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Насекомые и животные Крыма

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?aoa?ao ii oaia:

Ianaeiiua e aeeaioiua E?uia

Anee eiaaea-ieaoaeue o/aiua ana-oaee ecia?aooo iaoeio a?aiaie, oi iu
oaeaeei, eae auaeyaeae E?ui 10-12 000 eao iacaae. Noaey ii iaoiaeeai
iaeaiciieiaia, ii iaiiieiae Iiaa eia/aa. Aei Eaaeieeiaiai ia?eiaea a
E?uio aeeee no?aonu e aee?aou. Aianoa n eaaeieeii nthaea i?eoee ianoeu e
naaa?iua ieaie. A iaua?ao iaoiaeyo neaeaou een, eioaaeae, iaua?iuo
iaaeaaaeae, iini?iaia e iaiiioia (yoe ae?aaiinoe nio?aiythony ca n/ao
iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe, a aeeia aeaenoaoao eae
eiina?aaoi?). A yoii aiaeo enneaaeiaaoaee ec *a?iiaaoeeiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai oieaa?neoaoa iaia?oaeeee a iaua?a Yieia-Aae?-Oina?
ee/eiee ioo, eioi?ua eaoaee 40 000 eao iacaae e ie/ai ia ioee/aeenue io
nia?aiaiiuo.

Oaoia E?uia ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi iu aeeaai ia iieoino?iaa. Iiiaea
aeaeu e iiaeaeaeu ano?a/athony, e?iia E?uia, eeoue ia Eaaeaca, Aaeeaiao,
ino?iaao Yaaeneiai ii?y eee a Iaeie Acee. Aieueoa anaai a E?uio
?aciiia?aciuo ianaeiiuo (io 12 aei 15 000 aeaeia), a ieaeiieoathueo, e
niaeaeaieth, ia oae iiiai, eo ia/anoi ano?aoeoue a ai?iuo eanao eee a
noaie. Ca n/ao oiai, /oi E?ui ioaeaeai io iaoa?eea, caeanue anoue
?anoaiey e aeeaioiua-yiaeaieee, eioi?ua ia aeeaoo aieueoa ieaaea ia
ieaiaoa. A thai-caiaaeiii E?uio iniaaiii iiiai n?aaeecaiiiii?neeo aeaeia
ianaeiiuo: aneaeaou, aiaiiieu, aeuaee, eaioi/ieoeu.

A ai?iuo eanao iiaeii oaeaeaoue i/aiue e?aneauo aeoeia: ona/a,
aeoea-ieaiy, aeanoyueo aeoaeaeeoe. Eiia/ii, a iiea c?aiey iau/iiai
iaaethaeaoaey iiiaaeaao oieueei iaeay /anoue oiai, /oi aeaeeo
niaoeeaeeno-yioiiieia. Oae, a E?uio anoue e?aneaaeoea aaai/ee: iaoaii,
iiaea?eeee, ?acee/iua aeaeu a?aaeieeia, i?aeaineay eaioa. Ii anee
iiaeaee?ey (aai aua iacuaatho ia?oniee), aaeiai, e?oiiiai, n /a?iuie
iieineaie e aeaoiy ?ineioiuie «oainoaie», iiaeii oaeaeaoue a ?acaa? eaoa
ia ethaie i?eee/iie eeoiaa, oi a?aaeieee eaoatho aa/a?ii, a iaeioi?ua ec
ieo (iai?eia?, ia?oaay aieiaa, n ?enoieii ia nieia, iaiiieiathuei /a?ai)
?aaeee, e ia eaaeaeue iiaeao iioaanoaoueny, /oi aeaeae oaeiai.

A E?anioth eieao caianaiu: aiaiiie yiioca iieinaoay, e?uineay ca?ienoay
aeoaeaeeoea, aeueieeneee ona/, aaai/ea iieeenaia, ieaaiae?iaue a?aaeiee
e ae?oaea aeaeu.

Iiiaea iieaciua e ?aaeeea ianaeiiua aeaioo io yaeioeieeaoia, eioi?ua
eniieuecotho ia iieyo e a naaeao, aeoee-ieaie, iai?eia?, iiaoo aeeoue
oieueei a aeoaiauo eanao, oae /oi ieiuaaeue aeoa?aa i?yii aeeyao ia eo
/eneaiiinoue. Anoue neo/ae, eiaaea ethaee, oaeaeaa oaiii-neithth,
ia?aeea/aooth aeoaeaeeoeo e enioaaaoenue, oaeaatho aa, aianoi oiai /oiau
iieacaoue yoi ?aaeeia e niaa?oaiii ia iianiia ianaeiiia naiei aeaoyi,
iiethaiaaoueny e iieoe naiae aei?iaie, i?aaeinoaaea aeoaeaeeoea eaeoe
naiae.

Iianiuo yaeiaeouo ianaeiiuo a E?uio ia iiiai e, nei?aa anaai, au n ieie
ia ano?aoeoanue. N?aaee iiiai/eneaiiuo iaoeiia?aciuo – e?uineee
nei?ieii, iaoee oa?aiooe e ea?aeo?o. Iie aeeaoo a noaiyo, i?y/oony io
ciiy a e?oaeuo ii?eao. A eanao e ia?eao iiaoo ano?a/aoueny eeniaeiaua
eeaue (ec ieo 2 aeaea – aicaoaeeoaee eeauaaiai yioeaoaeeoa).

Ec-ca nooinoe eeeiaoa E?ui aaaeai caiiiaiaeiuie. A ai?iuo aiaeiaiao
aiaeeony a?aaai/aoue o?eoii (aai iaeioi?ua aea?aeao a aeaa?eoiao, o.e.
ii iiaeao aeeoue a iaaiea). I/aiue iiiai/eneaiia ica?iay eyaooea;
ano?a/athony e ae?aaaniua eyaooee-eaaeoe, n i?enineaie ia eaieao,
eioi?ua iiiiaatho ei aea?aeaoueny ia aea?aaa. Ana aioeaee – iieaciu.

*anoi iiaeii aeaeaoue ia eaiiyo, iaa?aouo nieioeai, iaeaiueeeo
?aciioeaaoiuo yua?eoe. A E?uio eo 6 aeaeia: i?uoeay, e?uineay,
neaeueiay, ?aciioeaaoiay yuo?ea, aeaeoiiocee, e?uineee aaeeii.

AEaeoiioceea eiiaaea iooatho ni ciaae, ii yoa aeaeoay aaciiaay yua?eoea
oieueei iioiaea ia ciath. Ia ianoa iia o iaa i?iaeieueiua neeaaeee,
aeaca eiatho aaee, a coaia iao. AEaeoiiocee ianaeiiiyaeiue, caianai a
E?anioth eieao. AEeaao eae a ai?iuo (thaeiiaa?aaeiuo) ?aeiiao, oae e a
noaie. E?iia E?uia, ia ano?a/aaony aieueoa ieaaea ia Oe?aeia.

Ciae a E?uio i?aeoe/anee iao, anee ia n/eoaoue oaeae (iaueiiaaiiiai e
aiaeyiiai). Iaa aeaea iieicia (/aou?aoiieinue e eaiia?aeiaue) aianaiu a
E?anioth eieao; iayaeiaeou. Iaeoatho a iniiaiii ia neeiiao ai?, a
neaeao. Aaeeinoaaiiay yaeiaeoay ciay ia iieoino?iaa – noaiiay aaaethea,
ii ano?a/aaony iia ?aaeei, oeonu ia nia?oaeueiu. *oi aeaeaoue, anee ia
aai i?eonaaeaaiii o/anoea iinaeeeanue na?ay aaaethea. Oaeaaoue –
iaeuecy, a anee oaeaeeo? ?aaeaeoeey a ioaao ?anneacaea aio i iieueca
eyaooae e ciae i?e caueoa naaea io iuoae e ianaeiiuo. Iaecaanoii,
oaeiaeaoai?ee ee aai oaeie ioaao. Eioa?anii, /oi aoaeao, anee eaaeaeue
caaaaeao ia o/anoea eaeoth-ieaoaeue iaaieueooth ciath aianoi eioee,
/oiau iia eiaeea iuoae? Eae a Eiaeee caaiaeyo ieoiiia. Ec anao ciae a
E?uio /aua inoaeueiuo iiaeii oaeaeaoue oaea, ii i?e ano?a/a ii n?aco
iuoaaony ne?uoueny.

A ai?iuo eanao aiacaeeony aei 40% anao ioeoe iieoino?iaa. Naiue
iiiai/eneaiiue – cyaeee, ec aieoaae – ayoe?ue e ai?eeiea, ca?yiea,
niaa-iaynuoue, neaaee, ae?icaeu iaa/ee e /a?iue, eeano, eaniie eiiae,
/eae, /a?iiaieiaay nieea, aieueoie iano?ue aeyoae. Aaniie eiiaaea iiaeii
oneuoaoue, eae a e?iia aunieeo aea?aaueaa iiao iaaeaeeiay eaieaa. A
noaiiuo ?aeiiao iau/iu aeaai?iiee e oaeiaeu – «noaiiua iiioaae». Yoe
aeiaieueii e?oiiua ?uaeaaaoua ioeoeu n /a?iuie iieineaie aaeieue oaea
eiatho aunieea oioieee ia aieiaao, eioi?ua iie eiaei ?ane?uaatho e
neeaaeuaatho, eae aaa?. Oaeiaea o?oaeii caiaoeoue a ?uaeaaaoie iuee eee
n?aaee nooeo noaiiuo o?aa, aeaaea anee ii neaeeo ii/oe o aan iiae
iiaaie. Aua 100 eao iacaae a e?uineeo aeai?ao aianoa n eiaetheaie e
eo?aie aeeee iaaeeiu. Nae/an iuoathony eneonnoaaiii ?acaiaeeoue
ia?aiaeia, oacaiia e no?aonia.

A E?uio ianeieueei aeaeia nia: io naiie iaeaiueeie – niethoee – aei
e?oiiiai oeeeia. Ae?oaea oeuieee – i?ae-iiaeeueiee, eaithe; iaaeaeueueee
– noa?ayoiee, a?eo e nei. Ia yeoeao aiacaeyony iieaaie eiiae, eaiaiea
iaueiiaaiiay, eiiiieyiea, iieaaie aeaai?iiie, eaeeee. A noaie – 4 aeaea
aeaai?iieia, eoeee-aaaeioea, i/aiue ?aaeei – ae?ioa.

Ia i?ea?aaeiuo neaeao – aaeeai oioeaoue, iu?ie, iaa?ue, iaaaiee, /aeee,
ao?aaanoiee. A E?uio ceiotho ieiei 30 aeaeia ioeoe: /a?iiciaay aaaa?a,
iaaaiee, iu?eiaay ooea, /iiaa, aieueoie aaeeai, eaaaaee e ae?. A
E?anioth eieao caianaiu iiiaea aeaeu, i?e/eiu en/aciiaaiey eioi?uo ia
yniu: iai?eia?, /a?iue aeno, noaiiie i?ae. I/aiue eioa?aniia ianoi, n
oi/ee c?aiey i?ieoieiaa, – Eaayaeuee ino?iaa ia (naaa?i-caiaae
iieoino?iaa, aa?aa Ea?eeieoneiai caeeaa). A yoii caiiaaaeieea aiacaeyony
e ceiotho iiiaea aeaeu ioeoe (ia i?ieaoa a E?uio auaatho aeaaea
iaeeeaiu). Iiiai ioeoe – a Ea?aaeaaneii caiiaaaeieea. Oo?enoai n eaoa?a
iieacuaatho /a?iuo oioeaouo aaeeaiia, o.e. aaniieieoue eo iaeuecy.

Eiia/ii, anai eioa?anii: iiiai ee a E?uio ieaeiieoathueo? Eiai iiaeii
ano?aoeoue a eano, i?iaoeeaaynue ii o?iieiea? Nei?aa anaai, ieeiai, o.e.
aeiaaiua aeeaioiua i/aiue inoi?iaeiu e iaaa?iyea iinoa?athony ecaaaeaoue
ano?a/e n /aeiaaeii. E ana aea e?uineea eana ianaeaiu. Caeanue aeeaoo
caeoeu-?onaee, e?ieeee, eoieoeu, eenu, aa?noee, aiioiaeaeiua niaaee,
aaeee, eanee, oi?ueee. Iaaei neacaoue, /oi ec anao caa?ueeia eoieoeu e
eanee – naiua «noianoaaeoea». Anee aan eiaaea-ieaoaeue eonaea aeeeay
eoieoea, eioi?oth thiiaou ii/aio-oi nia?aeenue aea?aeaoue a aeeaii
oaieea, au ciaaoa, ianeieueei eoieoeu aanno?aoiu e ?aoeoaeueiu. Anee iia
a eiai-oi aoeaieeanue, oi aea?aeeo ia?oaie oaaoeie. Oi aea iiaeii
neacaoue i iaeaiueeie, ii ioaaaeiie eanea, eioi?ay iiaeao a iaeeii/eo
ia?aa?ucoue ai?ei oeaeiio eo?yoieeo a iueo ioiou e i?ieacao a ethaoth
uaeue. Ceia 2006 aiaea auea i/aiue oieiaeiie, e ii eueaeo ec Oa?niineie
iaeanoe ia E?uineee iieoino?ia i?eoei ieiei 35 aieeia (oioy aieeia a
E?uio iao, eo ia?aaeee aua aei aieiu. Nei?aa anaai, oie/oiaeao e yoeo
i?eoeuo). Eiiaaea a e?uineea eana caoiaeyo eine.

Ec ianaeiiiyaeiuo a E?uio aeeaoo aaee e 5 aeaeia caiea?iae. Aaeeeia
eiiaaea ii aa/a?ai iiaeii oaeaeaoue e a ai?iaea, aaea-ieaoaeue a ia?ea
eee ia oeoie oeeoea, aaea iao iaoei. Caiea?ieeo oaeaeaoue ii/oe
iaaiciiaeii: iie i/aiue iaeaiueeea, ia aieueoa iuoe, e ii/oe ia
iieacuaathony ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee. Eaa/a ano?aoeoue eiai-ieaoaeue ec
a?ucoiia: noneeea, oiiyea, oooeai/eea eee iuoiaeo.

A iaua?ao e a?ioao aeeaoo ?oeie?ueua – eaoo/ea iuoe; eo a E?uio ieiei 18
aeaeia, ii iieiaeia caianaia a E?anioth eieao. Eaoo/ea iuoe i/aiue ia
ethayo, eiaaea eo aaniieiyo ia ioaeuoa. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iieiaoue e
aeaaea ?acaeyaeaoue eaoo/oth iuoue, ioaeuoathuoth iiae naiaeii iaua?u,
ia oae-oi eaaei, iie ia a ainoi?aa io iinaoeoaeae. Iai?eia?, a a?ioa,
eoaea oo?enoia iaycaoaeueii i?eaiaeyo ai a?aiy yeneo?nee a Iiaue Naao,
iiaeii oieueei oneuoaoue, eae aaea-oi auniei a oaiiioa
«ia?aaiaa?eaathony» ?oeie?ueua, eae aoaeoi ?aoeeth iano?aeaatho. A
i?eaea/o ia aan iiaeao naaeeoueny iaiiiai iiiaoa, ii naieo iuoae au oae
e ia oaeaeeoa. Ana yoe ii/ieoeu, iaoiiu?e, aeeeiiie?ueu e iiaeeiaiiinu –
aeeaioiua eneeth/eoaeueii iieaciua, ii/iua e ne?uoiua. Anoanoaaiii, ia
aaiie?u; ieoathony ianaeiiuie.

Naiua e?oiiua aeeaioiua a E?uio – ia?iieiiuoiua: aeaai?iaeiue ieaiue
(aei 700 iniaae) e einoey (aei 2 000 iniaae), eaaai, coa?, ei?neeaineee
iooeii, eaiue.

Aeeeeo eaaaiia a E?ui caaacee a 1949 aiaeo ec Onno?eeneiai e?ay, e iie
caeanue i?eaeeeenue.

Ec 57 aeaeia e?uineeo ieaeiieoathueo 17 ioianaiu e eaoaai?ee e?aeia
?aaeeeo aeeaioiuo. Aieueoa ieeiio ia oaeanony, e niaeaeaieth, oaeaeaoue
a E?uio otheaiae-iiiaoia; eo eno?aaeee ieii/aoaeueii, oioy yoio aeae aue
aianai a E?aniua eieae INII, NNN? e ONN?. Ia *a?iiii?neii iiaa?aaeuea
E?uia otheaiue-iiiao ano?a/aeny a ia/aea XX aaea. *oiau ainnoaiiaeoue
yoio aeae, aua a niaaoneea a?aiaia i?aaeeaaaeinue ia/aoue
?aaeeeeiaoecaoeeth otheaiae ia Oa?oaieooa, ii i?aaenoaaeoue yoi a?yae ee
aiciiaeii, aaaeue yoe inoi?iaeiua aeeaioiua ia ia?aiineee i?enoonoaey
/aeiaaea, a ia?iaeo ia Oa?oaieooa n eaaeaeui aiaeii noaiiaeony aieueoa.
Aeaaea anee au otheaie a E?uio nio?aieeenue, ei ia iii?aaeeinue au
aeeoue a ninaaenoaa n ioaeuoathueie e aeaaeaiaenoaie. AEaeue, /oi eo
aieueoa iao.

*a?iia ii?a

*a?iia ii?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeoaieiaiaeiue aannaei n ioiineoaeueii
e?oaeuie neeiiaie. Iiiaea aeoiatho, /oi a *a?iii ii?a n?aco aea io
aa?aaa ia/eiaaony ?aceia iiieaeaiea aeia, a oai, aaea oiaeyo oi?ioi
aeaeeiua n aa?aaa aeenna?u e eaoa?a (i?eia?ii a 500-1000 iao?ao io
aa?aaa), aeoaeia ecia?yaony oaea nioiyie iao?ia. Iaaeaeo oai yoi aeaeaei
ia oae. Eeiey 100-iao?ia aeoaeiu i?ioiaeeo ia ?annoiyiee 200 eeeiiao?ia
io aa?aaa a naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe ii?y, 10-15 eeeiiao?ia – a iniiaiie
/anoe e oieueei a ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiao (Aaa?a, E?ui)- ia ?annoiyiea
iaeiiai eeeiiao?a. Eiaea ii?y a iniiaiii ?iaiia, ii eiathony iaaieueoea
o?aueiu e onooiu, anoue e aicauoaiiinoe n i/aiue iieiaeie neeiiaie.
Iaeaieueoay aeoaeia *a?iiai ii?y 2211 iao?ia. ?aeii iaeneiaeueiuo aeoaei
?aniieiaeai a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ii?y, ianeieueei aeeaea e oo?aoeeei
aa?aaai.

*a?iia ii?a – naiia oaieia iaoa ii?a. Oaiia?aoo?a aai aiaeu ia
iiaa?oiinoe a oa/aiea iieo aiaea auoa 16* N. Ceiie iiaa?oiinoue iniiaiie
/anoe ii?y ioeaaeaeaaony aei 6-8*N. Caeeau a aai naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe,
eae i?aaeei, caia?catho, aao?u iaiaeiie?aoii eiiatho eaae, ia?acoy
oi?inu aei 3 iao?ia auniou. A ioaeaeueiua aiaeu a ?aeiia Iaeannu
i?eiaiytho eaaeieieu aeey auaiaea noaeia a ii?a. Eaae a yoie /anoe ii?y
ia?acoaony ii neaaeothuei i?e/eiai. Aeoaeiu caeanue n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoea – aei 200iao?ia. I?e ioeaaeaeaiee aiaea ia?aiaoeaaaony aei
aeia. A oao ?aeiiao ii?y, aaea aeoaeiu aieueoea, aeoaeiiua aiaeu neoaeao
enoi/ieeii oaiea ceiie. Iaeay nieaiinoue aiaeu naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe
ii?y, aucaaiiay i?eoieii ?a/iuo aiae, oae aea eiaao naia cia/aiea.
Ieciaiiua aa?aaa a yoii ?aeiia aeatho auoiae oieiaeiui iannai aicaeooa n
naaa?a e naaa?i-ainoiea. Ana yoi niinianoaoao ia?aciaaieth eueaea.

Eiiaaea iaae ii?ai i?iiinyony nia?/e. I?e/eia iiyaeaiey nia?/ae –
iaonoie/eaia ninoiyiea aoiinoa?u, i?eoie oieiaeiiai aicaeooa a ?aeii,
caiyoue oaieuie aicaeooiuie iannaie. Ia *a?iii ii?a nia?/e /aua anaai
ia?acothony inaiueth, eiaaea aicaeoo n ioeaaeaeaiiie nooe i?eoiaeeo ia
aua oaieoth iiaa?oiinoue aiaeu. Nia?/ – yoi aoiinoa?iue aeo?ue, a iai
i?ienoiaeeo iinoiyiiia a?auaiea aicaeooa i?ioea /aniaie no?aeee n
iiaeuaiii aaa?o. Iau/ii nia?/e iiyaeythony i?e a?ica, eiaaea ii iaao
iiecoo eioiaoua /a?iua oo/e. Aiacaiii /anoue oaeie oo/e ia/eiaao
auoyaeaaoueny aiec ai?iieie, eioi?ay ana a?aiy a?auaaony aie?oa naiae
ine. Ia ano?a/o ae nieco iiaeieiaaony noiea aiaeyiuo a?uca,
i?iecaaaeaiiuo neeueiui e?oaiaui aeaeaeaieai aicaeooa. Iaeiiaoe iaa
/anoe nia?/a neeaathony, e ii, i?iaeieaeay a?auaoueny, ianaony aia?aae.
Eiiaaea nia?/e auoiaeyo ia nooo, a ii?ie e aicieeatho ia iae. Aioo?e
oaeiai aeo?y iaoiaeeony iaeanoue ?acei iiieaeaiiiai aeaaeaiey. Auee
neo/ae, eiaaea aeaia, iiiaaeaaoeany ia iooe nia?/a, ?aceaoaeenue io
iaii?a aicaeooa aioo?e caeaiey, oae eae o ieo aeaaeaiea a ioo?ee auei
ai?acaei aieueoa, /ai aeaaeaiea a nia?/a. Oaeia aea aeeyiea i?ienoiaeeo
n aeoaieiaiaeiuie ?uaaie, iiaeiyouie ia iiaa?oiinoue ii?y: iie iiaeaatho
io ecauoea aioo?aiiaai aeaaeaiey.

Anee nia?/ auoiaeeo ia aa?aa, oi ii iiaeieiaaony iau/ii aaa?o ii aeieeia
?aee, aiaaeathuae a ii?a, e, i?ieaey ianeieueei eeeiiao?ia, ?ac?ooaaony.
Ia?iiiua iannu aiaeu, caeeth/aiiua a nia?/a, iaaeatho ia caieth, e ?aea
?aceeaaaony. Iiyoiio eaoaai?e/anee cai?auaaony inoaiaaeeaaoueny ia
ii/eaa a iieiao ?ae.

Nia?/e – iianiia yaeaiea, eiiaaea nia?/e iiaeieiatho a aicaeoo oeaeua
noaea, eioi?ua ia?aiineeenue caoai ia ianeieueei nio iao?ia e iaaeaee a
aiaeo neeueii iia?aaeaeaiiuie. A ii/iia a?aiy nia?/e iau/ii naaoyony,
/oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?iciia c?aeeua.

A *a?iii ii?a ian/eouaaaony nauoa 250 aeaeia aiaei?ineae. Ia aeia ii?y
aeeaao ianeieueei aeaeia iieethneia: ono?eoeu, ieaeee, iaeoai, eeoiaeia,
oaian, iiaeeiey?ee. Iniaaiii iiiai iieethneia a Ea?/aineii i?ieeaa, a
naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe ii?y, ia eaaeacneii aa?aao. Oa ec ieo, /oi aeeaoo
a i?eaieiie ciia, i?ee?aieythony e a?oioo i?i/iuie ieoyie – aennonaie.
Iieethnee – ieua iiiaeo ?ua. Ioiaoei ianeieueei aeieiae/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae ono?eoe e ieaeee. Ono?eoeu aeeaoo aei 30 eao.

Ano?a/athony a *a?iii ii?a e e?aau: i?aii?iue, eaiaiiue, o?aayiie. Iie
ia aeinoeaatho caeanue aieueoeo ?acia?ia (iau/ii ia i?aauoatho 20
naioeiao?ia). Oaei e?aaa iie?uoi oaa?aeui iaioee?ai. Ai a?aiy ?inoa
e?aaa iaioee?ue ianeieueei ?ac eiiaaony, i?ienoiaeeo eeiueea. E?aa
noaiiaeoueny nianai aaniiiiuiui e iau/ii i?y/aony aeoaiei a o?aueiao
neae. Iinoaiaiii o iaai ia?anoaao e oaa?aeaao iiaue iaioee?ue. A
thai-caiaaeiie /anoe ii?y iaeoatho ii?neea aaee. Aeeeiiua ino?ua eaeu ia
niaoeeaeueiuo «oa?ie?ao» i?ee?aieaiu e oaeo aaea. Oioy eiiaaea aaee
yaeythony aeiau/ae e?aaia, e?oiiuo ?ua e ii?neeo ioeoe (ioeoeu a?inatho
eo naa?oo ia neaeu e ?acaeaatho iaioee?ue), ii ana aea iie ia ieioi
caueuaiu io iaiaaeaiey naieie eaeaie.

Ia *a?iii ii?a ecaanoii 180 aeaeia ?ua. I?iiuneiaia cia/aiea eiaao
aaeoaa, inao?, naa?thaa, naeueaeue, oaina, oe?io, otheueea, eaoaeue,
aa?aaoey, noaa?eaea, neoia?ey, eaiaaea, iaeaieaea, ooiaoe. Neoia?ey,
noaa?eaea, iaeaieaea, ooiaoe i?eoiaeyo aaniie ec I?aii?iiai ii?y a
*a?iia, inaiueth eaeoo ia?aoii: yoi oaieiethaeaua ?uau, aeey ieo ceiiyy
/a?iiii?neay aiaea oieiaeia. Iai?eia?, neoia?ey i?eoiaeeo a *a?iia ii?a
oiaaea, eiaaea oaiia?aoo?a aai aiaeu noaiiaeoueny auoa 8*N, a ceioao e
ia/ao ee?o iia a I?aii?iia ii?a. N?aaee ?ua, ia eiathueo aieueoiai
i?iiuneiaiai cia/aiey, iiaeii ioiaoeoue au/ea, ii?neeo a?oa, eaeo,
eiiueea, eiethoeo, ae?aeiia, caeaiooeo – iaeaiueeoth y?eoth ?uaeo,
niiniaioth naieie coaaie ?aca?ucaoue ?aeiaeiu iieethneia; ii?neiai
iaoooa (eee o?eaeo) n aa?oieie ieaaieeaie, iaiiieiathueie e?ueuey, e
ieaeieie oaa?aeuie ieaaieeaie, ia eioi?ua ?uaa iie?aaony, ia?aaeaeaaynue
ii aeio; ii?neiai /a?oa – /?acau/aeii ia i?eaeaeaoaeueioth ?uao n
aieueoie coaanoie ianoueth. Ii i?uaaao ii aeio ia ia?aaeieo ieaaieeao
eee neaeeo, i?eoaeaoenue, e i?eiaieaaao e naaa ?uao ecaeaathueiny
oneeii, iaiiieiathuei /a?ay.

Ia *a?iii ii?a ano?a/aaony ianeieueei aeaeia /aae e e?a/ae: /aeea –
oioiooiuey, ii?neie aieoaie, /aeeiiinay e?a/ea, n?aaeecaiiiii?neay
/aeea, /ai?aaa e ae?oaea. Iiiaea ec ieo aiacaeyony a ?aeiia
*a?iiii?neiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai caiiaaaeieea, a naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe
ii?y. *aeee ia ethayo, eiaaea e eo aiacaeai eoi-ieaoaeue iiaeoiaeeo. A
oaeeo neo/ayo iie ia?aiinyo aiacaei ia iiaia ianoi. N iiaaaeaieai /aae
naycaia ii?neay iineiaeoea: «anee /aeea naea a aiaeo, aeaee oi?iooth
iiaiaeo. *aeea a?iaeeo ii ianeo, ii?yeo noeeo oineo», oi anoue
i?eaeeaeaaony ooi?i. I?e oi?ioae iiaiaea, ionoonoaee aeo?ae /aeeai
o?oaeii aea?aeaoueny a aicaeooa, iie naaeyony ia aiaeo. A ia?eiae
ooi?ia, i?e neeueiii aao?a, /aeee ia iiaoo i?ioeaeoueny aai ii?uaai e
nianathony ia aa?aao. Einoe o ieo iieua, yoi oiaiueoaao aan ioeoeu a
iieaoa. Eiaaea iaaeaeaaaony ooi?i, eciaiyaony aoiinoa?iia aeaaeaiea,
/aeee n?aco aea /oanoaotho yoi, oae eae aieueoay ?acieoea iaaeaeo
ia?oaeiui e aioo?aiiai aeaaeaieai aicaeooa i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi o ieo
«eiieo einoe». Iiyoiio «/aeee noiioo ia?aae ao?ae». Ano?a/athony ia
*a?iii ii?a e ?aaeeea oaia?ue ioeoeu iaeeeaiu – ?iciaue e eoae?yaue. O
?iciaiai iaeeeaia e?ueuey /a?iua, a eoae?yaue – naaoei-na?iai oeaaoa.
Iineaaeiee oae iacaai iioiio, /oi ia?uey o iaai eaaeao ia ?iaii,
«eoae?yayony». Yoi e?oiiua ioeoeu n aieueoouei aeaeoui eethaii.

Iianiuo aeey aeecie /aeiaaea aeoe a *a?iii ii?a iao. Caeanue aiaeeony
oieueei eeoue eao?ai (eieth/ay aeoea, ii?neay niaaea) aeeeiie aei 2
iao?ia e iaeaiueeay iyoienoay aeoea noeeeeoi. Eao?ai – aeeai?iaeyuay
?uaa. Aaniie iie i?eiinyo ianeieueei aeoeyo. Iyni aeoe aeiaieueii
aeoniia. Ia?acai?/eainoue aeoe a ieua aioea a iineiaeoeo. Aeoea
aeaenoaeoaeueii oaaoaao ana, /oi aeaeeo ia?aae niaie. A aeaeoaeeao aeoe
iaoiaeyo naiua ?aciiia?aciua i?aaeiaou: /anu, i/ee, iaoaue, eano?thee, a
ai a?aiy aieiu auee iaia?oaeaiu ineieee nia?yaeia e aeaaea
ia?aci?aaaoeany a?aiaou. Iaeioi?ua o/aiua n/eoatho, /oi o aeoeu
auaeaeyaony neeoeii iiiai aeaeoaei/iiai niea, any iinooiathuay ieua
auno?i ia?aaa?eaaaony, e aeoeo io/aao aa/iue aieiae. Eioa?anii, /oi
aeoeu aeieaeiu iaoiaeeoueny a iinoiyiiii aeaeaeaiee, /oiau ia ooiiooue.
O ieo iao ieaaaoaeueiiai iocu?y, a oaeaeueiue aan oaea aieueoa
aaeeieoeu. Aeaaea ai nia aeoea aeaeaao aeaeaeaiey, /oiau ia
iia?oaeaoueny aeoaiei. Eioa?anii e oi, /oi nia?aiaiiua aeoeu auaeyaeyo
ii/oe oae aea, eae e eo aeaeaeea i?aaeee, aeeaoea ieeeeiiu eao oiio
iacaae. Aeoeu i?ae?anii neuoao caiaoe. Caiaoe iaeioi?uo aauanoa eo
ioioaeaatho.

A *a?iii ii?a aeeciue eeieo ia aeoaeia aei 200 iao?ia – oai, aaea anoue
naao, aicaeoo e iao na?iaiaei?iaea. A aeoaeiao iiaoo aeeoue iaeie
aaeoa?ee, eioi?ua na?iaiaei?iaeii ieoathony. Ii yoi ia cia/eo, /oi a
*a?iii ii?a e iiniio?aoue ia ia /oi e ia ia eiai. Caeanue aeeaoo 2 aeaea
aeaeueoeiia – aaeiai/ea e aoaeeia. O aa?aaia Ea?aaeaaa, Noaeaea,
Aaeaeeaau eo eiiaaea iiaeii aeaeaoue n eaoa?a eee aeaaea n ieyaea. Aio
iie, aui?uaeaatho ec aiaeu, aeanoyo ia nieioea eo na?aa?enoua nieiu!
Aaea ?uaa, oai e aeaeueoeiu. Iie aeaenoaeoaeueii nii?iaiaeaeatho eaoa?a,
e oiaaea eo aeaeii iniaaiii oi?ioi. Aoaeeiu aunooiatho ai iiiaeo
aeaeueoeia?eyo. ?aiueoa a Aaeaeeaaa aue aieueoie aiaiiue aeaeueoeia?ee,
aaea aeaeueoeiia o?aie?iaaee ii niaoeeaeueiui i?ia?aiiai aeey ?aaiou ai
a?aiy aiaauo aeaenoaee. Aeeei cao/eo neiaini/aoaiea – «ioioa ia
aeaeueoeiia». Iaeiaei i?iiunae aeaeueoeiia a *a?iii ii?a aue cai?auai
eeoue a 1966 aiaeo. A E?uio ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny iiaue iaoiae ea/aiey
aeaoae – aeaeueoeiioa?aiey. Aeaoe n caiaaeeaiiui ?acaeoeai, no?aaeathuea
AeOeI n oaeiaieuenoaeai iauathony n aeaeueoeiaie, ?acaiaa?eaatho n ieie,
a aeaeueoeiu iieiaeeoaeueii aeeytho ia ia?aioth nenoaio aieueiuo aeaoae.

Aeaeueoeiu, aeaeueoeiiaua (eao. Delphinidae) – naiaenoai ieaeiieoathueo
ec io?yaea eeoiia?aciuo, iiaeio?yaea coaanouo eeoia (Denticete).

Aeaeueoeiu ano?a/athony ai iiiaeo ii?yo e ieaaiao ie?a, a oii /enea a
*a?iii ii?a. AEeaoo aeaeueoeiu aei 75 eao, /aua ieiei 50-oe, a iaaiea
iau/ii ieiei 30-oe. N iiiiuueth naieo 88 coaia /a?iiii?neee aeaeueoei
nuaaeaao ieiei 30 ea. ?uau a aeaiue, ianna aeaeueoeiia – aei 500 ea.
Oaiia?aoo?a oaea aeaeueoeia – oaeay aea eae o /aeiaaea 36,6 a?aaeona.
Ia?eiae aa?aiaiiinoe aeaeueoeiia ieiei 12 ianyoeaa. Naiea aeaeueoeia
iau/ii i?eiineo iaeiiai aeao?iuoa a 50-60 ni aeeeiie e iaeioi?ia a?aiy
caaioeeai aai io?aiyao.

I?e oiiieiaiee aeaeueoeia n aieueoae aa?iyoiinoueth /aeiaae i?aaenoaaeo
naaa aeae Aoaeeia (Tursiops truncatus). Io/anoe naiae iiioey?iinoueth
aoaeeiu iaycaiu iiiai/eneaiiui oiiieiaieyi a eeiaiaoia?aoa e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a e aunieie niiniaiinoueth e iao/aieth.

Aeaeueoeiu – yoi ia ?uau, a ieaeiieoathuea – auea?ieeaatho aeaoaiuoae
iieieii e aeuoao ia aeaa?aie, a eaaeeie. A?aiy io a?aiaie ei ioaeii
auiu?eaaoue ec aiaeu, /oiau aaeioiooue. Iu?ytho iie iau/ii ia aeieueoa
/ai ia 1-3 ieioou, ii iiaoo inoaaaoueny iiae aiaeie e ii 10 ieioo,
iia?oaeaynue a aeoaeio ia aeanyoee iao?ia.

Eiaea aeaeueoeiia

Eiaeiua iie?iau aeaeueoeiia – /oaei i?e?iaeu, iie niiniaiu aaneoue
caaeo?aiey aiaeu o iiaa?oiinoe auno?i ieuaouaai oaea, nieaeathuea
nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey – o aeaeueoeiia o/eeenue eiino?oeoi?u iiaeaiaeiuo
eiaeie, nicaeaaay eneonnoaaiiua oeo?u aeey noaia?ei. A iuouaiea eiaee
aeaeueoeia ia iuoiue – nianai iaiau/iia, e oiaea – i?eiineo ?aaeinoue:
ia aeae, iia – ieioiay, eae ec ieanoeea, a i?iaaaeaoue eaaeiiueth –
iaaeiay e iyaeay, eaaeaony – oiieee oaee.

Eioaeeaeo aeaeueoeiia

Eiaaea aeaeueoeiia ia/aee eco/aoue e ae?anne?iaaoue a na?aaeeia i?ioeiai
aaea, oi ia?aua ?acoeueoaou yoie ?aaiou iieacaeenue oaeeie iaiau/iuie, e
aeaaea oaeeaeoaeueiuie, (ia yoii iiiai aiai?eee, ienaee e nieiaee eeii),
/oi iinoaiaiii neiaeeeanue eaaaiaea i iaiau/aeii aunieii eioaeeaeoa
aeaeueoeiia; /anoi iiaeii auei oneuoaoue, /oi iie – ia aeoiaa /aeiaaea,
oieueei oi o ieo – ae?oaie.

Iica ac?ineiai aeaeueoeia aaneo ieiei 1700 a?aiiia, a o /aeiaaea – 1400.
O aeaeueoeia a aeaa ?aca aieueoa ecaeeei a ei?a aieiaiiai iicaa. A oiaea
a?aiy, a eoae/aneii ieeeeiao?a aai aauanoaa ioiineoaeueii iaei iae?iiia
(iaiueoa, /ai a iicaa i?eiaoia).

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee iiaaaeaiey e i oeceieiaee iicaa aeaeueoeiia
aanueia i?ioeai?a/eau. Iaeioi?ua noaayo eo niiniaiinoue e iao/aieth
i?eia?ii ia o?iaaiue niaaee e iieacuaatho, /oi aei oeiiaica aeaeueoeiai
i/aiue aeaeaei. Enneaaeiaaiey niiniaia iauaiey aeaeueoeiia, iai?ioea,
iiaeoaeeeaaao e auaiaeai i oii, /oi iu iiea ia iiaeioee aieioioth e
iiieiaieth yoie oi?iu aeecie a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo e n?aaieaaoue
o?iaaiue eioaeeaeoa aeaeueoeiia e oeiiaica i?inoi iaei??aeoii.

Iaeii naienoai aeaeueoeiueaai iicaa niaa?oaiii oieeaeueii: ii ieeiaaea,
ii-ianoiyuaio – ia nieo. Niyo – iii/a?aaeii – oi eaaia, oi i?aaia
iieooa?ey iicaa. Aeaeueoeio iaiaoiaeeii, a?aiy io a?aiaie, anieuaaoue ia
iiaa?oiinoue aeey aeuoaiey. Ii/ueth, ca yoi, ii i/a?aaee, ioaa/atho
aiae?noaothuea iieiaeiu iicaa.

Iauaiea aeaeueoeiia

sscue aeaeueoeiia iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 2 a?oiiu:

· sscue aeanoia (ycue oaea) – ?acee/iua iicu, i?uaeee, iiai?iou,
?acee/iua niiniau ieaaaiey, ciaee, iiaeaaaaiua oainoii, aieiaie,
ieaaieeaie.

· sscue caoeia (nianoaaiii ycue) – caoeiaay neaiaeecaoeey, au?aaeaiiay a
aeaea caoeiauo eiioeuenia e oeueo?acaoea. I?eia?aie oaeeo caoeia iiaoo
auoue: uaaao, aeoaeaeaiea, aecae, ne?aaeao, u?eeaiuea, /iieaiuea,
ne?eiu, oeiiee, iene, ??a, aiiee, e?eee, eaaeaiuea, naenou.

Iaeaieaa au?aceoaeueiuie yaeythony naen

Eae ecaanoii, aeaeueoei – ieaeiieoathuaa, a ia ?uaa. Ii a *a?iii ii?a
iaeoatho e iiiaea aeaeu ?ua. A *a?iii e Acianeii ii?yo ano?a/aaony aei
200 aeaeia ?ua, i?e/ai iaeie aeeaoo a yoeo ii?yo iinoiyiii, ae?oaea
caoiaeyo, iea?e?oy /a?ac Ainoi?. *a?iia ii?a i?aniaa N?aaeecaiiiai,
iiyoiio o ian iao n?aaeecaiiiii?neeo aeaeia. ?uau *a?iiai ii?y:
aa?aaoeueea (noeoaiea), au/ee, eaoaeue, neaou (ii?neay eeneoea, ii?neie
eio-oainoieie), ieineea ?uau – eaeeai, ii?neie ycue, ?a/iay eaiaaea
(aeinna). Ae?aaiaeoea ?uau *a?iiai ii?y – inao?iaua. Iie iiaoo
ioioeoueny ia anao aeoaeiao, ii ec-ca a?aeiiuea?neiai i?iiunea nae/an eo
iaei. O aa?aaia Eaaeaca /a?iiii?neee inao? oiaeeo ia?anoeoueny ia Aeii,
Eoaaiue, ?eiie.

A 1980-o aiaeao a *a?iii ii?a auei ia?iiiia eiee/anoai oainu e oi?ioa,
ii iaeiio?iee?oaiue aueia, aoi?aeaiea a?aaiaaeea iiaieiinena i?eaaei e
oiio, /oi e oaina, e oi?io caeii/eeenue. E n/anoueth, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iiioeyoeey ainnoaiaaeeaaaony, a aaea anoue oaina, oai anoue e oeuiua
iaeaae/aneea ?uau (o.a. iaeoathuea a aa?oieo neiyo ii?y) – iai?eia?,
noaa?eaea. E?oiiua (e ?aaeeea) oeuieee *a?iiai ii?y – eooa?e, iaeaieaea.
Neoia?ey e ooiaoe aieueoa ia caoiaeyo a aiaeu *a?iiai ii?y, ii
yeieiae/aneei i?e/eiai. Aiai?yo, auee neo/ae, eiaaea ec I?aii?iiai ii?y
a *a?iia caoiaeeea aeoea-iieio ?uaa-ia/, ii a E?uio aeoe iao, e?iia
eao?aia (ii ia iianai, a aai iyni aeaaea iiaeatho a ?anoi?aiao). Ia
iaeeiaiaeuea eao?ai ieeiaaea ia caoiaeeo.

A i?aniuo aiaeiaiao E?uia aiaeeony ieiei 36 aeaeia ?ua. Aieueoay /anoue
– aeeeeiaoece?iaaiiuo, eioi?ua i?eaeeeenue a E?uio iinea ioe?uoey
Naaa?i-E?uineiai eaiaea: ea?anue, ea?i, ieoiue, noaeae, oienoieiaee,
uoea. A ?aea Aocoi-Ocaiue aiaeeony ?aaeoaeiay oi?aeue (iia iiaeao aeeoue
oieueei a i/aiue /enoie i?ioi/iie aiaea). Aia?eeaineoth ?aaeoaeioth
oi?aeue au?aueaatho a oi?aeaaii oicyenoaa ia ?aea Aeueia, e ana aea yoi
?aaeeay a E?uio ?uaa.

Iaaiciiaeii ?anneacaoue caeanue iai anai iiiaiia?acee eaniuo, noaiiuo,
ii?neeo aeeaioiuo E?uia. Anee aai oaeanony oaeaeaoue eiai-eeai ec ieo –
iaaethaeaeoa, ?aaeoeoanue e iicaaioueoanue, ianeieueei niiaeaoa, i oii,
/oiau aeeaioiuo a E?uio ia noaei iaiueoa.

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