.

Методы изучения наследственности человека. Близнецовый метод

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 586
Скачать документ

Ioieoeeiaeueiia iauaia?aciaaoaeueiia o/?aaeaeaiea-INO ?1

Iaoiaeu eco/aiey ianeaaenoaaiiinoe /aeiaaea

Aeeciaoeiaue iaoiae

NIIAUAIEA:

Iiaeaioiaeea:

O/aieoea 11 «A» eeanna

Niieyeiaa A.

I?iaa?eea:

O/eoaeue, aeieiaee

Iacaeeeia A.I.

Iaeia?oaiaaeuene, 2007

Aeeciaoeiaue iaoiae eco/aiey ianeaaenoaaiiinoe /aeiaaea ninoieo a
eco/aiee ?acaeoey i?eciaeia o aeeciaoeia. *oi a /aeiaaea yaeyaony
a?iaeaeaiiui, a /oi i?eia?aoaaony a i?ioeanna aeecie iiae aicaeaenoaeai
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu? eaeia aaeain aeeyiee ianeaaenoaaiiuo e n?aaeiauo ia
?acee/iuo yoaiao ?acaeoey e noaiiaeaiea ee/iinoe? Iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoiui
iauaeoii aeey iao/iiai ?aoaiey yoeo aii?inia n/eoathony aeeciaoeu –yoi
oaeeaeoaeueiua yaeaiey , aucuaathuea iinoiyiiue eioa?an ie?oaeathueo.
Aeeciaoeu iiiiceaioiua, eee iaeiiyeoeiaua (IA), e?iia oiai,
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaeeinoaaiioth a nai?i ?iaea iiaeaeue iieiiai
aaiaoe/aneiai oiaeaeanoaa ?aciuo eiaeeaeaeia.

Aeeciaoeiaue iaoiae, noi?ioee?iaaiiue aieaa noa eao iacaae aiaeeeneei
ineoieiaii, aio?iiieiaii O. Aaeueoiiii, iaoiaeeo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana
aieaa oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea ai iiiaeo io?aneyo iaoee i /aeiaaea. Aaeueoa?
O?eae?eo neacae: « Aeeciaoeu –yoi i?ae?aniue iiaea?ie i?e?iaeu, ioaeii
oiaoue oeaieoue aai e aieiaoaeueii eco/aoue».

ssaeyaony ee ?iaeaeaiea aeeciaoeia ?aaeeinoueth? N oi/ee c?aiey
iianaaeiaaiuo iaaethaeaiee, yoi, aa?iyoii oae. Ii eiee/anoai aeeciaoeia
a ie?a en/eneythony ieeeeiiaie. ecaanoii, iinooieaiea iiiaiieiaeiie
aa?aiaiiinoe caaeneo io aic?anoa iaoa?e. Iio yoi ioiineony oieueei e
aeaoyeoeiaui aeeciaoeai (AeA). IA ?iaeaeathony o aeaiuei a ethaii
aic?anoa. Iieiaeua aeaiueiu ?iaeatho AeA iaiiiai ?aaea, /ai aeaiueiu a
noa?oai aeaoi?iaeiii aic?anoa. Iaeneioi cia/aiey AeA iaia?oaeeaaaony o
35 040 eaoieo aeaiuei. Aa?iyoiinoue oaeie aa?aiaiiinoe o ieo a 6 ?ac
auoa, /ai o aeaaaeoeaoeeaoieo. nouanoaoao aeaa oeia aeeciaoeia –IA, AeA.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ii?aaeaeeoue oei iiaeii ii eo aiaoiaio aeaeo. Anee
yoi ?aciiiieay ia?a aeeaaiic iiaeao auoue oieueei iaeei: aeaoyeoeiaua.
Anee iaeiiiieua aeeciaoeu ii?aceoaeueii iaiioiaee, oi yoi oaeaea nei?aa
anaai, AeA. Ii caeanue oaea iiaoo auoue ioeaee, o.e. e iaeiiyeoeiaua
aeeciaoeu –aneaaenoaea oyaeaeuo ia?ooaiee ai a?aiy aa?aiaiiinoe eee
aieaciae, ia?ooaiee a ieoaiee eee ian/anoiuo neo/aaa iinea ?iaeaeaiey
–oece/anee auaeyaeyo aeiaieueii ?acee/ii. Iaeiaei ai?acaei neiaeiaa
ii?aaeaeeoue iaeiiiieuo i/aiue iioiaeeo aeeciaoeia. I?aaeeueiue ioaao
iiaoo aeaoue oieueei ouaoaeueiua n?aaiaiey, ii?aaeae?iiua aiaeecu.
Iaeiaei ciaiea naiaai oeia i?aaenoaaeyao aeey aeeciaoeia ia oieueei
ii?aeueioth oeaiiinoue, ii iiaeao eiaoue /enei i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea.

AeA iiyaeythony ec aeaoo yeoeaeeaoie. N oi/ee c?aiey aaiaoeee AeA
–iau/iua a?aouey e nano?u. Iie i?ienoiaeyo ec aeaoo ?acee/iuo
iaoa?eineeo yeoeaeeaoie, iieiaeioai?aiiuo aeaoiy ?acee/iuie iooeianeeie
naiaiiuie eeaoeaie, oi anoue ec aeaoo ?acee/iuo ceaio. Iie ioee/athony
io ae?oaeo a?aoueaa e nanoa? oieueei iaeiia?aiaiiui ca/aoeai,
ninaaenoaii a i?aaiecia iaoa?e e, eiia/ii, iauei aeiai ?iaeaeaiey.

Nianai eiua oneiaey o ca?iaeaeaiey IA, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo ec iaeiie
ceaiou. Ca?iaeuo ?anuaieyaony ia aeaa neiiao?e/iua aaiaoe/anee
eaeaioe/iua iieiaeiu, eioi?ua eiatho iaeeiaeiaue ianeaaenoaaiiue
iioaioeeae, iaeiaei ?acaeaathony eae aeaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo eiaeeaeaea.
Nouanoaoao o?e aa?eaioa IA (o.1)

1) Anee ?anuaieaiea i?ienoiaeeo a ia?aua 5 aeiae, oi iaa ca?iaeuoa
?acaeaathony a oneiaeyo oeie/iuo aeey AeA. Ionthaea e aieueoia
eiee/anoai ioeai/iuo aeeaaiicia.

2) Anee ?anuaieaiea i?ienoiaeeo ia 5 -7 aeiae. Yoio neo/ae naiue /anoue.
Aai iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae oeie/iue aeey IA.

3) Anee aeaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo iinea 7 aeiae.- neaineea aeeciaoeu

Oece/aneia ?acaeoea aeeciaoeia.

Eae iai oaea ecaanoii, ia?u IA ai?acaei aieueoa iioiaee iaaeaeo niaie,
/ai ia?u AeA. Oec. i?eciaee o IA niaiaaeatho ii/oe a 100% neo/aaa
iieiinoueth. a ?acee/ey iaeeii/iuo a?aoueaa e nanoa? e AeA ii/oe
niaiaaeatho. Aieueoay ?acieoea iaaeaeo iaaeie a?oiiaie IA e AeA,
au?inoeo ?acaeaeueii, ?acee/ey a aana iaiiiai aieueoa, /oi aiai?eo i
aeeyiee ia ?acaeoea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. ?ino anaai i?aaiecia, eae
n/eoatho aaiaoeee, ia 80% iaoneiaeai ianeaaenoaaiiuie oaeoi?aie.
Aeeciaoeiaue iaoiae aue oaeaea oe?iei eniieueciaai iaaeeeaie aeey
auyniaiey i?e/ei iaoieiae/aneeo yaeaiee e aeiee o/anoey aaiaoe/aneie
i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe a aicieeiiaaiee caaieaaaiee. Iai?eia?,
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aieaciyo, n/eoaaoeony iaoneiaeaiiuie aiaoiae n?aaeie,
auyniyeinue ianiiiaiiia o/anoea ianeaaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia. I?e n?aaiaiee
A. i?eiyoi enoiaeeoue ec aeiioacu Neiaina 6 i?eciae, eioi?ue o IA
niaiaaeaao /aua /ai o AeA, aieueoa iaoneiaeai ianeaaenoaaiiinoueth. A
iaeanoe oece/aneiai ?acaeoey e aaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca caaieaaaiee, yoa
aeiioaca ni?aaaaeeeaa, ii a ioiioaiee aieueoeinoaa ineoe/aneeo i?eciaeia
iai?aaiia?ia.

?acaeoeth iuneaiiuo niiniaiinoae /aeiaaea iaoea i aeeciaoeao anaaaea
oaeaeyea iniaia aieiaiea. A ia/aea XX aaea oi?ioee?iaaeenue iniaua
aicc?aiey ia ?acaeoea eioaeeaeoa. Yoe oai?ee ?anniao?eaaee
eioaeeaeooaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey, oeieueiua e i?ioanneiiaeueiua oniaoe,
eiouanoaaiiia niaeaoaiey e oeiainiaua aeioiaeu ethaeae, enoiaey ec
ianeaaenoaaiiie i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe, ii?aaaeuaay aai nioeeaeueiia
ia?aaainoai. Ii nia?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaiey ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iica,
yaeythueeny iineoaeai iuoeaiey e niciaiey, oae aea eae e ethaie ae?oaie
i?aai, aeieiae/anee ?acee/ai o ?aciuo ethaeae, /oi o ?aciuo ethaeae
au?aaeaaony a aai ooieoeeyo. ii caeiiiia?iinoe, aeaenoaothuea a noa?a
oece/aneiai ?acaeoey, ia iiaoo auoue aaoiiaoe/anee ia?aianaiu a noa?o
ineoeee. I?e?iaeiua caaeaoee ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue, ii naie ii naaa, ia
ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue ?acaeoey eioaeeaeoa, eioi?ue yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea a eiie?aoiie iauanoaaiiie n?aaea, oi anoue
oi?ioee?oaony a i?ioeanna aeoeaiiai iao/aiey.

?iaeaeaiea oae iacuaaaiuo neaineeo aeeciaoeia anaaaea aucuaaei
ecoieaiea. Eo iaiau/iia e i?e/oaeeeaia nouanoaiaaiea iieii aeoaieiai
/aeiaa/aneiai o?aaecia e aeey ieo naieo e aeey eo ?iaeeoaeae.

Neaineea aeeciaoeu n oi/ee c?aiey iaaeeoeeiu ioiineony e neo/ath
«aeaieiiai o?iaenoaa». Iie i?ienoiaeyo ec ia?aie ceaiou, oi yaeythony
IA. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue ?aiueoa, oaeia aiiiaeueiia ia?aciaaiea
aeeciaoeia iauyniyaony e?aeia caeiiiaeaoaeueiui i?ioeannii ?anoe?aiey
ceaiou. Anaai ianeieueei /ania yaeythony ?aoathueie aeey aicieeiiaaiey
naiuo ?acee/iuo oi?i e noaiaiae n?aueaaiey.

A yiaa?a 1981a. a Aieaa?ee ?iaeeeny ?aa?iie aeaineiai iiea n aeaoiy
aieiaaie, eee eae n/eoath a?a/e n iaeiei aeeaioii. Iie auee i?aaie/anee
iauaaeeiaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii, ia i/aiue neeueii iaeaaeaee ?acaeaeueiie
ia?aiie nenoaiie, aeaoiy iicaiii/iuie noieaaie, aeaoiy ieuaaiaeaie,
aeaoiy aeaeoaeeaie. Ii o ieo auei oieueei 1 eaaeia, 1 ia/aiue, iauay
auaeaeeoaeueiay nenoaia, 1 na?aeoea. ?anuaieaiea ca?iaeuoa iicaea
iyoiaaeoeaoiai aeiy i?eaiaeeo e ia?aceoa?iui ia?aciaaieyi. Oaeia
ia?aciaaiea iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny eae nia?oaee i?aaiecia iineoaey, oae e
aioo?e a aeaea iiooiee. ?oaeeiaioa?iia oaei ia?aceoa iiaeao niaea?aeaoue
eiia/iinoe e naiua ?aciiia?aciua oeaie. ?acia? eo eiiaaea iiaeao auoue
cia/eoaeueiui.

A XVII aaea, a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia aeee a?ao Eaoeoea?i Eieei?aaei. Ia aai
a?oaee aenae ?oaeeiaioa?iue aeeciaoe, eioi?ue aeinoeaae, i?eia?ii 90 ni
a aeeeio. Aieiaa e oaei auee /aoei ioi?ieaiu, iaeiie iiae ia auei, ia
eco?iaeiaaiiuo eenoyo ?oe, auei ii o?e iaeueoea. *aeiaaeiiiaeiaiia
nouanoai aeaeaaei ?oeaie, ooaie, aoaaie, aeuoaei, o iaai i?ineooeaaeenue
oaea?u na?aeoea. Anaie?ii ecaanoiuie noaee ?iaeeaoeany a 1811a. a
Oaeeaiaea, ii eioi?ui any a?oiia aeeciaoeia n?inoeony iaaeaeo niaie
iieo/eea iacaaiea neaineeo. Aeaaiaea?y aeinoeaeaieyi nia?aiaiiie
iaaeeoeeiu e ioaeanoao a?a/ae oaeaeinue niya/eoue oyaeeea /aeiaa/aneea
no?aaeaiey iiiaeo neaineeo aeeciaoeia. ?acaeaeaiea neaineeo aeeciaoeia
ii/oe anaaaea noaaeo a?a/a iiae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?eiyoue o?oaeiia
?aoaiea. Ca eioi?ia ii ioaa/aao ia?aae naiae niaanoueth, oae eae oainu
ia auaeeaaiea o aeeciaoeia n naiiai ia/aea ia aaeeee. ?acaeoea iaoee
iicaieyao iaaeayoueny, /oi aa?iyoiinoue oniaoa a aoaeouai aoaeao
iinoiyiii oaaee/eaaoueny.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020