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Концепции современного естествознания

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1. Anoanoaaiiiiao/iay e aoiaieoa?iay iaoee: eo niaoeeoeea e acaeiinaycue

E oio, e ae?oaie oeiu eoeueoo? – nooue oai?aiey ?acoia e ?oe
/aeiaa/aneeo. A /aeiaae i?e anae naiae iainiaeaiiinoe io i?e?iaeu
i?iaeieaeaao auoue aa iaiouaieaiie /anoueth. Anoanoaaiiiiao/iue e
aoiaieoa?iue oeiu eoeueoo? e iaoe eiatho ianno «iia?aie/iuo» i?iaeai,
i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue eioi?uo aaeeia aeey oiai e aeey ae?oaiai. ?aoaiea
oaeeo i?iaeai canoaaeyao eaeoe eo ia nio?oaeie/anoai ae?oa n ae?oaii.
Iienuaaaiua oeiu eoeueoo? e ninoaaeythuea eo na?aeoeaaeio iaoee aeoeaii
oi?ie?otho ie?iaicc?aiea ethaeae. A naith i/a?aaeue ie?iaicc?aiea oaeaea
iaeaaeaao oa?aeoa?enoeeie oeaeinoiinoe: iaaiciiaeii eaaui aeacii
aeaeaoue iaeii, a i?aaui – ae?oaia. Iiyoiio aoiaieoa?iua e
anoanoaaiiiiao/iua ciaiey auioaeaeaiu eii?aeeie?iaaoueny,
acaeiiniaeaniauaaoueny.

Anoanoaiciaiea ioaeaeaaony a «aoiaieoa?iie iiiiue» ii neaaeothuei
i?iaeaiai:

1) eioaineaiia ?acaeoea anoanoaaiiuo iaoe e nicaeaaaaiuo ia eo aaca
oaoiieiaee niiniaii ii?iaeaeaoue iauaeou, noaayuea iiae oa?ico
nouanoaiaaiea anaai /aeiaa/anoaa (yaea?iia i?oaeea e o.ae.) iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeia aoiaieoa?iay yenia?oeca.

2) aiieia «caeiiiui» iauaeoii anoanoaiciaiey yaeyaony /aeiaae a ea/anoaa
yeaiaioa?iie «oeie/aneie iaoeiu», iaieoenue aac yenia?eiaioaeueiie
i?iaa?ee auaeaeaaaiuo aeiioac anoanoaaiiua iaoee ia iiaoo, ii
ii?aaeaeyoue i?aaeaeu aeiionoeiinoe yenia?eiaioia eo/oa ii?o/eoue iaoeai
aoiaieoa?iui.

3) aeaaiia i?oaeea anoanoaaiiuo iaoe caeeth/aii a eo iaoiaeieiaee –
niiniaao, i?aaeeao, i?eaiao iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey; o/aiea i iaoiaeao
iaoee, a oaeaea eo nenoaiiay i?aaiecaoeey iacuaathony iaoiaeieiaeae; ii
iaoiaeieiaey anoanoaiciaiey ninoaaeyao oaeaea e i?aaeiao iaoee
aoiaieoa?iiai i?ioeey.

4) naiia aeaaiia: ana, /oi ia aeaeaao /aeiaae, aeieaeii auoue iaiieiaii
niuneii, oeaeaniia?aciinoueth; a iinoaiiaea oeaeae ?acaeoey
anoanoaaiiiiao/iie eoeueoo?u ia iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaia aioo?e aa
naiie, oaeay caaea/a iaecaaaeii o?aaoao aieueoae oe?iou iaci?a,
iicaieythuae o/eouaaoue e iniiaiua aoiaieoa?iua oeaiiinoe.

Aoiaieoa?iia ciaiea, ni naiae noi?iiu, oaeaea ii ia?a aiciiaeiinoe
iieuecoaony aeinoeaeaieyie anoanoaaiiiiao/iie eoeueoo?u:

1) ?annoaeaeay i ianoa /aeiaaea a ie?a, ?acaa iiaeii ia i?eieiaoue ai
aieiaiea anoanoaaiiiiao/iua i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, /oi yoio ie? niaie
i?aaenoaaeyao;

2) /aai noieei au aoiaieoa?iia ciaiea aac nia?aiaiiuo n?aaenoa aai
?ani?ino?aiaiey, eioi?ua yaeythony ieiaeaie ?acaeoey anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo
io?aneae ciaiey;

3) aeinoeaeaiey anoanoaiciaiey aaaeiu aoiaieoa?eyi e a ea/anoaa i?eia?a,
ia?acoea no?iainoe, oi/iinoe e aeieacaoaeueiinoe iao/iiai ciaiey.

4) oai, aaea iiaeii, aoiaieoa?iia cia/aiea n oaeiaieuenoaeai iieuecoaony
eiee/anoaaiiuie iaoiaeaie enneaaeiaaiey – yeiiiie/aneea iaoee,
eeiaaenoeea, eiaeea e o.ae.

5) aoiaieoa?iia ciaiea eiaao aeaei a iniiaiii n eaeaaeueiuie iauaeoaie
(niuneaie, oeaeyie), ii eaeaaeueiia naii ii naaa ia nouanoaoao. Iiyoiio
iiiaea iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea iaiauynieiu aac
ia?auaiey e oaeie iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaa a yoi – noa?a eiiiaoaioeee
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai ciaiey.

Ianiio?y ia ana iainii?eiinoue oaiaeaioeee naeeaeaiey anoanoaaiiiiao/iie
e aoiaieoa?iie eoeueoo?, ?a/ue ai ana ia eaeao i iieiii eo neeyiee.
Aeinoaoi/ii ?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo ieie a aeooa i?eioeeia
aeiiieieoaeueiinoe.

2. Enoi?e/aneea yoaiu iiciaiey i?e?iaeu

*aou?a yoaia:

1. Iaoo?oeeini?oey (VI – IV a.a. aei iaoae y?u (i.y.) – aei XIII – XV
a.a. i.y.) – ia yoie noaaeee noi?ie?iaaeenue iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey ia
ie?oaeathuai ie?a, eae i /ai-oi oeaeii. Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie yoie
noaaeee yaeyeinue ainiiaenoai iaoiaeia iaaethaeaiey, a ia yenia?eiaioa,
aeiaaaeie, a ia oi/ii aini?iecaiaeeiuo auaiaeia.

2. Aiaeeoe/aneay – Aeey iaa oa?aeoa?ii aeoaieia enneaaeiaaiea
ioaeaeueiuo yaeaiee, aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea yenia?eiaioa. Aicieeea
ia?iiiay a?iey enneaaeiaaoaeae – iooaoanoaaiieeia, ii?aieaaaoaeae,
ano?iiiiia, aeoeieeia e ae?., iaeiieaoeo aieueoie yenia?eiaioaeueiue
iaoa?eae e iieiaeeaoeo ia/aei iniiaiie ianna aeinoeaeaiee a eco/aiee
I?e?iaeu.

3. Neioaoe/aneay. aeey iaa oa?aeoa?ii: Ia/aei ainnicaeaiey oeaeinoiie
ea?oeiu I?e?iaeu ia iniiaa ?aiaa iiciaiiuo /anoiinoae;Ia ia?aue ieai
auoiaeeo eco/aiea i?ioeannia; Nicaeaiea oieaa?naeueiuo oai?ee (iai?eia?,
Ia?eiaee/aneee caeii e ia?eiaee/aneay nenoaia oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia
Ae.E.Iaiaeaeaaaa, oai?ey no?iaiey i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee
Ae.I.Aooea?iaa, ioe?uoea caeiiia oa?iiaeeiaieee, noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea
oeie/aneie eeiaoeee e ae?.);I?e?iaea aiiaue ?anniao?eaaaony n oi/ee
c?aiey aa yaiethoeee.

4. Eioaa?aeueii-aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay. iia oa?aeoa?ecoaony: Iainiiaaieai
i?eioeeieaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe (eioaa?aeueiinoe) anaai
anoanoaiciaiey;Oneeaieai aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iaoe e ?aceei aic?anoaieai
iauaia yiie?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee;Acaeiiui i?iieeiiaaieai eaeae e
iaoiaeia ?acee/iuo iaoe; iiyaeaieai «neioaoe/aneeo iaoe»;Nicaeaieai
oieaa?naeueiuo oai?ee, auaiaeyueo ana ?aciiia?acea i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee ec
iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo iauaoai?aoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia, iai?eia?,
A.Yeiooaei «Iauay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe aeey iai?a?uaiiai iae?iie?a»

3. Eiaeea e caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey iaoee

Auyaeaiea eiaeee ?acaeoey iaoee icia/aao oyniaiea caeiiiia?iinoae
iao/iiai i?ia?anna, aai aeaeaeoueo nee, i?e/ei e enoi?e/aneie
iaoneiaeaiiinoe. I?aaeaea iieaaaee, /oi a iaoea eaeao iai?a?uaiia
i?e?auaiea iao/iiai ciaiey, iinoiyiiia iaeiieaiea iiauo iao/iuo ioe?uoee
e ana aieaa oi/iuo oai?ee. Iuia eiaeea ?acaeoey iaoee i?aaenoaaeyaony
eiie: iineaaeiyy ?acaeaaaony iai?a?uaiui iaeiieaieai iiauo oaeoia e
eaeae, ia oaa ca oaaii, a /a?ac ooiaeaiaioaeueiua oai?aoe/aneea naeaeae,
a iaeei i?ae?aniue iiiaio ia?ae?aeaathuea aeioiea i?eau/ioth iauoth
ea?oeio ie?a e canoaaeythuea o/aiuo ia?ano?aeaaoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue
ia aaca i?eioeeieaeueii eiuo ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo onoaiiaie. Iioaaiaoth
eiaeeo ianiaoiie yaiethoeee iaoee niaieea eiaeea iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee e
eaoano?io. Aaeaeo iiaeciu e neiaeiinoe i?iaeaiu a iaoiaeieiaee iaoee aua
ia neiaeeeinue iauai?eciaiiiai iiaeoiaea eee iiaeaee eiaeee ?acaeoey
iao/iiai ciaiey. Oaeeo iiaeaeae iiiaeanoai.

Iaeaieueoaa /enei noi?iiieeia, ia/eiay n 60-o aa. iuiaoiaai aaea,
nia?aea eiioeaioeey ?acaeoey iaoee, i?aaeeiaeaiiay aia?eeaineei
enoi?eeii e oeeinioii iaoee Oiianii Eoiii. Ii aaae a iaoiaeieiaeth iaoee
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaia iiiyoea – «ia?aaeeaia» (ia?acaoe). A iai
oeene?oaony nouanoaiaaiea iniaiai niiniaa i?aaiecaoeee ciaiey,
iiae?acoiaaathuaai ii?aaeaeaiiue iaai? i?aaeienaiee, caaeathuee oa?aeoa?
aeaeaiey ie?a. A ia?aaeeaia oaeaea niaea?aeaoueny ia?acoeu ?aoaiey
eiie?aoiuo i?iaeai. ?aoathuay iiaecia eiioeaioeee O.Eoia caeeth/aeanue a
iunee i oii, /oi niaia ia?aaeeai a ?acaeoee iaoee ia iineo eeiaeiiai
oa?aeoa?a. O.a. ?acaeoea iaoee, ?ino iao/iiai ciaiey iaeuecy
i?aaenoaaeyoue no?iai oyiouaainy aaa?o, nei?aa ii iioiae ia ?acaeoea
eaeoona.

4 Yenia?eiaio eae iniiaa oi/iiai anoanoaiciaiey

Yenia?eiaiio (io eao. experimentum — i?iaa, iiuo) a iao/iii iaoiaea —
iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey iaeioi?iai yaeaiey a oi?aaeyaiuo oneiaeyo. N naiiai
iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey oeeinioee /aeiaae ?aciuoeyao i aiciiaeiinoyo e
a?aieoeao iiciaiey. Oeeinioneea ?aciuoeaiey aaeenue aeaaiui ia?acii eeai
a ?onea yiie?ecia, i?aiaa?aaathuaai ?ieueth oai?/aneiai iuoeaiey e
?acaeoeai iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa, eeai a ?onea ?aoeeiiaeecia, eioi?ue ia
o/eouaae i?aeoeee eae e?eoa?ey enoeiu, eae iniiau, ioi?aaiie oi/ee e
oeaee iiciaiey. Oeeinioneay iinoaiiaea aii?ina auoiaeeo, iaeiaei, ca
?aiee i?iaeai enoi?ee oai?ai iiciaiey. Iia aeeth/aao ie?iaicc?ai/aneea
i?iaeaiu, eanathueany nayce iiciaiey n aoiaieciii, e ?anniio?aiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ?acoeueoaoia iiciaiey. ?a/ue eaeao ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe
o/aiuo a aeaiyeii ioiioaiee. N iaeiie noi?iiie, aeieaeii o/eouaaoueny
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo i?eeiaeaiiuie cao?aoaie e iieo/aiiie iieuecie n
oeaeueth iaania/aiey iaeaieueoae yooaeoeaiinoe enneaaeiaaiee. Yoi
iniaaiii o?oaeii naeaeaoue a ioiioaiee ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee,
oae eae i?aeoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou caeanue ia?aaeei i?iyaeythony a aieaa
eee iaiaa ioaeaeaiiii aoaeouai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yenia?eiaiou,
iineieueeo iie i?yii eee einaaiii cao?aaeaatho ethaeae, ia iiaoo
naycuaaoueny oieueei n e?eoa?eyie yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe.
Yenia?eiaiou n ethaeueie e ia ethaeyo o?aaotho niaethaeaiey
aoiaienoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia. Iauanoaaiiay iio?aaiinoue a iao/iuo ciaieyo
iiaeao auoue oaeiaeaoai?aia oieueei i?e iaee/ee niioaaonoaothuaai
caaeaea e iieiii aunaiaiaeaeaiee oai?/aneeo iioaioeee. Aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeiu ii?aaeaeaiiua oneiaey. ?acaeoea iauanoaa a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai iaoeiaieeo oaoiieiaee, iiiai/eneaiiua
iai?aaeaiey eioi?uo iniiaaiu ia aeinoeaeaieyo niioaaonoaothueo io?aneae
anoanoaiciaiey. Nia?aiaiiia anoanoaiciaiea iaeaaeaao aieueoei
iiiaiia?aceai iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiee, n?aaee eioi?uo yenia?eiaio –
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiia e aeaenoaaiiia n?aaenoai iiciaiey.

Aeey yenia?eiaioa naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy oa?aeoa?iu o?e iniiaiua
iniaaiiinoe:

1.aic?anoaiea ?iee oai?aoe/aneie aacu yenia?eiaioa. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo
yenia?eiaioo i?aaeoanoaoao oai?aoe/aneay ?aaioa, eiioeaio?e?othuay
a?iiaaeiue o?oae aieueoiai /enea oai?aoeeia e yenia?eiaioaoi?ia;

2. neiaeiinoue oaoie/aneiai iniauaiey yenia?eiaioa. Oaoieea
yenia?eiaioa, eae i?aaeei, ianuuaia iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiie yeaeo?iiiie
aiia?aoo?ie, i?aoeeceiiiuie iaoaie/aneeie ono?ienoaaie,
auniei/oanoaeoaeueiuie i?eai?aie, aunieioi/iuie i?aia?aciaaoaeyie e o.
i. Aieueoeinoai yenia?eiaioaeueiuo onoaiiaie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iieiinoueth caieioooth nenoaio aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, a eioi?ie
oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa iaania/eaatho caaeaiiua oneiaey yenia?eiaioa n
aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiie oi/iinoueth, ?aaeno?e?otho i?iiaaeooi/iua
yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?acoeueoaou e i?iecaiaeyo iineaaeiaaoaeueioth eo
ia?aaioeo;s

3.ianooaaiinoue yenia?eiaioa. Iaeioi?ua yenia?eiaioaeueiua onoaiiaee
iaiiieiatho neiaeiua iauaeou e?oiiuo ianooaaia. No?ieoaeuenoai e
yenieoaoaoeey oaeeo iauaeoia noieo aieueoeo oeiainiauo cao?ao. E?iia
oiai, yenia?eiaioaeueiua iauaeou iiaoo ieacaoue aeoeaiia aeaenoaea ia
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo.

Yenia?eiaio aace?oaony ia i?aeoe/aneii aicaeaenoaee noauaeoa ia
enneaaeoaiue iauaeo e /anoi aeeth/aao iia?aoeee iaaethaeaiey,
i?eaiaeyuea ia oieueei e ea/anoaaiiui, iienaoaeueiui, ii e e
eiee/anoaaiiui ?acoeueoaoai, o?aaothuei aeaeueiaeoae iaoaiaoe/aneie
ia?aaioee. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey yenia?eiaio- ?aciiaeaeiinoue
i?aeoe/aneiai aeaenoaey, i?aaei?eieiaaiiai n oeaeueth iieo/aiey ciaiey.
A i?ioeanna yenia?eiaioaeueiiai anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey a
eiio?iee?oaiuo e oi?aaeyaiuo oneiaeyo eco/athony iiiaiia?aciua naienoaa
e yaeaiey i?e?iaeu.

5. Iniaaiiinoe iao/iiai iiciaiey

Iiciaiea — yoi niaoeeoe/aneee aeae aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, iai?aaeaiiue
ia iinoeaeaiea ie?oaeathuaai ie?a e naiiai naay a yoii ie?a. “Iiciaiea –
yoi, iaoneiaeaiiue i?aaeaea anaai iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie i?aeoeeie,
i?ioeann i?eia?aoaiey e ?acaeoey ciaiey, aai iinoiyiiia oaeoaeaiea,
?anoe?aiea, e niaa?oainoaiaaiea.”

Iniiaiuie iniaaiiinoyie iao/iiai iiciaiey yaeythony:

1. Iniiaiay caaea/a iao/iiai ciaiey — iaia?oaeaiea iauaeoeaiuo caeiiia
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe — i?e?iaeiuo, nioeeaeueiuo (iauanoaaiiuo), caeiiia
naiiai iiciaiey, iuoeaiey e ae?.

2. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiay oeaeue e aunoay oeaiiinoue iao/iiai iiciaiey —
iauaeoeaiay enoeia, iinoeaaaiay i?aeiouanoaaiii ?aoeeiiaeueiuie
n?aaenoaaie e iaoiaeaie, ii, ?acoiaaony, ia aac o/anoey aeeaiai
nica?oeaiey. Ionthaea oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa iao/iiai iiciaiey —
iauaeoeaiinoue, ono?aiaiea ii aiciiaeiinoe noauaeoeaenoneeo iiiaioia ai
iiiaeo neo/ayo aeey ?aaeecaoeee “/enoiou” ?anniio?aiey naiaai i?aaeiaoa.

3. Iaoea a aieueoae ia?a, /ai ae?oaea oi?iu iiciaiey i?eaioe?iaaia ia
oi, /oiau auoue aiieiuaiiie a i?aeoeea, auoue “?oeiaiaenoaii e
aeaenoaeth” ii eciaiaieth ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e oi?aaeaieth
?aaeueiuie i?ioeannaie. Aanue i?ia?ann iao/iiai ciaiey naycai n
aic?anoaieai neeu e aeeaiaciia iao/iiai i?aaeaeaeaiey. Eiaiii
i?aaeaeaeaiea aeaao aiciiaeiinoue eiio?iee?iaaoue i?ioeannu e oi?aaeyoue
eie. Iao/iia ciaiea ioe?uaaao aiciiaeiinoue ia oieueei i?aaeaeaeaiey
aoaeouaai, ii e niciaoaeueiiai aai oi?ie?iaaiey.

4. Iao/iia iiciaiea a aiinaieiae/aneii ieaia anoue neiaeiue
i?ioeai?a/eaue i?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa ciaiee, ia?acothueo oeaeinoioth
?acaeaathuothny nenoaio iiiyoee, oai?ee, aeiioac, caeiiia e ae?oaeo
eaeaaeueiuo oi?i, cae?aieaiiuo a ycuea

5. Iao/iiio iiciaieth i?enoue no?iaay aeieacaoaeueiinoue,
iainiiaaiiinoue iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia, aeinoiaa?iinoue auaiaeia.

6. Iiiyoea iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a

Iiae iao/iie ea?oeiie ie?a eeanneee anoanoaieniuoaoaee iiieiatho
nenoaiaoece?iaaiiua, enoi?e/anee iieiua ia?acu e iiaeaee i?e?iaeu e
iauanoaa. Ia?iiai e ?aciiia?acai ie?oaeathuee ian ie? i?e?iaeu. Ii
eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeieaeai iuoaoueny iiciaoue yoio ie? e iniciaoue naia
ianoi a iai. *oiau iiciaoue ie?, iu ec /anoiuo ciaiee i yaeaieyo e
caeiiiia?iinoyo i?e?iaeu iuoaainy nicaeaoue iauaa – iao/ioth ea?oeio
ie?a. Niaea?aeaieai aa yaeythony iniiaiua eaeae iaoe i i?e?iaea,
i?eioeeiu, caeiiiia?iinoe, ia ioi?aaiiua ae?oa io ae?oaa, a
ninoaaeythuea aaeeinoai ciaiee i i?e?iaea, ii?aaeaeythuea noeeue
iao/iiai iuoeaiey ia aeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey iaoee e eoeueoo?u
/aeiaa/anoaa.

Ea?oeia ie?a, ?enoaiay nia?aiaiiui anoanoaiciaieai, iaiaueiiaaiii
neiaeia e i?inoa iaeiia?aiaiii. Neiaeia iioiio, /oi niiniaia iinoaaeoue
a ooiee /aeiaaea, i?eaueoaai e niaeanothueiny ni cae?aaui niuneii
eeanne/aneei iao/iui i?aaenoaaeaieyi. Ii a oi aea a?aiy ea?oeia i?inoa,
no?ieia e aaea-oi aeaaea yeaaaioia. Yoe ea/anoaa ae i?eaeatho i?eioeeiu
iino?iaiey e i?aaiecaoeee nia?aiaiiiai iao/iiai ciaiey: 1) nenoaiiinoue
2) aeiaaeueiue yaiethoeeiieci, 3) naiii?aaiecaoeey 4) enoi?e/iinoue.

7. Eeanne/aneay iaoaieea e oi?ie?iaaiey iaoaie/aneie ea?oeiu ie?a

Eeannei/aneay iaoaiieea — aeae iaoaieee (?acaeaea oeceee, eco/athuae
caeiiu eciaiaiey iieiaeaiee oae e i?e/eiu, yoi aucuaathuea), iniiaaiiue
ia 3 caeiiao Iuethoiia (1. Nouanoaotho oaeea nenoaiu ion/aoa,
ioiineoaeueii eioi?uo oaea nio?aiytho naith nei?inoue iinoiyiiie, anee
ia ieo ia aeaenoaotho ae?oaea oaea e iiey. 2. A eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaia
ion/aoa onei?aiea, eioi?ia iieo/aao iaoa?eaeueiay oi/ea, i?yii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii i?eeiaeaiiie e iae neea e ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii a?
ianna. 3. A eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaia ion/aoa nei?inoue eciaiaiey eiioeuena
iaoa?eaeueiie oi/ee ?aaia aeaenoaothuae ia ia? neea.) e i?eioeeia
ioiineoaeueiinoe Aaeeeay. Iiyoiio a? /anoi iacuaatho «Iuethoiiianeie
iaoaieeie». Aaaeiia ianoi a eeanne/aneie iaoaieea caieiaao nouanoaiaaiea
eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoai. Eeanne/aneay iaoaieea iiae?acaeaeyaony ia
eeiaiaoeeo(eioi?ay eco/aao aaiiao?e/aneia naienoai aeaeaeaiey aac
?anniio?aiey aai i?e/ei), noaoeeo (eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaao ?aaiiaanea oae)
e aeeiaieeo (eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaao aeaeaeaiea oae).

Eeanne/aneay iaoaieea au?aaioaea eiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i ie?a, iaoa?ee,
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, aeaeaeaiee e ?acaeoee, ioia/aiiua io i?aaeieo e
nicaeaea iiaua eaoaai?ee iuoeaiey – aauue, naienoai, ioiioaiea, yeaiaio,
/anoue, oeaeia, i?e/eia, neaaenoaea, nenoaia – neaicue i?ecio eioi?uo
naia noaea niio?aoue ia ie?, iienuaaoue e iauyniyoue aai. Iiaua
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia ono?ienoaa ie?a i?eaaee e nicaeaieth e Iiaie Ea?oeiu
ie?a – iaoaienoe/aneie, a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeaee i?aaenoaaeaiey i
anaeaiiie eae caieiooie nenoaia, oiiaeiaeyaiie iaoaie/aneei /anai,
eioi?ua ninoiyo ec iacaiaieiuo, iiae/eiaiiuo ae?oa ae?oao yeaiaioia,
oiae eioi?uo no?iai iiae/eiyaony caeiiai eeanne/aneie iaoaieee. Caeiiai
iaoaieee iiae/eiythony ana e any, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa anaeaiiie, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, caeiiai yoei i?eienuaathony oieaa?naeueiinoue. Eae e a
iaoaie/aneeo /anao, a eioi?uo oiae iaeiiai yeaiaioa no?iai iiae/eiai
oiaeo ae?oaiai, oae e ai anaeaiiie, niaeanii iaoaienoe/aneie ea?oeia
ie?a, ana i?ioeannu e yaeaiey no?iai i?e/eiii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie iao
ianoa neo/aeiinoe e ana i?aaeii?aaeaeaii.

A iaoaienoe/aneie ea?oeia ie?a caaeathony ie?iaicc?ai/aneea i?eaioaoeee
e iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu iiciaiey. Iaoaieoeeci, aeaoa?ieieci,
?aaeoeoeeiieci ia?acotho nenoaio i?eioeeiia, ?aaoee?othueo
enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea. Ioe?uaay caeiiu,
iienuaathuea i?e?iaeiua yaeaiey e i?ioeannu, /aeiaae i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao
naay i?e?iaea, aicauoaao naay aei o?iaiy oicyeia i?e?iaeu. Oae /aeiaae
noaaeo naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia iao/ioth iniiao, eai ii, enoiaey ec
iaoaienoe/aneie ea?oeiu ie?a, oaa?eeny a aiciiaeiinoue n iiiiuueth
iao/iiai iuoeaiey auyaeoue oieaa?naeueiua caeiiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ie?a.

8. Niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe

Niaoeeaieueiay oaii?ey ioiineioaeueiinoe (NOI) (aiae. special theory of
relativity; /ainoiay oaii?ey ioiineioaeueiinoe; ?aeyoeaenoneay iaoaieea)
— oai?ey, iienuaathuay aeaeaeaiea, caeiiu iaoaieee e
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiua ioiioaiey, ii?aaeaeythuea eo, i?e nei?inoyo
aeaeaeaiey, aeeceeo e nei?inoe naaoa. A ?aieao niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe eeanne/aneay iaoaieeaIuethoiia yaeyaony i?eaeeaeaieai
ieceeo nei?inoae. Iaiauaiea NOI aeey a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo iieae ia?acoao
iauoth oai?eth ioiineoaeueiinoe. Nicaeaoaeue oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe
noi?ioee?iaae iaiauaiiue i?eioeei ioiineoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua oaia?ue
?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia yeaeo?iiaaieoiua yaeaiey, a oii /enea e ia
aeaeaeaiea naaoa. Yoio i?eioeei aeaneo, /oi ieeaeeie oece/aneeie
iiuoaie, i?iecaiaeeiuie aioo?e aeaiiie nenoaiu ion/aoa, iaeuecy
onoaiiaeoue ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ninoiyieyie iieiy e ?aaiiia?iiai
i?yiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey. Eeanne/aneia neiaeaiea nei?inoae i?eiaieii
aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei, naaoa.

9. Iauay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe

Iiauay oaii?ey ioiineioaeueiinoe (IOI)— aaiiao?e/aneay oai?ey,
?acaeaathuay Niaoeeaeueioth oai?eth ioiineoaeueiinoe (NOI),
iioaeeeiaaiiay Aeueaa?oi Yeiooaeiii a 1915—1916 aiaeao. A iauae oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe (IOI), eee oai?ee oyaioaiey, Yeiooaei ?anoe?yao
i?eioeei ioiineoaeueiinoe, ?ani?ino?aiyy aai ia iaeia?oeeaeueiua
nenoaiu. A iae ii oaeaea enoiaeeo ec yenia?eiaioaeueiiai oaeoa
yeaeaaeaioiinoe iann eia?oeeiiiuo e a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo, eee yeaeaaeaioiinoe
eia?oeeiiiuo e a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo iieae. I?aaaea, i?eioeei yeaeaaeaioiinoe
ni?aaaaeeea oieueei i?e no?iai eieaeueiuo iaaethaeaieyo.

A iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe Yeiooaei aeieacae, /oi no?oeoo?a
i?ino?ainoaa – a?aiaie ii?aaeaeyaony ?ani?aaeaeaieai iann iaoa?ee.

10. Eiioeaioeey aoiiecia e yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu

I?aaenoaaeaiea i iaaeaeeiuo iaeue/aeoeo /anoeoeao iaoa?ee, aicieeoaa aua
a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe, nii?iaiaeaeaei ?acaeoea aicc?aiee ia i?e?iaeo ia
i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee iao/iiai iiciaiey. Aia?aua iiiyoea ia aoiia eae
iineaaeiae e iaaeaeeiie /anoeoea oaea aicieeei, eae ecaanoii, a aioe/iie
A?aoeee a ?aieao iaoo?oeeinioneiai o/aiey oeieu Eaaeeiia—Aeaiie?eoa.
Niaeanii yoiio o/aieth, a ie?a nouanoaotho oieueei aoiiu e ionoioa.
?acee/iua eiiaeiaoeee aoiiia ia?acotho naiua ?aciiia?aciua aeaeeiua
oaea. Yoe oaea iiaoo aicieeaoue e en/acaoue, ii aoiiu, ec eioi?uo iie
ninoiyo, inoathony iaeciaiiuie. Iie iiaoo eeoue ia?aoiaeeoue io iaeieo
oae e ae?oaei.

Aioe/iay aeiioaca ia aoiiao ia iniiauaaeanue ia eaeeo-eeai yiie?e/aneeo
aeaiiuo e auea eeoue aaieaeueiie aeiaaaeeie, ii oai ia iaiaa iia
ii?aaeaeeea ia iiiaea noieaoey aia?aae ana aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
anoanoaiciaiey. E oioy nae/an iu ciaai, /oi aoii aiana ia yaeyaony
iineaaeiae, iaaeaeeiie /anoeoeae iaoa?ee e eiaao neiaeiia no?iaiea,
oaiaeaioeey e iieneo iineaaeieo yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, ec eioi?uo
iino?iaii ana ie?icaeaiea, i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue a iiauo oi?iao
aoiienoe/aneie eiioeaioeee.

Yoa eiioeaioeey, eae oaea ioia/aeinue ?aiueoa, ianiiiaiii, iaeaaeaao
ia?iiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie aeey iauyniaiey naienoa e iniaaiiinoae neiaeiuo
oae n iiiiuueth naienoa aieaa i?inouo yeaiaioia e /anoeoe. Iaeiaei oaeia
iauyniaiea aeinoeaaaony, eae ecaanoii, iin?aaenoaii ?aaeoeoeee, o.a.
naaaeaiey neiaeiiai e i?inoiio, ninoaaiiai e yeaiaioa?iiio. Iiyoiio
o?oaeii niaeaneoueny n eaeaae, /oi ana iiiaiia?acea neiaeiiai e
ea/anoaaiii ?aciiia?aciiai ie?a iiaeao auoue naaaeaii e iaiiiaei
naienoaai iaaieueoiai /enea i?inouo, yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe.

11. Ea/anoaaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea eioi?iaoeee

Aiciiaeiinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeee
iaoneiaeeaathony oaeeie iniiaiuie aa iio?aaeoaeueneeie iieacaoaeyie
ea/anoaa, eae ?ai?acaioaoeaiinoue, niaea?aeaoaeueiinoue,
aeinoaoi/iinoue, aeinooiiinoue, aeooaeueiinoue, naiaa?aiaiiinoue,
oi/iinoue, aeinoiaa?iinoue, onoie/eainoue.

?ai?acaioaoeaiinoue eioi?iaoeee naycaia n i?aaeeueiinoueth aa ioai?a e
oi?ie?iaaiey a oeaeyo aaeaeaaoiiai io?aaeaiey naienoa iauaeoa.
Aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea caeanue eiatho:

• i?aaeeueiinoue eiioeaioeee, ia aaca eioi?ie noi?ioee?iaaii enoiaeiia
iiiyoea;

• iainiiaaiiinoue ioai?a nouanoaaiiuo i?eciaeia e naycae ioia?aaeaaiiai
yaeaiey.

Ia?ooaiea ?ai?acaioaoeaiinoe eioi?iaoeee i?eaiaeeo ia?aaeei e
nouanoaaiiui aa iia?aoiinoyi.

Niaea?aeaoaeueiinoue eioi?iaoeee io?aaeaao naiaioe/aneoth aieinoue,
?aaioth ioiioaieth eiee/anoaa naiaioe/aneie eioi?iaoeee a niiauaiee e
iauaio ia?aaaouaaaiuo aeaiiuo, o.a.
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111111111111111111111111212111111111111110010101111111111111111111111111
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111111111111111111111111121121111111111110010101111111111111111111111111
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111111111111111110010101111211112111111111111111111111111111111110010101
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111111111111111110010101112111111111122222211111111111111111111110010101
112111111111111111111111111111156711111110111110111211112111111111111111
111111151111111110010101111121112211111111111111111111134511111110010101
111112221211111111111111112221111111111110020101111111111111111111111111
111211111111111110010101111111111111111111111111111121111111111110010201
111111111111111111111111111121111111111110010101111111111111111111111111
111121111111111110010101111111111111111111111111111121111111111110010101
111111111111111111111111111121111111111110010101111111111111111111111111
111112111111111110010101111111111111111111111111111122211111111110000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111110010102111111111111111111111111
111111111111111110010201111111111111111111111111111111111111111110010101
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00000c0224002900030000001e0004000000070104000400000007010400e7010000410b
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111111111001010111111111111111111111111111111111111111111001010111111111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N oaaee/aieai niaea?aeaoaeueiinoe eioi?iaoeee ?anoao naiaioe/aneay
i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu, oae eae aeey iieo/aiey
iaeieo e oao aea naaaeaiee o?aaoaony i?aia?aciaaoue iaiueoee iauai
aeaiiuo.

Ia?yaeo n eiyooeoeeaioii niaea?aeaoaeueiinoe N, io?aaeathuei
naiaioe/aneee aniaeo, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue e eiyooeoeeaio
eioi?iaoeaiinoe, oa?aeoa?ecothueeny ioiioaieai eiee/anoaa neioaene/aneie
eioi?iaoeee (ii Oaiiiio) e iauaio aeaiiuo
picscalex100010009000003e20500000000ca0300000000ca03000026060f008a07574d
464301000000000001002137000000000100000068070000000000006807000001000000
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100101011111211111111111111111111111111111111111100101011111121111111222
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100101011111111111111111111111111111111111111111100202020c00000040092900
aa000000000000002400290000000000040000002701ffff030000000000.

Aeinoaoi/iinoue (iieiioa) eioi?iaoeee icia/aao, /oi iia niaea?aeeo
ieieiaeueiue, ii aeinoaoi/iue aeey i?eiyoey i?aaeeueiiai ?aoaiey ninoaa
(iaai? iieacaoaeae). Iiiyoea iieiiou eioi?iaoeee naycaii n aa niuneiaui
niaea?aeaieai (naiaioeeie) e i?aaiaoeeie. Eae iaiieiay, o.a.
iaaeinoaoi/iay aeey i?eiyoey i?aaeeueiiai ?aoaiey, oae e ecauoi/iay
eioi?iaoeey nieaeaao yooaeoeaiinoue i?eieiaaiuo iieueciaaoaeai ?aoaiee.

Aeinooiiinoue eioi?iaoeee aini?eyoeth iieueciaaoaey iaania/eaaaony
auiieiaieai niioaaonoaothueo i?ioeaaeo? aa iieo/aiey e i?aia?aciaaiey.
Iai?eia?, a eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia eioi?iaoeey i?aia?aciauaaaony e
aeinooiiie e oaeiaiie aeey aini?eyoey iieueciaaoaey oi?ia. Yoi
aeinoeaaaony, a /anoiinoe, e iooai niaeaniaaiey aa naiaioe/aneie oi?iu n
oacao?onii iieueciaaoaey.

Aeooaeueiinoue eioi?iaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony noaiaiueth nio?aiaiey oeaiiinoe
eioi?iaoeee aeey oi?aaeaiey a iiiaio aa eniieueciaaiey e caaeneo io
aeeiaieee eciaiaiey aa oa?aeoa?enoee e io eioa?aaea a?aiaie, i?ioaaeoaai
n iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey aeaiiie eioi?iaoeee.

Naiaa?aiaiiinoue eioi?iaoeee icia/aao aa iinooieaiea ia iicaea ca?aiaa
iacia/aiiiai iiiaioa a?aiaie, niaeaniaaiiiai n a?aiaiai ?aoaiey
iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e.

Oi/iinoue eioi?iaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony noaiaiueth aeecinoe iieo/aaiie
eioi?iaoeee e ?aaeueiiio ninoiyieth iauaeoa, i?ioeanna, yaeaiey e o.i.

Aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony aa naienoaii io?aaeaoue
?aaeueii nouanoaothuea iauaeou n iaiaoiaeeiie oi/iinoueth. Ecia?yaony
aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iaoeee aeiaa?eoaeueiie aa?iyoiinoueth iaiaoiaeeiie
oi/iinoe, o. a. aa?iyoiinoueth oiai, /oi ioia?aaeaaiia eioi?iaoeeae
cia/aiea ia?aiao?a ioee/aaony io enoeiiiai cia/aiey yoiai ia?aiao?a a
i?aaeaeao iaiaoiaeeiie oi/iinoe.

Onoie/eainoue eioi?iaoeee io?aaeaao aa niiniaiinoue ?aaae?iaaoue ia
eciaiaiey enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo aac ia?ooaiey iaiaoiaeeiie oi/iinoe.
Onoie/eainoue eioi?iaoeee, eae e ?ai?acaioaoeaiinoue, iaoneiaeaia
aua?aiiie iaoiaeeeie aa ioai?a e oi?ie?iaaiey.

12. Aio?iiiue i?eioeei einiieiaee

N anoanoaaiiiiao/iie oi/ee c?aiey aicieeiiaaiea aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia
neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue a oaniie nayce n i?ienoiaeaeaieai aeecie ai
Anaeaiiie, a oaeaea i?eioeeieaeueiie aiciiaeiinoueth iiyaeaiey ae?oaeo,
ioee/iuo io iaoae Anaeaiiie ie?ia. Ii iiaieth ?. Aeeeea, aeeciue ai
Anaeaiiie ia iiaeao iiyaeoueny ?aiueoa, /ai niaieony ia?aia iieieaiea
caacae, a ?acoeueoaoa ?ac?ooaiey eioi?uo iiyaeony aauanoai, niaea?aeauaa
oaea?iae, eenei?iae e ae?oaea oeie/aneea yeaiaiou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
aicieeiiaaiey aeecie. Oieueei iinea aicieeiiaaiey caacae aoi?iai
iieieaiey ia/eiaaony ion/ao caacaeiiai a?aiaie e iiyaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue ca?iaeaeaiey aeecie. Oaeei ia?acii, ?anniao?eaay
caaeneiinoue iiyaeaiey /aeiaaea io oieaa?naeueiuo ie?iauo eiinoaio, a
/anoiinoe io aic?anoa Anaeaiiie, Aeeeea iiiuoaeny aeaoue aeieiae/aneia
iauyniaiea aio?iiiiio i?eioeeio.

Aeeneonnee aie?oa aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia a einiieiaee, eae iao?oaeii
caiaoeoue, i?eia?aoatho oeeinioneee oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo iie eanathony
i?iaeaiu i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoe ?acaeoey Anaeaiiie ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie
enoiaeiuie ie?iauie eiinoaioaie. Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee aeaeyo a yoii
aica?ao e aio?iiioeaio?ecio ai acaeyaea ia ie?, i?eciaieth nouanoaiaaiey
oeaeae a i?e?iaea, iooiae io ?aaiethoeeiiiie oi/ee c?aiey Eiia?ieea,
io?eoeathuae auaeaeaiiia ianoi Caiee e /aeiaaea ai Anaeaiiie. Iaeiaei
i?ioeaiiieiaeiue iiaeoiae, i?aoaaee/eaathuee ?ieue neo/aeiinoae a
?acaeoee ie?a e io?eoeathuee aai caeiiiia?iue oa?aeoa?, oaeaea iaeuecy
n/eoaoue i?aaeeueiui. Ii-aeaeeiiio, nouanoaiaaiea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
ie?iauo eiinoaio, caaeneiinoue io ieo anaai iineaaeothuaai ?acaeoey
Anaeaiiie o?aaotho oaeaea iienea oao iaueo oieaa?naeueiuo
caeiiiia?iinoae, eioi?ua aeaoa?ieie?otho oaeia ?acaeoea. Ianoaeaeaiea
aii?inia acaeiinayce iaaeaeo neo/aeiui e caeiiiia?iui a yaiethoeee
Anaeaiiie i?eaiaeeo ian e aiaeeco ?yaea ae?oaeo oeeinioneeo e
ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo i?iaeai, auaeaeioouo ?acaeoeai nia?aiaiiie einiieiaee.

13. Noaoe/aneea e aeeiaie/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe. I?eioeei
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe Aaecaiaa?aa

I?eioeei iaii?aaeae?iiinoe Aaecaiaai?aa (eee Aaiecaiaa?aa) — a eaaioiaie
iaoaieea oae iacuaatho i?eioeei, aeathuee ieaeiee (iaioeaaie) i?aaeae
aeey i?iecaaaeaiey aeenia?nee(noaiaiue ioeeiiaiey eee eciaiaiey cia/aiee
ia?aiaiiie io oeaio?aeueiiai ioieoa.) aaee/ei, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
ninoiyiea nenoaiu. I?eioeei Aaecaiaa?aa aiiaua ea?aao a eaaioiaie
iaoaieea eeth/aaoth ?ieue oioy au iioiio, /oi aeinoaoi/ii iaaeyaeii
iauyniyao, eae e ii/aio iee?iie? ioee/aaony io ciaeiiiai iai
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a. *oiau iiiyoue yoio i?eioeei, caaeoiaeoanue aeey
ia/aea i oii, /oi cia/eo «ecia?eoue» eaeoth au oi ie auei aaee/eio.
*oiau iouneaoue, iai?eia?, yoo eieao, au, aieaey a eiiiaoo, ieeaeuaaaoa
aa acaeyaeii, iiea ii ia inoaiiaeony ia iae. Ia ycuea oeceee yoi
icia/aao, /oi au i?iaaee aecoaeueiia ecia?aiea (iaoee acaeyaeii eieao) e
iieo/eee ?acoeueoao — caoeene?iaaee aa i?ino?ainoaaiiua eii?aeeiaou
(ii?aaeaeeee ianoiiieiaeaiea eieae a eiiiaoa). Ia naiii aeaea i?ioeann
ecia?aiey i?ienoiaeeo ai?acaei neiaeiaa: enoi/iee naaoa (Nieioea eee
eaiia, iai?eia?) enioneaao eo/e, eioi?ua, i?ieaey iaeee iooue a
i?ino?ainoaa, acaeiiaeaenoaotho n eieaie, io?aaeathony io aa
iiaa?oiinoe, iinea /aai /anoue ec ieo aeioiaeeo aei aaoeo aeac, i?ioiaey
/a?ac o?onoaeee, oieone?oaony, iiiaaeaao ia nao/aoeo — e au aeaeeoa
ia?ac eieae e ii?aaeaeyaoa aa iieiaeaiea a i?ino?ainoaa. Eeth/ e
ecia?aieth caeanue — acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo naaoii e eieaie. Oae e i?e
ethaii ecia?aiee, i?aaenoaaueoa naaa, eino?oiaio ecia?aiey (a aeaiiii
neo/aa, yoi naao) anooiaao ai acaeiiaeaenoaea n iauaeoii ecia?aiey (a
aeaiiii neo/aa, yoi eieaa).

14. I?iaeaia nouanoaiaaiey e iienea aiacaiiuo oeeaeeecaoeee ai anaeaiiie

Yoa i?iaeaia iieo/eea ?acaeoea aua a ae?aaiinoe. A iieueco oiai, /oi iu
ia iaeie, i?eaiaeeeenue oaeea a?aoiaiou – iineieueeo ie? ninoieo ec
iaeieo e oao aea noanoaioeee (o iaeieo oeeinioia yoi aiaea, o ae?oaeo
aoiiu) niioaaonoaaiii, aeieaeia auoue e aiacaiiay aeeciue. Anee
aiai?eoue i i?iaeaia iienea e iaia?oaeaiey aiacaiiuo oeeaeeecaoeee,
i?iaeaia ninoieo a i?eioeeieaeueiii aeiiouaiee nouanoaiaaiey aeecie ia
eiuo ieaiaoao. Nouanoaoao i?iaeaiu ea/anoaaiiiai ia?aoiaea iaaeeaiai a
aeeaia (aniiiiei aeaaeaieea Iia?eia). Yaiethoeey aauanoa i?e ia?aoiaea
io iaaeeaie e aeeaie iaoa?ee: aoiiiua yae?a -> aoiiu ->
ieceiiieaeoey?iua niaaeeiaiey -> aunieiiieaeoey?iua niaaeeiaiey ->
i?iea?eiou (i?aaieciu eeoaiiua ioi?ieaiiiai yae?a, o.a. ae?onu,
aaeoa?ee) -> iaeiieeaoi/iua -> iiiaieeaoi/iua.

A ooiaiiinoyo iaoee i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, eioi?ua yaeythony iniiaie
aaeeia aeeauo i?aaieciia. A yoeo iaeanoyo o/aiua iaia?oaeeee i?ioeannu
eioaineaiiai caacaeiia?aciaaiey, ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi aiciiaeii
eioaineaiia ia?aciaaiea iiauo ieaiao. Ii aicieeaao aii?in: ia neieueei
oneiaey ia?aciaaiey iiauo ieaiao e aeeyiea eioaineaiinoe eo caacae
ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia aiciiaeiinoue nio?aiaiey yoeo ieceiiieaeoey?iuo
niaaeeiaiee.

I?iaeaia aicieeiiaaiey aeecie ai anaeaiiie.

N iaeiie noi?iiu o ian ia caiea i?ineaaeaia aeieiae/aneay yaiethoeey, ii
yoi ana-oaee i?aaeaea anaai eiinoeooe?oaony eae yiie?e/aneee oaeo. Ii n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, yaiethoeey i?eiaieia eeoue e iaoei oneiaeyi, ia ieaiaoa
Caiey, ii yoi ia yaeyaony aeinoaoi/iui oaeoii, iicaieythuei oa??aei
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iiaeiaiay yaiethoeey ia iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue e ia
ae?oaeo ieaiaoao Anaeaiiie. Eiathony oaeou, eioi?ua auoiaeyo ca ?aiee
no?iaeo iauyniaiee a oeacaiiie oai?ee.

15. Yaiethoeey oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee ia caiea

Yaiethoeeth, eioi?oth i?ioee oeie/aneea niaaeeiaiey ia iaoae ieaiaoa,
iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia /aou?a noaaeee: 1) iai?aaie/aneoth; 2)
i?aaie/aneoth; 3) aeioeie/aneoth; 4) aio?iiiaaiioth.

1.Iai?aaie/aneay noaaeey naycaia n oeie/aneeie i?aa?auaieyie aac
ia?aciaaiey oeaiae ec aoiiia oaea?iaea, eioi?ue, eae ecaanoii, iaeaaeaao
iaeaieueoei yaiethoeeiiiui iioaioeeaeii. Ia yoie noaaeee ia?aciauaaeenue
iaeaieaa i?inoua aauanoaa e i?ienoiaeeee ioiineoaeueii ianeiaeiua
i?ioeannu.

2. i?aaie/aneay ii nooe anoue oeiey niaaeeiaiee oaea?iaea. Caeanue
i?ienoiaeeo ?aceia oneiaeiaiea oeiecia e oi?ie?othony ana iaiaoiaeeiua
i?aaeiinueee aeey aicieeiiaaiey aeecie.

3. aeioeiey, eaee oeiey aeeaiai. N aicieeiiaaieai aeecie aunoae e
iaeaieaa neiaeiie oi?iie iaoa?ee noaiiaeony aeieiae/aneay. E niaoeeoeea
niioiioaiey oeie/aneiai e aeieiae/aneiai iiaeii ioianoe neaaeothuea
caeiiiia?iinoe:

aeeciue aicieeaao a oiaea i?ioaeaiey oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia, oioy
ia?aoiae io iaaeeaiai e aeeaiio iiea aini?iecaanoe ia oaeaaony;

n aicieeiiaaieai aeecie aieueoay /anoue oeie/aneeo aauanoa i?iaeieaeaao
nouanoaiaaoue ii naiei nianoaaiiui caeiiai aia aeeauo i?aaieciia. I?e
yoii iaaeeaia aauanoai neoaeeo aiaoiae n?aaeie, n eioi?ie aeeaia
iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiie aeeiaie/iie nayce (iaiai aauanoa iaaeaeo
i?aaieciii e n?aaeie);

· iaeioi?ay /anoue oeie/aneeo aauanoa iinea aicieeiiaaiey aeeaiai
aeeth/aaony a ninoaa aeeauo i?aaieciia. Aeioeiey, eee oeiey aeeaiai,
iaiiiai neiaeiaa oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia, eaeoueo aia aeeaiai i?aaiecia.
Iaeiia?aiaiii aeioeiey — /anoue oeie/aneie iaoee e a iae aeaenoaotho a
iniauo oi?iao ana oeie/aneea caeiiu. Aeioeie/aneea i?ioeannu yaeythony
iniiaie aeecie, iie aicaeaenoaotho ia aeieiae/aneea yaeaiey, iaeeaaeuaay
ia ieo ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?aie/aiey.

aeioeie/aneea i?ioeannu ?acaeaathony iiae eiio?ieai aeieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia e caeiiiia?iinoae, iai?eia? anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a. A aeeaii
i?aaiecia oeie/aneee neioac iai?aaeai ia iiaeaea?aeaiea aai
aeecianiiniaiinoe.

· a aeeaie i?e?iaea aicieeaao iiaia ea/anoai — aeieiae/aneia, eioi?ia
eiaao a naiae iniiaa neiaeiua oeie/aneea iaoaieciu e a oi aea a?aiy ia
iiaeao auoue naaaeaii aeaaea e naiiio neiaeiiio iaai?o oeie/aneeo
i?ioeannia.

16. Aeiioaca aicieeiiaaiey aeecie aeaaeaieea A.E. Iia?eia

Oai?ee naiica?iaeaeaiey. Iiaay aa?ney iieo/eea iacaaiea oai?ey
oeie/aneie yaiethoeee. Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo aa i?iiaaaiaeenoia noae
aeioeiee-ia?eneno Aeaenaiae? Iia?ei (1894-1980).

Ii eceiaeee naie eaeae a eieaa «I?ienoiaeaeaiea aeecie», iioaeeeiaaiiie
a Niaaoneii Nithca a 1924 aiaeo e ia?aaaaeaiiie ia aiaeeeneee ycue a
1938 aiaeo. Oai?eth Iia?eia ai?y/i iiaeaea?aeae eaia?eaeaeneee i?ioanni?
Oyeaeaei. Oyeaeaei auaeaeioe aeiioaco i oii, /oi ia ia?aiauoiie Caiea
neiieeenue ia?iiiua eiee/anoaa i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, ia?aciaaa oi,
/oi ii iacaae ai?y/ei ?acaaaeaiiui aoeueiiii .

Nia?aiaiiia aeaoaaeeiia iiiyoea ia?aiauoiiai aoeueiia e naiica?iaeaeaiey
aeecie enoiaeeo ec oai?ee Iia?eia-Oyeaeaeia i i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie.

Oai?ey yoa iauai?eciaia, i?aiiaeaaony a oeieao e eieeaaeaeao.

Ia?aiauoiay Caiey eiaea ?ac?aaeaiioth (oi anoue eeoaiioth eenei?iaea)
aoiinoa?o.

Eiaaea ia yoo aoiinoa?o noaee aicaeaenoaiaaoue ?acee/iua anoanoaaiiua
enoi/ieee yia?aee – iai?eia?, a?icu e ecaa?aeaiey aoeeaiia – oi i?e yoii
ia/aee naiii?iecaieueii oi?ie?iaaoueny iniiaiua oeie/aneea niaaeeiaiey,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?aaie/aneie aeecie.

3. N oa/aieai a?aiaie iieaeoeu i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa iaeaieeaaeenue a
ieaaiao, iiea ia aeinoeaee eiinenoaioeee ai?y/aai ?acaaaeaiiiai
aoeueiia. Iaeiaei a iaeioi?uo ?aeiiao eiioeaio?aoeey iieaeoe,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ca?iaeaeaiey aeecie, auea iniai aunieie, e oai
ia?aciaaeenue ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou e i?ioaeiu.

4. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo iieaeoe ieacaeenue niiniaiu e naiiaini?iecaiaenoao.

5. Acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo aicieeoeie ioeeaeiiauie eeneioaie e
i?ioaeiaie a eiioea eiioeia i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth aaiaoe/aneiai
eiaea.

6. A aeaeueiaeoai yoe iieaeoeu iauaaeeieeenue, e iiyaeeanue ia?aay
aeeaay eeaoea.

7. Ia?aua eeaoee auee aaoa?io?ioaie, iie ia iiaee aini?iecaiaeeoue naie
eiiiiiaiou naiinoiyoaeueii e iieo/aee eo ec aoeueiia. Ii ni a?aiaiai
iiiaea niaaeeiaiey noaee en/acaoue ec aoeueiia, e eeaoee auee
auioaeaeaiu aini?iecaiaeeoue eo naiinoiyoaeueii. Oae eeaoee ?acaeaaee
nianoaaiiue iaiai aauanoa aeey naiinoiyoaeueiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa.

8. Aeaaiaea?y i?ioeanno anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a ec yoeo ia?auo eeaoie
iiyaeeenue ana aeeaua i?aaieciu, nouanoaothuea ia Caiea.

Iaeaieueoei oniaoii oai?ee Iia?eia-Oyeaeaeia noae oe?iei
?ac?aeeaie?iaaiiue yenia?eiaio, i?iaaaeaiiue a 1953 aiaeo aia?eeaineei
anie?aioii Noyiee Ieeea?ii.

17. Nia?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie ia caiea

AEeciue ia Caiea /?acau/aeii iiiaiia?acia. Iia i?aaenoaaeaia yaea?iuie e
aeiyaea?iuie iaeii- e iiiaieeaoi/iuie nouanoaaie. I?ienoiaeaeaiea aeecie
– iaeia ec o??o aaaeiaeoeo ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo i?iaeai ia?yaeo n
i?iaeaiaie i?ienoiaeaeaiey iaoae Anaeaiiie e i?iaeaiie i?ienoiaeaeaiey
/aeiaaea. Iiiuoee iiiyoue, eae aicieeea e ?acaeaaeanue aeeciue ia Caiea,
auee i?aaei?eiyou au? a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe. Nouanoaoao iyoue
eiioeaioeee aicieeiiaaiey aeecie:

1.E?aaieci – aiaeanoaaiiia nioai?aiea aeeaiai.

2.Eiioeaioeey iiiaie?aoiiai naiii?iecaieueiiai ca?iaeaeaiey aeecie ec
iaaeeaiai aauanoaa.

3.Eiioeaioeey noaoeeiia?iiai ninoiyiey, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie aeeciue
nouanoaiaaea anaaaea.

4.Eiioeaioeey aiacaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie.

5.Eiioeaioeey i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ia Caiea a enoi?e/aneii i?ioeii a
?acoeueoaoa i?ioeannia, iiae/eiythueony oece/aneei e oeie/aneei caeiiai.

18. No?oeoo?iua o?iaie aeeaiai

Eiioeaioeey no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae aeeaiai aeeth/aao i?aaenoaaeaiea ia
ea?a?oe/aneie niiiae/eiaiiinoe no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae, nenoaiiinoe e
i?aaie/aneie oeaeinoiinoe aeeauo i?aaieciia. A niioaaonoaee n yoie
eiioeaioeeae no?oeoo?iua o?iaie ?acee/athony ia oieueei neiaeiinoueth,
ii e caeiiiia?iinoyie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Aneaaenoaea ea?a?oe/aneie
niiiae/eiaiiinoe eaaeaeue ec o?iaiae i?aaiecaoeee aeeaie iaoa?ee
aeieaeai eco/aoueny n o/aoii oa?aeoa?a ieaea e auoanoiyuaai o?iaiae a eo
ooieoeeiiaeueiii acaeiiaeaenoaee.

?anniio?ei ioaeaeueiua o?iaie i?aaiecaoeee aeeaie iaoa?ee, ia/aa n
iecoae nooiaie, ia eioi?ie niueathony aeieiaey e oeiey.

Iieaeoey?ii-aaiaoe/aneee o?iaaiue.

Yoi oio o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, ia eioi?ii niaa?oaaony nea/ie io
aoiiii-iieaeoey?iiai o?iaiy iaaeeaie iaoa?ee e iae?iiieaeoeai aeeaiai.
I?e eco/aiee iieaeoey?ii-aaiaoe/aneiai o?iaiy aeinoeaiooa, aeaeeii,
iaeaieueoay yniinoue a ii?aaeaeaiee iniiaiuo iiiyoee, a oaeaea a
auyaeaiee yeaiaioa?iuo no?oeoo? e yaeaiee. ?acaeoea o?iiiniiiie oai?ee
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe, aiaeec iooaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, eco/aiea no?iaiey
o?iiinii, oaaia e ae?onia ane?uee iniiaiua /a?ou i?aaiecaoeee
yeaiaioa?iuo aaiaoe/aneeo no?oeoo? e naycaiiuo n ieie yaeaiee.

Eeaoi/iue o?iaaiue.

Eeaoi/iue e noaeeaoi/iue o?iaie io?aaeatho i?ioeannu niaoeeaeecaoeee
eeaoie, a oaeaea ?acee/iua aioo?eeeaoi/iua aeeth/aiey.

Ethaie aeeaie i?aaieci ninoieo ec eeaoie. A i?inoaeoai neo/aa — ec
aaeeinoaaiiie eeaoee (aaeoa?ee, aiaau). Eeaoea yaeyaony iaeue/aeoae
yeaiaioa?iie aeeaie nenoaiie e yaeyaony ia?aiiniiaie no?iaiey,
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e ?aciiiaeaiey anao i?aaieciia. Eeaoee anao
i?aaieciia noiaeiu ii no?iaieth e ninoaao aauanoa. Anaie neiaeiuie
iiiainooiai/aouie i?ioeannaie a eeaoea oi?aaeyao iniaay no?oeoo?a, eae
i?aaeei, iaoiaeyuayny a aa yae?a e ninoiyuay ec aeeeiiuo oeaiae iieaeoe
ioeeaeiiauo eeneio.

Oeaiaaue o?iaaiue.

Niaieoiiinoue eeaoie n iaeeiaeiaui o?iaiai i?aaiecaoeee ia?acoao aeeaoth
oeaiue. Ec oeaiae ninoiyo ?acee/iua i?aaiu aeeauo i?aaieciia.

I?aaieciaiiue o?iaaiue.

Nenoaia niaianoii ooieoeeiie?othueo i?aaiia ia?acoao i?aaieci. A ioee/ea
io i?aaeuaeoueo o?iaiae ia i?aaieciaiiii o?iaia i?iyaeyaony aieueoia
?aciiia?acea aeeauo nenoai. I?aaieciaiiue o?iaaiue eiaiotho oaeaea
iioiaaiaoe/aneei.

Iiioeyoeeiiii-aeaeiaie o?iaaiue.

Ii ia?aciaai niaieoiiinoueth aeaeia e iiioeyoeee aeeauo nenoai.
Iiioeyoeey — yoi niaieoiiinoue i?aaieciia iaeiiai aeaea, iaeaaeathueo
aaeeiui aaiioiiaeii (niaieoiiinoueth aaiia). Iia yaeyaony
iaaei?aaieciaiiie aeeaie nenoaiie, oae aea, eae e aeae, ninoiyuee iau/ii
ec ianeieueeeo iiioeyoeee. Ia yoii o?iaia ?aaeecoaony aeieiae/aneee
yaiethoeeiiiue i?ioeann.

Aeiaaioeaiioe/aneee o?iaaiue.

Ii ia?aciaai aeioeaiicaie — enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeieny onoie/eauie
niiauanoaaie iiioeyoeee, naycaiiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii e ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeie iaiaiii aauanoa.

Aeinoa?iue o?iaaiue.

Aeeth/aao a naay anth niaieoiiinoue aeeauo i?aaieciia Caiee aianoa n
ie?oaeathuae eo i?e?iaeiie n?aaeie.

Ioaeaeueiua no?oeoo?iua o?iaie aeeaiai yaeythony iauaeoaie eco/aiey aeey
ioaeaeueiuo aeieiae/aneeo iaoe, oi anoue oneiaiuie ?aca?aie/eoaeyie
aeieiae/aneiai ciaiey. Oae, iieaeoey?iue o?iaaiue eco/aaony iieaeoey?iie
aeieiaeae, aaiaoeeie; eeaoi/iue o?iaaiue neoaeeo iauaeoii aeey
oeeoieiaee, iee?iaeieiaee; aiaoiiey e oeceieiaey eco/atho aeeciue ia
oeaiaaii e i?aaieciaiiii o?iaiyo; ciieiaey e aioaieea eiatho aeaei n
i?aaieciaiiui e iiioeyoeeiiii-aeaeiaui o?iaiyie; yeieiaey ioaaouaaao
aeioeaiioe/aneee e aeinoa?iue o?iaie.

19. Iieaeoey?ii-aaiaoe/aneee o?iaaiue. Aaiaoe/aneee eiae

Iieaeoey?ii-aaiaoe/aneee o?iaaiue. Yoi iaeaieaa yeaiaioa?iue oa?aeoa?iue
aeey aeecie o?iaaiue. Eae au neiaeii eee i?inoi ie auei no?iaiea ethaiai
aeeaiai i?aaiecia, iie ana ninoiyo ec iaeeiaeiauo iieaeoey?iuo
niaaeeiaiee. I?eia?ii yoiai yaeythony ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou, aaeee,
oaeaaiaeu e ae?oaea neiaeiua iieaeoey?iua eiiieaenu i?aaie/aneeo e
iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa. Eo iacuaatho eiiaaea aeieiae/aneeie
iae?iiieaeoey?iuie aauanoaaie. Ia iieaeoey?iii o?iaia i?ienoiaeyo
?acee/iua i?ioeannu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aeeauo i?aaieciia: iaiai
aauanoa, i?aa?auaiea yia?aee. N iiiiuueth iieaeoey?iiai o?iaiy
inouanoaeyaony ia?aaea/a ianeaaenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, ia?acothony
ioaeaeueiua i?aaiieaeu e i?ienoiaeyo ae?oaea i?ioeannu.

Yeaiaioa?iie aaeeieoeae ia iieaeoey?ii-aaiaoe/aneii o?iaia neoaeeo aai —
o?aaiaio iieaeoeu ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou, a eioi?ii caienai ii?aaeaeaiiue a
ea/anoaaiiii e eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee iauai aeieiae/aneie eioi?iaoeee.
Yeaiaioa?iia yaeaiea caeeth/aaony a i?ioeanna eiaa?eaioiie
?aaeoieeeaoeee eee naiiaini?iecaaaeaiee n eciaiaieyie aaiia. Iooai
?aaeoieeeaoeee AeIE i?ienoiaeeo eiie?iaaiea aaiia e caeeth/aiiie a ieo
aeieiae/aneie eioi?iaoeee, /oi iaania/eaaao i?aainoaaiiinoue e
nio?aiiinoue (eiina?aaoeci) naienoa i?aaieciia a ?yaeo iieieaiee.
?aaeoieeeaoeey, oaeei ia?acii, yaeyaony iniiaie ianeaaenoaaiiinoe.

Aaiaoe/aneee eiae – naienoaaiiay aeeaui i?aaieciai aaeeiay nenoaia
caiene ianeaaenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee a iieaeoeao ioeeaeiiauo eeneio a
aeaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ioeeaioeaeia. Eaaeaeue ioeeaioeae
iaicia/aaony caaeaaiie aoeaie, n eioi?ie ia/eiaaony iacaaiea acioenoiai
iniiaaiey, aoiaeyuaai a aai ninoaa:

– A (A) aaeaiei;

– A (G) aoaiei;

– Oe (C) oeeoicei;

– O (T) oeiei (a AeIE) eee O (U) o?aoeee (a i?IE).

Aeaciene?eaiioeeaeiiiaay eeneioai (AeIE) — iaeei ec aeaoo oeiia
ioeeaeiiauo eeneio, iaania/eaathueo o?aiaiea, ia?aaea/o ec iieieaiey a
iieieaiea e ?aaeecaoeeth aaiaoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu ?acaeoey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeeauo i?aaieciia. Iniiaiay ?ieue AeIE a eeaoeao —
aeieaia?aiaiiia o?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee i no?oeoo?a ?IE e aaeeia.

?eaiioeeaeiiiaua eeneiiou (?IE) — ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou, iieeia?u
ioeeaioeaeia, a ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo inoaoie i?oioinoi?iie eeneiou,
?eaica (a ioee/ea io AeIE, niaea?aeauae aeaciene?eaico) e acioenoua
iniiaaiey — aaeaiei, oeeoicei, aoaiei e o?aoeee (a ioee/ea io AeIE,
niaea?aeauae aianoi o?aoeeea oeiei). Yoe iieaeoeu niaea?aeaony a eeaoeao
anao aeeauo i?aaieciia, a oaeaea a iaeioi?uo ae?onao.

1. O?eieaoiinoue — cia/auae aaeeieoeae eiaea yaeyaony ni/aoaiea o??o
ioeeaioeaeia (o?eieao, eee eiaeii).

2. Iai?a?uaiinoue — iaaeaeo o?eieaoaie iao ciaeia i?aieiaiey, oi anoue
eioi?iaoeey n/eouaaaony iai?a?uaii.

3. Iaia?ae?uaaaiinoue — iaeei e oio aea ioeeaioeae ia iiaeao aoiaeeoue
iaeiia?aiaiii a ninoaa aeaoo eee aieaa o?eieaoia. (Ia niaethaeaaony aeey
iaeioi?uo ia?ae?uaathueony aaiia ae?onia, ieoioiiae?ee e aaeoa?ee,
eioi?ua eiaee?otho ianeieueei aaeeia, n/eouaathueony ni naeaeaii ?aiee).

4. Iaeiicia/iinoue — ii?aaeae?iiue eiaeii niioaaonoaoao oieueei iaeiie
aieiieeneioa. (Naienoai ia yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui. Eiaeii UGA o
Euplotes crassus eiaee?oao aeaa aieiieeneiou — oeenoaei e
naeaiioeenoaei)

5. Au?iaeaeaiiinoue (ecauoi/iinoue) — iaeiie e oie aea aieiieeneioa
iiaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue ianeieueei eiaeiiia.

6. Oieaa?naeueiinoue — aaiaoe/aneee eiae ?aaioaao iaeeiaeiai a
i?aaieciao ?aciiai o?iaiy neiaeiinoe — io ae?onia aei /aeiaaea (ia yoii
iniiaaiu iaoiaeu aaiiie eiaeaia?ee) (Ec yoiai naienoaa oaeaea anoue ?yae
eneeth/aiee, ni. oaaeeoeo a ?acaeaea «Aa?eaoeee noaiaea?oiiai
aaiaoe/aneiai eiaea» a aeaiiie noaouea).

20. Eeaoi/iue o?iaaiue aeeaiai

Eeaoi/iue o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee naycai n ii?oieiae/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae
eeaoee, niaoeeaeecaoeeae eeaoie a oiaea ?acaeoey i?aaiecia, ooieoeeyie
eeaoi/iie iaia?aiu, iaoaieciaie e ?aaoeyoeeae aeaeaiey eeaoie.
Enneaaeiaaiey ia yoii o?iaia iicaieytho ?aoaoue aaaeiaeoea i?iaeaiu
iaaeeoeeiu, a /anoiinoe ea/aiea iieieiae/aneeo caaieaaaiee.

Eeaioea — yeaiaioa?iay aaeeieoea no?iaiey e aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe anao
aeeauo i?aaieciia (e?iia ae?onia, i eioi?uo ia?aaeei aiai?yo eae i
iaeeaoi/iuo oi?iao aeecie), iaeaaeathuay nianoaaiiui iaiaiii aauanoa,
niiniaiay e naiinoiyoaeueiiio nouanoaiaaieth, naiiaini?iecaaaeaieth e
?acaeoeth.

Eeaoea yaeyaony no?oeoo?iie e ooieoeeiiaeueiie aaeeieoeae anao aeeauo
i?aaieciia ia Caiea. Ioaeaeueiua i?aaiieaeu a ninoaaa eeaoee eiatho
oa?aeoa?iia no?iaiea e auiieiytho ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth. Ooieoeee
ioaeaeueiuo i?aaiieaeia a eeaoea acaeiinaycaiu e auiieiytho aaeeiua
i?ioeannu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. O iaeiieeaoi/iuo i?aaieciia
(iaeiieeaoi/iua aiaei?inee e i?inoaeoea) ana aeeciaiiua i?ioeannu
i?ioiaeyo a iaeiie eeaoea, e iaeia eeaoea nouanoaoao eae ioaeaeueiue
i?aaieci. Aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe eeaoee iinooiathuea ecaia aauanoaa
i?aa?auathony a noano?aou e yia?aeth, eioi?ua ooeeece?othony a i?ioeanna
aeineioaca aaeeia a niioaaonoaee n nouanoaothuae eioi?iaoeeae. Oaeei
ia?acii, ia eeaoi/iii o?iaia nii?yaathony iaoaieciu ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee e i?aa?auaiey aauanoa e yia?aee. Yeaiaioa?iua yaeaiey ia
yoii o?iaia nicaeatho yia?aaoe/aneoth e aauanoaaiioth iniiao aeecie ia
ae?oaeo o?iaiyo.

21. I?aaieciaiiue o?iaaiue aeeauo nenoai

I?aaieciaiiue o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee – yoi o?iaaiue iaeiieeaoi/iuo,
eieiieaeueiuo e iiiaieeaoi/iuo i?aaieciia. Niaoeeoeea i?aaieciaiiiai
o?iaiy a oii, /oi ia yoii o?iaia i?ienoiaeeo aeaeiaee?iaaiea e
?aaeecaoeey aaiaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee, oi?ie?iaaiea i?eciaeia, i?enoueo
iniayi aeaiiiai aeaea. Yoio o?iaaiue eco/aaony ii?oieiaeae (aiaoiieae e
yia?eieiaeae), oeceieiaeae, aaiaoeeie, iaeaiioieiaeae.

Yeaiaioa?iie aaeeieoeae i?aaieciaiiiai o?iaiy neoaeeo iniaue, eioi?ay
?anniao?eaaaony a ?acaeoee io iiiaioa ca?iaeaeaiey aei i?ae?auaiey
nouanoaiaaiey a ea/anoaa aeeaie nenoaiu, /oi iicaieyao iacaaoue yoio
o?iaaiue oaeaea iioiaaiaoe/aneei. Caeiiiia?iua eciaiaiey i?aaiecia a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ?acaeoee ninoaaeytho yeaiaioa?iua yaeaiey. A oiaea
iioiaaiaca, a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeecaoeee ianeaaenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo aiaoiae n?aaeu oi?ie?oaony oaiioei i?aaieciia
aeaiiiai aeieiae/aneiai aeaea.

A eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii i?aaiecia i?ienoiaeyo ana aeeciaiiua i?ioeannu,
oa?aeoa?iua aeey anao aeeauo i?aaieciia, — ieoaiea, aeuoaiea, iaiai
aauanoa, ?acae?aaeeiinoue, ?aciiiaeaiea e o. ae. Eaaeaeue
naiinoiyoaeueiue i?aaieci inoaaeyao iinea naay iioiinoai. O
iiiaieeaoi/iuo i?aaieciia eeaoee, oeaie, i?aaiu e nenoaiu i?aaiia ia
yaeythony ioaeaeueiui i?aaieciii. Oieueei oeaeinoiay nenoaia i?aaiia,
niaoeeaeece?iaaiii auiieiythueo ?acee/iua ooieoeee, ia?acoao ioaeaeueiue
naiinoiyoaeueiue i?aaieci. ?acaeoea i?aaiecia, ia/eiay n iieiaeioai?aiey
e aei eiioea aeecie, caieiaao ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie. Oaeia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ?acaeoea eaaeaeiai i?aaiecia iacuaaaony iioiaaiacii.
I?aaieci iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a oaniie acaeiinayce n ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeie.

22. Iiioeyoeeiiii-aeaeiaie o?iaaiue aeeaiai

Iiioeyoeeiiii-aeaeiaie o?iaaiue. Aaeeieoeae o?iaiy yaeythony iniae,
iauaaeei?iiua a iiioeyoeee, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue iauaaeeiaiu a
aeaeu. Iniiaiua i?eciaee o?iaiy: ?iaeaeaaiinoue, nia?oiinoue, no?oeoo?a
iiioeyoeee (iieiaay e aic?anoiay), ieioiinoue, /eneaiiinoue iiioeyoeee.

Aeae – yoi niaieoiiinoue noiaeiuo iaaeaeo niaie ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio
i?eciaeo, niiniaiuo ne?aueaaoueny iaaeaeo niaie e aeaaaoue ieiaeiaeoia
iioiinoai.

Iiioeyoeee –niaieoiiinoue iniaae iaeiiai aeaea, ianaeythueo
ii?aaeae?iioth oa??eoi?eth, aieaa eee iaiaa eciee?iaaiioth io ninaaeieo
niaieoiiinoae oiai aea aeaea

Iauaaeeiaiea iniaae a iiioeyoeeth i?ienoiaeeo ia iniiaa iauiinoe
aaiioiiaea. Iiioeyoeey, a neeo aiciiaeiinoe iaaeiiioeyoeeiiiuo
ne?aueaaiee, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioe?uooth aaiaoe/aneoth nenoaio.
Aeaenoaea yeaiaioa?iuo yaiethoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia i?eaiaeeo e yaiethoeeiiii
cia/eiui eciaiaieyi aaiioiiaea iiioeyoeee, /oi e i?eieiaaony ca
yeaiaioa?iia yaeaiea ia yoii o?iaia.

Iniae iaeiiai aeaea ianaeytho oa??eoi?eth n ecaanoiuie aaeioe/aneeie
iieacaoaeyie (eeeiao, oeieci ii/a, aeae?ieiae/aneea oneiaey) e
acaeiiaeaenoaotho n i?aaieciaie ae?oaeo aeaeia. A i?ioeanna niaianoiiai
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey i?aaieciia ?aciuo nenoaiaoe/aneeo a?oii
ia?acothony aeeiaie/iua, onoie/eaua ai a?aiaie niiauanoaa —
aeiaaioeaiicu, eioi?ua neoaeao yeaiaioa?iuie aaeeieoeaie
aeiaaioeaiioe/aneiai o?iaiy. Aeaeiaie ninoaa, a oaeaea oa?aeoa?enoeee
ianoiiaeoaiey aeey ioaeaeueiuo aeiaaioeaiicia iaania/eaatho
aauanoaaiii-yia?aaoe/aneea e?oaiai?iou, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho ia
?anniao?eaaaiii o?iaia yeaiaioa?iua yaeaiey. Aaaeouay ?ieue a yoeo
e?oaiai?ioao i?eiaaeeaaeeo aeeaui i?aaieciai. Aeioeaiic — yoi ioe?uoay a
aauanoaaiiii e yia?aaoe/aneii ieaia nenoaia. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio
aeiaaioeaiicu iauaaeeiythony a aaeeiue eiiieaen — iaeanoue
?ani?ino?aiaiey aeecie eee aeinoa?o.

23. Aeioeaiic e aeiaaioeaiic

Aeioeaiic – acaeiinaycaiiay niaieoiiinoue iee?ii?aaieciia, ?anoaiee,
a?eaia e aeeaioiuo, ianaeythueo aieaa eee iaiaa iaeii?iaeiue o/anoie
nooe eee aiaeiaia, e oa?aeoa?ecothueony ii?aaeae?iiuie ioiioaieyie eae
iaaeaeo niaie, oae e n aaeioe/aneeie oaeoi?aie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
(eiiiiiaiou e yaeaiey iaaeeaie, iai?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu, i?yii eee
einaaiii aicaeaenoaothuea ia aeeaua i?aaieciu.)

Ii nenoaiaoe/aneei i?eciaeai aeioeaiic aeaeeony ia oeoioeaiic, ciioeaiic
e iee?iaioeaiic.

Oeoioeaiic – onoie/eaay anoanoaaiiay a?oiie?iaea aeaeia ?anoaiee a
i?aaeaeao iaeiiai aeioeaiica.

Ciioeaiic – niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo e acaeiicaaeneiuo aeaeia
aeeaioiuo, neiaeeaoayny a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai aeioeaiica.

Iee?iaeioeaiic – niiauanoai iee?ii?aaieciia ?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Iee?iaeioeaiicu ninoaaeytho aaeoa?ee, a?eau,
aeoeiiieoeaou, iee?ineiie/aneea iecoea aiaei?inee e ae?.

Ooieoeeiiaeueii aeioeaiic aeaeeony ii nooiaiyi yeieiae/aneie ie?aieaeu
ia a?oiiu i?aaieciia: i?iaeooeaioia, eiinoiaioia e ?aaeooeaioia,
iauaaeeiaiiuo o?ioe/aneeie naycyie.

No?oeoo?ii aeioeaiic aeaeyony ia ai?eciiou, neie, y?onu, iieiae,
ia?ioiiu.

Aeioeaiic oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeiiannie e aeieiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth.
A ianoa n aeioiiii aeioeaiic ninoaaeyao aeiaaioeaiic.

Aeiaaioeaiic acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiue eiiieaen aeeauo e einiuo eiiiiiaioia,
naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie iaiaiii aauanoa e yia?aee; iaeia ec iaeaieaa
neiaeiuo i?e?iaeiuo nenoai. E aeeaui eiiiiiaioai A. ioiinyony
aaoio?ioiua i?aaieciu (oioineioace?othuea cae?iua ?anoaiey e
oaiineioace?othuea iee?ii?aaieciu) e aaoa?io?ioiua i?aaieciu (aeeaioiua,
a?eau, iiiaea aaeoa?ee, ae?onu), e einiui — i?ecaiiue neie aoiinoa?u n
a? aaciauie e oaieiauie ?ano?naie, nieia/iay yia?aey, ii/aa n a?
aiaei-ieia?aeueiuie ?ano?naie e io/anoe ei?a auaao?eaaiey (a neo/aa
aiaeiiai A. — aiaea). A eaaeaeii A. nio?aiyaony eae iaeii?iaeiinoue
(aiiiaaiiay eee /aua iicae/iiaiiiaaiiay) ninoaaa e no?iaiey eiiiiiaioia,
oae e oa?aeoa? iaoa?eaeueii-yia?aaoe/aneiai iaiaia iaaeaeo ieie.
Iniaaiii aaaeioth ?ieue a A. ea?atho caeaiua ?anoaiey (aunoea e iecoea),
aeathuea iniiaioth ianno aeeaiai aauanoaa. Iie i?iecaiaeyo ia?ae/iua
i?aaie/aneea iaoa?eaeu, aauanoai e yia?aey eioi?uo eniieuecothony naieie
?anoaieyie e ii oeaiyi ieoaiey ia?aaeathony anai aaoa?io?ioiui
i?aaieciai.

Iniiaiua iieacaoaee aeiaaioeaiica

Aeaeiaie ninoaa — eiee/anoai aeaeia, iaeoathueo a aeiaaioeaiica.

Aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea – eiee/anoai aeaeia, iaeoathueo a aeiaaioeaiica ia
aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee eee iauaia.

A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aeaeiaie ninoaa e aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea
eiee/anoaaiii ia niaiaaeatho e aeaeiaia ?aciiia?acea iai?yioth caaeneo
io enneaaeoaiiai o/anoea.

Aeiianna — eiee/anoai i?aaieciia aeiaaioeaiica, au?aaeaiiia a aaeeieoeao
iannu.

A. — aeeiaie/iay nenoaia. Ii iai?a?uaii eciaiyaony e ?acaeaaaony a
?acoeueoaoa aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/eauo oaiaeaioeee aai eiiiiiaioia.
Eciaiaiey A. iiaoo auoue e?aoeia?aiaiiuie, iaoneiaeeaathueie eaaei
ia?aoeiua ?aaeoeee eiiiiiaioia A. (nooi/iua, iiaiaeiua, naciiiua), e
aeoaieeie, aaaeoueie e iaia?aoeiui niaiai a ninoiyiee, no?oeoo?a e iauai
iaoaaieecia A. e ciaiaiothueie niaio (noeoeanneth) iaeiiai A. ae?oaei.
Iie iiaoo auoue iaaeeaiiuie e auno?uie; iineaaeiea /anoi i?ienoiaeyo
iiae aeeyieai aiacaiiuo ia?aiai a ?acoeueoaoa noeoeeiuo i?e/ei eee
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea (ia oieueei i?aia?acothuaai e
?ac?ooathuaai i?e?iaeiua A, ii e nicaeathuaai iiaua, eoeueoo?iua A.).
Ia?yaeo n aeeiaie/iinoueth, A. i?enoua e onoie/eainoue ai a?aiaie,
eioi?ay iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi nia?aiaiiua i?e?iaeiua A. — ?acoeueoao
aeeeoaeueiie e aeoaieie aaeaioaoeee aeeauo eiiiiiaioia ae?oa e ae?oao e
e eiiiiiaioai einiie n?aaeu. Iiyoiio A., auaaaeaiiua ec onoie/eaiai
ninoiyiey oie eee eiie i?e/eiie, iinea a? ono?aiaiey iiaoo
ainnoaiaaeeaaoueny a oi?ia, aeeceie e enoiaeiie. A., aeeceea ii ninoaao
e no?oeoo?a eiiiiiaioia, ii iaoaaieecio e iai?aaeaieth ?acaeoey, ioiinyo
e iaeiiio oeio A., eioi?ue yaeyaony iniiaiie aaeeieoeae
aeiaaioeaiieiae/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee.

24. Nia?aiaiiua eiioeaioeee yeieiaee

I i?iaeaiao yeieiaee ii-ianoiyuaio caaiai?eee a 70-o aa. XX a., eiaaea
ia oieueei niaoeeaeenou, ii e ?yaeiaua a?aaeaeaia ii/oanoaiaaee, eaeoth
aic?anoathuoth oa?ico ianao nouanoaothuaio e aoaeouei iieieaieyi
oaoiiaaiiay oeeaeeecaoeey. Caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?u, io?aaeaiea ?ae e ica?,
eeneioiua aeiaeaee, ana oaaee/eaathueany iooiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa, a
iniaaiiinoe eniieueciaaiiuo ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa, e iiiaia ae?oaia —
ana yoi ia iiaei ia iiaeeyoue ia ?ino eioa?ana oe?ieeo neiaa ianaeaiey e
i?iaeaiai yeieiaee. A nayce n yoei eciaieeny e nai acaeyae ia i?aaeiao
yeieiaee. Oioy oa?iei «yeieiaey» aue aaaaeai Y. Aaeeaeai nauoa noieaoey
iacaae e eae naiinoiyoaeueiay iao/iay aeenoeeieeia iia noi?ie?iaaeanue
aua a 1900 a., oai ia iaiaa aeieaia a?aiy yeieiaey inoaaaeanue /enoi
aeieiae/aneie aeenoeeieeiie. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iia auoea oaea ec yoeo
oceeo ?aiie e noaea, ii nooe aeaea, iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iui iai?aaeaieai
enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeannia, naycaiiuo n acaeiiaeaenoaeai aeinoa?u e
iauanoaa. Eae oeacuaaao ecaanoiue niaoeeaeeno ii yoei aii?inai TH.
Iaeoi, nae/an yeieiaey ioi?ieeanue a i?eioeeieaeueii iiaoth
eioaa?e?iaaiioth aeenoeeieeio, naycuaathuoth oece/aneea e aeieiae/aneea
yaeaiey e ia?acothuoth iino iaaeaeo anoanoaaiiuie e iauanoaaiiuie
iaoeaie.

I nayce yeieiaee n iauanoaaiiuie e aoiaieoa?iuie iaoeaie
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iiyaeaiea oaeeo aa ?acaeaeia, eae nioeeaeueiay,
iaaeeoeeineay, enoi?e/aneay, yoe/aneay yeieiaee.

Yeieiae/aneea nenoaiu e eo no?oeoo?a. E yeieiae/aneei nenoaiai iau/ii
ioiinyo ana aeeaua nenoaiu aianoa n eo yeieiae/aneie ieoae, o.a.
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie, ia/eiay io ioaeaeueiie iiioeyoeee e eii/ay
aeinoa?ie. Ana iie yaeythony ioe?uouie nenoaiaie, eioi?ua iaiaieaathony
n ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeie aauanoaii, yia?aeae eee eioi?iaoeeae.
Iaeiaiueoae aaeeieoeae yeieiaee yaeyaony iiioeyoeey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ie
iieaeoey?iue, ie eeaoi/iue, ie i?aaieciaiiue o?iaie, i eioi?uo oea ?a/ue
a i?aaeuaeouae aeaaa, ia ?anniao?eaathony a yeieiaee, oioy e aeeaay
iieaeoea, e eeaoea, e oai aieaa i?aaieci i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ioe?uoua
nenoaiu, eioi?ua iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue aeaaiaea?y acaeiiaeaenoaeth ni
n?aaeie. Aua aieaa e?oiiui nenoaiiui iauaaeeiaieai a yeieiaee n/eoaaony
aeii, eioi?ue aeeth/aao a naie ninoaa aeeaua nenoaiu e iaaeeaua oaeoi?u
ia iaoe?iie oa??eoi?ee, iai?eia? eenoaaiiua ii?iaeu aea?aaueaa ia
N?aaeia?onneie aicauoaiiinoe. yeinenoaia iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa o?iaiy:

• ia aa?oiai, aaoio?ioiii o?iaia, eioi?ue iacuaatho oaeaea caeaiui
iiynii, iu ano?a/aainy n ?anoaieyie, niaea?aeaueie oei?ioeee e
ia?a?aaaouaathueie nieia/ioth yia?aeth e i?inoua iai?aaie/aneea aauanoaa
a neiaeiua i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey;

• ia ieaeiai, aaoa?io?ioiii o?iaia i?ienoiaeeo i?aia?aciaaiea e
?aceiaeaiea yoeo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee a i?inoua, iai?aaie/aneea.

25. I?iaeaia ai?aiey a oeiee XVIII aaea (Aeaeueoii, Eaaoacuea)

Oeaio?aeueiay i?iaeaia oeiee XVIII Aii?in a. ninoiye a neaaeothuai: /oi
n neo/aaony ai?th/eie aauanoaaie, eiaaea iie a nai?atho aicaeooa? Aeey
iauyniaiey i?ioeannia E. ai?aiey Y. Aaoa?ii e aai A. o/aieeii Ooaeai
auea i?aaeeiaeaia oai?ey Oaea, oeiaenoiia. niaea?aeauea aieueoia
eiee/anoai oeiaenoiia, oi?ioi; ai?yo oaea, eioi?ua ia caai?athony,
aeaoeiaenoe?iaaiiuie. yaeythony Oeiaenoii – yoi iaeioi?ay noanoaioeey,
iaaaniiay eioi?oth niaea?aeao ana ai?th/ea e oaea eioi?oth iie
oo?a/eaatho i?e Yoa ai?aiee. oai?ey iicaieyea iauyniyoue iiiaea
i?ioeannu oeie/aneea e i?aaeneacuaaoue iiaua oeie/aneea iia yaeaiey.
i?i/ii oaea?aeeaaea naie iiceoeee, Eaaoacuea iiea a eiioea XVIII a.
oa/aiea A ii/oe anaai OVIII a. ia (iie?aynue ioe?uoey E. Oaaea neiaeiiai
aicaeooa ninoaaa e Aeae.A. I?enoee eenei?iaea, ia 1774) ?ac?aaioae
eenei?iaeioth oai?eth ai?aiey. oaea E onoaiiaeaiiiio aei iaai nieneo
(iaoaeeu, yeaiaioia oaea?iae, na?a e oinoi?) aeiaaaee ii iiaua –
eenei?iae, eioi?ue n aianoa aiaei?iaeii aoiaeeo a ninoaa a aiaeu, oaeaea
e ae?oaie eiiiiiaio – aicaeooa ia iiaeaea?aeeaathuee aeecie acio.

Eaaoacuea /oi iieacae, ana i?aaeaea n/eoaaoeany oaioe/aneeie a yaeaiey
oeiee iiaoo auoue nenoaiaoece?iaaiu naaaeaiu e a caeii ni/aoaiey
yeaiaioia, e noa?uo iiauo. A niioaaonoaee n nenoaiie iiaie oeie/aneea
niaaeeiaiey aeaeeeenue a ia iniiaiii o?e eaoaai?ee: eeneiou, iniiaaiey,
?ac niee.

Eaaoacuea e iaanaaaea iieii/ee ni aeoeie/aneie noa?ie iiiaieeaoo?ie,
iniiaaiiie ia neo/aeiuo – annioeeaoeeyo «aeiiia ianei», «aeiiue
eaiaiue», naoa?» «naeioeiaue e ae?. Oaeei ia?acii, ?aoeeiiaeece?iaae
Eaaoacuea oeieth e iauyniee i?e/eio ?aciiia?acey aieueoiai oeie/aneeo
yaeaiee: iia caeeth/aaony iaoa?eaeueiii a ?acee/ee oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia
e niaaeeiaiee. eo Ii aaae (i?e aeoeaiii E. o/anoee Aa?oieea) iiaoth.E.
Iiaay iiiaieeaoo?a ec enoiaeeea oiai, /oi eaaeaeia oeie/aneia aeieaeii
aauanoai eiaoue iaeii ii?aaeaeaiiia iacaaiea, aai oa?aeoa?ecothuaa
ooieoeee e ninoaa.ae. Iai?eia?, eaeey ieneae ninoieo ec eaeey e oei?eae
eenei?iaea, iao?ey – ec iao?ey oei?a, e noeueoeae aiaei?iaea – ec e
aiaei?iaea na?u, e o.

E?iia Eaaoacuea oiai, iinoaaee aii?in e i a eiee/anoaao, eioi?uo
ni/aoathony ?acee/iua yeaiaiou niaie, iaaeaeo e n iiiiuueth caeiia
iaoa?ee nio?aiaiey i?eaae oeieth e i?aaenoaaeaieth iaiaoiaeeiinoe i
eiee/anoaaiiiai au?aaeaiey i?iii?oeee, a ni/aoaeenue eioi?uo yeaiaiou.
Oaeei ia?acii, Eaaoacuea iao/ioth inouanoaee ?aaiethoeeth a oeiee: ii
oeieth i?aa?aoee ec niaieoiiinoe iiiaeanoaa ia ae?oa naycaiiuo n ae?oaii
?aoeaioia, iiaeeaaeaaoeo iaeei eco/aieth ca iaeiei, a iauoth
iniiauaaynue oai?eth, ia eioi?ie iiaeii auei oieueei ia iauyniyoue ana
ecaanoiua yaeaiey, e ii i?aaeneacuaaoue iiaua.

Neaaeothuee aaaeiue a oaa ?acaeoee iao/iie oeiee naeaeai aue Aeae.
Eco/ay oeie/aneee aacia, ninoaa ii enneaaeiaae aaniaua eenei?iaea,
eiee/anoaa i?eoiaeyueany ia iaeii oi e aea aaniaia eiee/anoai (iai?eia?,
aauanoaa acioa) a ?acee/iuo eiee/anoaaiiiio ii ninoaao ieeneao, e
e?aoiinoue onoaiiaee yoeo eiee/anoa, iai?eia?, iyoe a ieeneao acioa
(N2O, N2Ic, NO, NI2 e N2O5) eenei?iaea eiee/anoai ia iaeii e aea oi
aaniaia eiee/anoai acioa eae ioiineony 1:2:3:4:5. Oae aue caeii ioe?uo
e?aoiuo ioiioaiee. I?e ii yoii aaae a oeieth aoiiiiai iiiyoea aana.

Aeaeueoii i?aaeeueii iauyniee caeii yoio aoiiiui no?iaieai aauanoaa
niiniaiinoueth e aoiiia iaeiiai aauanoaa n niaaeeiyoueny ?acee/iui
eiee/anoaii aoiiia aauanoaa.

26. Oeiey XIX aaea: Caeiiu AE.I?onoa, Aae-Ethnnaea, Aaiaaae?i

Ioe?uoua AE. E. Aae-Ethnnaeii a ia/aea 19 a. caeiiu, iienuaathuea
iaeioi?ua naienoaa aacia.

1) Caeii oaieiaiai ?anoe?aiey aacia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi eciaiaiea iau?ia
aeaiiie iannu aaca i?e iinoiyiiii aeaaeaiee i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
eciaiaieth oaiia?aoo?u

(v2 — v1)/v1 = aDt

eee

v2 = v1 (1 + aDt),

aaea v1 — iau?i aaca i?e enoiaeiie oaiia?aoo?a t1; v2 — i?e eiia/iie t2;
Dt = t2 — t1; a — eiyooeoeeaio oaieiaiai ?anoe?aiey aacia i?e iinoiyiiii
aeaaeaiee. Aaee/eia a aeey anao aacia i?e ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo
i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeeiaeiaa e i?e ecia?aiee oaiia?aoo?u aaca a °N a =
1/273,15 (eee 0,00367). Ni/aoay yoio caeii n caeiiii Aieey—Ia?eiooa, Y.
Eeaiae?ii auaae o?aaiaiea ninoiyiey eaeaaeueiiai aaca, naycuaathuaa ?, v
e O (ni. Eeaiae?iia o?aaiaiea).

2) Caeii iau?iiuo ioiioaiee aeaneo, /oi iau?iu aacia, anooiathueo a
oeie/aneoth ?aaeoeeth, iaoiaeyony a i?inouo ioiioaieyo ae?oa e ae?oao e
e iau?iai aaciia?aciuo i?iaeoeoia ?aaeoeee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ioiioaiea
iau?iia, a eioi?uo aacu o/anoaotho a ?aaeoeee, niioaaonoaoao ioiioaieth
iaaieueoeo oeaeuo /enae. Ecia?yy i?e iaeeiaeiauo oneiaeyo iau?iu
aiaei?iaea, oei?a e oei?enoiai aiaei?iaea, Aae-Ethnnae iao?e, /oi iaeei
iau?i aiaei?iaea e iaeei iau?i oei?a, niaaeeiyynue, aeatho aeaa iau?ia
oei?enoiai aiaei?iaea, o. a. ioiioaiea iau?iia ?aaii 1: 1: 2. Noiaeiay
ea?oeia eiaao ianoi e i?e ae?oaeo ?aaeoeeyo n o/anoeai aacia. Yoio caeii
nua?ae aaaeioth ?ieue a nicaeaiee aoiiii-iieaeoey?iie oai?ee. Ii
iineoaeee oie/eii aeey ioe?uoey Aaiaaae?i caeiia, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai
Aaiaaae?i aia?aua naeaeae i?aaeeueiue auaiae i ninoaaa iieaeoe i?inouo
aacia (H2, Cl2, N2 e o.ae.) e no?iai ?aca?aie/ee iiiyoey aoiia e
iieaeoeu. Eiaaea iieaeoey?iua oi?ioeu anao aacia oi/ii ecaanoiu,
iouneaiea ioiioaiey iau?iia aacia, anooiathueo iaaeaeo niaie a
?aaeoeeth, oaea ia o?aaoao neiaeiuo ecia?aiee. Oae, ec o?aaiaiey neioaca
oei?enoiai aiaei?iaea ec aiaei?iaea e oei?a I2 + Cl2 = 2HCl eaaei
aeaeaoue, /oi ioiioaiea iau?iia aacia a yoii neo/aa ?aaii 1: 1: 2.

Caeii Aaiaaiae?i — iaeii ec aaaeiuo iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee oeiee, aeanyuaa,
/oi «a ?aaiuo iau?iao ?acee/iuo aacia, acyouo i?e iaeeiaeiauo
oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeaiee, niaea?aeeony iaeii e oiaea /enei iieaeoe».
Aoi?ia neaaenoaea ec caeiia Aaiaaae?i: iiey?iay ianna ia?aiai aaca ?aaia
i?iecaaaeaieth iiey?iie iannu aoi?iai aaca ia ioiineoaeueioth ieioiinoue
ia?aiai aaca ii aoi?iio.

Caeii I?onoa – Ioe?ue aeae?iieene iaoaeeia, iieacae, /oi iaoaeeu iiaoo
ia?aciauaaoue aieaa iaeiiai ieneaea e noeueoeaea. Auaeaeee ec
aeiia?aaeiiai niea aetheico.

Caeii iinoiyinoaa ninoaaa iaeei ec iniiaiuo caeiiia oeiee: eaaeaeia
ii?aaeae?iiia oeie/aneia niaaeeiaiea, iacaaeneii io niiniaa aai
iieo/aiey, ninoieo ec iaeieo e oao aea yeaiaioia, i?e/?i ioiioaiey eo
iann iinoiyiiu, a ioiineoaeueiua eiee/anoaa eo aoiiia au?aaeathony
oeaeuie /eneaie.

27. Oai?ey oeie/aneiai no?iaiey A. Aooea?iaa

?onneee oeiee, aeaaeaiee Iaoa?ao?aneie Aeaaeaiee Iaoe (n 1874 a.),
i?aaenaaeaoaeue Ioaeaeaiey oeiee ?onneiai oeceei-oeie/aneiai iauanoaa
(1878-1882), ii/aoiue /eai iiiaeo iao/iuo iauanoa. ?iaeeeny a 1828 a. a
*enoiiiea, a 1849 a. ieii/ee Eacaineee oieaa?neoao. ?aaioae oai aea: n
1857 a.- i?ioanni?, a 1860 e 1863 – ?aeoi?. N 1868 a. i?ioanni?
Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa.

Caieiaynue eco/aieai oaeaaiaei?iaeia, Aooea?ia iiiye, /oi iie
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niaa?oaiii iniaue eeann oeie/aneeo aauanoa.
Aiaeece?oy eo no?iaiea e naienoaa, o/aiue caiaoee, /oi caeanue
nouanoaoao no?iaay caeiiiia?iinoue. Iia e eaaea a iniiao nicaeaiiie ei
oai?ee oeie/aneiai no?iaiey.

Iniiaiua eaeae oai?ee oeie/aneiai no?iaiey Aooea?ia aia?aua auneacae a
1861. Aeaaiua iieiaeaiey naiae oai?ee ii eceiaeee a aeieeaaea «I
oeie/aneii no?iaiee aauanoaa», i?i/eoaiiii a oeie/aneie naeoeee Nuacaea
iaiaoeeeo anoanoaieniuoaoaeae e a?a/ae a Oiaea?a.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee oeie/aneiai no?iaiey

Aoiiu a iieaeoeao niaaeeiaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii a ii?aaeaeaiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe niaeanii eo aaeaioiinoyi. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
iaaeaoiiiuo naycae a iieaeoea iacuaaaony aa oeie/aneei no?iaieai e
io?aaeaaony iaeiie no?oeoo?iie oi?ioeie (oi?ioeie no?iaiey).

1. Oeie/aneia no?iaiea iiaeii onoaiaaeeaaoue oeie/aneeie iaoiaeaie. (A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniieuecothony oaeaea nia?aiaiiua oece/aneea iaoiaeu).

2. Naienoaa aauanoa caaenyo io eo oeie/aneiai no?iaiey.

3. Ii naienoaai aeaiiiai aauanoaa iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue no?iaiea aai
iieaeoeu, a ii no?iaieth iieaeoeu – i?aaeaeaeaoue naienoaa.

4. Aoiiu e a?oiiu aoiiia a iieaeoea ieacuaatho acaeiiia aeeyiea ae?oa ia
ae?oaa.

Oai?ey Aooea?iaa yaeeanue iao/iui ooiaeaiaioii i?aaie/aneie oeiee e
niinianoaiaaea auno?iio aa ?acaeoeth. Iie?aynue ia iieiaeaiey oai?ee,
A.I. Aooea?ia aeae iauyniaiea yaeaieth eciia?ee, i?aaeneacae
nouanoaiaaiea ?acee/iuo eciia?ia e aia?aua iieo/ee iaeioi?ua ec ieo.

28. Ia?eiaee/aneay nenoaia Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaaa

Ia?eiaeei/aneay nenoaiia oeiei/aneeo yeaiaiioia (oaaeeioea Iaiaeaeaiaaa)
— eeanneoeeaoeey oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia, onoaiaaeeaathuay caaeneiinoue
?acee/iuo naienoa yeaiaioia io ca?yaea aoiiiiai yae?a. Nenoaia yaeyaony
a?aoe/aneei au?aaeaieai ia?eiaee/aneiai caeiia, onoaiiaeaiiiai ?onneei
oeieeii Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaaui a 1869 aiaeo. A? ia?aiia/aeueiue aa?eaio aue
?ac?aaioai Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaaui a 1869—1871 aiaeao e onoaiaaeeaae
caaeneiinoue naienoa yeaiaioia io ianniaiai /enea aoiiia (eee eo aoiiiie
iannu).

Aei ioe?uoey Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaaa a iaoea oaea auee i?aaei?eiyou iiiuoee
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue oeie/aneea yeaiaiou ii ii?aaeaeaiiui i?eciaeai.

I?aaeoanoaaiieee Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaaa, ioia/ay noiaenoai iaeioi?uo
yeaiaioia, iauaaeeieee eo a ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu eee eeannu. Iai?eia?,
?acaeaeaiea yeaiaioia ia aeaa eeanna — iaoaeeu e iaiaoaeeu — ieacaeinue
iaoi/iui, iioiio /oi anoue oeie/aneea yeaiaiou n aeaienoaaiiuie
naienoaaie — eae iaoaeeia, oae e iaiaoaeeia.

Aaaeiui yoaiii a ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth eeanneoeeaoeee oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia auei iauaaeeiaiea noiaeiuo yeaiaioia a anoanoaaiiua naiaenoaa,
iai?eia? uaei/iua iaoaeeu, aaeiaaiu.

Iaeiaei ana o/aiua, iuoaynue eeanneoeoee?iaaoue oeie/aneea yeaiaiou,
eneaee noiaenoai iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie iaeiiai naiaenoaa, ii ia iiaee naaa
i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi ana yeaiaiou oanii naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii.

Aaieaeueiia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oiai, /oi ana oeie/aneea yeaiaiou
acaeiinaycaiu, naeaeae auaeathueeny ?onneee oeiee Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaa,
eioi?ue n?aaiee eo ia iniiaa aeaoo naienoa: aoiiiie iannu e aaeaioiinoe,
o. a. niiniaiinoe ia?aciauaaoue ecaanoiua oi?iu niaaeeiaiee (ieneaeu,
aiaei?iaeiua niaaeeiaiey e ae?.).

Nouiinoue ioe?uoey Iaiaeaeaaaa caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi n ?inoii aoiiiie
iannu oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia eo naienoaa iaiythony ia iiiioiiii, a
ia?eiaee/anee. Iinea ii?aaeae?iiiai eiee/anoaa ?aciuo ii naienoaai
yeaiaioia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ii aic?anoaieth aoiiiiai aana, naienoaa
ia/eiatho iiaoi?youeny. Iai?eia?, iao?ee iioiae ia eaeee, ooi? iioiae ia
oei?, a cieioi iioiaea ia na?aa?i e iaaeue. ?acoiaaony, naienoaa ia
iiaoi?ythony a oi/iinoe, e iei aeiaaaeythony e eciaiaiey. Ioee/eai
?aaiou Iaiaeaeaaaa io ?aaio aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeia auei oi, /oi iniia
aeey eeanneoeeaoeee yeaiaioia o Iaiaeaeaaaa auea ia iaeia, a aeaa —
aoiiiay ianna e oeie/aneia noiaenoai. Aeey oiai, /oiau ia?eiaee/iinoue
iieiinoueth niaethaeaeanue, Iaiaeaeaaaui auee i?aaei?eiyou i/aiue niaeua
oaae: ii eni?aaee aoiiiua iannu iaeioi?uo yeaiaioia, ianeieueei
yeaiaioia ?acianoee a naiae nenoaia aii?aee i?eiyoui a oi a?aiy
i?aaenoaaeaieyi ia eo noiaenoaa n ae?oaeie (iai?eia?, oaeeee,
n/eoaaoeeny uaei/iui iaoaeeii, ii iiianoee a o?aoueth a?oiio niaeanii
aai oaeoe/aneie iaeneiaeueiie aaeaioiinoe), inoaaee a oaaeeoea ionoua
eeaoee, aaea aeieaeiu auee ?acianoeoueny iiea ia ioe?uoua yeaiaiou. A
1871 aiaeo ia iniiaa yoeo ?aaio Iaiaeaeaaa noi?ioee?iaae Ia?eiaee/aneee
caeii (ooiaeaiaioaeueiue caeii, onoaiaaeeaathuee ia?eiaee/aneia
eciaiaiea naienoa oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia a caaeneiinoe io oaaee/aiey
ca?yaeia yaea? eo aoiiia.), oi?ia eioi?ay ni a?aiaiai auea ianeieueei
oniaa?oainoaiaaia.

Ia?eiaee/aneay nenoaia Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaaa noaea aaaeiaeoae aaoie a
?acaeoee aoiiii-iieaeoey?iiai o/aiey. Aeaaiaea?y ae neiaeeeinue
nia?aiaiiia iiiyoea i oeie/aneii yeaiaioa, auee ooi/iaiu i?aaenoaaeaiey
i i?inouo aauanoaao e niaaeeiaieyo.

29. 4 yoaia noaiiaeaiey oeiee eae iaoee

1. I?aaeaeoeie/aneee ia?eiae: aei III a. i.y.

A i?aaeaeoeie/aneii ia?eiaea oai?aoe/aneee e i?aeoe/aneee aniaeou ciaiee
i aauanoaa ?acaeaathony ioiineoaeueii iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa.
I?ienoiaeaeaiea naienoa aauanoaa ?anniao?eaaao aioe/iay iaoo?oeeinioey,
i?aeoe/aneea iia?aoeee n aauanoaii yaeythony i?a?iaaoeaie ?aianeaiiie
oeiee.

2. Aeoeie/aneee ia?eiae: III – XVI aa.

Aeoeie/aneee ia?eiae, a naith i/a?aaeue, ?acaeaeyaony ia o?e
iiaeia?eiaea: Nieiaueaa TH.E. Enoi?ey oeiee. ?acaeoea oeiee n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?ai?i aei eiioea XIX aaea. – I.: I?inaauaiea, 1983.

· aeaenaiae?eeneoth,

· a?aaneoth

· aa?iiaeneoth aeoeieth.

Aeoeie/aneee ia?eiae – yoi a?aiy iieneia oeeinioneiai eaiiy,
n/eoaaoaainy iaiaoiaeeiui aeey inouanoaeaiey o?ainiooaoeee iaoaeeia.

A yoii ia?eiaea i?ienoiaeeo ca?iaeaeaiea yenia?eiaioaeueiie oeiee e
iaeiieaiea caiana ciaiee i aauanoaa; aeoeie/aneay oai?ey, iniiaaiiay ia
aioe/iuo oeeinioneeo i?aaenoaaeaieyo ia yeaiaioao, oanii naycaia n
ano?ieiaeae e ienoeeie. Ia?yaeo n oeieei-oaoie/aneei “ceaoiaeaeeai”
aeoeie/aneee ia?eiae i?eia/aoaeai oaeaea e nicaeaieai oieeaeueiie
nenoaiu ienoe/aneie oeeinioee.

3. Ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey (iauaaeeiaiey): XVII – XVIII aa.

A ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey oeiee eae iaoee i?ienoiaeeo a? iieiay
?aoeeiiaeecaoeey. Oeiey inaiaiaeaeaaony io iaoo?oeeinioneeo e
aeoeie/aneeo acaeyaeia ia yeaiaiou eae ia iineoaee ii?aaeae?iiuo
ea/anoa. Ia?yaeo n ?anoe?aieai i?aeoe/aneeo ciaiee i aauanoaa ia/eiaao
au?aaaouaaoueny aaeeiue acaeyae ia oeie/aneea i?ioeannu e a iieiie ia?a
eniieueciaaoueny yenia?eiaioaeueiue iaoiae. Caaa?oathuay yoio ia?eiae
oeie/aneay ?aaiethoeey ieii/aoaeueii i?eaea?o oeiee aeae
naiinoiyoaeueiie iaoee, caieiathuaeny yenia?eiaioaeueiui eco/aieai
ninoaaa oae.

4. Ia?eiae eiee/anoaaiiuo caeiiia (aoiiii-iieaeoey?iie oai?ee): 1789 –
1860 aa.

Ia?eiae eiee/anoaaiiuo caeiiia, iciaiaiiaaaoeeny ioe?uoeai aeaaiuo
eiee/anoaaiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae oeiee – noaoeiiao?e/aneeo caeiiia, e
oi?ie?iaaieai aoiiii-iieaeoey?iie oai?ee, ieii/aoaeueii caaa?oaao
i?aa?auaiea oeiee a oi/ioth iaoeo, iniiaaiioth ia oieueei ia
iaaethaeaiee, ii e ia ecia?aiee.

5. Ia?eiae eeanne/aneie oeiee: 1860 a. – eiiaoe XIX a.

Ia?eiae eeanne/aneie oeiee oa?aeoa?ecoaony no?aieoaeueiui ?acaeoeai
iaoee: nicaea?ony ia?eiaee/aneay nenoaia yeaiaioia, oai?ey aaeaioiinoe e
oeie/aneiai no?iaiey iieaeoe, noa?aioeiey, oeie/aneay oa?iiaeeiaieea e
oeie/aneay eeiaoeea; aeanoyueo oniaoia aeinoeaatho i?eeeaaeiay
iai?aaie/aneay oeiey e i?aaie/aneee neioac. A nayce n ?inoii iau?ia
ciaiee i aauanoaa e aai naienoaao ia/eiaaony aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oeiee –
auaeaeaiea a? ioaeaeueiuo aaoaae, i?eia?aoathueo /a?ou naiinoiyoaeueiuo
iaoe.

30. Nouiinoue e i?ienoiaeaeaiea aeecie

Aii?inu i i?ienoiaeaeaiee i?e?iaeu e nouiinoe aeecie ecaeaaia noaee
i?aaeiaoii eioa?ana /aeiaaea a aai no?aieaiee ?acia?aoueny a
ie?oaeathuai ie?a, iiiyoue naiiai naay e ii?aaeaeeoue naia ianoi a
i?e?iaea.

Iiiaiaaeiaua enneaaeiaaiey e iiiuoee ?aoaiey yoeo aii?inia ii?iaeeee
?aciua eiioeaioeee aicieeiiaaiey aeecie: e?aaoeeiieci – nioai?aiea
aeecie Aiaii; eiioeaioeey naiii?iecaieueiiai ca?iaeaeaiey ec iaaeeaiai
aauanoaa; eiioeaioeey noaoeeiia?iiai ninoiyiey, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie
aeeciue nouanoaiaaea anaaaea e eiioeaioeey aiacaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey
aeecie a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Eiioeaioeey e?aaoeeiiecia, ii nouanoao, iao/iie ia yaeyaony, iineieueeo
iia aicieeea a ?aieao ?aeeaeiciiai ie?iaicc?aiey. Iia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
aeeciue oaeiaa, eaeiaa iia anoue, iioiio /oi oaeie aa nioai?ee Aia. Oai
naiui i?aeoe/anee nieiaaony aii?in i iao/iii ?aoaiee i?iaeaiu
i?ienoiaeaeaiey e nouiinoe aeecie. Oai ia iaiaa, yoa eiioeaioeey
i?iaeieaeaea e i?iaeieaeaao iieueciaaoueny aeiaieueii aieueoie
iiioey?iinoueth.

Inoaeueiua eiioeaioeee iiyaeythony iicaea, ii aieioue aei XIX aaea ie
iaeia ec ieo ia niiaea noi?ie?iaaoue aaeeioth aeieiae/aneoth ea?oeio
ie?a e oai naiui aeaoue i?eaieaiia iauyniaiea i?ienoiaeaeaieth aeecie.

A XIX aaea a aeieiaee aicieeee eiioeaioeee iaoaienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia
e aeoaeecia – aa?oeia aeieiaee oiai a?aiaie, iaaeaeo eioi?uie ia/aeanue
iaeanoi/aiiay ai?ueaa eaeae i i?ienoiaeaeaiee e nouiinoe aeecie.
Iaoaienoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci ia i?eciaaae ea/anoaaiiie niaoeeoeee aeeauo
i?aaieciia e i?aaenoaaeye aeeciaiiua i?ioeannu eae ?acoeueoao aeaenoaey
oeie/aneeo e oece/aneeo i?ioeannia. I?ioeaiiieiaeiie oi/eie c?aiey noae
aeoaeeci (io eao. vitalis – aeeciaiiue), eioi?ue iauyniye ea/anoaaiiia
ioee/ea aeeaiai io iaaeeaiai iaee/eai a aeeauo i?aaieciao iniaie
«aeeciaiiie neeu», ionoonoaothuae a iaaeeauo i?aaeiaoao e ia
iiae/eiythuaeny oece/aneei caeiiai.

a 60-a aiaeu XIX aaea a ?acaa?ioaoaeny iaaeaeo O.A. Iooa e E. Ianoa?ii
aeeneonnee, iio?aaiaaaoae yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, oaeaeinue
no?iai iao/ii iainiiaaoue ianinoiyoaeueiinoue yoie eiioeaioeee. Iiuou
Ianoa?a i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee, /oi iee?ii?aaieciu iiyaeythony a
i?aaie/aneeo ?anoai?ao a neeo oiai, /oi ooaea auee ?aiaa caianaiu eo
ca?iaeuoe.

A 1908 a. oaaaeneee oeiee Naaioa A??aieon iiaeaea?aeae aeiioaco
i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ec einiina. Ii auneacae iuneue, /oi aeeciue ia
Caiea ia/aeanue oiaaea, eiaaea ia iaoo ieaiaoo ec einiina iiiaee
ca?iaeuoe aeecie.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia iaiyeenue acaeyaeu ia yoo i?iaeaio,
ii iaoea ana aua aeaeaea io aa ?aoaiey. Eae e noi, e aeaanoe eao iacaae,
naaiaeiy i?iaeieaeathony nii?u i nouiinoe aeecie: yaeyaony ee iia i?inoi
/?acau/aeii oii?yaei/aiiui ninoiyieai iau/iuo aoiiia e iieaeoe, ec
eioi?uo ninoieo «aeeaia aauanoai», eee nouanoaotho iiea ia ioe?uoua
yeaiaioa?iua «/anoeoeu aeecie», ia?aaiaeyuea iau/iua oeie/aneea e
oece/aneea aauanoaa a aeeaia ninoiyiea. Aaneeo aeieacaoaeuenoa e
a?aoiaioia a iieueco ni?aaaaeeeainoe oie eee eiie oi/ee c?aiey iao, e
auai? iiceoeee ii?aaeaeyaony aioo?aiieie oaaaeaeaieyie eaaeaeiai
o/anoieea nii?a.

31. Neioaoe/aneay oai?ey yaiethoeee

Neioaoe/aneay oai?ey yaiethoeee (NOY) — nia?aiaiiay yaiethoeeiiiay
oai?ey, eioi?ay yaeyaony neioacii ?acee/iuo aeenoeeieei, i?aaeaea anaai,
aaiaoeee e aea?aeiecia. NOY oaeaea iie?aaony ia iaeaiioieiaeth,
nenoaiaoeeo, iieaeoey?ioth aeieiaeth e ae?oaea.

Neioaoe/aneay oai?ey yaiethoeee — nia?aiaiiue aea?aeieci — aicieeea a
ia/aea 40-o aiaeia XX a. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o/aiea ia yaiethoeee
i?aaie/aneiai ie?a, ?ac?aaioaiiia ia iniiaa aeaiiuo nia?aiaiiie
aaiaoeee, yeieiaee e eeanne/aneiai aea?aeiecia. Oa?iei «neioaoe/aneay»
eaeao io iacaaiey eieae ecaanoiiai aiaeeeneiai yaiethoeeiienoa Aeae.
Oaenee «Yaiethoeey: nia?aiaiiue neioac» (1942). A ?ac?aaioeo
neioaoe/aneie oai?ee yaiethoeee aianee aeeaae iiiaea o/aiua.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey neioaoe/aneie oai?ee yaiethoeee a iaueo /a?oao
iiaeii au?aceoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey neioaoe/aneie oai?ee yaiethoeee a iaueo /a?oao
iiaeii au?aceoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1. Iaoa?eaeii aeey yaiethoeee neoaeao ianeaaenoaaiiua eciaiaiey —
iooaoeee (eae i?aaeei, aaiiua) e eo eiiaeiaoeee.

2. Iniiaiui aeaeaeouei oaeoi?ii yaiethoeee yaeyaony anoanoaaiiue ioai?,
aicieeathuee ia iniiaa ai?ueau ca nouanoaiaaiea.

3. Iaeiaiueoae aaeeieoeae yaiethoeee yaeyaony iiioeyoeey.

4. Yaiethoeey iineo a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aeeaa?aaioiue oa?aeoa?, o. a.
iaeei oaenii iiaeao noaoue i?aaeeii ianeieueeeo aei/a?ieo oaeniiia.

5. Yaiethoeey iineo iinoaiaiiue e aeeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.
Aeaeiia?aciaaiea eae yoai yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iineaaeiaaoaeueioth niaio iaeiie a?aiaiiie iiioeyoeee /a?aaeie
iineaaeothueo a?aiaiiuo iiioeyoeee.

6. Aeae ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa niiiae/eiaiiuo, ii?oieiae/anee,
oeceieiae/anee, yeieiae/anee, aeioeie/anee e aaiaoe/anee ioee/iuo, ii
?ai?iaeoeoeaii ia eciee?iaaiiuo aaeeieoe — iiaeaeaeia e iiioeyoeee.

7. Aeae nouanoaoao eae oeaeinoiia e caieiooia ia?aciaaiea. Oeaeinoiinoue
aeaea iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iea?aoeeyie iniaae ec iaeiie iiioeyoeee a
ae?oaoth, i?e eioi?uo iaaethaeaaony iaiai aeeaeyie («iioie aaiia»),

8. Iae?iyaiethoeey ia aieaa aunieii o?iaia, /ai aeae (?iae, naiaenoai,
io?yae, eeann e ae?.), eaeao iooai iee?iyaiethoeee. Niaeanii
neioaoe/aneie oai?ee yaiethoeee, ia nouanoaoao caeiiiia?iinoae
iae?iyaiethoeee, ioee/iuo io iee?iyaiethoeee. Eiuie neiaaie, aeey
yaiethoeee a?oii aeaeia aeeauo i?aaieciia oa?aeoa?iu oa aea i?aaeiinueee
e aeaeaeouea neeu, /oi e aeey iee?iyaiethoeee.

9. Ethaie ?aaeueiue (a ia nai?iue) oaenii eiaao iiiioeeaoe-/aneia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea.

10. Yaiethoeey eiaao iaiai?aaeaiiue oa?aeoa?, o. a. ia eaeao a
iai?aaeaiee eaeie-eeai eiia/iie oeaee.

Neioaoe/aneay oai?ey yaiethoeee ane?uea aeoaeiiua iaoaieciu
yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, iaeiieea iiiaeanoai iiauo oaeoia e
aeieacaoaeuenoa yaiethoeee aeeauo i?aaieciia, iauaaeeieea aeaiiua iiiaeo
aeieiae/aneeo iaoe. Oai ia iaiaa neioaoe/aneay oai?ey yaiethoeee (eee
iaiaea?aeieci) iaoiaeeony a ?onea oao eaeae e iai?aaeaiee, eioi?ua auee
caeiaeaiu *. Aea?aeiii.

32. Aeiyoeea: caaea/e e i?eioeeiu

Aeiyoeea – yoi iiaue o?iaaiue a nenoaia i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee eioi?ue
naycai n aeieiae/aneei ?acaeoeai /aeiaaea, n aai ii?iaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoue. Naaiaeiy aeiyoeea – yoi aieueoa /ai i?inoi ?acaeae
oeeinioee. Aeiyoeea – yoi iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iay iaeanoue /aeiaa/aneiai
ciaiey, a oi?ie?iaaiee eioi?ie o/anoaotho iaaeeee, aeieiae, th?enou,
nioeeieiae, oeeiniou e i?aaenoaaeoaeae ae?oaeo i?ioannee.

Ia?aia ?acaa?iooia ianoaeaeaiea i?iaeai aeiyoeee ninoiyeinue a a.
Ith?iaa?aa a 1946 a. Yoi auei naycaii n iaaeeoeeineeie enneaaeiaaieyie
ia ethaeyo, i?iaiaeeiuie iaioeaie a aiaeu Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Ia
Ith?iaa?aneii i?ioeanna auei i?aaeuyaeaii iaaeiaiea 23 iaiaoeeei
o/aiui-iaaeeeai.

Caaea/e aeiyoeee: oi?ie?iaaiea i?eioeeiia ii?aeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, eioi?ia ia ia?aie/eaaei au naiaiaeo iaoee, ii
iaania/eaaei au e nioeeaeueioth caueoo a?aaeaeai e eioa?anu iauanoaa.
Eae neaaenoaea, aeiyoeea oi?ie?oao ie?iaicc?aiea iauanoaa a oeaeii,
cae?aieaiiia a i?aaiauo ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo caeiiao e
aeaeea?aoeeyo.

Nia?aiaiiay aeiyoeea eiaao 2 iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey:

1.iaaeeoeeineia – neiioeaio?e?iaaii aie?oa ioiioaiee “a?a/-iaoeeaio”,
/aua anaai yoi iai?aaeaiea iacuaatho aeiiaaeeoeeineie yoeeie eee
iaaeeoeeineie aeiyoeeie;

2.yeieiae/aneia – iainiiauaaao oeaiiinoue e i?aaa ioaeaeueiuo aeeauo
nouanoa (aeioeaio?eci) e i?e?iaeiuo yeinenoai, aeeeie i?e?iaeu,
aeiaaioeaiicia e i?. (yeioeaio?eci).

Aeaaiay eaeay aeiyoeee ninoieo a oii, /oi iaua/aeiaa/aneea oeaiiinoe ia
aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny ioaeaeueii io aeieiae/aneeo oaeoia – /aeiaae
ana aua yaeyaony /anoueth i?e?iaeu, aio iaiaoiaeeia caei?iaay ieua,
naaaeee aicaeoo, /enoay aiaea, aeeeea oaieee i?e?iaeu, ii ia iiaeao
nouanoaiaaoue aac aeeaioiuo, aac eania, ?ae e ii/au, eioi?ua yaeythony
ia oieueei yeieiae/aneeie ?ano?naie, ii e aeaaiui oneiaeai auaeeaaiey
/aeiaa/anoaa.

33. Ia?aaea/a yia?aee nieia/iiai naaoa aaa?o ii o?ioe/. o?iaiyi ieuaaie
naoe yeinenoai

Yeinenoaia eee yeieiae/aneay nenoaia (io a?a/. oikos — aeeeeua,
ianoii?aauaaiea e nenoaia), i?e?iaeiue eiiieaen (aeieiniay nenoaia),
ia?aciaaiiue aeeauie i?aaieciaie (aeioeaiic) e n?aaeie eo iaeoaiey
(einiie, iai?eia? aoiinoa?a, eee aeieiniie — ii/aa, aiaei?i e o. i.),
naycaiiuie iaaeaeo niaie iaiaiii aauanoa e yia?aee. Iaeii ec iniiaiuo
iiiyoee yeieiaee, i?eeiaeeiia e iauaeoai ?aciie neiaeiinoe e ?acia?ia.

Iioie yia?aee a yeinenoaia. ?anoaiey niiniaiu iiaeioeoue eeoue iaeoth
/anoue yia?aee nieia/iuo eo/ae, iaaeathueo ia eo eenouey.
I?eaeeceoaeueii 95- 99 % yia?aee io?aaeaaony io eenoiaie iiaa?oiinoe,
ia?aoiaeeo a oaiei eeai ?anoiaeoaony ia enia?aiea aeaae ec onoueeoe, e
oieueei 1-5 % naaoiaie yia?aee iiaeiuaaony oei?ioeeeii. Yia?aey nieioea,
iiaeiuaiiay ?anoaieyie ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie, iacuaaaony aaeiaie
ia?ae/iie i?iaeoeoeeae. Io 20 aei 40 % yoie yia?aee ?anoaiey ?anoiaeotho
ia aeuoaiea; inoaaoeany 60-80 % i?aa?auathony a /enooth ia?ae/ioth
i?iaeoeoeeth – yia?aeth oeie/aneeo naycae, iineieueeo eniieuecothony
aeey neioaca aieueoeo iieeia?iuo iieaeoe, ec eioi?uo no?iyony oeaie
?anoaiee. *enooth ia?ae/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth eia/a iacuaatho nei?inoueth
i?e?inoa oeoiiannu (noiia?iie iannu ?anoaiee aeaiiiai niiauanoaa). I?e
iiaaeaiee ?anoaiee o?aaiyaeiuie aeeaioiuie yia?aey ia?aoiaeeo n
aauanoaii ieue ia neaaeothuee o?ioe/aneee o?iaaiue. Iaia?aaa?aiiua
inoaoee ieue aua?anuaathony e ia?a?aaaouaathony ?aaeooeaioaie,
iaeoathueie a ii/aa. AEeaioiua, eae e ?anoaiey, oa?ytho /anoue yia?aee
i?e aeuoaiee. Yia?aey, inoaaoayny iinea iioa?ue, naycaiiuo n aeuoaieai,
auaeaeaieai e yene?aoeeae, eaeao ia ?ino e ?aciiiaeaiea aeeaioiuo –
oaaee/aiea ciiiannu. Yia?aey, caianaiiay a oaeao ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiuo e
oeuiuo aeeaioiuo (eiinoiaioia) ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie, iacuaaaony
aoi?e/iie i?iaeoeoeeae. Ia ?enoiea iieacaii, /oi i?e ia?aoiaea n iaeiiai
o?ioe/aneiai o?iaiy ia ae?oaie /anoue yia?aee iaycaoaeueii oa?yaony.
Iiyoiio i?iaeoeoeey aeeauo nouanoa eaaeaeiai neaaeothuaai o?iaiy
iaiueoa, /ai i?aaeuaeouaai. A nayce n yoei niioiioaiea i?iaeoeoeee anao
o?iaiae yeinenoaiu iau/ii au?aaeaaony ie?aieaeie; aa iacuaatho
o?ioe/aneie (eee yia?aaoe/aneie) ie?aieaeie. Iioa?y yia?aee ia eaaeaeii
o?iaia icia/aao, /oi ia aunoeo o?iaiyo aa eiee/anoai iaaaeeei. Iiyoiio
ieuaaua naoe ?aaeei ninoiyo aieaa /ai ec 4-5 o?iaiae: ?anoaiey,
?anoeoaeueiiyaeiua, aeaa eee o?e o?iaiy ieioiyaeiuo. I?eaaaeeoa i?eia?:
aieee e oea?u caieiatho aa?oeio o?ioe/aneie ie?aieaeu e ieoathony
o?aaiyaeiuie aeeaioiuie eee iaeeeie oeuieeaie. *oiau iaeoe i?iieoaiea,
aiee i?iaaaaao ca aeaiue aei 30 ei, a ieiuaaeue ioioie/ueaai o/anoea
oea?a aeioiaeeo aei 300 ea. ei. I?aaenoaaueoa naaa, neieueei nee
aeieaeii auei au o?aoeoue ia iiene aeiau/e aeeaioiia, ieoathueany
oea?aie eee aieeaie, eioi?ua aeeaoo ia oaeii ?annoiyiee ae?oa io ae?oaa.
I?e yoii eiee/anoai yia?aee, eioi?ia iiaeii iieo/eoue ec nuaaeaiiiai
aieea eee oea?a, auei au cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai yia?aey, cao?a/aiiay
ia ioioo. Caaa?oay iauyniaiea yoie eeethno?aoeee, oeaaeeoa ia aeaaiue
oaeo: i?aaieciu ia aeeaoo ia caiea iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa;
nouanoaoao iioie aauanoaa e yia?aee, iauaaeeiythuee anao iaeoaoaeae a
aaeeiia oeaeia – yeinenoaio.

34. Iiinoa?a. O/aiea Aa?iaaeneiai i iiinoa?a

Iiinoa?a — iiaay, aunoay noaaeey yaiethoeee aeinoa?u, noaiiaeaiea
eioi?ie naycaii n ?acaeoeai /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, ieacuaathuaai
aeoaieia aicaeaenoaea ia i?e?iaeiua i?ioeannu. Niaeanii Aa?iaaeneiio, «a
aeinoa?a nouanoaoao aaeeeay aaieiae/aneay, auoue iiaeao, einie/aneay
neea, ieaiaoiia aeaenoaea eioi?ie iau/ii ia i?eieiaaony ai aieiaiea a
i?aaenoaaeaieyo i einiina… Yoa neea anoue ?acoi /aeiaaea, ono?aieaiiay e
i?aaieciaaiiay aiey aai eae nouanoaa iauanoaaiiiai».

Aeaaeeie? Eaaiiae/ Aa?iaaeneee (1863—1945). N eiaiai Aa?iaaeneiai e
naycaii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iiyaeaiea iiinoa?iiai o/aiey.

A iiinoa?iii o/aiee *aeiaae i?aaenoa?o oei?ai?iiui a I?e?iaeo, a
«eneonnoaaiiia» ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?aaie/aneay /anoue e iaeei ec
oaeoi?ia (oneeeaathueeny ai a?aiaie) yaiethoeee «anoanoaaiiiai». Iaiauay
n iiceoeee iaoo?aeenoa /aeiaa/aneoth enoi?eth, Aa?iaaeneee aeaeaao
auaiae i oii, /oi /aeiaa/anoai a oiaea naiaai ?acaeoey i?aa?auaaony a
iiaoth iiuioth aaieiae/aneoth neeo, naiae iuneueth e o?oaeii
i?aia?acothuoth eee ieaiaou. Niioaaonoaaiii, iii a oeaeyo naiaai
nio?aiaiey aeieaeii aoaeao acyoue ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?acaeoea
aeinoa?u, i?aa?auathuaeny a iiinoa?o, a yoi iio?aaoao io iaai
ii?aaeae?iiie nioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee e iiaie, yeieiae/aneie e
iaeiia?aiaiii aoiaienoe/aneie yoeee.

Iiinoa?o iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae aaeeinoai «i?e?iaeu» e
«eoeueoo?u». Nai Aa?iaaeneee aiai?ee i iae oi eae i ?aaeueiinoe
aoaeouaai, oi eae i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaoeo aeiae, /oi iaoaeeaeoaeueii,
iineieueeo ii iuneee ianooaaaie aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie. «Aeinoa?a ia ?ac
ia?aoiaeeea a iiaia yaiethoeeiiiia ninoiyiea… — ioia/aao A. E.
Aa?iaaeneee. — Yoi ia?aaeeaaai iu e nae/an, ca iineaaeiea 10—20 ouny/
eao, eiaaea /aeiaae, au?aaioaa a nioeeaeueiie n?aaea iao/ioth iuneue,
nicaea?o a aeinoa?a iiaoth aaieiae/aneoth neeo, a iae ia auaaeoth.
Aeinoa?a ia?aoea eee, aa?iaa, ia?aoiaeeo a iiaia yaiethoeeiiiia
ninoiyiea — a iiinoa?o — ia?a?aaaouaaaony iao/iie iuneueth nioeeaeueiiai
/aeiaaea» («Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea»). Oaeei ia?acii,
iiiyoea «iiinoa?a» i?aaenoa?o a aeaoo aniaeoao:

1) iiinoa?a a noaaeee noaiiaeaiey, ?acaeaathuayny noeoeeii n iiiaioa
iiyaeaiey /aeiaaea;

2) iiinoa?a ?acaeoay, niciaoaeueii oi?ie?oaiay niaianoiuie oneeeyie
ethaeae a eioa?anao ananoi?iiiaai ?acaeoey anaai /aeiaa/anoaa e
eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea.

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