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Мышечная система человека

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?a??o

«I???y ????

A???a

I?? (musculi) — ???ay ??ue ??????i ???? ????. E??, ?y?e, ??? ???tho ?i
????th ??ue.

A? ????a ??u ??? ??: ??u ???, ???? e ?????e, ??iyo ? ?????e ???? ??e.
N????a ??o ?? ????? ?i????.

N????y ??ue ??u, ?????ay ????e a????, n ??o ??? ????o a ????a. N ???th
????e ??u ????yth?y e ??yi ???a. A ????o ??ayo (????? ??u ??) ????y
???th?y a ??. N???ey ????u ? ?????e ???e ?????e ??????? ??e, ?e ??ue
???. I????, iy??? (????) ????a, ??????a ????? ??a ???, ?????o ???? a 400
?, a ????a ??????e ??u ??a — ??a ?e??? (600 ?). O??? ??u ???? ?atho ???a
?????a ??y??y — ?????.

I?? e ??? ?? ???? ?????????u? ????? — ??ey?. O??e ???atho ??a ??a ???e
?? e e????? e ???tho ???? ? y?i ???yi (??? ??e, ??a, ?a???y, ??a e o.
ae.). O????? ??y? ??iyo ? ??????e ??i? ?????e ??????? ??e, ?y?? ?e ??ue
???a e ???i ?????yo ??????o ??y??th ?e ????? ??. A??? ???? ??? e ??? I.
E. I??? ??? ??? «iy?? ???? ??».

N???? ??u ????i ???? ???eytho 40% io ?? ??u ?i ??. O ??????o e ??e ? ??u
????ny ? ??a 20—25% ??u ??, a a ???? ????ny ?????a ????? ??u i????? ?
25—30% ? ??u ??. A?? a ?? ???? ??i 600 ????o i?oe.

O?? ??. I????e ??? y?y?ny ???????iay ??a. A ?e ???atho ????oth ??ithth
??ue – ?th?i e ?a ??a, ? ???o ???e ??? y?ya?y ???i (?????y o?? ??u), a
?ae?e — ??????? (????y ??a ??u). A ????? ????ey ??a ??????y e ????y ?/?
? ?????ny e ?????e.

Ia ???? ??y? ????ue ? ??? ??u, ? aa ??ue, ???y ????y ??a e ??????. Ia
????oyo ???i ??u ??atho ??ue, ????th e ????.

????tho ???a, ???a e ???? ??u. Ae??? ??u ????ath?y ???i ???i ? ????oyo,
?a ???e ??i ????. E???o ?? ???? ??i ??e ???? ?? ??u. O?i?a ??u ????ath?y
a ???e ????: ? ??e, ??? e ??a. I?y? n ???? ???e ???ath?y ???a: ????y,
??- e ??????y, ???ay e ?. A ?y? n ?????y? ?????ey ???? ??? ?????? ?????e
??e ???atho ??-, ?o- e ??????a ?o?.

I????ay? ??c ???, a ??? ??c ?a ?e ????i ????, ??u ????yo ???ey a ?o.
I????, ???ay ??a ??????ny ???e ??? ???? ??? e ?e ????? ???? ????
????uey. O?? ???i, y? ??a ????y e ????yi. A??y?y? ?? ??????y ??e,
???????y ? ???eth (?????) ????ay ??a ??a. I? ????y e ?????yi. I??, n
???th ???o ????? ???ny ? ??, ???th?y ??aey?? (????, ?????ay ??a, ??aey?y
?? a ???o). A?????? ??aey?o ?? ??? ??u, ???ath?a ?? e ??,— ???y?a.
E?th?y ??a ??u ?y ??????y ???ey ?e ?e ?? ??e ?? (???, ??i, ?????) —
????e. I?? ???a ? ???ath?y ?i???a, ?e ??? ???otho ????.

I??, ?i?iyth?a ?? e ? ? ????, ???th?y ??????.

Ae???a ??? ??u ??o ?????ue ??? ?e ??????i ?????? ??u-?????a. O?ay
???????ue ??o ???? ???? ?????e. A ???o ???eyo, ???? ?e ???, ???otho ???
??? ??. I????a ?????y ????ey e ?????ey ?? ??o ?a e ????. I? y?i ????? e
???a??a ??i ?? ????yo a ?????? ??y?a e n ??? ??e, ?i ?????y ????ue ????.
Ia ?????i ?y??, ?i ???? ??? — ???n ??ue ????e e ?????.

A ?????e ???? ???ay ?? ?????o ?????e ???e ???a. I? ????o ?????yo, ??a
??y?ny ???e ????, ???? ??????ue e ????ue ????, ?e ?a?ay?y ???e,
???????e.

I. I?? ????

1. I?? e ??? ??u

I?? ?e? ?ey?y ? ??????a e ????.

I?????? ??u. O??oe???ay ??a ?????a a ???e ??e ??u. I????y ? ???/?e ??e,
??? ?y?e e ????o ????a ?? ???o ????a. I???ey?ny e ??????o ??o ?th??,
????o e e ?? ???e. A??yy ??ue ??u ????o ???o, ??yy — ???? ?, ??iyy ??ue
????? ???o e ??????. I? ????? ??u a ??i ???a ????ny e ???e ??e, ?e
??????e ???a ????? ????? ???.

O????y ??a ??u ??o ???a ???: ? ???? ????a ??e ??? ???o e ?? ?y???o
????a, ? ?y???-???e ??? e ??iy ?????e ??e. I????o ?????? ??e ??u e,
i???y? ??o, ????y?ny e ??ith ??? ???a ???? ??e. I?? oy?o ??i e ?? ??ae,
?????? ?????y ? ???.

?????? ??u (???y e ??y) ??o ?ae ??a????e. I??ath?y ? ???? ????a ?? ???
??? e ???o ???o ???o ????a e ????yth?y e ?????? ?ath ???e. I?? ???atho
???o, ????tho ? e ???e ??e. I?????? ????? ??? e ??o ?????o ?? ???? ???e.

I??, ???ath?y ???o, ??o ?? ?????o, a ??? ???e ?e, ????ny ? ????? ????a
???o ???o ??? ????a e ????y?ny e ???? ?? ???e. I???? ???o. A??yy ??yy
???ay ??a ?????a ?ae ??????, ????ny ? ???? ????a ?? ??? ??? e ?? ???o
???o ????a, ???ey?ny ?? ?? e ???e; ????y?ny e ???i ???i (II-V).

I?iyy ??yy ???ay ??a ?????a ?ae ????? ??? ??u, ????ny ? ???? ????a ??
??? ??i? e ?? ???o ?y???o ????a, ???ey?ny ?? ??o; ???iey?ny e ???i ???
???. A??yy ??yy ???ay ??a ????o ??a, ??yy ???? ?. I???aeyo ????? ?????o
????e? e ????? ??? ???e ??? (???a a ?? ??a).

A???a ??u. A???a ??u ??u ???tho ? ?a ??? — ????i? e ?????, ??????a ? ??i
???? o ??? ?????? ia ?? ?i ??y??e ? ????? ??e ? ???a. E????? ??o
???eytho ??a ??????a ???a ??u, ???th?a ??o, ??yieyth?th ?????e. I??
?????i ??? (????i-????) ??o ??? ???, ?e ????eytho ??e ??? ???? ???? ???,
i????ath??y ??c ???? (??????a — ??c 5—6 ????a, n??? — ??c 3—4 e ???? —
??c ?? ????). A ??? ???e ?e ??? ??o ???a ??o ???ay ??a ??? e ?e.

O??e ??u. I?????ay ??ey ????o ??????oth ??o e ????oth ??o ??u. E?? ?a,
???y ?y???-???y ??ey, ??eyth?y ??????a ??u n?? ? ????. I?????? ???
?y???-???e ??? ??o n????y n ?????i ????? ??u ??u. A??a n ???? ??e? y?e
??? ? ???? ????a ?y ??u, ??y?yth?e ?????e.

2. I?? e ??? ??e

I?? ??e ?ey?y ? ??u ??e, ??ny??y e i???? ?y? e ???e ????? (???y e ??y
???a ??u, ??eth??ay e ???yy ???ay ??u), e ?????a ??u ??e (???? e ?????
?????a ??u).

A??ay ???y ??a ??o ??????, ?a ?a???ay. I????y ? ???? ??e ?th??, ???u e ?
?y?e II—VII ???. I???ey?ny e ??ith ???? ???a ???? ??e. I?? ???? ?? e
????, ??ay ? ???. Eeth??ay ??ue ??u ????o ?? ???. I? ??????e ???e ?????
????o ??a, ???oy a ?? ??a.

I?ay ???y ??a ?????a ??? ???e, i????y ???e ? II—V ??? e ????y?ny e
?th????o ???? ???e. I?y??? ???o ??? e ????i ??. I? ??????e ???a ????o
??a, ???ay ??.

I??th??ay ??a ??ue ??o ????, ?????a ??o I ??? e eeth??e. Oy?o ?th?? ?? e
????i.

I??iyy ???ay ??a ???? ???th ???i?? ???e ???. I????y ???e ? ?ay? ???o ???
e ????y?ny e ???o ?? e ?????o ?ath ???e. Oy?o ???o ???e, ?????? ?????y ?
??? ?? ???e. Y? ?????? ????a ?? ?? ???????i ??iy. A??a n ?????e ???
????o ???o e ????.

A? ??????a ??u ?e ???? ????i ? ???e ????? ??o ?????ue a ?? ??a, -y?i e
?uy?y?ny a????ay ?? ???o, o ???o ????i ??o (????, ???a ?????? ???). I??i
?e ?aeyo, ??? ???ue ? ??? ???e ?e ??a. A ??i ????e ????? ?? ??e ????o
??o e ??a?? ???a.

I???a e ????? ?????a ??u ??eiytho ?????a ?????. I??a ???atho ??a (??),
??? ???tho ? (??o).

Oa?? ??e. A??ytho ???th e ??????th ???. A??ay ??ey ??o ?a ??? — ??????e
e ????. I?????? ??ie ????o ???e ???th ???th e ???thth ???oth ??u. A???e
??? ???tho ?th??i-???e ???e, ? ???? ?????a ????a ?y ??e ???e e ??eth???
??. E??? ???th ??? ????o ??????y ??ey, ???aey?y ? ????o.

Ae???? — ????th?ay ????, ????ey? ??e ??oth ???th ??o, ????th a ?? ???
?????th ??o. I???a ??e ????u ???th?y ? ???u, ??? e ?y???o ??i?? (? ??
????? ???i ????y ???e ???). N?????i? ? ??? a ????a ???atho ????th,
???oth e ?y???th ??e. I???a ??e, ???eyy? e ???? ????u, ???aeyo a ???e??
??y??a e ???tho ?????e ???. Iiy???y ??ue ???aa ???y e ???o ? ?? ??e —
??? e ??e. I????a ??e ??e ?????tho ?a ???o ????y, ??c ???a ???yo ???ae e
a??. A ?????i ??? ???y ????a ??? ??e ??. Ae???? — ???y ?????y i??. I?
????? ?a ?e???y e ????ny, ?e y?i ??i ???e ??? ??????y, ????? ??. I?
?????? ????u ?a ??ue ?????y a ?? ???, ??? ??ath?y e i????o ??o.

3. I?? e ??? ???

I?? ??? ?????? ???? e ????? e??e, ????? e ?y?e ???e ???, a ??a ????? ???
?y??u.

I???y ??y ??a ??? ???i ???i ?? ???e ??? e ??? ??. I????y ???e ? ??? ???
???. Aa ??? ??e ????yth?y e ??ith ?????e ??e. E??? e ??o ??a ????o a
???a ???a ????a — ????c. N??? ? i???? ???a a ?????e ???? ??? ????a ?y?e
??u e ??e ??e ???. I??e ?? ????? ???????y, ???y ???th (????o) ?y?o. I?
??????ny ??o ???? ???e ??th ?????e ??e e ???? ????.

A???iyy ??y ??a ??? ?????a ?ae ????e. Aa ???a ????? ?????? ??o ??o. I??
????ny ? ?y???-???e ???, ??iy ?????e ??e e ???e ?y?e. C??a ??e ????yth?y
e ?? ??? ???, a ???? ???aeyo a ????c.

I????y ??a ??? ?????a ?ae ??y ?a????. I????y ? ????? ?????e ??e ??? ???,
?yn??i-???e ???, ??iy ?????e ??e e ???e ?y?e. I???a ??e ? ????? ????i e
???e ???aeyo a ????c.

I?y?y ??a ??? ??o ???e ? ???e ??e e ????? ????e ???e, ???e ????i ??? ??.
I????y ? ?????i ???? ???u e ?y?e V e VI ???, ????y?ny e ??? ??e. Ia ??i
??y??e ?????y ?????e ?????e (3—4). I?y?y ??a ??th?? a ???a ????a, ??????
?????? ????e e ????? ??o ?? e ????? ??u ???.

E????y ??a ?y??u ????ny ? ??iy ?????e ??e, ????y?ny e XII ??o e ?????
????i ?y???o ????a (n I ? IV). I???? ???a a ?????e ??? ?th?? ???.

I?y?a ??u ??? ???otho a ???? ???ua ??? (?e ?????? n????e). E?? ??u ???
?????tho ???u ?????? a ???u e ???? ?i ??? n a??? ???e ??? e ??i. I?? ???
? ??? ???otho a ???eyo ???? e ???e ???. Ia ??a ??i ? ???a a ?????e ????
e ???o ??? ?th?? ???e. N?? ?????i ?e ???tho ????th?? ????, ???y ?e ?????
?th?? ??n. I?? ?th??i ??? ?????tho ????th ??????e a ? ????? ?e???. I?
???atho ?????a ????a (????th), ???????, a o ??? — ???? ??a ?e ??o. E??
??, ????y ?????eth ? ??? ??u ?th??i ??? ???otho a ???e.

O??e ???. N??? ?th?ay ??? ???a ???e ???, y?yth??y i?????i ???? ??? ??e.
E??? ??? ?th?? ???e ???? ?th??e (???ay ????) e ????? ???e, ???ath?e ?
n??? ?th?? ???e ?????th ??o.

A?ay ??y ??? (linea alba abdominis) ????ey? ??e ???th ???th ???o ????e,
???y oy??y ? ???e ??e ???? ?th?? ??? ? ?????i ???? ???u ? ????i ???a. I?
????ny a ????? ?????ey ???i ?????a ??o ??o e ????? ?? ??? ??? e ??e ???.

I????e ??o ????e ??e ??e ??o ??ue ??, ?i a ??a (??????, ????????e ???,
???ue, ?yc??y n ??? ?????i a ???e). I? y?yth?y «???e ???? ???? ?th??
???, ??c ???a ?ae ?? ??o ?iy???ny ??????, ???y ??e (??e ??e ??e).

I???i ????a ??e ??e ??? ????y i?? (umbilicus) — y?a, ?a???ay ???? ???i e
?????y ???? ??ueth e ??i. A y?????? ???a ??c ???? ??? ???? ???? ???e. I?
i?????o ???yo ???? ??? ??a ??o ??ue ??? ???a?ey ???? ??.

I??? ??e (canalis inguinalis) ????? ?ae ???e ?y??, ??? ????? ???? ??e
??u ??? e ??o ?ae ??, ??c ???th o ??? ???? ???? ???e, a o ??? — ???y
?y?a ??e. Ae?? ??? ??i 5 ?. Ii ????i ?? ??? ??, ??e ???ae e ???e ???. A?
???? ????a, ?e ??????a (????a) ???a ???, ????? ?????? ???i ???e ?y?e a
???e ? ?????ey e ???? ??e. C??a, ?e ?????, ????a — ???? ???a ??? —
??????y ? ??? ?????e ?th?? ???, ? 2 ? ?? ???? ?o?? ?y?e. I? ????? ?????
????th?? ????? ??ee. I???e ???e ???? ??? ??? ????c ???? ??e ?o? ???, ???
— ??a, ?????? ???i ???e ?y?e, ???e — ??? ????a ?ay ????? ??e e ????? ??
??? e ?ae?e — ????ay ??ey e ?th??.

II. I?? e ??? ???

A? i?? ??? ?ey?y ? ?a ???: 1) ??u ?? e 2) ?????a ??u.

I?? ?? (?????) ????eytho ??e ??? ???? ??e, ???? ???. I? ???th?y ? ??? ??
??????i ?? ?i, ?i, ???y? ? ??? ???, ???th?y a ??. N????a ? ???? ???? ??,
?????? ???e e ???. Y? ???ey? ??? ??. I?y??? ???o ???? (y??e): ???e, ??a,
????y, ??y, ?? e o.ae.— ???ey?ny ???????e ????ey? ????? ????? ??, ?????o
????i, ??? e ?i ? ?? ????i ??a ? ???? ??o.

?????y? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?? (????, ?o, ?e, ???), ????? ??u ???otho
a ????e ?e ????? y?o ????e. I? ?????tho ??a ?????ue ?e, ?a, ???e.

I?a ????ny ???? ?? ???? ??? ?i???o ??.

I? ???ay ??a ???o ? ????i ?ae ????i ????? (?????e ??). Ii ??? ????ny n
??e e ??i — n ?????? ???. A ?? ???th?y ??e ????i-??? ??u: ???e — ???
?th?i, ??e — ????? ?th?i. Ni???? ?????i ?th?a ?oy??? ?????e ?? e ??
????? ??e ???. I? ????? ???i ?th?a ??e ???ath?y, a ?? ?a ????ny a ?????
???e, ?y?? ? ???tho ??? ??e?ey.

I??, ????th?y ??ue, ??o ?ae ??? ???, ????ny ? ???e ??e ??? ??e e ????ny
a ?? ?? ?? n???u ??e. I? ?????? ????? ???? ??e, ???y ??o ?? ?????? ???e.
I? ???? ???? ??u ??, ????y.

E???y ??a ??a ???o ? ???y?? ??/?o ???, ???th?o ???? e ???th??y a ?? ?e.
I? ????ee ???o ???th ??.

E???y ??a ?a ???? a ?? ???y?? ???? ??? ?ae ??e ?a e ??? ?o. I? ?????
???? ?o.

I??, ???th?y ?? ?a, ?????e ??u, ????ny ???i ????? ? ??? ?eth?e, a ????e
????ny a ?? ?? ?a. ????ey? ????oth ???o, oy?o ?? ?? ?a, ???ay ?? ????a
???, ??????.

I??, ???ath?y ?? ?a — ????ay, ???a?y ? ???e ?eth?e, ????y?ny e ?? ?? ?a
e ???e ??. Oy?o ?? ?a ???, ????o ??ithth ??.

U??y ??a ???? ???th ??? ???e ???e. I??ay? ? ??? ???a ?eth??, ?? a ?????
?????e e ????ny a ?? ?? e ?a. I? ????? ????o ?? e ??i, ?????y ????a?th
???? ??a, ????o a ?? ???y.

I??o ?a ?????i ????a ???e ???o?, ???eyth?a ???? ??? ?e (??a ???? o ??e e
???).

A ??? ????? ??yo e ??? ??u, ???a? ???y e ??y ???? ??u, ??u ??a, «??u
????», ??u, ?ae??th?a e ???th?a ??, ??????y ??a e o. ae.

AE????? ??u ?????? ???iy ??? n??? ??, ? ???o ?a y?yth?y ??????? (?????
???e?ay e ???ay ??u), ?a — ????e (?????y e ????ay ?????a ??u). I?? ?y
?????o ?? y?y?ny ?, ?i, ???y? ? ?noyo ???, ?e ????yth?y ? ????o ???? ???
?eth?e e ?e?aeyo a ???? ???i-????th??e ???.

AE????ay ??a ????ny ? ???? ?? e i???ey?ny e ???? ?????e ?? ??? ?eth?e.
I???? ?aeithth ?eth?ue, ???ay ???? ?? ??o ?eth?? ?? e ??o. I???ath?y ?
???y ??ey ????o ? ???th ?y?i ????oth ?th?oth ae??o e ????ny ?y??
????i-?????e ???e.

A???y ??a ?????? ????ny ? ???? e ???? ???, ???y? ?th ???oth y?; ????y?ny
e ????o ???? ??? ?eth?e. I?? ???a ???e ?????e ??oyu? ???? ???e. I????
??thth ?eth?ue. N?? ??? ???a ???? ??u oy?o ??ae ??thth ?eth?ue.

E????ay ?????y ??a ?????y, ??o a ?????e y?a. I????y ? ?????? ???? ?????e
??e e ????y?ny e ?????o ???? ??? ?eth?e. I? ?????? ????? ?? ??yy ?eth?ue
?????y ???. I?????? ????? ???o ??thth ?eth?ue a ???????th ???o.

I????y ?????y ??a ????ny ? y?e e?????i ???? e ????y?ny e ?????e ??????e
? a????e ?????e ?? ??? ?eth?e. A??a n ?????e ??? ???? ???????th ???oth
??th, ?i ?????? ???? ???a ????? ??? /?th?e e ???e. Ai ??y ?? ???y ???ey
??? ?eth?e o ???? ???th?y ???i ??????i, ???? ?o o ??? ?????a?e
????ath?o.

Y? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ???ey ???i-????th??? ???a e ????y ?????o ??. O?,
o ???? ???? ?? ???? e ????? ?eth?? (??o — ??), o ae??? — ?? ???a ???ey
(??? — ??i), a o ???? — ???yu? ???ey ?eth?? (??? — ??ae). O ???? ?a y?
???ey ????oth?y. Eo ????a ???? ??????th ???e ???e — ?????th, ??????th
??. I? y?i ??yy ?eth?ue ??? n ??? ????? ??e ??? ??. Iiy?? ?????e ????
???? ??????e, a ? ?????????, ?e o ????.

III. I?? e ??? ?e

I?? ?e ???yth?y ? ??????a e ????. A ????th ??? ??eyth?y ??u, ????yth??y
e ??y??? ?n?,— ?ae ??y??? e ?ae – ??y??? ??u.

E ??????i ??? ?e ??ny?y ????y ??a ?e e ???i – ?th??i – ?????y ??a.

I???ay ??a (????) — ??ay ???ay ????a, ??????y ?ae ??e. I????y ? ??? ??e
?? ?th??, ????o ???th e ???? ???thth ?????e ?e; ????y?ny a ???e ??? ??e
??. I?y??? ??o ?? ?a e ?oy??? ?? o?.

A??? – ?th??i – ?????y ??a — ??y ???y e ???y ? ?? ?? ?e. I????y ??y ???e
io ?th?? e ? ???u e ????y?ny e ?????? ???? ???? ??e. I? ??????i ?????
????? -??? ?e a ? ? ??i? n ??????i ????i ??? a ???????th ???o. I? ??????
????? ?????? ??? a ?????? ????e, a ?e ?????? ????? ??????o ? ??ae.

A ??? ??, ????yth?ony e ??y??? ??e, ???atho ??u, ??????a ?? y?e ??e (i?
??y???), e ??u, ???a ?? ?a (?ae – i?uy???). I? ??y??? ?? ???. Ae??tho?y
??a ??o ???? ?th?i, ???th??y ? ??? ?eth?e e ???aey?a a ??????a ????a,
?????? ????e ??? o ??y??? ??e. Io ????y ????ny ??? ?th?i, ???a ????y?ny
e ???a ?????? ???? ???? ??e.

O???uy??ay ??a ?? ? ?????i ???? ???? ??e e ??y??? ??e. *?th??-??y??ay
??a oy?ony ? ?eth??e ?? e ??y??? ??e, ???y ?i ???e ?a, ?i ?a???.
I?????i-??y??ay ??a ?? ? ??????e ?? ??? ?eth?e e ??y??? ??e. A? ??????a
??u ???atho ??oo ??y??oth ??ue, a n ?e e ???ue, ???oy a ???? e ???????e
??. I? ??????e ??y??? ??e ?e ? ?o (? ??th??? ????y??? ??u) ???tho ??thth
?eth?ue.

I? ??y??? ?? ?? ???. A???-??y??ay ??a ????ny ? ?o?? e ????y?ny e ??y???
??e, oy?o ? ??. E????-??y??ay ??a ?? ? ???e e ??y??? ??e, ??o ?a ?th?a
(??i? e ???), ?????a ??????i ?????, ???? ??y??oth ??ue. A???-????ay ??a
?? ? ???u e ???? ?????e ?????i ?yua, ???? ????? ?yu, a n ?i ???ue e
??y??oth ??ue.

U???uy??ay ??a — ?????a ?????, oy??y ? ?????i ?y? e ??y??? ??e; ?e
??????e ??y??? ??e ????o a???. I? ??y??? ??u ?atho ???a ???? a ????
??y??? ??e e ???otho a ????e ??? ?eth?e.

E ???? ??? ?e ??ny?y ????? ??u (???yy, ??iyy e ??yy) e ???????a ??u
(???a ??u ??au e ?e, ???yy e ?????y ?y?a ??u ???). E????a ??u ?/?ath?y ?
????? ????a ??? ????a e ????yth?y e ?a?i: ???yy e ??iyy — e I ??o, a
??yy — ? II ??o. I?? ???? ????? ??? ???y ???n???e ?????, ??o ???? e ???e
— ??????e ?????, a ???i ???yo ??? e ??u.

O??e ?e. A? ??? ?e ????? a ?? ??oth ??eth, a ???e ???atho ?e ???, ?e ?e
????e: ??????th, ???????th e ???????th. I?????ay ????a ????a? ?ae ????e
e ???? ????a ?y ???i-?th??i-?????e e ??????? ??. I??????ay ????a ?oy??
??o ??ie ????i-??y???e ???e, ????o ?th?? ??? e ???? a???? ?y ?ae- e ?ae
??y??? ??, a ??a ?y ??? ?????e ?e, ??????o ???e io ???. I??????ay ????a
????o ???????a e ????? ??u, ???y ?y ?o ????a.

IV. I?? e ??? ???e ?????

I?? ???? ????? ????eyth?y ? ??u ?y? ???e ????? e ?o? ????e ???e ?????.

1. I?? ?y? ???e ?????

I?? ?y? ???e ????? ???tho ???? ???, ?????y ????e??a ???ey a ?i. A? ??ue
?? y?e ??? ???th?y ? ??yo ?a??? ?y? e ????yth?y e ???? ??e.

Ae?????y ??a, ???y? ??y ??y? ? ????? ??, ????a e ?th??, ????y?ny e
?????e ???ie ??e. I??iyy (?th??ay) ??ue ??u ???o ??i, ??iyy — ???o ??i ?
???????i ??iy, ??yy — ????o ??i.

I???ay ??a ????ny ? ?????e y?e ???e e, ??aey ?ae ?th???i-?????? ?y??,
????y?ny e ?e??o ???o ???? ??e. I??? ??i, y?yy? ?????i ???o ??? ??????
??u.

I???ay ??a ????ny ? ?????e y?e ???e, ????y?ny e ???? ???o ???? ??e; ???o
??i ???e.

I?ay ???y ??a ????ny ? ????i ?ay ???e e ????y?ny e ???? ???o ???? ??e;
???o ??i ???e. A??ay ???y ??a ?? ? ????i ?ay ???e e ??ith ??? ???a ????
??e. Oy?o ??i ??o e ??e, ?????? a??y ?i ???.

I?????ay ??a ???? ?th ?????th y?o e ????y?ny e ??? ???o ???? ??e. A???
??i ???, ?oy??? ??o ????i ??aaa, ??y??oy ? ????th ?e ???eyo.

2. I?? ????e ???e ?????

E ??? ????e ???e ????? ??ny?y i?? ??a, ????uey e ??e.

I?? ??a ?ey?y ? ???thth ??? ?? (????e) e ??thth ??? ?? (?????e).
I??ithth ??? ???eytho ?e ??u. Ae???ay ??a ??a (?oe?n) ????ny ??y ????e:
???e — ? ???? ?ay ????e ???u ???e e ???? — ? ?th????i ???? ???e;
????y?ny ??i ????? e ?a???? ???e ??e. *?? ???i ????y ???? ??e ?????,
???aey?e a ??eth ????uey. I?? ???o ??i e ????? a e???i ???a, ??????
????? ???e, ????? ?i. Eeth???i-???ay ??a ?? ? ?th????i ???? ???e ??? n
????e ???? ????? ??u, ????y?ny ? ???? ??e ?? ??iy ??? ???a; ???o e ????
??i. I???y ??a ?????a ?ae ????e ??? ??a, ????ny ? ???? ??e, ????y?ny e
?????e ???? ??e; ???o ????? a ???? ???a.

C?ithth ??? ?? ??a ???eytho ????ay ??a ??a e ???ay ??a. O????y ??a ??a
????ny ??y ????e: ???e — ? ???i ?ay ????e ???u ???e, ???? e a????e — ?
?????oth?o ?????? ???? ??e. I?? ?o??? ????y?ny e ????o ???? ???? ??e.
????? ?????. E???y ??a ????y, ?????y, ????ny ? ????i ?ae ???a ???? ??e e
????y?ny e ???? ??e. O???? a ????? ????uey.

I?? ????uey ? ??? ????th ?ey?y ? i??ithth e ??thth ???. I?? ???? ??? a
???? ??o ??? io ?????i ?ae ???a ???? ??e e ????ath?y a ?a ?iy — ??????e
e ????. Ii o??? ?e ?ey?y ? ????e ??e e ???a e ????u. A????? ?? ??? ???
????ny ? ????i ?ae ???a ???? ??e. I? ??a ???eytho ?a ?iy — ??????e e
????. Ii ???e ?ey?y ? ?????e ??e e ???a e ?????.

E ???? ??? ?? ????uey ??ny?y ??oth?a ??u. I?????? ?? ???tho: ???e ????
(????y?ny e ???e ??e ???e ??e), ???e ????ue ?iy?uey (????y?ny e ????th I
iyn?? ??e), ???y ???ay ??a (????ny a ???? ????c), ?a????? ????ue ???a
(????y?ny e ?a?? ???? II—V ???a), ???? ????ue ?iy?uey (????y?ny e
??o???e ??e). A???e ?? ???tho: ???e ????ue ???? ??oea ??e (?? e ????
???a ???? ???), ???? ????ue ?e?? (????y?ny e ???? ???? II—V ???a) e
????? ???? (???y? ??? ??? ???e e ???? ???). E ??? ??? ??ny?y ??oth?a ??u
????uey. I?????? ?? ???eytho: ?????ay ??a (?? ? ????i ?ay ??? ??e ????
??e e ?????o ???? ???e ??e, ???o ????? e ???o ???th ??ue), ???e e ????
???a ?????e ?iy?uey (????yth?y e ????yi II e III iy??o ???), ?????ue
???a (????y?ny e ???? II—V ???a) e ???? ????a? ?iy?uey (????y?ny e
????th V iy??e ??e). A???e ?? ???tho: ????? i????y (????y?ny e ???e ??e,
???o ????? ???), ???y ??a, ??aey?y ???e ??oe ??e (????y?ny e ????th I
iy??e ??e), ???? e ???e ?????e ???? ??? (????yth?y ?????a?i e ????th ???
e ??? ??? ???? ???), ?????ue ?a????? ??? (????y?ny e ???? ???a ??? n
????ai ??? ?????y ???a).

I?? ???? ??? ????eytho ???? ??e e ???a, ??atho ????? ??? (???otho ?i), a
??a ??atho ?a???a a ???? ???a ??? n ???e ??a. I?? ??? ??? ????tho ??ue e
???, ??atho ????? ???e (????tho ?i), ?a?a n ???e ??a ???otho a ??ea??
????uey.

I?? ??e ?????u ??? ? ???? ? ?a????. I? ?ey?y ? ?e ???: ??? ????ey ????
???, a??o ?? ???? ???u, ?e ??ithth ???, e ??? ????ey ?c??. A??o ?? ????
??? ???eytho ??? ??o?a ??u: ???? ????ue ???? ??? ??e; ???ay ??a, ??aey?y
???e ??oe ??e; ??a, ?aeyuay ???e ??oe ??e, e ??a, ????i??eyth?y ???e
??oe ??e. A??o ????ey ???a ???tho ?e ???? ??u: i??, ??aey?y ???oe; ??a,
???????yth?y ???oe, e ???? ????ue ???a. N??yy ??? ????? ???iy ???????
???e (??atho ???? ?e??) e ?????e ???e. I???? ???ytho ??y??a ????? e
?ey?y ? ???? e ???a. E???o ????? ?? ?e, ?e ???tho ??? ??o ??e, ???y ? e
???e ??e. O??? ????? ?o?, ? ???, ???yo ???.

O?? ???i, ????y ???th ?????? ?o??? ???? ??? ??e, ???? ???e ??oe,
????atho ??ooth ?????ue e ???? e ??????i ???eyi, ?i ?????i ??i ?e ???.
??a ???? ?????? a ???? ????? y?ethoe? ?ae ?ey?? ???? ?y????e. «??a…
y?y?ny ? ??? ???i ??a, ?a ??a e ???o ??.

O??e ????i ?y?, ??a, ????uey e ??e ii ???? ???aeyo ?? a ??oth.

O??y ??a — ??ay, ? ???y ????a, ??u?th?y ??u ??a. Io ?a ??aeyo ??? ?a
?????a ?????e, i??yth?a ???thth ??? ?? ? ???.

O??y ????uey ????? ??u ????uey e i???o ?????a ?????e. A??o ?a ??a ???y ?
?? ??oath??y a ?a ???i ????e ??????o ??. Ia ???a n ??ueth ??ey ????ny e
???? ???th ?y?o — ?????? ????a?e. Y? ?y?a ????ny n ?????? ??? ????uey,
???y ?n? ???-????o ???a, a ???o ???yo e ??e ????y ??-??????e, ?????
??????e ?????e. N?????y ??i?ue, ??aey?yny a y?o ?????, ????o ????? ????e
?e ae???e. Ia ???? ?????e ???a ????a ??? ????uey i???o ??????th ????oth
iy??th ?y?o, a ?? ??ey ???ae? a ???e ???? ????c, y?yth??y ?????i ??y???
???e ???? ??u. I? ?????i ????y ???y ?y?a — ??ae???ue ?????, ???th?y ??e
?iy?uey. A ????i ??o ?a ?i????o ????a, ???th?a ????y ?????. Ii ??i ???ai
? ????? ??ey ??e ?????y e ????o ??u ??e, ???y ????a ?y ?? ?? ?ao ??i. Ia
?? ??e ??ey ???? ??? e ????o ???a ????? ??u.

Ia ???o ???????? ????e ???th?y n ?????? ??? e ???tho ? ???? ???a
???-????a ??? ???a, a ???o ???yo ????y ????? ???a, ????? ??????e ?????e.
I??u II—IV ?atho ??????a ?????? ????a, ????th??y ? ???e ?iy?uey. I? y?i
?????? ????a V ??? ????ny n ??i ?i????i ????? ????e ????? ???a. A? ???
?e ?yo? ??e ? ??? ???a ??cy ??? ?? a ???oe: a ??? ???i??ey ???? ?a ??o
???????ny ? ?th ???. Ii y?e ? ?e?? ????y a ???e ???a ???? ???.

I? ????e ?? ????i ??a ?????y (i? ?????y) y?a, a ? ?a?? ??o ??? e ?????i
????y ???ay y?a. C??a y?o ?????? ??i ?y ????.

I? ??e ?????e y?e ????y ?????y ???ue, ?????ay ???? (???y e ??y ???a
??u), ??? (????ay ??a ??u, ???y ???y e ??????y ??a), ????? (???yy ???ay
??a) e ?????e (?th???i-???ay ??a e ????y ???a ????e ??u ??a) ????. I???
????a ???e ?????, a ???e ??o ??????? ??????a ??, ???yo ??? e ??u. Ia ???
??? ?????e ???e ?ath?y ?a ????y — ??????a e ????????, ??c ???a ???yo ???
e ??u.

E???y y?a ?????a a ???e ????i ?e?, ?a ????? ????i ???i ?????, ????? —
?????? ???, a ?i ? ???? ???ay ??a. I? ??e y?e y?e ???i?? ??????a ??, ??
??? ?????? ?y ?????? ?e??e ??????o ???a e ?????y ??e. A??a ???yo ???? e
??u.

V. I?? e ??? ??? ?????

I?? ??? ????? ?ey?y ? ??u ?? e ??u ????e ??? ?????.

1. I?? ??

I?? ?ca, ???oth?a ? ??????e ???, ???th?y ? ??? ?? e ????yth?y ? ????e
??e.

I????i-?y???y ??a ???o ?e ? ? ?oo ????o ?? — ???e ?y???e (????ny ?
?y???o ????a) e ?????e (????ny ? ?????e y?e ???e ??e). I????i-?y???y ??a
??i?o ?ae ???e ?y?? e ???o ? ???thth ?????ue ??a ??c ???oth ???,
????y?ny e ??? ???o ????e ??e; ???o a??, ?????? ??ay ?i ???e. I? ??????e
????? ?e?? ?????e a ?y???i ???. A????ay ??a ????ny a ???e ?? ? ????
?????e ???a, ???o ? ???e ?? ??c ???a ????? ????a, ???yy ?i ? ?a ?? — ?ae
?????th e ?ae ?????th. I???ey?ny e ???? ???o ????e ??e. A??? ??i ???e.

A???iyy ??????y ??a ????ny ? ?o???e ?????e ?? a ???e ??????? ????y e ?
??????? ????. A??? ? ???e ?? ??c ??a ????? ????? e ????y?ny e y?a ????
???a. A??? ??i ???e.

A??ay y???ay ??a ?/???y ? ???? ?????e ?????e ??e, ? ???a e ???a, ?
?y???-???e ???, ????y?ny e ?????e ?????? n ??? ???ey ? ????e ??e. A???
??i ???e, ?????ii ???ay ?i. I? ?iy?e ? ?? ?? ???????y ???e, ?????? ?e
????oth ???th ???. N??yy e ??y y???? ??u ??o ?? ?ae ???. I??ath?y ? ????
?????e ?????e ?n? e ????yth?y a ???e ???? ???a; ??aeyo ??i. I???y
c?????ay ??a ????ny ? ???? ?????e ?? a ???e c??????i ????y e ? ??????e
????. I???eyy? e ???? ???o, ???o ?ae? ???e. E????y ??a ??a ?? ? ?????i
??a e ???? ???o, ??ay ??i ???e. I??y??? ???e ??? ??a oy??y ? ???? ???e
?? ?????e ??e e ????ny a ????oth ??ue ???e ??? ??a; ??y?? ??eth.

2. I?? ????e ??ae ?????

????tho ??u ??a, ??? e ??u. I?? ??a ???eyth?y ? ?e ???: ???thth, ??thth
e ????oth. E ???? ??ia ??ny?y ?a ??u: ??????y ??a e ??iy?ay ??a.
*?????ay ??a ??a ??i? ? ???o ???e, ???th?o ?th ??????oth ?????ue ??a.
I?y?y ???a (?y?y ??a ??a) ????ny ? ???? ??? ?? i????? ??e, a ?e ???:
????y, ????ay e ??????y ???a ??u — ? ???? ?????e ????e ??e. I?? ???
?o??? ????? ?????e e ????o a ?????th ?y?o ??????, ???y ????y?ny ? ?????e
??????? ??e. ????? ??? a ???? ???a. I?y?y ??a, ?????y? ??c ??????e ???,
???o ?i. I??y?ay ??a oy??y ?? ??? ??o e ??? ? ???? ???e ?? ?????e ??e e
?????e ??????? ??e. N??? ???, ???? ???eth ??a.

C?ithth ??? ???eytho ?e ??u: ??????iay, ???????ay e ????y. I??????ay e
???????ay i?? ?????u ?????, ???th?y ? ?????i ??a e ????yth?y e ???????
??e. N??tho ??? a ???? ???a, ?e ???? ??? ?a?tho ??? ???; ???otho a ?????
??????? ???a. Ae?a??y ??a ??a ??e ???e ???? ????ny ? ?????i ?a?, a ????
— ? ???? ?? ??????e ????e ??e. ???e??a ? ??? ?????e ??a, o ????i ?ay.
I???ey?ny e ?e?? ?????? ??e. O??ey ????? ???e ????? ??; ?e ???? ??? ???o
??? ???e.

E ????? ??? ?? ??a ??ny?y iy? ?ooe: ?????y, ??ay e ???y?a (???y, ???y e
???ay). A? ?e i??ath?y ? ??? e ????? ??? e ????yth?y ? ????e ??e
(??th??a ???ey? ??ay ??a, ???y ????y?ny ? ??o????e ??e). I???aeyo ?????
??a n ????i ????i ?i ???e. O??y ??a ???o ??? a ???? ???a n ????i ? e??e.

I?? ??? ???tho ?e ???: ???thth, ??thth e ?????th. A? ?e ????yth?y ? ??a.
I??iyy ??? ?????? ??y ???e: ???? ?e?????e, ???i ?c????i ???a e ???i
?????? ???? ???. I??iyy ?e?????y ??a ????y?ny e ????th I ?th??? ??e e e
????ie ?????e ??e, ????o ??o (???a ????) e ?????? aa ????? ?? (????y).
Ae? ??? ??u, ????yy? e ???? i???, ????yo ???a ???? ??u e ????? ???a.
C?iyy a??a ???o ? ???o ??: ????? ??u ???, ??? ?e?????e, ???? ????y ???a
e ???? ????y ???? ??? ??u. O????y ??a ??? ?????a ??????, ?a ????? ??y
????e, ? ???o ?a (??????a) ???eytho ????oth ??o, a ?? (???ay) — ??????th
??o. I? ??u ????ath?y iy??? (????i) ?????, ????yth??y e iy?/?? ??o.
O????y ??a ??? ????? ?????a ???? a a?????? ???a.

N???ey ???o ??? ??? ??????? i??, ???? ????y ???a e ???? ????y ???? ???
n??, ???a ????oth ???o ??????? ??e, ???aeyo ? ?i?, ?a ??yy ??????ay ??a
????y?ny e ??yi ???th?u e ????yi II—IV ?th??? ???, a ?e??? ???a — e ????
y?o ???. A? y? ?e ??u ????yo ?????a ???? ??u e ???a.

E????ay ??? ???o eF ?? ?? — ???e e ???? ??????. I? ???? ? ??o ? ????y
i??tho ?????th ???o ?????? ??e. I? ??u, ??a ???y a ?????i ???? ??u,
????yo ???eth ??u (???tho ? ?ae???e ?? e ?????tho ?????e). Ae??ay
?????ay ??a ????o ??a a ????? ?????i ??a ??u, ???y ??? n ????e ???????
??? ???????th ??th.

Ia ??a ??eytho ???th e ?????a ??u. O??ay ??a ??. Y? — ???? ?????ue ???a.
I???? ? ??i???? ?????e ??? ???th?u, ?a ???y ? ????y, ??ea e ???i. ?????
??? ??u.

I????? ??u ?ey?y ? ?e ???: 1) ??u ???? ???, 2) ??u ???a e 3) ??iyy ???
??, ???o a ????ee ???u. I?oe ??? ??iu ?e: ??aey?y ??a, ???y?y ??a e ????
????ue ???? i??a ??u. Ai ??? ??? ??a ?e ??u: ??a, ??aey?y ???oe ??u,
???? ????ue ???a ??u e ??a, ??aey?y ???oe. N??yy ??? ????? ???? ?????
???a, ????? ??? ?ae??, ???iy ??????? ???e (?a ??????a ??u y?e ?o?u
???otho a ???? ???a), a ??a ?????e ???e (?e ??o??? ????? ??u ???tho ???,
a ??? ???a ????? ??u ? ???yo).

O??e. A????a ??u ?? ???u ?????e ???e, ????eyth?e ??e ??ue ??e ?????th??
???. I???y ? ??i, ?????y ??ey ?????ny a ???th ??eth ??a. O??ay ??ey ??a
— ??y ???y ??ey ?? ????. I? ????o ?a ??u ??a e ?? ?e ?????a ?????e,
???a, ????yy? e ?????a ????e ??e, ???tho ?y ??i ?? ???a ?????a ????a.
I???i ????ny ???y ??ey ? ???? ?????e ??a, ?a ?a ???? ?????-?e?????e ??o
a ?? ???e ??? ? ?? ??a ??a. I???o, a ??????? ???e ??a (?ae ???e ?y??)
???y ??ey ????a, ??ue ? ????o ?????ia ??i ???a e ???, ?y?? ?a ???? ????
???y???e i????, ?????e ?? ???e ?????? ????th ??.

O??y ???, y?yy? ?????? ???e ??ee ??a, ????o ??u ???, ???y? ??? ??, ???y
?y ?o ????a. A ???e ??????? ???a e ?ae ?i ???y ?yae ????e ??? ???, ???a
??? ?????ey? ????e ??. A??ytho ???e e ??? ?????? ????e-??????, ??????
????e-????? e ????e ?????? ??. I? ?y??e-???a??y? ????y ?? ???? ??????e
?????e. N??? ??????? ???a ???y ?e ?????? ????a ?y ????e-??????, ???
????? ???e — ??a ?e ?????? ????a ?y ????e-????? e ??? ?????e ???e — ???a
?a, a ??i ?? ??a ?????? ????a ?y ???? e ???e ?????? ??.

O??y ?? ??u ??ay e ????ay, a ? ???a ?a ?????i ????a e ???? ???e ?????e
????c.

Ec ?????? ?????e ? ????????e ?????e ??a ???????y ????e ?????e, a ????
???? ?????u ????a ?????a ??? e ??u — ????a ???e, ?? e ??. A???? ??????
y?yth?y: ???e — ??aay ?y?a, ???? — ??iy?ay ??a, ????? — ???y ???y?y ??a
??a.

Ia ??a ??i ??ue i ????i ??? e ?????e y?a.

A???? ??e a ??a ? ?????, ? ????o ??? a ??? ?????y ????o ??.

I?????i ?ae ???e ?y?? ????i ??i?? ??? ????e ??? ???y ? ?a ?? — ???. I?a
? ?o ?????a ?????a, ??c ?a ? ???e ?? ???o ?????-?y???y ??a, ?y?? ?a
i????y ???? ???e. *?? ????oth ??? ???yo ?????a ??? — ????a ???e e ??,
?y?? ?a ????ny ????ie ???e. E??i ??c ????? ?? ????? ??? ?e ????i? ??
????? ??? ?iy??th?y ? ???e ?? ?e ? ?th?? ???e ?ae ???th ??eth ??a. A y?o
??ayo e ????o ????e ?ae??? ??e (??? 2 ?) ??o ??????i e ???? ???? ???e
??? ???e e ??e; ????y ?? ??? ?????e ???e y?? ???. A????i ???o?i ???
????ny ????? ?? ????? ???. A? ????e ??? ??? — ???y nay?a, ????? — ????y
??, ????i — ??ay ?y?a, ???eyth?y ?? ???, a ??e — ???ay ??ue n ???ath?e ?
?y??. I???i ????? ????? ??? ??o ??i?? ???, ????a ???y???e ????? ???e ???
??a. I? e ???ny ?i «??? ???», ??c ???a ???? ??e, ??aey ??e, ??? ?ae ??
??a.

I????ay y?a ??o ??o ??a, ?a ???? o???. I? ???e ??aey?y ??????a a ???e
????a ??????a ??, ?????a ???e e ??, a ??a ??u, ???a ???yo a ????????e
??e. I????ay y?a ????? ??? e ???e ????e ??? ??a, a ??? e ??? — ????????
???; n?? ? ?????tho ????ay e ?????y ???e ????? ??u.

VI. O????y

I???e ??e ???e ?e ???????o ??n?a: ?????? — ?????ue ? ?????a ???? ??????,
?????? — ?????ue ????ue ?????a e ?????? — n????? ?????y. I? ????? ??a
??????y ?e a ?e ?????y ??y??a.

N????, ?????a (?????????) ??u ??iyo ? ????o ??iy??? ???i, ???th?o ?????
??????ueth. A?? ???i ????i ???a oy??y a ???i 2500 ?????e, ??iy?o ? ??
??a ??e, ????? ??????? (???????). O??? ?? ????u ? ???e ??a ???a, a ??? —
???. A???? ?? ????? ? ???a Z, ??u ? ??aeyo a ????? ??o ?????e i?y?.
I????y ??????ue ?? ?uy?y?ny ????i ????????i ????o (I) e ????? (A) ???.
O??a ????? ??e ???tho ???i ????????.

I? ????? ??u ?????? ? ????athony. A???? ?? ???th?y ??o ?????e, ?e ?
???yo ??ue i?, ?? I ??????y, a A ???ny ?c ????y. Y? ??????a i ????a
????i ????ey ???? ???? ??? ????i ???. A???o «??ue??? ????e ???ey, ???e
????? ????? ??? ??/?? ???a e ?????ey Na2+ a ?????a ??????y. E??? ????o
???? «n????y» ??????a, o. a. ????? ??u. E? ??? ?????ue ?????, ????? ??n
???? ?????eth Na + e ?????u ????yth?y. E??i?? y???, ?????e ?y ????i
????ey, ??? ???n ?????y ????????? (AOO). A? ???tho ??????i ????i ??th?i.

Ae?????a ???u. A ????a ????a ??u ????th?y ?????, ???y?? e ?i ? ??????
??? ? ?????? ?????e ???e ???u. A??, ???y e ??a, ???ny ? ????i ???e,
????ath??y ????e ????e ?y??e ? ???? ????. E??e ????? ?????o ? ?????
?ny?? ? ????? ?ny/ ???? ???i. I????i e ??????th ? a??o ???? ???i ???tho
?????? ????. Ae?????y a??? ???? ?e ??? ??a, ?a ? ???? ???a ???ath?y
??????. *? ??a ???, ??? ???ey ??o ????ue ??a, ?i ??? ???ay ???a.
N??????, ???? ???u ??ue ???a a ??? ?a e ??? a ??? ?e, ???? a ???,
???yth?o ???ey? ???a.

I???a ?????e ?????e ???? ??a??e. A y?????a ????? ??u ??i ???ue, ?? ????y
? y?????? ??i (?y?a ?????a), ?? ????y ????oth?e ? ?? (??y?a ?????a). *??
???? e ???????? ???? ?????, ??o ???ytho a ?????i ???a — ????. Ii ?n?? ?
???, a ???i ???otho ?? ??oe ??u, e ???a, e ???? ?e ??? ?th?a ???ny ???
??oe. O??? ?????? ??????th ????oth ??o ey??e.

Aeey ?????y ??? ???th?y y?????? ??i ? ???y?? ?e ?ae????e ???e. Ia ????a
?????a ??a ???? ????i ?????i, ?e y?i ?a oy?o ? ??e ???e. Ia e?? ???a
???y ???, ?????e ????e. A?e ? ???ny ???, ?oy??e ? ????ny ???? ????a, ?
?????ny ??ay ???i? ????ey. A?u ???? ?????. A?e ??a i? ??i ????? ??o
??????y e ????ue ??, ? ??a ????? ???tho ??????i. I? y?i ?? ????? ??n, ?e
??y??a ??u, ? ??iy?ny, a ?iy?ny ? ??a. A?e ?a ??a ??u ????ue ????? e
???e ?????a, a ?e ????o ??y??a, a ??a ????y ?????. O?? ??a??a ???tho
???????.

I???? ???? ????? ?????ny ? ?? ?c: ???? ???a ?????y, ???a ????ey e ???a
?????ey.

I? ???i ???? ?????y, ?e ????i i???i, ???tho ??y ? ???a ????y ?????y ?
??? ??? ? ??. A ??a ey??e ? ??i 0,01 n. A y? ??y a ??a ??????ny ????e
???ey, ? ????ey ?a ?o. A??aey?y ??ue ??? ??a??y ???? ????ey, ? ??ny 0,05
n. I??aey?a ??? ???, ??a???th?a ?????eth ??u, ?????ny ??a 0,05 n. O??
???i, ?????? ????? ????ey ??u ey??e ??? ? ???i ???? ???ey? 0,11 n. I????
????? ?? ???? e ??? ??????o ???? ????o ???a e ???e ??? ???.

A ??a ??a ?????y ?????? ??a ????ey. Y? ????a ???????a ????, ?
?????iyth?y ?e ? ??a n ????? ????th — ??i 10 i/n.

N?a ????i ????ey ???o ? ?? ???ae?ey. Ia ?????a ????e ??, o. a. ? ??e ???
??????, ????e ???ue ?????a, ??a ???o ?????i ?????e ??. A?e ?? ?????y
????? ?????ue, ? ?? ????ey ?e? ??o ????? ??e, ?? ? ????o ??????i ????a,
?e ???i ????? ????? ?? ?????y ?a ? ??o ?????ue ?? ????ey.

C????? ?? ????ey ? ?? ?????y i?y?y?ny ?i, ?i ??a ???o ? ???i ????e
??????. Ia ??? ?????y ???tho ???? ???u n ????? ?????oueth. Ii ?? ????ey
?? ?????y ????th?y ?a ??a ???? ???u, ?? ?????? ?????? ? ???? a ?y???a
??iy?a ?a ?.

I???? ???? ???a ???ath?y ? ??? «?a ?e ???», o.a. ? ??a?? ?????a ?e
???tho ?????i ?????? ??, a ?? ?c???? ?? ???, ? ? ???tho ??a. Oe?ay ??a,
??iy?y ? ????a ???? ???, ????o ????? ?e ????? ?? ?????y.

O???. A?e ??o ???ae?ue ??? ????o ??? ??, o. a. ???? ?????a ?????a, ?
????o ????? ????? ??u, ???a ???tho ????i. A???a e ??a ???? ??nyo ? ?? e
???u ?????y. I? ?e??e ?????e ????e ???u, ??a ??? ???oth?a ?????a ???? a
?? ?????ey ??u, ??th??ny ???? ???n. A?e ???a ?????y ?e?ay, ??a ???
???oth?a ?????a ????ny ??y ????ey ??u, ?????y ???e ???n ????? ?????? ?
???th??y ????e ??.

*??? ?????y, ?e ???e ????o ???? e ???e ???n, ???? ?y ??? ?? e ??? ????
???i. I? ???o ? ?????? ???a ????ey: ?i ? ???, ?i ??o? ??? ?? ???a, ??u
??? ???e ???n.

O??????a ???ey ae?????o ???. ???/atho ?a ?? ?????? ???: ???a e ????a,
??iy?a ???o???i ? ???o e ????o ???? ???i. I???? ??u, ???? ??u ???? y??a,
??iyo ???????i ? ???o ???i n ae?????ueth ????ey 10—30 ?. A ??? ???
????atho i???? ???a (????, ?i???ae?y) n ???? ????ey 100 ?. A????? ??
????a.

I???? ?????? ???u ???atho ????th ?? ????ey, ? ??o ???? ??i ?c ????y.
A??? ?????? ???u ??eyth?y ???, ??? ?tho ???th ?? ????ey.

I???e ??n. I?? ???? ? ??tho ????th ?????u, ?e ??? a ??iy?e ????? ??y??y,
?????i ???? ???i. I? y?i ????a ?????? ???u ???ath?y n ????e ???? e
?????tho ?????? ????a ?? a ?????? — ??, ?????th ?y ??????y ?????
???????o ????. I???e ??n ???ey? ???a ?????y ????. I?? ???? ??a ?????
??i??ue ?oy??a ??, ??u ??e ???? ??oe a ??oe. A? ?oy??y i? ????i ????i
??? ??e ????y ?????i, ?i ???ao e ????eth ??.

N?a ??. I?? ?e ??i n????e ???? ??y? ???e ??, ??a ???? ? ??i ?c ?a??? ??o
??e ??u.

N?a ??u ???y?ny ?i ?????? ???, ???e ?a a ??iy?e ??y?. C??? ?? ??u ? ??a
???? ???i, ???eyth?o ??oth ??o, e ???u y?o ???i; ?a ?y? ???oe????y
???????? ?????o ???th, o. a. ??a i?a??? ???e ?? ??y?o a ?a a???. A ??? n
????i ??????? ????e ???????a ????? ???a ????o n ??????i — ???ueth ?????i
???a ??u, ?????? ?????ey?i ? ??a. A ???? e ??o ??? ???????a ???a ??? e
??????? ??? ???ay ??.

N?a ??u, ????ay ? 1 ?2 ? ???????? ?????i ???y, ????ny ??eth?? ???? ??e.
Aeey ?? ???? ?a ??a?y? 5—10 ?. I?? ey??e ?????i ???, ? ??eth?ay ?? ??i
2—3 ?.

I? ????? ????? ????? ????a i???o ???i e ????ath?y ? y??????a ???u. A ?y?
n y?i ????? ?? ??.

???a ??. A?e ??a ?e ??i ????? ??e?? ??, ? ?a ????? ??ithth ???, ????
???e ???ey?ny ??????i ??u ??a ? ??? ???a e ????ny a ????i???o (?i).
I????, ???e ????o ??? ??? 100 ? ? ??? 2 i, i? y?i ?????y ? ??? ??a 200
?i.

I????th ??? ??a ????? ?e ????o ???o ????o. Y? y??? ???? ???? ??? ???e
????.

I????, ?i y?o ??i ??i ? ??? ? ????th e ????e ??a, ? e e ??? ????o. *???
????o ???ue?th ??? ? ??y?th ?e ???? oy??e, ?? ?? ? ???i oy?e e ? ???i
??e. A??? ???? ??o ?? ???: e ???i ???y, e ???i ????y, ????ay ??? ???
???? e ????th, a a ??a ????? ?????e ??? ??. I????y ????a ???? e ??a ???
??o a ??? ??????? oy??? ?????i ??a.

Ia ?????a (???a) ??u. Ii ??i ???????i ????i ?e ???th?y ? ?????o ??.
A?????ue ???o ?? ?????i ??. Aeey ? ?????y ????y ??a ???e e ??a ?????
??????. A????? ?e ???yo ??ue ????. O?, ????, o ???? a ???? ???? ??? ??e
?i ?????iy?ny ? ????th 1 ?/n. A ???o, ?ath?o ???a ??????a ???? ???, ????
a ?????? ???a, ?????a ?????iy?ny ????i ???a — 18 ?/n. N???th?y ??????a
??u ??ue ????. I??ae ????ey ??o ?? ???ey? 60—80 n, ?e y?i ??? ????ey —
20 n, a ?????ey — 60 n, o. a. a 3 ?? ???a ???a ????ey. E?? ??, ??????i
??? a ???a ? ?????o ????i ?????, o. a. ?e ???? ?????y ?ae ?ey?ai
??ath??y a ?o ????a ?????y.

I?????ay ?????a ???? ???e ??y???ueth. A ??o ? ????a ??y??a ??a ??iy?ny,
a ??y??a ? ? ??????y. A????y y?? ?e ????? ?????i ??ia ???? a ?i ???e ?
????ny, ?e y? ?????, ????, ?e ??oy??e ????e ???, a ???e ? ?? ? ????ey
??? ??a?a. O?, ???? a ???a ??o ??i 7 ? ?ae. ?. ?e ????? a ?i e 200 ?, e
500 ? ????. N????? ???y? ????th ??y??? ??o ?c ????y ??y??y ???tho ??????
???i. Ii y?y?ny ??? ???????e ?????ueth ??????o ??.

Aeey ??????o ?? ????? ????a ???ey e ????? ????? ????ey. I???i ????o ????
i?? ???ue ????????a ??u ???????? ???. O????a ????? ??? ???a ??????
??iy?? ?????? ???ue ??y?? ???ey. N??y?a ??iy??i ?????i ????ey ????? ?y
????? ??o ???a: ???a, ???? e ???? ???e, ?y?e ??e. O????y ??a ????? ???o
????o ??? y??? e a ???a ? ???? ? ??????ny ?????.

A??? ??????i ?y ??????e ??u yaey?ny ???a e ???a ??y??a. Y? ???? ???o ??
?????ue ? ??y??a ?????i ??? ??oth ?? a ?y????e ???????? ???, ??????, ??o
???a, ?????. I?????ay ???ay ??ue ????ny ???e ????????th e ????i ?????
?????eyi: ??????, ?????, ??????o, ??o??o e ?.

E?????ny ???y ?????a ??????? e ????????? ???e, ???a ???atho ? ?a
????th?a ?ey?a, a ? ????, ?e ? ????a ??u.

I???a ?????y n ??a ? ??o. Ae?????a ???a ???i, ?iaey a ??o, ??y? ????oth
???? e ????y?ny. E???a ???e ???tho ???a ????y a ??a ???e ?e ????, ???a
???ath?y a ????ey ? ?????e ???? ???i. I??? ????y i??? ????e, ?????
????????. A ? ????? ???ony ???a ????? (???? 3 ?i.) ????a, ????? ?????i.

O??? ???? ??u, n ???i ?????? ???a ????a, ????ny ????????e ????e. I???yy
???? ??????? ???e, ????y ?? ? ?????ue ??????y. I???????ay ???? ????
???????u e ???o ??iy???o, ????e ????ue ?????i. I?? ????? ???? e ????i
???i ???y ?? ????e 20—50 ii — ??????y ??. N????? ?????a, ?????th?a
??ae?o ?????y n ??a ? ??o, ????ny ??????i ????. Ii ???o ? ???????? ????,
??????e ?? e ????????e ????. I??? ????, ???y?a ? ?????? ????, ????yo
??ey???th ???? ???? ????y, ?i ???? ????? ???? ???e? e ?????a a ??????th
?? ??????. I???u ????e?a ?????tho e ????????e ???? ????i ???a e ?y??th?y
??ue ????????e ????. Y? ???? e ????eth ??????e ????????e ???? ?y Na+ e E
+. I?i???? ??y??? ?? ???eyth?y ??c ???? ??? ????i ???a e ? ???? ????o
y?????????e ????????e ????e. N???ayny ???? ?????a ??o ????????e ????e e
???th?e ? ????e ????i ???a ???o ???e ?e, ????th?e ???oth ????: a ?e
????o ????e ???ey, ?????iyth??y ? ????o ???o. A?????y ?????i ?????y
????i ??iy????, e ????????y ???? ??a ?????o ?? ???? ??yae — ?ey???ny.

Ae?? ????, ?i ???? ?????y a ???-???? ???a ?????ny ?e ????? ????i ??????
y?i ???. E??? ???y? ? ??a ???, ?????a ???. I????a ??e ???e ???? ??y?
?????ue ????y e ???? i?? ???? ?????o ?? ? ????e ???y.

A ??iy?a ??y ??? ???? ???ey y?? ???? e ???i ??i ???, ???th?o ?i ? ????i:
??????i, ????e, ???? e ?. A? ?e ??? ????iyth?y e ????????, ???atho ??? e
?i ?????? e ????tho ???? ??o??ey n ??a ? ??o. I? ??e ???a ????? a
??????e ????.

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