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Методы изучения клетки

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Aaaaeaiea

?anoaiea, eae e anyeee aeeaie i?aaieci, ninoieo ec eeaoie, i?e/ai
eaaeaeay eeaoea ii?iaeaeaaony oiaea eeaoeie. Eeaoea — yoi i?inoaeoay e
iaycaoaeueiay aaeeieoea aeeaiai, yoi aai yeaiaio, iniiaa no?iaiey,
?acaeoey e anae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecia.

Nouanoaotho ?anoaiey, iino?iaiiua ec iaeiie-aaeeinoaaiiie eeaoee. E iei
ioiinyony iaeiieeaoi/iua aiaei?inee e iaeiieeaoi/iua a?eau. Iau/ii yoi
iee?ineiie/aneea i?aaieciu, ii anoue e aeiaieueii e?oiiua iaeiieeaoi/iua
(aeeeia iaeiieeaoi/iie ii?neie aiaei?inee aoeaoaaoey?ee aeinoeaaao 7
ni). Aieueoeinoai ?anoaiee, n eioi?uie iu noaeeeaaainy a iianaaeiaaiie
aeecie, — yoi iiiaieeaoi/iua i?aaieciu, iino?iaiiua ec aieueoiai /enea
eeaoie. Iai?eia?, a iaeiii eenoa ae?aaaniiai ?anoaiey eo ieiei 20 000
000. Anee aea?aai eiaao 200 000 eenoueaa (a yoi aiieia ?aaeueiay
oeeo?a), oi /enei eeaoie ai anao ieo ninoaaeyao 4000 000 000 000.
Aea?aai a oeaeii niaea?aeeo aua ?ac a 15 aieueoa eeaoie.

?anoaiey, ca eneeth/aieai iaeioi?uo iecoeo, ninoiyo ec i?aaiia, eaaeaeue
ec eioi?uo auiieiyao naith ooieoeeth a i?aaiecia. Iai?eia?, o oeaaoeiauo
?anoaiee i?aaiaie yaeythony ei?aiue, noaaaeue, eeno, oeaaoie. Eaaeaeue
i?aai iau/ii iino?iai ec ianeieueeeo oeaiae. Oeaiue — yoi nia?aiea
eeaoie, noiaeiuo ii no?iaieth e ooieoeeyi. Eeaoee eaaeaeie oeaie eiatho
naith niaoeeaeueiinoue. Auiieiyy ?aaioo ii naiae niaoeeaeueiinoe, iie
aiinyo aeeaae a aeeciue oeaeiai ?anoaiey, eioi?ay ninoieo a ni/aoaiee e
acaeiiaeaenoaee ?aciuo aeaeia ?aaiou ?acee/iuo eeaoie, i?aaiia, oeaiae.

Iniiaiuie, naiuie iaueie eiiiiiaioaie, ec eioi?uo iino?iaiu eeaoee,
yaeythony yae?i, oeeoiieacia n iiiai/eneaiiuie i?aaiieaeaie ?acee/iiai
no?iaiey e ooieoeee, iaiei/ea, aaeoieue. Iaiei/ea iie?uaaao eeaoeo
nia?oaee, iiae iae iaoiaeeony oeeoiieacia, a iae — yae?i e iaeia eee
ianeieueei aaeoieae. Eae no?iaiea, oae e naienoaa eeaoie ?aciuo oeaiae a
nayce n eo ?aciie niaoeeaeecaoeeae ?acei ?acee/athony. Ia?a/eneaiiua
iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou e i?aaiieaeu, i eioi?uo ?a/ue iieaeao aeaeueoa,
?acaeou a ieo a ?acee/iie noaiaie, eiatho iaiaeeiaeiaia no?iaiea, a
eiiaaea oio eee eiie eiiiiiaio iiaeao aiana ionoonoaiaaoue.

Aeaaiaeoeie a?oiiaie oeaiae, ec eioi?uo iino?iaiu aaaaoaoeaiua
(iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia naycaiiua n ?aciiiaeaieai) i?aaiu aunoaai ?anoaiey,
yaeythony neaaeothuea: iie?iaiua, iniiaiua, iaoaie/aneea, i?iaiaeyuea,
auaeaeeoaeueiua, ia?enoaiaoe/aneea. A eaaeaeoth a?oiio iau/ii aoiaeeo
ianeieueei oeaiae, eiathueo noiaeioth niaoeeaeecaoeeth, ii iino?iaiiuo
eaaeaeay ii-naiaio ec ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea eeaoie. Oeaie a i?aaiao ia
eciee?iaaiu ae?oa io ae?oaa, a ninoaaeytho nenoaiu oeaiae, a eioi?uo
yeaiaiou ioaeaeueiuo oeaiae /a?aaeothony. Oae, ae?aaaneia — yoi nenoaia
ec iaoaie/aneie e i?iaiaeyuae, a eiiaaea e iniiaiie oeaie.

No?oeoo?a ?anoeoaeueiie eeaoee

Eeaoea yaeyaony iniiaiie no?oeoo?iie e ooieoeeiiaeueiie aaeeieoeae
aeeauo i?aaieciia.

Eeaoee yia?eiiaeueiuo (ianiaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo) oeaiae aeeaioiuo e
?anoaiee a iauai ieaia no?iaiey i/aiue noiaeiu. Eiaiii yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai a naia a?aiy yaeeinue i?e/eiie aeey iiyaeaiey e ?acaeoey
eeaoi/iie oai?ee. Ii?oieiae/aneea ?acee/ey i?iyaeythony oaea a
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo eeaoeao niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oeaiae ?anoaiee e
aeeaioiuo. Iniaaiiinoe no?iaiey ?anoeoaeueiie eeaoee, eae e ?anoaiey a
oeaeii, naycaiu n ia?acii aeecie e niiniaii ieoaiey. Aieueoeinoai
?anoaiee aaaeao ioiineoaeueii iaiiaeaeaeiue (i?ee?aieaiiue) ia?ac
aeecie. Niaoeeoeea ieoaiey ?anoaiee ninoieo a oii, /oi aiaea e
ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa: i?aaie/aneea e iai?aaie/aneea, iaoiaeyony aie?oa
a ?annayiiii aeaea e ?anoaieth i?eoiaeeony eo iiaeiuaoue iooai
aeeooocee. E?iia oiai, caeaiua ?anoaiey ia naaoo inouanoaeytho
aaoio?ioiue niinia ieoaiey. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio, yaiethoeeiiii neiaeeeenue
iaeioi?ua niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe no?iaiey e ?inoa ?anoeoaeueiuo
eeaoie. E iei ioiinyony:

· i?i/iay iieenaoa?eaeiay eeaoi/iay noaiea, ie?oaeathuay eeaoeo e
ninoaaeythuay aeanoeee ea?ean;

· ieanoeaeiay nenoaia, aicieeoay a nayce n aaoio?ioiui oeiii ieoaiey;

· aaeoiey?iay nenoaia, eioi?ay a c?aeuo eeaoeao iau/ii i?aaenoaaeaia
e?oiiie oeaio?aeueiie aaeoieueth, caieiathuae aei 95% iauaia eeaoee e
ea?athuae aaaeioth ?ieue a iiaeaea?aeaiee oo?ai?iiai aeaaeaiey;

· iniaue oei ?inoa eeaoie iooai ?anoyaeaiey (ca n/ao oaaee/aiey iauaia
aaeoiee);

· oioeiioaioiinoue, oi anoue aiciiaeiinoue ?aaaia?aoeee iieiiai ?anoaiey
ec aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie ?anoeoaeueiie eeaoee;

· anoue aua iaeia aeaoaeue, ioee/athuay ?anoeoaeueiua eeaoee io eeaoie
aeeaioiuo: o ?anoaiee i?e aeaeaiee eeaoie ia au?aaeaiu oeaio?eiee.

No?iaiea eeaoee a naiii iauai aeaea ecaanoii aai aua ec eo?na iauae
aeieiaee e i?e iiaeaioiaea e anooieoaeueiui yecaiaiai au aeinoaoi/ii
oi?ioi oooaee?iaaee yoo oaio. Yoa oaia a ?aciuo aniaeoao ?anniao?eaaaony
e a niioaaonoaothueo oieaa?neoaoneeo eo?nao (iai?eia?, ciieiaey
aaniicaiii/iuo, iecoea ?anoaiey). E?iia oiai, aieaa aeaoaeueiia
ciaeiinoai n eeaoeie ia aunieii o?iaia i?aaenoieo a eo?na «oeeoieiaey».
Iai aea aaaeii aeoeaioe?iaaoue aieiaiea ia niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoyo
no?iaiey ?anoeoaeueiie eeaoee, i?e/ai i?aeiouanoaaiii eeaoee aunoaai
?anoaiey.

I?e naiii iiaa?oiinoiii ?anniio?aiee no?oeoo?u oeie/iie ?anoeoaeueiie
eeaoee a aa ninoaaa iaia?oaeeaathony o?e iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioa:

1. eeaoi/iay noaiea,

2. aaeoieue, caieiathuay a c?aeuo eeaoeao oeaio?aeueiia iieiaeaiea e
caiieiythuay i?aeoe/anee aanue eo iauai e

3. i?ioiieano, iooaniyaiue aaeoieueth e ia?eoa?ee a aeaea iinoaiiiai
neiy.

4. Eiaiii yoe eiiiiiaiou iaia?oaeeaathony ia iaeii oaaee/aiee naaoiaiai
iee?ineiia. I?e/ai eeaoi/iay iaiei/ea e aaeoieue yaeythony i?iaeoeoaie
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?ioiieanoa.

AEeaia oaei eeaoee ? i?ioiieano ninoieo ec i?aaiieaeia, iia?oaeaiiuo a
aeaeiieacio. E i?aaieciai eeaoee ioiinyony: yae?i, ieanoeaeu,
ieoioiiae?ee, aeeeoeiniiu, yiaeiieaciaoe/aneee ?aoeeoeoi, iee?ioaeueoea
e ae?. Aeaeiieacia n i?aaiaeeaie ca au/aoii yae?a ninoaaeyao oeeoiieacio
eeaoee.

Aeey au?aaeaiey ?acia?ia noaeeaoi/iuo no?oeoo? eniieuecothony
ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?u aeeeiu: iee?iiao? e iaiiiao?.

Iee?iiao? a nenoaia aaeeieoe ecia?aiey NE aaee/eia, ?aaiay 10-6 i.
Aiai?y ae?oaeie neiaaie, iee?iiao? (aaa?aaeaoo?a iei) ninoaaeyao
1/1000000 aeieth iao?a e 1/1000 aeieth ieeeeiao?a. 1 iei = 10-6 i.
Noa?ia iacaaiea yoie ia?u iee?ii.

Iaiiiao? a oie aea nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyao ieeeeiiioth aeieth ieeeeiao?a 1
ii = 10-9 i e ouny/ioth aeieth iee?iiao?a.

?acia?u e oi?ia ?anoeoaeueiuo eeaoie aa?uee?othony a oe?ieii aeeaiaciia.
A oeie/iii neo/aa ?acia?u eeaoie aunoaai ?anoaiey eieaaethony a
i?aaeaeao 10 – 300 iei. I?aaaea, ano?a/athony eeaoee – aeaaiou,
iai?eia?, eeaoee ni/iie iyeioe ieiaeia oeeo?oniauo ninoaaeytho a
iiia?a/ieea ianeieueei ieeeeiao?ia eee /?acau/aeii aeeeiiua eoayiua
aieieia o e?aieau aeinoeaatho 80 ii aeeeiu i?e iee?ineiie/aneie oieueia.

Ii oi?ia ?acee/atho eciaeeaiao?e/aneea eeaoee, o eioi?uo eeiaeiua
?acia?u ai anao iai?aaeaieyo ?aaiu eee ioee/athony iacia/eoaeueii (oi
anoue aeeeia, oe?eia e aunioa yoeo eeaoie niiinoaaeiu). Oaeea eeaoee
iacuaatho ia?aioeiiuie (ia?aioeia).

Neeueii auoyiooua eeaoee, o eioi?uo aeeeia ai iiiai ?ac (eiiaaea a nioie
e ouny/e) i?aauoaao aunioo e oe?eio, iacuaatho i?icaioeiiuie
(i?icaioeia).

Iaoiaeu eco/aiey ?anoeoaeueiie eeaoee

Aeey eco/aiey eeaoie ?ac?aaioaii e i?eiaiyaony iiiaeanoai iaoiaeia,
aiciiaeiinoe eioi?uo ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue iaoeo ciaiee a yoie iaeanoe.
Oniaoe a eco/aiee aeieiaee eeaoee, aeeth/ay iaeaieaa auaeathueany
aeinoeaeaiey iineaaeieo eao, eae i?aaeei, naycaiu n i?eiaiaieai iiauo
iaoiaeia. Iiyoiio aeey aieaa iieiiai iiieiaiey eeaoi/iie aeieiaee
iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue oioy au iaeioi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiea i niioaaonoaothueo
iaoiaeao enneaaeiaaiey eeaoee.

Naaoiaay iee?ineiiey

Naiui ae?aaiei e, aianoa n oai, iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui iaoiaeii
eco/aiey eeaoee yaeyaony iee?ineiiey. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi e ia/aei
eco/aiey eeaoee auei iieiaeaii ecia?aoaieai naaoiaiai iioe/aneiai
iee?ineiia.

Iaaii?oaeaiiue /aeiaa/aneee aeac eiaao ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue ieiei
1/10 ii. Yoi icia/aao, /oi anee au niio?eoa ia aeaa eeiee, eioi?ua
iaoiaeyony ae?oa io ae?oaa ia ?annoiyiee iaiueoa 0,1 ii, iie neeaathony
a iaeio. *oiau ?acee/eoue no?oeoo?u, ?aniieiaeaiiua aieaa oanii,
i?eiaiytho iioe/aneea i?eai?u, iai?eia?, iee?ineii.

Ii aiciiaeiinoe naaoiaiai iee?ineiia ia aaca?aie/iu. I?aaeae ?ac?aoaiey
naaoiaiai iee?ineiia caaeaaony aeeeiie naaoiaie aieiu, oi anoue
iioe/aneee iee?ineii iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai oieueei aeey eco/aiey
oaeeo no?oeoo?, ieieiaeueiua ?acia?u eioi?uo niiinoaaeiu n aeeeiie aieiu
naaoiaiai eceo/aiey. Eo/oee naaoiaie iee?ineii eiaao ?ac?aoathuoth
niiniaiinoue ieiei 0.2 iei (eee 200 ii), oi anoue i?eia?ii a 500 ?ac
oeo/oaao /aeiaa/aneee aeac. Oai?aoe/anee iino?ieoue naaoiaie iee?ineii n
aieueoei ?ac?aoaieai iaaiciiaeii.

Iiiaea eiiiiiaiou eeaoee aeecee ii naiae iioe/aneie ieioiinoe e aac
niaoeeaeueiie ia?aaioee i?aeoe/anee ia aeaeiu a iau/iue naaoiaie
iee?ineii. Aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue eo aeaeeiuie, eniieuecotho
?acee/iua e?aneoaee, iaeaaeathuea ii?aaeaeaiiie ecae?aoaeueiinoueth.

A ia/aea XIX a. Aicieeea iio?aaiinoue a e?aneoaeyo aeey ie?aoeaaiey
oaenoeeueiuo oeaiae, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue aucaaei onei?aiiia ?acaeoea
i?aaie/aneie oeiee. Ieacaeinue, /oi iaeioi?ua ec yoeo e?aneoaeae
ie?aoeaatho e aeieiae/aneea oeaie e, /oi auei oae nianai iaiaeeaeaiii,
/anoi i?aaeii/oeoaeueii naycuaathony n ii?aaeaeaiiuie eiiiiiaioaie
eeaoee. Eniieueciaaiea oaeeo ecae?aoaeueiuo e?aneoaeae aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aieaa oiiei enneaaeiaaoue aioo?aiiaa no?iaiea eeaoee.
I?eaaaeai eeoue ianeieueei i?eia?ia:

· e?aneoaeue aaiaoieneeei ie?aoeaaao iaeioi?ua eiiiiiaiou yae?a a neiee
eee oeieaoiaue oeaao;

· iinea ia?aaioee iineaaeiaaoaeueii oei?iaethoeeiii e caoai nieyiie
eeneioie iae?aaaniaaoea iaiei/ee eeaoie noaiiayony aeoiaai – e?aniuie;

· e?aneoaeue noaeai III ie?aueaaao ii?iaeiaaaoea eeaoi/iua iaiei/ee a
?iciaue oeaao;

· neaaue ?anoai? eiaea a eiaeenoii eaeee ie?aoeaaao e?aoiaeueiua ca?ia a
neiee oeaao.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey iee?ineiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee aieueooth /anoue oeaiae
ia?aae ie?aneie oeene?otho. Iinea oeenaoeee eeaoee noaiiayony
i?iieoeaaiuie aeey e?aneoaeae, a no?oeoo?a eeaoee noaaeeece?oaony.
Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo oeenaoi?ia a aioaieea yaeyaony
yoeeiaue nie?o.

Oeenaoeey e ie?aoeaaiea ia aaeeinoaaiiua i?ioeaaeo?u, eniieuecoaiua aeey
i?eaioiaeaiey i?aia?aoia. Oieueia aieueoeinoaa oeaiae neeoeii aaeeea,
/oiau eo n?aco iiaeii auei iaaethaeaoue i?e aunieii ?ac?aoaiee. Iiyoiio
auiieiytho oiieea n?acu ia iee?ioiia. A yoii i?eai?a eniieueciaai
i?eioeei oeaai?acee. Aeey ?anoeoaeueiuo oeaiae ecaioaaeeaatho /ooue
aieaa oienoua n?acu, /ai aeey aeeaioiuo, iineieueeo eeaoee ?anoaiee
iau/ii e?oiiaa. Oieueia n?acia ?anoeoaeueiuo oeaiae aeey naaoiaie
iee?ineiiee ieiei 10 iei – 20 iei. Iaeioi?ua oeaie neeoeii iyaeea, /oiau
ec ieo n?aco aea iiaeii auei iieo/eoue n?acu. Iiyoiio iinea oeenaoeee eo
caeeaatho a ?anieaaeaiiue ia?aoei eee niaoeeaeueioth niieo, eioi?ua
i?iieouaatho anth oeaiue. Iinea ioeaaeaeaiey ia?acoaony oaa?aeue aeie,
eioi?ue caoai ?aaeaony ia iee?ioiia. I?aaaea, aeey ?anoeoaeueiuo oeaiae
caeeaea i?eiaiyaony cia/eoaeueii ?aaea, /ai aeey aeeaioiuo. Yoi
iauyniyaony oai, /oi ?anoeoaeueiua eeaoee eiatho i?i/iua eeaoi/iua
noaiee, ninoaaeythuea ea?ean oeaie. Iniaaiii i?i/iu iae?aaaniaaoea
iaiei/ee.

Iaeiaei caeeaea iiaeao ia?ooeoue no?oeoo?o eeaoee, iiyoiio i?eiaiytho
aua e ae?oaie iaoiae, aaea yoa iianiinoue oiaiueoaia ? auno?ia
caii?aaeeaaiea. Caeanue iiaeii iaieoenue aac oeenaoeee e caeeaee.
Caii?iaeaiioth oeaiue ?aaeoo ia niaoeeaeueiii iee?ioiia (e?eioiia).

Caii?iaeaiiua n?acu, i?eaioiaeaiiua oaeei niiniaii, eiatho yaiia
i?aeiouanoai, iineieueeo a ieo eo/oa nio?aiythony iniaaiiinoe
anoanoaaiiie no?oeoo?u. Iaeiaei eo o?oaeiaa aioiaeoue, a i?enoonoaea
e?enoaeeia eueaea ana aea ia?ooaao iaeioi?ua aeaoaee.

Iee?ineiienoia anaaaea aaniieieea aiciiaeiinoue iioa?e e eneaaeaiey
iaeioi?uo eiiiiiaioia eeaoee a i?ioeanna oeenaoeee e ie?anee. Iiyoiio
iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou i?iaa?ytho ae?oaeie iaoiaeaie.

Aanueia caiai/eaie i?aaenoaaeyeanue aiciiaeiinoue enneaaeiaaoue iiae
iee?ineiiii aeeaua eeaoee, ii oae, /oiau aieaa io/aoeeai i?iyaeeenue
aeaoaee eo no?iaiey. Oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue aeatho iniaua iioe/aneea
nenoaiu: oaciai-eiio?anoiue e eioa?oa?aioeeiiiue iee?ineiiu. Oi?ioi
ecaanoii, /oi naaoiaua aieiu, iiaeiaii aieiai aiaeu, iiaoo
eioa?oa?e?iaaoue ae?oa n ae?oaii, oaaee/eaay eee oiaiueoay aiieeooaeo
?acoeueoe?othueo aiei. A iau/iii iee?ineiia, i?ioiaey /a?ac ioaeaeueiua
eiiiiiaiou eeaoee, naaoiaua aieiu iaiytho naith oaco, oioy /aeiaa/aneee
aeac yoeo ?acee/ee ia oeaaeeaaao. Ii ca n/ao eioa?oa?aioeee iiaeii
i?aia?aciaaoue aieiu, e oiaaea ?aciua eiiiiiaiou eeaoee iiaeii ioee/eoue
ae?oa io ae?oaa iiae iee?ineiiii, ia i?eaaaay e ie?aoeaaieth. A yoeo
iee?ineiiao eniieuecotho 2 io/ea naaoiauo aiei, eioi?ua
acaeiiaeaenoaotho (iaeaaathony) ae?oa ia ae?oaa, oneeeaay eee oiaiueoay
aiieeooaeo aiei, iinooiathueo a aeac io ?aciuo eiiiiiaioia eeaoee.

Yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey

Aiciiaeiinoe naaoiaiai iee?ineiia, eae oaea auei neacaii,
ia?aie/eaathony aeeeiie aieiu aeaeeiiai naaoa. Aai iaeneiaeueiay
?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 0.2 iei.

Aieueoie oaa aia?aae aue naeaeai a iee?ineiiee a 20-o aiaeao iaoaai
aaea, eiaaea auei iaia?oaeaii, /oi niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii iiaeia?aiiua
yeaeo?iiaaieoiua iiey iiaeii eniieueciaaoue iiaeiaii eeicai aeey
oieone?iaaiey io/eia yeaeo?iiia.

Aeeeia aieiu yeaeo?iia cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ao aeeeia aieiu aeaeeiiai
naaoa, e anee aianoi naaoa eniieueciaaoue yeaeo?iiu, oi i?aaeae
?ac?aoaiey iee?ineiia iiaeao auoue caiaoii nieaeai.

Ia iniiaa anaai yoiai aue nicaeai iee?ineii, a eioi?ii aianoi naaoa
eniieuecoaony io/ie yeaeo?iiia. Ia?aue yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii
neiino?oe?iaaee a 1931 a. Eiiee e ?onea a Aa?iaiee. I?ioei, iaeiaei,
iiiai eao, i?aaeaea /ai iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue eco/aoue i?e iiiiue
yoiai iee?ineiia n?acu oeaiae. Eeoue a 50-a aiaeu auee ?ac?aaioaiu
iaoiaeu ecaioiaeaiey n?acia, iaeaaeathueo iaiaoiaeeiuie ea/anoaaie. N
yoiai a?aiaie ia/aeanue iiaay y?a iee?ineiiee, e a iaoeo aoeaaeueii
oeuioe iioie eioi?iaoeee i oiieii no?iaiee eeaoie (oeueo?ano?oeoo?a
eeaoie).

Neiaeiinoe yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee ninoiyo a oii, /oi aeey enneaaeiaaiey
aeieiae/aneeo ia?acoeia iaiaoiaeeia niaoeeaeueiay ia?aaioea i?aia?aoia.

Ia?aay o?oaeiinoue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi yeaeo?iiu iaeaaeatho i/aiue
ia?aie/aiiie i?iieeathuae niiniaiinoueth, iiyoiio neaaeoao
ecaioaaeeaaoue oeueo?aoiieea n?acu, oieueiie 50 – 100 ii. Aeey oiai,
/oiau iieo/eoue noieue oiieea n?acu, oeaie nia?aa i?iieouaatho niieie:
niiea iieeia?ecoaony e oi?ie?oao oaa?aeue ieanoianniaue aeie. Caoai n
iiiiuueth ino?iai noaeeyiiiai eee aeiaciiai iiaea n?acu ia?acatho ia
niaoeeaeueiii iee?ioiia.

Anoue aua iaeia o?oaeiinoue: i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee /a?ac aeieiae/aneoth
oeaiue yeaeo?iiia ia iieo/aaony eiio?anoiiai ecia?aaeaiey. Aeey oiai,
/oiau iieo/eoue eiio?ano, oiieea n?acu aeieiae/aneeo ia?acoeia
i?iieouaatho nieyie oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia.

Nouanoaoao aeaa iniiaiuo oeia yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiia. A o?ainienneiiiii
(i?inaa/eaathuai) iee?ineiia io/ie yeaeo?iiia, i?ioiaey neaicue
niaoeeaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiue ia?acaoe, inoaaeyao aai ecia?aaeaiea ia
ye?aia. ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue nia?aiaiiiai o?ainienneiiiiai
yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia ii/oe a 400 ?ac aieueoa naaoiaiai. Yoe
iee?ineiiu eiatho ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue ieiei 0,5 ii (aeey
n?aaiaiey: aeeaiao? aoiia aiaei?iaea ieiei 0,1 ii).

Ianiio?y ia noieue aunieia ?ac?aoaiea, i?inaa/eaathuea yeaeo?iiiua
iee?ineiiu eiatho e?oiiua iaaeinoaoee:

· i?eoiaeeony ?aaioaoue n oeene?iaaiiuie iaoa?eaeaie;

· ecia?aaeaiea ia ye?aia iieo/aaony aeaoia?iui (ieineei);

· i?e ia?aaioea oyaeaeuie iaoaeeaie ?ac?ooathony e aeaeieciaiythony
iaeioi?ua eeaoi/iua no?oeoo?u.

O?aoia?iia (iauaiiia) ecia?aaeaiea iieo/atho n iiiiuueth neaie?othuaai
yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia (YI). Caeanue eo/ ia i?ioiaeeo /a?ac ia?acaoe, a
io?aaeaaony io aai iiaa?oiinoe.

Enneaaeoaiue ia?acaoe oeene?otho e aunooeaatho, iinea /aai iie?uaatho
oiieei neiai iaoaeea ? iia?aoeey iacuaaaony iooaiaieai (ia?acaoe
iooaiytho).

A neaie?othuai YI noieone?iaaiiue yeaeo?iiiue io/ie iai?aaeyaony ia
ia?acaoe (ia?acaoe neaie?otho). A ?acoeueoaoa iaoaeee/aneay iiaa?oiinoue
ia?acoea enioneaao aoi?e/iua yeaeo?iiu neaaie yia?aee. Iie
?aaeno?e?othony e i?aia?acothony a ecia?aaeaiea ia oaeaaeceiiiii ye?aia.
Iaeneiaeueiia ?ac?aoaiea neaie?othuaai iee?ineiia iaaaeeei, ieiei 10 ii,
ii caoi ecia?aaeaiea iieo/aaony iauaiiui.

Iaoiae caii?aaeeaaiey-neaeuaaiey

I?eioeeieaeueii iiaua aiciiaeiinoe yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee ioe?ueenue
n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii, iinea ?ac?aaioee iaoiaea «caii?aaeeaaiey –
neaeuaaiey». N iiiiuueth yoiai iaoiaea enneaaeothony oii/aeoea aeaoaee
no?iaiey eeaoee, i?e yoii iieo/aaony iauaiiia ecia?aaeaiea a
o?ainienneiiiii yeaeo?iiiii iee?ineiia.

I?e iau/iii caii?aaeeaaiee a eeaoeao ia?acothony e?enoaeeeee eueaea,
eioi?ua caiaoii eneaaeatho eo no?oeoo?o. Ai ecaaaeaiea yoiai eeaoee
caii?aaeeaatho i/aiue auno?i i?e oaiia?aoo?a aeeaeeiai acioa (- 196¦ N).
I?e oaeii iaiiaaiiii caii?aaeeaaiee e?enoaeeu eueaea ia oniaaatho
ia?aciaaoueny, e eeaoea ia eniuouaaao aeaoi?iaoeee.

Caii?iaeaiiue aeie ?aneaeuaatho eacaeai iiaea (ionthaea e iacaaiea
iaoiaea). Caoai, iau/ii a aaeooiiie eaia?a, ecauoie eueaea oaeaeytho
aicaiieie. Yoa iia?aoeey iacuaaaony o?aaeaieai. Iinea o?aaeaiey aieaa
?acei iaicia/aaony ?aeueao a ieineinoe neiea. Iieo/aiiue ia?acaoe
iooaiyaony, oi anoue ia iiaa?oiinoue ia?acoea iaiueyaony oiieee neie
oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia. Iaeiaei aanue oieon ninoieo a oii, /oi iaiueaiea
i?iecaiaeeony iiae oaeii e iiaa?oiinoe ia?acoea. Yoi i/aiue aaaeiue
iiiaio. Iiyaeyaony yooaeo oaie, ecia?aaeaiea auaeyaeeo iauaiiui.

A o?ainienneiiiii iee?ineiia yeaeo?iiiue eo/ niiniaai i?iieeiooue
oieueei /a?ac i/aiue oiieea n?acu. Iau/iay oieueia iooaiaiiuo ia?acoeia
/?acia?ii aaeeea, iiyoiio i?aaie/aneoth iaoa?eth, iiaenoeeathuoth neie
iaoaeea, iaiaoiaeeii ?anoai?eoue. A ?acoeueoaoa inoaaony oiieay
iaoaeee/aneay ?aieeea (eee ioia/aoie) n iiaa?oiinoe ia?acoea. ?aieeeo e
eniieuecotho a o?ainienneiiiii iee?ineiia.

Yoio iaoiae i?aaeinoaaee, iai?eia?, oieeaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue
iaaethaeaoue aioo?aiiaa no?iaiea iaia?ai eeaoee.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiia oeaio?eooae?iaaiea

Iiieii iee?ineiiee, ae?oaei iniiaiui e oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui iaoiaeii
eco/aiey eeaoie yaeyaony aeeooa?aioeeaeueiia oeaio?eooae?iaaiea eee
o?aeoeeiie?iaaiea.

I?eioeei iaoiaea ninoieo a oii, /oi i?e oeaio?eooae?iaaiee ?acaeaaaony
oeaio?iaaaeiay neea, iiae aicaeaenoaeai eioi?ie acaaoaiiua /anoeoeu
inaaeatho ia aeii oeaio?eooaeiie i?iae?ee.

Iinea oiai, eae a ia/aea 40-o aiaeia ia/aee eniieueciaaoue
oeueo?aoeaio?eooao, ?acaeaeaiea eeaoi/iuo eiiiiiaioia noaei aiieia
?aaeueiui.

I?aaeaea, /ai iiaeaa?aiooue eeaoee oeaio?eooae?iaaieth, eo iaiaoiaeeii
?ac?ooeoue – ?ac?ooeoue aeanoeee ea?ean eeaoi/iuo iaiei/ae. Aeey yoiai
eniieuecotho ?acee/iua iaoiaeu: oeueo?acaoeiaoth aea?aoeeth,
i?iaeaaeeaaiea /a?ac iaeaiueeea ioaa?noey eee naiia iau/iia eciaeue/aiea
?anoeoaeueiuo oeaiae ianoeeii a oa?oi?iaie nooia. I?e inoi?iaeiii
i?eiaiaiee iaoiaeia ?ac?ooaiey iiaeii nio?aieoue iaeioi?ua i?aaiaeeu
oeaeuie.

I?e aunieinei?inoiii oeaio?eooae?iaaiee e?oiiua eiiiiiaiou eeaoee
(iai?eia?, yae?a) auno?i inaaeatho (naaeeiaioe?otho), i?e ioiineoaeueii
ieceeo nei?inoyo e ia?acotho inaaeie ia aeia oeaio?eooaeiie i?iae?ee.
I?e aieaa aunieeo nei?inoyo a inaaeie auiaaeatho aieaa iaeeea
eiiiiiaiou, oaeea eae oei?iieanou e ieoioiiae?ee.

Oi anoue i?e oeaio?eooae?iaaiee eiiiiiaiou eeaoee ?aniaaeathony ia
o?aeoeee: e?oiiua e iaeeea, iiyoiio aoi?ia iacaaiea iaoiaea ?
o?aeoeeiie?iaaiea. I?e yoii, /ai auoa nei?inoue e aeeeoaeueiinoue
oeao?eooae?iaaiey, oai iaeue/a iieo/aiiay o?aeoeey.

Nei?inoue naaeeiaioaoeee (inaaeaeaiey) eiiiiiaioia au?aaeaaony n
iiiiuueth eiyooeoeeaioa naaeeiaioaoeee, iaicia/aaiiai S.

Yoaiu aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai oeaio?eooae?iaaiey: ieceay nei?inoue (yae?a,
oeeoineaeao), n?aaeiyy nei?inoue (oei?iieanou), aunieay nei?inoue
(ieoioiiae?ee, ?eciniiu, iee?ioaeueoea), i/aiue aunieay nei?inoue
(?eainiiu).

O?aeoeeiie?iaaiiua eeaoi/iua yeno?aeou, iacuaaaiua oaeaea aaneeaoi/iuie
nenoaiaie, oe?iei eniieuecothony aeey eco/aiey aioo?eeeaoi/iuo
i?ioeannia. Oieueei ?aaioay n aaneeaoi/iuie yeno?aeoaie, iiaeii
onoaiiaeoue aeaoaeueiue iieaeoey?iue iaoaieci aeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.
Oae, eniieueciaaiea eiaiii yoiai iaoiaea i?eianei o?eoioaeueiue oniao a
eco/aiee aeineioaca aaeea.

Io e aiiaua, /enoua o?aeoeee aioo?eeeaoi/iuo no?oeoo? iiaeii
iiaeaa?aaoue ethaui aeaeai aiaeeca.

Iaoiae eoeueoo?u eeaoie

Eeaoee aeeaioiuo, auaeaeaiiua a eoeueoo?o (oi anoue iiiauaiiua ia
ieoaoaeueioth n?aaeo), iiaeaatho iinea ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea aeaeaiee,
iiyoiio n/eoathony o?oaeiui e iaoaeiaiui iauaeoii aeey eoeueoeae?iaaiey.
Ae?oaia aeaei eeaoee ?anoaiee, niiniaiua aeaeeoueny iaia?aie/aiiia /enei
?ac.

Iaoiae eoeueoo?u eeaoie iaeaa/aao eco/aiea iaoaieciia eeaoi/iie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee o ?anoaiee.

Ia ieoaoaeueiie n?aaea eeaoee ?anoaiee ia?acotho iaeii?iaeioth
iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiioth eeaoi/ioth ianno- eaeeon. Eaeeon ia?aaaouaatho
ai?iiiaie. Iiae aeeyieai ai?iiiia eeaoee eaeeona iiaoo aeaaaoue ia/aei
?aciui i?aaiai.

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