nii?ioeaeaiea iaei. Oaeaeueiia
nii?ioeaeaiea iaia?aiu oieueiie 100 aiano?ai i?eaeeaeaaony e 1000-5000
ii*ni, i/aiue aaeeei. Oaeaeueiia nii?ioeaeaiea aeniieaciu iaaaeeei, 200
ii*ni. Aieinoue iaia?ai aicaoaeeiuo eeaoie N aeecea e 1 ieo/ni2, ii ia
auaaao aieueoa 7 ieo/ni2. Oaeei ia?acii, o iiaeao auoue 0,1-7 in.
Iinoiyiiay a?aiaie ii?aaeaeyao nei?inoue caiacaeuaaiey ?acaeoey
iioaioeeaea aei iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiey e nei?inoue caiacaeuaaiey aai
caoooaiey aei oiiiaie aaee/eiu.

A?aaeeaio ia?anoaiey iioaioeeaea (ca?yae iaia?aiiiai eiiaeainaoi?a)
ii?aaeaeyaony yeniiiaioeeaeueiui caeiiii:

V/V0=(1-e–t/ o)

Aaee/eia iioaioeeaea Vt a iiiaio a?aiaie t iaiueoa ia?aiia/aeueiiai
iioaioeeaea V0 ia aaee/eio, ii?aaeaeyaioth au?aaeaieai (1-e–t/ o).

I?eiai t=o, oiaaea

Vt/V0=(1-e–1)= 1-1/e=1-1/2.7=0.63

Eee 63% io ia?aiia/aeueiiai.

?ac?yae eiiaeainaoi?a iaia?aiu oiaea iienuaaaony yeniiiaioeeaeueiie
oi?ioeie:

Vt/V0=e–t/ o

I?eiai t=o, oiaaea Vt/V0=e–1=1/2,7=0,37 eee 37% io iaeneiaeueiiai nionoy
a?aiy t.

Anee /a?ac iaia?aio eeaoee oa/ao aieinoiie oie yeaeo?ioiie/aneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ca eaaeaeue io?acie a?aiaie, ?aaiue o, iinoiyiiie
a?aiaie, neaiae yeaeo?ioiia oaaee/eaaaony ia 63 % io i?aaeuaeouaai i?e
aic?anoaiee neaiaea, eee oiaiueoaaony aei 37% io i?aaeuaeouae aaee/eiu
i?e aai niaaea.

Eiiiue iaoaieci yoiai yaeaiey iiaeao oi?iuaiii auoue iienai oaeei
ia?acii. I?e aaaaeaiee a eeaoeo iieiaeeoaeueiuo ca?yaeia
(aeaiiey?ecaoeey) eiiu E+ ia/eiatho ia?aiauaoueny ii iai?aaeaieth e
iaia?aia, eioi?ay iaeaaeaao aieinoueth, iicaieythuae yoe ca?yaeu
iaeaieeaaoue, ii eiathony ioe?uoua eaiaeu ooa/ee, i?iioneathuea eiiu e
aeaiioe?othuea iaeiieaiea ca?yaea. *oiau i?iecioae ?aaeueiue naeaea
ca?yaea, aeieaeii i?ieoe a?aiy. A?aiy ioaeii e aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey
ia?aiia/aeueiie aaee/eiu ca?yaea i?e ?ac?yaea iaia?aiiiai eiiaeainaoi?a.
Yoi e anoue o.

Ia eaeia ?annoiyiea iiaeao ?ani?ino?aieony yeaeo?ioiie/aneee iioaioeeae
ii iaia?aia ia?aiiai aieieia?

Ianneaiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea neaiaea yeaeo?ioiia ii?aaeaeyaony o?aaiaieai
Ux=U0*e-x/e, a eioi?ii iu niiaa aeaeei yeniiiaioeeaeueioth caaeneiinoue.

Iao?oaeii i?iecaanoe i?aia?aciaaiey oi?ioeu aeey neo/ay x= e e
oaaaeeony, /oi yeaeo?ioiie/aneee iioaioeeae Ux a oi/ea, iaoiaeyuaeny io
ia?aiia/aeueiie ia ?annoiyiee x aoaeao iaiueoa ia?aiia/aeueiiai U0 a e
?ac (aei 37% io U0, o.a. 1/2,7), anee yoa oi/ea x ?aaia iinoiyiiie
aeeeiu e.

Iinoiyiiay aeeeiu e, eee i?ino?ainoaaiiay eiinoaioa iiey?ecaoeee caaeneo
io nii?ioeaeaiey iaia?aiu rm, nii?ioeaeaiey aiaoiae n?aaeu ro e
nii?ioeaeaiey aeniieaciu ri.
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*ai aieueoa nii?ioeaeaiea iaia?aiu, iaiueoa nii?ioeaeaiea n?aaeu, oai ia
aieueoaa ?annoiyiea ia?aaeaaony yeaeo?ioiie/aneee iioaioeeae.
Oiaiueoaiea aaee/eiu yeaeo?ioiia a caaeneiinoe io ?annoiyiey iacuaaaony
aeae?aiaioii.

Ieacaeinue, /oi ia iinoiyiioth aeeeiu aeeyao aeeaiao? i?iaiaeieea,
iineieueeo io iaai caaeneo nii?ioeaeaiea aeniieaciu. Iiyoiio oienoua
ia?aiua aieieia eiatho aieueoaa ?annoiyiea e, ia eioi?ia niiniaai
?anni?ino?aiyoueny yeaeo?ioii.

?ani?ino?aiaiea yeaeo?ioiia – i?aaeaea anaai eaoyeaeo?ioiia – aaaeiue
oeceieiae/aneee oaiiiai. A eeaoeao, ia aaia?e?othueo IAe (aeey,
yieoaeee, oiie/aneea iuoa/iua aieieia) ca n/ao i?iaaaeaiey yeaeo?ioiia
inouanoaeyaony ooieoeeiiaeueiay acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo eeaoeaie. A
aeaiae?eoiii aea?aaa iae?iiia, iai?eia?, ei?u aieueoeo iieooa?ee iicaa,
neaiaeu a aeaea yeaeo?ioiia iiaoo aeioiaeeoue io aeaiae?eoia aei niiu. A
iaeanoe neiaina, ciay ?anniio?aiiua caeiiiia?iinoe, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue,
ia eaeia ?annoiyiea iiaoo ?ani?ino?aiyoueny neiaioe/aneea iioaioeeaeu.

Oai ia iaiaa, e ?an/aou, e i?yiua ecia?aiey aeatho i/aiue iaaieueoea
?annoiyiey, ia eioi?ia niiniaai ?ani?ino?aiyoueny yeaeo?ioii. Iiyoiio,
anee aeaiiey?ecaoeey a o/anoea iaia?aiu ia aeinoeaaao oi/ee EOAe, iao
oaaee/aiey i?iieoeaaiinoe aeey Na+, /a?ac iioaioeeaecaaeneiua eaiaeu,
i?ienoiaeyo oieueei ianneaiua eciaiaiey iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea.
Eiinoaioa e aa?uee?oao io 0,1 aei 5 ii. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi aeey
nayce a i?aaeaeao OeIN ioaeai ae?oaie iaoaieci ia?aaea/e neaiaeia.
Yaiethoeey aai iaoea. Yoio iaoaieci – ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiioeuena.

Ia?ie i?iaaaeaiey eiioeuena ii aeniio yaeyaony nei?inoue. Nei?inoue
ia?aaea/e iioaioeeaeia aeaenoaey ea?aao nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a
i?aaiecaoeee naycae a ia?aiie nenoaia. Iau/ii auno?ii?iaiaeyuea ia?aiua
aieieia ni nei?inoueth i?iaaaeaiey aieaa 100 i/n ianeoaeeaatho auno?ua
?aoeaenu, oa, i?e inouanoaeaiee eioi?uo o?aaoaony aacioeaaaoaeueiay
?aaeoeey. Iai?eia?, i?e iaoaea/iie iinoaiiaea eiia/iinoe (Au
inooieeenue), /oiau ecaaaeaoue iaaeaiey; a caueoiuo ?aoeaenao,
eieoeee?iaaiiuo iia?aaeaeathuei noeioeii, e o.ae. Aeey ?aoeaenia
auno?iai ?aaae?iaaiey o?aaoaony aunieay nei?inoue a aooa?aioiii e
aeaeaaoaeueiii caaia, aei 120 i/n. Iaiai?io, iaeioi?ua i?ioeannu ia
o?aaotho noieue auno?iai ?aaae?iaaiey. Yoi ioiineony e iaoaieciai
?aaoeyoeee aeayoaeueiinoe aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, aaea aeinoaoi/ii auaaao
nei?inoe i?iaaaeaiey ieiei 1 i/n.

?anniio?ei niauoey, naycaiiua n ?ani?ino?aiaieai IAe ii
iaieaeeiece?iaaiiiio ia?aiiio aieieio (eiiaaea n ioeaeie aiai?yo
iaieaeeiiaiio, ii yoi aanniuneaiii, oae eae ieaeei ia i?iaiaeeo oie, yoi
iaiei/ea!). Eieoeeaoeey aieiu aicaoaeaeaiey iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeaiiie
eeai aeoeaiinoueth ?aoeaioi?a (aaia?aoi?iue iioaioeeae), eeai
neiaioe/aneeie i?ioeannaie. Iiaeii aucaaoue IAe e yeaeo?inoeioeyoeeae
aeniia. Anee eieaeueiia niauaiea iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea
(aeaiiey?ecaoeey) i?aauoaao ii?ia, aeinoeaaao oi/ee EOAe, aeoeae?oao
iioaioeeaecaaeneiua iao?eaaua eaiaeu, IAe a aeaea aieiu
aeaiiey?ecaoeee-?aiiey?ecaoeee aicieeaao e ?ani?ino?aiyaony aaeieue
ia?aiiai aieieia. Oi/ea iaeneioia IAe niioaaonoaoao iaeneiaeueiie
?aaa?nee iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea (iaa?ooo). Iieo/aaony neooaoeey, i?e
eioi?ie IAe, ?ani?ino?aiyynue ii aieieio, ii?iaeaeaao ia?aae niaie oiee
Aa?iaiia, eioi?ua ?ac?yaeatho iaia?aiioth aieinoue, i?eaeeaeatho
iaia?aiiua iioaioeeae neaaeothuaai o/anoea iaia?aiu e EOAe, e o.ae.
Ncaaee ca niaie ia?aiauathueeny IAe inoaaeyao iaeanoue iaia?aiu,
iaoiaeyuothny a ninoiyiee ioiineoaeueiie ?ao?aeoa?iinoe.

Aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey IAe iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ii anyeee ?ac ii?iaeaeae
yeaeo?ioiie/aneee iioaioeeae a ninaaeiae iaeanoe, oie, eoaea ii
?ani?ino?aiyaony, niiniaiue nianoeoue iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae ia aaee/eio
ii?iaa, oi anoue aiieeooaea iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey aeieaeia i?aauoaoue
ii?ia aai aicieeiiaaiey a ianeieueei ?ac. Ioiioaiea IAe/ii?ia iineo
iacaaiea aa?aioeeiue oaeoi? (Uiae/Uii?ia=5..7).

Nei?inoue ia?aiauaiey yeaeo?ioiia e IAe ii aaciyeioiui aieieiai iaea e
ia i?aauoaao 1 i/n. O eaeueia?a, ca n/ao iauaaeeiaiey a yia?eiaaiaca
ianeieueeeo aeniiia a iaeei, /oi oaaee/eaaao iauee aeeaiao? i?iaiaeieea,
nei?inoue eiioeuena a iaieaeeiece?iaaiiii aieieia iiaeao auoue aei 25
i/n. O ieaeiieoathueo nei?inoue iiauoaia ca n/ao ieaeeiecaoeee aeniiia.
Aunieia oaeaeueiia nii?ioeaeaiea ieaeeia i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi iaia?aia
iyeioiuo aieieii i?eia?aoaao aunieia nii?ioeaeaiea e iaeoth aieinoue. A
ia?aoaaoao ?aiauea nin?aaeioi/aiu iao?eaaua iioaioeeaecaaeneiua eaiaeu,
a i?eia?aoaaoiuo iaeanoyo – eaeeaaua, ioaaonoaaiiua ca ?aiiey?ecaoeeth.
Yoe iniaaiiinoe no?iaiea i?eaiaeyo e oiio, /oi naeueoaoi?iia i?iaaaeaiea
aicaoaeaeaiey eiaao aunieoth iaaeaaeiinoue e aunieoth nei?inoue, eioi?ua
ni/aoathony n yeiiiie/iinoueth (iyeioiua aeniiu aeey ia?aiauaiey Na+ e
K+ /a?ac iaia?aio iaoiaeyony iaiueoei eiee/anoaii iao?ee-eaeeaaie
AOOacu). Ioee/eoaeueiia aeioece/aneia naienoai naeueoaoi?iiai
i?iaaaeaiey IAe ninoieo e a oii, /oi oiee caiueathony /a?ac
iaaeeeaoi/ioth n?aaeo, eiathuoth ieceia nii?ioeaeaiea, i?e yoii oiee
neaaeotho e aaeieue, e iiia?ae aieieia.

Nei?inoue ia?aaea/e eiioeuenia ii iyeioiiio aieieio caaeneo io aeeaiao?a
iineaaeiaai i?inoui niioiioaieai

V=E*d, aaea d –aeeaiao?, a e-eiinoaioa.

Aeey aioeaee e=2, aeey ieaeiieoathueo e=6.

Aeeeia o/anoea aieieia, aiaea/aiiiai a i?ioeann ia?aaea/e iaeiiai IAe
?aaia L=t*V, aaea t-aeeeoaeueiinoue eiioeuena. Yoio iieacaoaeue aaaeai a
iaoiaee/aneii ioiioaiee, iineieueeo io aeeeiu aicaoaeaeaiiiai o/anoea
ia?aa caaeneo iiaeai? iaaeiiethniiai ?annoiyiey ioaiaeyueo
(?aaeno?e?othueo) yeaeo?iaeia.

A ia?aiuo noaieao ioaeaeueiua aooa?aioiua e aeaeaaoaeueiua ia?aiua
aieieia ?aniieiaeaiu a eiiiaeoii oiaeiaaiiii ninoiyiee. I?iaaaeaiea ii
ioaeaeueiui aieieiai inouanoaeyaony eciee?iaaiii io ninaaeieo, iiaeao
?ani?ino?aiyoueny a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo io ianoa aicieeiiaaiey, eiaao
ioiineoaeueii iinoiyiioth nei?inoue a ethaii o/anoea aeniia (e?iia
ieii/aiee) e aicaoaeaeaiea io ianeieueeeo enoi/ieeia aicieeiiaaiey a
eeaoea iiaeao iiaeaa?aaoueny aeaaa?ae/aneiio noiie?iaaieth. Aeeaiacii
?acee/ee a nei?inoyo i?iaaaeaiey a aieieiao aaeee, /oi iicaieeei
i?iaanoe ianeieueei eeanneoeeaoeee. Iaeaieaa i?eiyouie n/eoathony
eeanneoeeaoeee Y?eaiaa?a-Aanna?a (a?oiiu AaaaaeAN) e, a iaiueoae
noaiaie, Eeieaea (a?oiiu I, II, III).

Oeceieiaey neiainia.

Neiaioe/aneay ia?aaea/a – yoi eieoeeaoeey i?ioeanna aicaoaeaeaiey eee
oi?iiaeaiey a aicaoaeeiie eeaoea, aucaaiiay yeaeo?e/aneei eee oeie/aneei
neaiaeii, iinooieaoei io ?aoeaioe?othuae eee ia?aiie eeaoee, n iiiiuueth
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai iaaeeeaoi/iiai eiioaeoa, iacuaaaiiai neiainii.

Ecaanoiu aeaa i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iuo niiniaa ia?aaea/e neaiaeia io
eeaoee e eeaoea – yeaeo?e/aneee e oeie/aneee.

Neiainaie iacuaatho niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiua
ia?aciaaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey inouanoaeaiey eiioaeoia iaaeaeo
ia?aiuie eeaoeaie e yooaeoi?iuie, eniieuecoaiuo aeey ia?aaea/e neaiaeia.

Ii i?eioeeio inouanoaeaiey ia?aaea/e neiainu auaatho yeaeo?e/aneea e
oeie/aneea, niaoaiiua oeie/anee-yeaeo?e/aneea, oeie/aneea n i?yiui e
iai?yiui niiniaii ?aoeaioeee iaaeeaoi?a. I?e i?yiii niiniaa ?aoeaioeee
iaaeeaoi?a eiiio?iiiua ?aoeaioi?u, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia iinoneiaioe/aneie
iaia?aia, i?yii aeoeae?othony iaaeeaoi?ii. I?e iai?yiie neiaioe/aneie
ia?aaea/a ?aoeaioi?u, ioiinyueany e eeanno iaoaaio?iiiuo, ?aaae?otho ia
iaaeeaoi? /a?ac aae?anaoeeth iineaaeiaai e aoi?e/iui aioo?eeeaoi/iui
iin?aaeieeai eee G-aaeeai. Oieueei iinea yoiai aeoeae?othony eiiiua
eaiaeu.

Ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe inouanoaeythueo eiioaeo eeaoie ?acee/atho
ia?aii-iuoa/iua, iae?i-iae?iiaeueiua, iae?i-nae?aoi?iua neiainu.
Aeni-aeniiaeueiua, aeni-niiaoe/aneea, aeni-aeaiae?eoiua,
aeaiae?i-aeaiae?eoiua (anee o eeaoee ia au?aaeaiiiai aeniia) yaeythony
?aciiaeaeiinoyie iae?iiae?iiaeueiuo neiainia.

Ii eniieuecoaiiio oeio iaaeeaoi?a auaatho oieeia?ae/aneea,
aae?aia?ae/aneea (iaioeaea?ae/aneea, aeooaiaoa?ae/aneea e o.ae.)
neiainu.

Ii oa?aeoa?o (eee ciaeo aeaenoaey) neiainu iiaoo auoue aicaoaeaeathueie
e oi?iiciuie.

No?oeoo?a (oeueo?ano?oeoo?a, o.a. no?oeoo?a ia o?iaia ?ac?aoaiey
yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia) neiainia neiaeia e iaiaa anaai iaiiieiaao
i?inooth iiaeaeue, ?anniao?eaaaioth a iauai eo?na oeceieiaee. Iaeiaei a
ethaii neiaina iiaeii auaeaeeoue i?aneiaioe/aneoth iaeanoue,
neiaioe/aneoth uaeue e iinoneiaioe/aneoth iaeanoue.

No?iaiea e ooieoeee yeaeo?e/aneiai neiaina.

Aeey yeaeo?e/aneiai neiaina oa?aeoa?ia i/aiue oceay neiaioe/aneay uaeue,
eioi?ay ia i?aauoaao ii oe?eia 10 ii, ii aeecea nei?aa e 5 ii.
I?aneiaioe/aneay e iinoneiaioe/aneay iaia?aia o neiaina n yeaeo?e/aneei
niiniaii eiiioieeaoeee eiatho ieceia oaeaeueiia nii?ioeaeaiea. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai nicaeaao oneiaey aeey i?yiiai i?ioiaeaeaiey
yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea ec iaeiie eeaoee a ae?oaoth. A iaeiie ec
?aciiaeaeiinoae yeaeo?e/aneeo neiainia, a uaeaauo eiioaeoao, eee
iaenonao ieceia nii?ioeaeaiea i?ioiaeyuaio oieo iaania/eaaaony iaee/eai
iiia?a/iuo eaiaeia – eiiiaeniiia, ninoiyueo ec aaeeiauo noauaaeeieoe.
Iie noa?aiiao?e/anee oi/ii ?aniieiaeaiu ia i?a- e iinoneiaioe/aneie
iaia?aia, eo eaiaeueiay /anoue eiaao aeeaiao? ieiei 10 aiano?ai.
Eiiu-iineoaee oiea ii eaiaeai niiniaiu i?iieeaoue ec iaeiie eeaoee a
ae?oaoth. Aieia aeaiiey?ecaoeee, neaaeothuay ia?aae IAe, iiaeao
aucuaaoue niauaiea iioaioeeaea iaia?aiu aei EOAe e eieoeee?iaaoue
iiyaeaiea IAe a iinoneiaioe/aneie eeaoea. *a?ac iaenonu niiniaiu
i?iieeaoue e iaeioi?ua ieceiiieaeoey?iua niaaeeiaiey.

O?aiceo aicaoaeaeaiey /a?ac yeaeo?e/aneee neiain iiaeao auoue n
ineaaeaieai aiieeooaeu neaiaea, iiyoiio aaaaeaii iiiyoea eiyooeoeeaio
ia?aaea/e:

E.I.=Uiino./Ui?an.

?aaeueii eiyooeoeeaio ia?aaea/e EI=1/2 icia/aao, /oi aiieeooaea IAe
ineaaeyaony i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee neiaina a 2 ?aca. Eiiaaea neiain iiaeao
i?iaiaeeoue neaiae a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo, ii eiyooeoeeaio ia?aaea/e a
i?yiii e ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee iaiaeeiaeia. Yoi nicaeaao oneiaey aeey
oiai, /oiau i?iioneaoue ii/oe aac iioa?ue aeaiiey?ecaoeeth, ii
i?aeoe/anee caaea?aeeaaoue aeia?iiey?ecothuee iioaioeeae. Aiai?yo, /oi
oaeea neiainu iaeaaeatho aui?yieythueie naienoaaie.

Eiiaaea yeaeo?e/aneee neiain i?iaiaeeo oieueei yeaeo?ioiie/aneee neaiae,
aeaeaeee ii aiieeooaea io ii?iaiaiai aeey aeinoeaeaiey EOAe. Ii yoiai
ieacuaaaony aeinoaoi/ii aeey i?ioeanna eioaa?aoeee neaiaeia
iinoneiaioe/aneie eeaoeie. Aeey yeaeo?e/aneiai neiaina oa?aeoa?ia i/aiue
iaeay neiaioe/aneay caaea?aeea, ?aaiay nioui aeieyi in.

Eae i?aaeei, yeaeo?e/aneea neiainu ia?acothony iaaeaeo ooieoeeiiaeueii
iaeii?iaeiuie eeaoeaie e neoaeao aeey neio?iiecaoeee eo aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iie iaeaeaiu eae o aaniicaiii/iuo, oae e o iicaiii/iuo aeeaioiuo.

Naienoaa yeaeo?e/aneiai neiaina:

a) aunieia auno?iaeaenoaea, aunieay eaaeeueiinoue

a) neaainoue eee ionoonoaea neaaeiauo i?ioeannia –aeaiiey?ecaoeee e
aeia?iiey?ecoeee, neaaia aeeyiea ia i?ioeannu eioaaaoeee
aini?eieiathuaai iae?iia

a) aunieay iaaeaaeiinoue ia?aaea/e

Oeie/aneea neiainu.

Aeey oeie/aneiai neiaina oa?aeoa?iu:

1. Neiaioe/aneay caaea?aeea, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth ia iaiaa 0,5 n;

2. Ionoonoaea yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea io i?a- e iinoneiaioe/aneie iaia?aia.

3. Iinoneiaioe/aneee iioaioeeae eae ?acoeueoao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
oeie/aneiai neiaina. Iinoneiaioe/aneee iioaioeeae (INI) yaeyaony
oeaeueth ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeie/aneiai neiaina e iiaeao auoue
aicaoaeaeathuei (AINI) eee oi?iiciui (OINI). Oa?ieiu AINI e OINI
i?eiaiytho /aua e neiainai, ia?aciaaiiui iae?iiaie ia iae?iiao. A
ia?aii-iuoa/iii neiaina oeaeueth neiaioe/aneie ia?aaea/e yaeyaony
oi?ie?iaaiea iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey, nii?yaeaiiiai n iineaaeothuei
iuoa/iui nie?auaieai.

4. Oaaee/aiea i?iaiaeeiinoe iinoneiaioe/aneie iaia?aiu i?e ?aaeecaoeee
ooieoeee neiaina (INI a aeaea OINI eee AINI iaoneiaeaiu ia?aiauaieai
eiiia /a?ac eiiiua eaiaeu a iaia?aia).

5. Neiaioe/aneea iocu?ueee, eee aaceeoeu, i?enoonoaothuea a
i?aneiaioe/aneeo ieii/aieyo, niaoeeoe/aneia ie?aoeaaiea oa?aeoa?iia aeey
iinoneiaioe/aneie iaia?aiu.

6. Caaeneiinoue i?ioeanna aunaiaiaeaeaiey, eee ?aeeceiaa iaaeeaoi?a, io
aoiaea a i?aneiaioe/aneia ieii/aiea eiiia Na++.

Aicaoaeaeathuea oeie/aneea neiainu.

Aeey oeie/aneiai neiaina oa?aeoa?iu i?aneiaioe/aneay iaeanoue,
neiaioe/aneay uaeue e iinoneiaioe/aneay iaeanoue.

Neiaioe/aneay uaeue eiaao o oeie/aneeo neiainia i?inaao io 20 aei 50 ii.
A i?aneiaioe/aneie iaeanoe anaaaea eiathony aaceeoeu, niaea?aeauea
iaaeeaoi? (o?ainieooa?, iae?io?ainieooa?, iae?iiaaeeaoi?).

A ?anniao?eaaaiii oeia neiaina ec-ca aunieiai nii?ioeaeaiey
neiaioe/aneeo iaia?ai e oe?ieie neiaioe/aneie uaee yeaeo?ioiie/aneee
iioaioeeae e IAe ia niiniaiu ia?aeoe e iinoneiaioe/aneie iaeanoe,
eniieuecoy eaaaeueiua naienoaa iaia?aiu. Eiyooeoeeaio ia?aaea/e a yoii
neo/aa iaiueoa ouny/iuo aeieae, a aiaeeaoi/iue ooio eiaao ieceia
nii?ioeaeaiea e «oaiaeeo» ca?yae. Ii i?aneiaioe/aneiio aieieio
iaoaieciii aeniiiiai o?ainii?oa (400 ii/noo) inouanoaeyaony
ia?aaeaeaeaiea oa?iaioiuo nenoai e i?aaeoanoaaiieeia aeey neioaca
iaaeeaoi?ia e aaceeoe. A neiaioe/aneii ieii/aiee anaaaea eiaaony
iaeioi?ue caian aioiaiai aeey nae?aoeee iaaeeaoi?a, oiaeiaaiiiai a
aaceeoeu.

Neioac iaaeeaoi?ia inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth oa?iaioia, iai?eia?,
aoeaoeeoieei AO neioace?oaony oieeiaoeaoeeo?ainoa?acie, eioi?ay
ia?aiineo aoeaoeeueioth a?oiio io aoeaoeeeiyiceia A ia oieei. I?eia?ii
85% aioiaiai iaaeeaoi?a o?aieony a aaceeoeao. I?ioeann neioaca e
?aniaaea AO i?ienoiaeeo iinoiyiii.

Auoiae iaaeeaoi?a ec ieii/aiey oaeaea i?ienoiaeeo iai?a?uaii, yoi oae
iacuaaaiue iaeaaioiaue ?aeeceia, aai eioaineaiinoue iiaeao i?aauoaoue
aeaenoaaiiue, eaaioiaue a aeanyoee ?ac, ii yeaeo?iaaiiuo iineaaenoaee ii
ia eiaao (ieacuaaao o?ioe/aneia aeaenoaea ia iauaeo eiia?aaoeee), e AO
?ac?ooaaony aac eciaiaiey i?iieoeaaiinoe iinoneiaioe/aneie iaiaa?aiu.

Eaaioiaue auoiae AO eiaao yeaeo?e/anee cia/eiua iineaaenoaey.
Eieoeeaoeey eaaioiaiai ?aeeceiaa caaeaaony i?eoiaeii ii aeniio
iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey, eioi?ue a iioa?yaoai ieaeei i?aneiaioe/aneii
ieii/aiee aeaiiey?ecoao aai iaia?aio, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ioe?uoeth
iioaioeeae/oanoaeoaeueiuo Na++ eaiaeia. Ec-ca aunieiai
yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai e eiioeaio?aoeeiiiiai a?aaeeaioa eiiu Na++ aoiaeyo a
i?aneiaioe/aneia ieii/aiea. Eaeueoeee iaiaoiaeei aeey oiai, /oiau
aaceeoeu n iaaeeaoi?ii iiaee niaaeeieoueny n aiaoiae iaia?aiie e
auionoeoue ii?oeeth (eaaio) iaaeeaoi?a a neiaioe/aneoth uaeue iooai
yecioeeoica. Iaeiia?aiaiii a neiaina iiaeao iii?iaeieoueny aei nioai
aaceeoe. A eaaioa auaaao io 102 aei 105 iieaeoe AO.

Ieoaiueth AO a oieeia?ae/aneii neiaina yaeyaony eiiieaeniay aaeeiaay
iieaeoea oieeii?aoeaioi?. Oieeii?aoeaioi?u, /oanoaeoaeueiua e ieeioeio,
ioiinyo e oeio I-oieeii?aoeaioi?ia, e ionea?eio – I-oieeii?aoeaioi?ia
(iaoaaio?iiiuo). I-oieeii?aoeaioi?u ?aniieiaeaiu (yeni?anne?iaaiu) ia
iaia?aiao iuoa/iuo aieieii neaeaoiuo iuooe, iae?iiia OeIN e
neiiaoe/aneeo aaiaeeaa.

I-oieeii?aoeaioi?, eiiio?iiiue, ninoieo ec 5 (eiiaaea 7) aaeeiauo
noauaaeeieoe, iaeia ec eioi?uo aeoaee?oaony (aaaaae). Iauee ?acia?
(11*8,5 ii) iieaeoeu aaeaia aieueoa oieueiu iaia?aiu. Aieiieeneioiay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aaeeia anao noauaaeeieoe onoaiiaeaia, iia
ieacaeanue aeaeiniaoeeoe/iie, oioy ?acee/ey o aeeceeo aeaeia aeeaioiuo
iacia/eoaeueiu. I?iaeoaee?iaaiiua a–noauaaeeieoeu iaeaaeatho
/oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e eeaaiaeo. Oieeii?aoeaioi? iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue a
ea/anoaa eiiiiai eaiaea, iineieueeo eae eioaa?aeueiue iaia?aiiue aaeie
ii i?iiecuaaao eeaoi/ioth iaia?aio e eiaao oeaio?aeueioth ii?o. Ecaanoiu
2 ninoiyiey iieaeoeu oieeii?aoeaioi?a – cae?uoia e ioe?uoia. A ioe?uoii
ninoiyiee oeaio?aeueiay ii?a oieeii?aoeaioi?u eiaao ?acia? ieiei 0,7 ii,
/oi aeinoaoi/ii aeey i?iieeiiaaiey /a?ac iaa iaeiiaaeaioiuo eaoeiiia,
i?aeiouanoaaiii Na+ e E+.

Iinea naycuaaiey AO n I-oieeii?aoeaioi?ii e ioe?uoey ii?u /a?ac
iinoneiaioe/aneoth iaia?aio oa/ao eiiiue oie, iaoneiaeaiiue ia?aiauaieai
eiiia Na+ e E+ ii yeaeo?ioeie/aneei e eiioeaio?aoeeiiiui a?aaeeaioai.
Iineieueeo a?aaeeaio aeey iao?ey iai?aaeai aioo?ue eeaoee, a aeey eaeey
– ia?oaeo, i?e ano?a/iii eo ia?aiauaiee noiia?iue oie ieacuaaaony
niiniaiui eieaeueii nianoeoue iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae aei EOAe a
ia?aii-iuoa/iii neiaina eee aucaaoue cia/eoaeueioth aeaiiey?ecaoeeth
iaia?aiu iae?iia a iae?i-iae?iiaeueiii neiaina. Eieaeueiue ioaao a aeaea
aeaiiey?ecaoeee a aeaiiii neo/aa iineo iacaaiea INI – iinoneiaioe/aneee
iioaioeeae, eee AINI, aicaoaeaeathuee iinoneiaioe/aneee iioaioeeae.
I?aaeaea /anoi i?eiaiyeinue iacaaiea iioaioeeae eiioeaaie ieanoeiee
(IEI), aeey ia?aii-iuoa/iiai neiaina.

Eieaeueiue ioaao a aeaea AINI iiae/eiyaony caeiiai i?iaaaeaiey
iioaioeeaeia ii iaia?aia e iiaeao auoue ?ani?ino?aiai ia iaaieueoia
?annoiyiea ec-ca ia?aie/aiee, iaeeaaeuaaaiuo aieinoiuie e ?acenoeaiuie
naienoaaie iaia?aiu – iinoiyiiie a?aiaie e iinoiyiiie aeeeiu. Iineieueeo
ia iaia?aia iae?iia eee iuoa/iiai aieieia eiaaony iiiaeanoai neiainia,
ioaao eeaoee anaaaea neeaaeuaaaony ec aeoeaiinoe ioaeaeueiuo
neiaioe/aneeo aoiaeia.

Noiiaoeey IEI i?eaiaeeo e ninoiyieth, eiaaea iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae
niauaaony aeaiiey?ecaoeeae aei EOAe, i?ienoiaeeo aaia?aoeey IAe. A
eeaoeo ii iioaioeeaecaaeneiui eaeueoeeaaui eaiaeai aoiaeeo eaeueoeee, ii
o/anoaoao a iaoaiecia iuoa/iiai nie?auaiey.

Iinea oiai, eae AO auiieiee ?ieue neaiaeueiie iieaeoeu e caionoee
eiioi?iaoeeth oieeii?aoeaioi?a ec cae?uoiai a ioe?uoia ninoiyiea,
iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaioiaeoue nenoaio e i?eaio neaaeothuaai neaiaea. Iiyoiio
iinoneiaioe/aneay iaiaa?aia ?aniieaaaao iaoaieciii eiaeoeaaoeee
iaaeeaoi?a. A oieeia?ae/anii neiaina eiaeoeaaoeey AO aeinoeaaaony aai
yiceiaoe/aneei ?anuaieaieai n iiiiuueth aoeaoeeoieeiynoa?acu. A ae?oaeo
oeiao neiainia eiaeoeaaoeey i?ioiaeeo ii-ae?oaiio, iai?eia?,
ii?aae?aiaeei a aae?aia?ae/aneii neiaina iiaeaa?aaaony ia?aoiiio
iinooieaieth (caoaaoo) a i?aneiaioe/aneia ieii/aiea.

Aoeaoeeoieeiynoa?aca iiaeao auoue caaeiee?iaaia, a oaeii neo/aa eaiaeu
oieeii?aoeaioi?a iinoiyiii iaoiaeyony a ioe?uoii ninoiyiee e oi?aaeaiea
iuooeaie ia?ooaaony. Einaeoeoeeaeiua i?aia?aou oeia «I?eia», «Aeeeeioin»
eiatho oaeie i?eioeei aeaenoaey, iiyoiio iianiu ia oieueei aeey auoiauo
ianaeiiuo-a?aaeeoaeae, ii e aeey oaieie?iaiuo aeeaioiuo.

Yoaiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeie/aneie neiaioe/aneie ia?aaea/e.

1.Neioac, o?aiaiea e o?ainii?o iaaeeaoi?a a aaceeoeao.

2.Nae?aoeey iaaeeaoi?a i?e aeaiiey?ecaoeee i?aneiaioe/aneie iaia?aiu e
aoiaea eiiia eaeueoeey a ieii/aiea.

3.?aaeoeey iinoneiaioeo/aneie iaiaa?aiu a aeaea naycuaaiey iaaeeaoi?a
?aoeaioi?ii e eciaiaiee i?iieoeaaiinoe iinoneiaioe/aneie iaia?aiu aeey
eaoeiiia.

4.Aaia?aoeey iinoneiaioe/aneeo iioaioeeaeia.

5.Eiaeoeaaoeey iaaeeaoi?a.

Aicaoaeaeathuea oeie/aneea neiainu, ia?aciaaiiua ia iae?iiao, aanueia
iiiai/eneaiiu, ia?aiaaeathony n oi?iiciuie, ieeiaaea ia iaania/eaatho ii
iaeeii/ea aeinoeaeaiea iaia?aiie EOAe. Iae?ii niiniaai eioaa?e?iaaoue
neiaioe/aneea neaiaeu e auaeaaaoue ia auoiaea, a iaeaieaa aicaoaeeiie
/anoe eeaoee, iai?eia?, anee yoi iioiiae?ii, a aeniiiii oieieea, IAe
iinea i?iaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca iinooieaoeo ii neiaioe/aneei aoiaeai INI.

A iae?i-iae?iiaeueiuo neiainao ia oieueei AO iiaeao auoue iaaeeaoi?ii,
/aua anaai aicaoaeaeathuea aieiieeneiou aeooaiao e ania?oao,
ii?aae?aiaeei, iae?iiaioeaeu, AOO e NO auiieiytho ooieoeee iaaeeaoi?ia.

Aeooaiaoiay aicaoaeaeathuay neiaioe/aneay iae?iia?aaea/a iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaia a OeIN. ?aoeaioeey aeooaiaoa a neiainao inouanoaeyaony
NMDA e AMPA (eiiio?iiiuie) ?aoeaioi?aie, neiaioe/aneea iaoaieciu a ieo
i/aiue neiaeiu e aei eiioea ia ?ane?uou.

Ec-ca oiai, /oi i?ioeannu auaeaeaiey e ?ac?ooaiey iaaeeaoi?a a neiainao
eiatho aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy ?aaeecoeee, nouanoaoao neiaioe/aneay
caaea?aeea i?e ooieoeeiie?iaaiee iae?iiiuo naoae. Iiyoiio aiai?yo, /oi
oeie/aneee neiain ?aaioaao eae /anoioiue oeeueo? e iaeaaeaao ieceie
eaaeeueiinoueth.

Iineieueeo neaiaeu io ioaeaeueiuo neiainia iiaoo noiie?iaaoueny e
ii?aaeaeyoue noiia?iue ca?yae iaia?aiu, aiciiaeiu yaeaiey oaoaie/aneiai
neiaioe/aneiai iaeaa/aiey e aeai?annee.

Naienoaa oeie/aneiai neiaina.

1.Iaaeeaiiay nei?inoue ia?aaea/e neaiaea, aieueoay neiaioe/aneay
caaea?aeea.

2.Iaeiinoi?iiiaa i?iaaaeaiea neaiaea io i?a- e iinoneiaioe/aneie
iaia?aia, ii ia iaiai?io.

3.Aunieay iaaeaaeiinoue ia?aaea/e i?e ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

4.Nouanoaiaaiea neaaeiauo i?ioeannia (neaaeiaie aeaiiey?ecaoeee e
aeia?iiey?ecaoeee, /oi oaaee/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe eioaa?e?iaaiey neaiaeia
iae?iiii).

Neiainu oi?iiciiai aeaenoaey.

Neiaioe/aneei oi?iiaeaieai iacuaaaony oaeia aeeyiea i?aneiaioe/aneie
ia?aiie eeaoee ia iinoneiaioe/aneoth eioi?ia nii?iaiaeaeaaony
ono?aiaieai eee i?aaeioa?auaieai i?ioeanna aicaoaeaeaiey. Oi?iiciuo
neiainia ia iae?iiao OeIN aieueoa, /ai aicaoaeaeathueo.

Oi?iiciua neiainu iiaoo auoue yeaeo?e/aneeie. Ii oaeei iaaeeeaoi/iui
eiioaeoai aiciiaeia ia?aaea/a yeaeo?ioiie/aneiai neaiaea, aucuaathuaai
aeia?iiey?ecaoeeth iinoneiaioe/aneie iaiaa?aiu.

No?oeoo?a oeie/aneiai neiaina oi?iiciiai oeia a iauai ieaia
niioaaonoaoao oaeiaie aicaoaeaeathuaai, ia yeaeo?iiiiiee?ineiie/aneii
nieiea ioee/eoue eo ii aeaeeiui no?oeoo?iui iniaaiiinoyi o?oaeii.
Iniiaiuie iaaeeaoi?aie oi?iiciuo neiainia yaeythony AAIE, aeeoeei, ii
iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny AO e ae?oaea, ano?a/athueany e a
«aicaoaeaeathueo» neiainao.

AAIE, aaiia-aieiiianeyiay eeneioa, iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?ia aeey oi?iiciuo
neiainia aieiaiiai iicaa, a nieiiii iicaa /aua eniieuecoaony aeeoeei.

Iinea neioaca AAIE niaea?aeeony a aaceeoeao, aeey aunaiaiaeaeaiey aa ec
i?aneiaioe/aneiai ieii/aiey iaiaoiaeei Ca++. ?aoeaioi?u, /oanoaeoaeueiua
e AAIE, naycaiu n ioe?uoeai ia eaoeiiiuo, a aieiiiuo eaiaeia,
i?iaiaeyueo eiiu Cl-. Anee oei? iinooiaao a eeaoeo ii oei?iui eaiaeai,
iauay yeaeo?iio?eoeaoaeueiinoue oeeoiieaciu aic?anoaao, /oi icia/aao
aeia?iiey?ecaoeeiiiia «ioiaeaeaaiea» iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea io EOAe.
E?aoeia?aiaiiue eieaeueiue ioaao a aeaea aeia?iiey?ecaoeee iaicia/aaony
OINI –oi?iiciie iinoniaioe/aneee iioaioeeae.

Oaeei ia?acii, OINI «oaiaeeo» iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae io EOAe,
eioa?oa?e?oao n AINI, aeiee?oy («ooioe?oy») aai aeaenoaea ia iaia?aio
eeaoee. A aaia?aoeee iaeiiai OINI o/anoaoao 100-200 eaaioia iaaeeaoi?a.

?anniio?aiiue neo/ae yaeyaony i?eia?ii iinoneiaioe/aneiai oi?iiaeaiey.

A i?aaiecia i?e ?aoeaeoi?iie aeayoaeueiinoe auaaao aanueia auaiaeii
?aaeeciaaoue i?aneiaioe/aneia oi?iiaeaiea. I?iua i?aaeioa?aoeoue
aicaoaeaeaiea iae?iia, /ai iioii oi?iiceoue oaea ia/aaoaany ?acaeoea
aicaoaeaeaiey. Oaeie iaoaieci ?aaeeciaai a nieiaeueiii oi?iiaeaiee
aieaauo neaiaeia, e ii naycai n aeaiiey?ecaoeeae ia?ae/iuo aooa?aioia.
Aeaiiey?ecaoeey i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth aoiaea eaeueoeey a
i?aneiaioe/aneia ieii/aiea, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaaony oiaiueoaieai ii?oeee
auaeaeythuaainy iaaeeaoi?a.

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaaeeaoi?ia.

Iaaeeaoi?u, eaeaioeoeoee?iaaiiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, /aua anaai a
oeie/aneii ioiioaiee yaeythony aieiieeneioaie eee eo i?iecaiaeiuie,
iae?iiaioeaeaie n iaeie iieaeoey?iie iannie, eee aeaaea i?inouie
niaaeeiaieyie, iai?eia?, NO e CO –iiiiieneaeu acioa e oaea?iaea. Eae
i?aaeei, yoi iiey?iua iieaeoeu. AO aue enoi?e/anee ia?aui iaaeeaoi?ii,
aeieacaiiui a ea/anoaa oaeiaiai aeey ia?aii-iuoa/iiai neiaina. Auei
a?aiy, eiaaea yiooceanou io?eoeaee aeaaea aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey
ae?oaeo iaaeeaoi?ia (ieeinoeai ?ac?aoea ii?aae?aiaeeio oiaea auoue
iaaeeaoi?ii), a oii /enea aeey neiainia ia iae?iiao OeIN. Nae/an, a
nia?aiaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaieyo, cia/aiea oieeia?ae/aneie ia?aaea/e ia auoa,
/ai inoaeueiuo, iineieueeo a i?aaiecia ia iiaeao auoue i?ei?eoaoia ie
aeey eaeie oi?iu aeoeaiinoe, oai aieaa aeey iieaeoeu. Iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiui iaaeeaoi?ii, eae ieacaeinue, yaeyaony aeooaiao.
Aeaea?aieneee?iaaiiue aeooaiao (io iieaeoeu ioieiaaony iaeei o?aaiaio
CO2) – yoi oaea AAIE, iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue iaaeeaoi? oi?iiciuo
neiainia. I?e?iaea aanueia yeiiiiia e oeaeaniia?acia!

?aia?ooa? iaaeeaoi?ia a OeIN oe?ie e ?aciiia?acai.

Iao oieueei «aicaoaeaeathueo» e oieueei «oi?iiciuo» iaaeeaoi?ia! Anoue
aicaoaeaeathuea e oi?iicyuea neiainu! AO a ia?aaea/a ia?aneiiaoe/aneeo
aeeyiee ia na?aeoea aunooiaao eae oi?iicyuee! AO i?e noeioeyoeee
iioi?eee eeoa/ieea aaaonii aicaoaeaeaao! Aeey NMDA ?aoeaioi?a OeIN
oa?aeoa?iu naeou naycuaaiey aeooaiaoa e aeeoeeia, oieueei iaa yoe
aieiieeneiou iaania/eaatho ooieoeeiie?iaaiea neiaina! Ii aeeoeei
eniieuecoaony a nieiiii iicaa eae oi?iiciie iaaeeaoi?…

EEOA?AOO?A

1. AEoeia A.A., Iiiiia?aaa A.A. Oeceieiaey ia?aiie nenoaiu: O/aaiia
iiniaea / Eaeeieia?. oi-o. – Eaeeieia?aae, 1999.

2. Aeae.A. Ieeieen, A.?. Ia?oei, A.Aeae. Aaeean, I.A. Ooen Io iae?iia e
iicao I: YENIIN 2003

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