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Концепции и принципы биологического естествознания

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?a??o

«E???? e ???iu ??????? ??????ey»

1. I??? ??????? ???ey e ????a ??????o ??

Enoi?e/anee aeieiaey ?acaeaaeanue eae iienaoaeueiay (oaiiiaiieiae/aneay)
iaoea i iiiaiia?aciuo oi?iao, aeaeao e acaeiinaycyo ?anoeoaeueiiai e
aeeaioiiai ie?a. Yoi iicaieyao a ia/aea XXI aaea ii?aaeaeeoue aa eae
niaieoiiinoue iaoe i aeeaie i?e?iaea, iiiaiia?acee nouanoaiaaaoeo e
nouanoaothueo aeeauo i?aaieciia, eo no?iaiee e ooieoeeyo,
i?ienoiaeaeaiee, ?ani?ino?aiaiee e ?acaeoee, naycyo ae?oa n ae?oaii e n
iaaeeaie i?e?iaeie. Aeieiaey onoaiaaeeaaao caeiiiia?iinoe, aicieeathuea
a aeeauo nenoaiao ai anao eo i?iyaeaieyo (iaoaaieeci eee iaiai aauanoa,
ianeaaenoaaiiinoue, eciai/eainoue, ?ino, ?acae?aaeeiinoue,
iiaeaeaeiinoue, i?eniiniaeyaiinoue e ae?.).

A aeieiaee, eae ie a eaeie ae?oaie iaoea, aaaeiaeooth ?ieue ea?aee e
ea?atho iaoiaeu aiaeeca, nenoaiaoecaoeee e eeanneoeeaoeee yiie?e/aneiai
iaoa?eaea, caeiaeaiiua aia?aua A?enoioaeai, caoai i?iaeieaeaiiua E.
Eeiiaai (1707-1778 aa.), AE. Athooiiii (1707-1788 aa.), AE. Eaia?eii
(1744-1829 aa.), Y. Naio-Eea?ii (1772-1844 aa.) e aaeeeei *. Aea?aeiii
(1809-1882 aa.). No?oeoo?o aeieiaee eae iaoee, eae iaoe?iie niaieoiiinoe
iaoe naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy, iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue n ianeieueeeo oi/ae
c?aiey eeanneoeeaoeee e nenoaiaoecaoeee: ii iauaeoai, ii naienoaai, ii
o?iaiyi i?aaiecaoeee aeeaiai, auaeaeyoue a iae iniiaiua yoaiu e
aeieiae/aneea ia?aaeeaiu.

Ii iauaeoai enneaaeiaaiey aeieiaeth iiae?acaeaeytho ia ae?onieiaeth,
aaeoa?eieiaeth, aioaieeo, ciieiaeth, aio?iiieiaeth.

Ii naienoaai, i?iyaeaieyi aeeaiai aeiioneaaony neaaeothuay
eeanneoeeaoeey aeieiae/aneeo iaoe: ii?oieiaey — iaoea i no?iaiee aeeauo
i?aaieciia; oeceieiaey — iaoea i ooieoeeiie?iaaiee i?aaieciia;
iieaeoey?iay aeieiaey — iaoea i iee?ino?oeoo?a aeeauo oeaiae e eeaoie;
aeiyeieiaey — iaoea ia ia?aca aeecie niiauanoa ?anoeoaeueiiai e
aeeaioiiai ie?a, eo acaeiinaycyo n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie; aaiaoeea —
iaoea i ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e eciai/eainoe.

Ii o?iaith i?aaiecaoeee aeeauo i?aaieciia auaeaeytho: aiaoiieth – iaoeo
i iae?ineiie/aneii no?iaiee aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea; aenoieiaeth — iaoeo i
no?iaiee oeaiae; oeeoieiaeth — iaoeo i no?iaiee aeeauo eeaoie.

Enoi?e/anee a aeieiaee naa?oeeenue o?e yoaia: 1-e — nenoaiaoeee (E.
Eeiiae); II-e — yaiethoeeiiiue (*. Aea?aei); III-e — aeieiaee iee?iie?a
(O. Iaiaeaeue, 1822-1884 aa.), eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo ii?iaeaeae
niioaaonoaothuoth aeieiae/aneoth ia?aaeeaio (iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth
i?ia?aiio).

Auyaeaiiua a oiaea eco/aiey aeeaiai ianooaau iicaieytho aeaoue
neaaeothuoth ea?a?oeth (no?oeoo?o) o?iaiae i?aaiecaoeee aeeauo nenoai, a
eioi?ie io?aaeaiu eo neiaeiinoue e caeiiiia?iinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey:

ue Aeinoa?iue — ?anniao?eaathuee oeaeinoiinoue anao aeeauo i?aaieciia e
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, ii?iaeaeathuee aeiaaeueioth yeieiaeth ieaiaou.

ue O?iaaiue aeiaaioeaiicia — no?oeoo?iue o?iaaiue aaeeinoaa oei?u e
oaoiu (aeioeaiica) n ianaeyaiie aaia?aoe/aneie iaeanoueth ieaiaou.

Aeaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeiaaioeaiica i?aaeeiaeee auaeathueeny niaaoneee
aeieia A. I. Noea/aa; oiio?aaeyaony eae neiiiei yeinenoaiu)

ue Iiioeyoeeiiii-aeaeiaie o?iaaiue — ia?acothueeny naiaiaeii
ne?aueaathueieny iaaeaeo niaie iniayie iaeiiai e oiai aea aeaea.

ue I?aaieciaiiue eee i?aaii-oeaiaaue o?iaaiue — ana ia ioaeaeueiuo
iniayo: no?iaiea; oeceieiaey; iiaaaeaiea; ooieoeee i?aaiia e oeaiae.

ue Eeaoi/iue e noaeeaoi/iue o?iaie — io?aaeathuea iniaaiiinoe
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e niaoeeaeecaoeeth eeaoie, aioo?eeeaoi/iuo
iniaaiiinoae.

ue Iieaeoey?iue o?iaaiue, ia eioi?ii ?aoathony i?iaeaiu aaiaoeee, aaiiie
eiaeaia?ee e aeioaoiieiaee.

Ia eiay aiciiaeiinoe inaaoeoue ana aniaeou aeieiae/aneeo no?oeoo? e
eiioeaioeee, inoaiiaeiny eeoue ia iniai cia/eiuo.

2. Aeiioacu aicieeiiaaiey aeecie e aaiaoe/aneiai eiaea

Ia?auie iinoaaeee eae iao/ioth i?iaeaio e auaeaeioee aeiioaco
aaeiaaiiiai neioaca i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee a oneiaeyo ia?aiauoiie
Caiee ?onneee aeioeiee A. E. Iia?ei (1894-1980 aa.), aiaeeeneee oeceieia
Aeae. Oieaeaei (1860-1936 aa.) e aiaeeeneee oecee Aeae. Aa?iay
(1901-1971 aa.). Neiaeiinoue i?iaeaiu naiie aeecie, iaiiieiaiea iiiaeo
oaeoi?ia e yaeaiee, eiathueo ianoi ia o?iaia eeaoie e i?aaieciia
(aicieeiiaaiea iao?e/iiai iaoaiecia, oieaa?naeueiinoue aaiaoe/aneiai
eiaea i?e ionoonoaee oieaa?naeueiinoe aaeeia, iniaaiiinoe no?oeoo?u AeIE
e ae?.)» canoaaeea iiiaeo o/aiuo ca/anooth ia?auaoueny e oaioanoe/aneei
aeiioacai e oai?eyi i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie. Oae aicieeee aeiioacu oeia:
aeeciue nicaeaia Aiaii; caianaia ia Caieth ec einiina; aiacaiiia
iineaiea ae?oaeo oeeaeeecaoeee; aaiaoe/aneee eiae eae ?aeeeo, iiiaaoee
ia Caieth io aeeauo nenoai i?aaeuaeouaai oeeeea Anaeaiiie, e o. ae.

A i?iaeaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie anoue o?oaeii ?ac?uaaaiay e?oaiaay
i?iaeaia; aeey naii?ai?iaeoeoeee ioeeaeiiauo eeneio — iniiau
aaiaoe/aneiai eiaea (aoaeai n/eoaoue yoio oaeo oi?ioi ecaanoiui
eaaeaeiio) — iaiaoiaeeiu oa?iaioiua aaeee, a aeey neioaca aaeeia —
ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou; aio e?oa e caieioeny. *oi ia?ae/ii: aaeee eee
ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou, «eo?eoea eee yeoei»? Ana nouanoaothuea eiioeaioeee
i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ?acaeaeythony ia aeaa — aieiaeic e aaiiaeic.
Aieiaeic iniiauaaaony ia ia?ae/iinoe no?oeoo? oeia eeaoie, niiniaiuo e
yeaiaioa?iiio iaiaio. Yoi eiioeaioeey Iia?eia e aai iineaaeiaaoaeae.
Aaiiaeic, iai?ioea, ia?ae/iuie i?eciaao nenoaiu ni naienoaaie
aaiaoe/aneiai eiaea. Yoi eiioeaioeey Aeae. Oieaeaeia, aeiioaca oae
iacuaaaiiai «aieiai aaia». I?iaeaia i?ioeainoiyiey eiioeaioeee naiaeeony
e aii?ino ia?ae/iinoe eee noa?oeinoaa — aaiaoe/aneie ?ai?iaeoeoeee
ia?aae iaoaaieeciii eee, iaiai?io, iaoaaieecia ia?aae aaiaoe/aneie
?ai?iaeoeoeeae. Ii eae au ie ?ac?aoeeanue yoa i?iaeaia a aoaeouai,
nae/an iaaei i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea oaa?aei onoaiiaeaiiua oaeou:
aeenneiiao?eth eee oe?aeueiinoue ioeeaeiiauo eeneio AeIE e ?IE eae
ooiaeaiaioaeueiue i?eciae aeeaie iaoa?ee, ia?ae/iinoue iieaeoeu ?IE
(nae/an oaea iiae aeoaieei aii?inii), iaee/ey o iaa aaoieaoaeeoe/aneie
niiniaiinoe, niaiauaiey a iae /a?o oaiioeia e aaiioeia. Ii iiene ioaaoia
ia aii?in iaaei aanoe e a ae?oaeo iai?aaeaieyo, iniai i?eieiay ai
aieiaiea, /oi oe?aeueiinoue e ia?ae/iinoue ?IE ia iiaee aicieeiooue a
oiaea aeeeoaeueiie yaiethoeee, a, nei?aa anaai, aicieeee nea/eii, n?aco,
aae?oa, ca eiia/iia a?aiy, a n/eoaiiua aiaeu, ianyoeu, nooee eee, iiaeao
auoue, aeaaea /anu!

Iaeia ec iineaaeieo aeiioac, ia?a?inoay e ia/aeo XXI aaea a oai?eth i
i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie, iniiaaia ia eaeaa I. E. Eieueoeiaa i iao?e/iii
neioaca i?ioieeaoie e eo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia ia e?enoaeeao aiaoeoa.
I?aaeeiaeaia iia auea /aoaa?oue aaea oiio iacaae aeaaeeainoieneeie
o/aiuie aeieiaii Y. ss. Einoaoeeei e aaieiaii A. A. *a?iia?iaeeiui. Iie
ia?aoeee aieiaiea ia neaaeothuea yiie?e/aneea oaeou: i?enoonoaea
ieia?aea aiaoeoa a aeeauo nenoaiao a ninoaaa coaia e einoae, iaee/ea
noiaenoaa ia?eiaee/iinoe a 3,4 A0 (1 A0 = 10-8 ni, aaee/eia i?eia?ii
?aaiay ?acia?ai aoiia, iieo/eaoay iacaaiea aiano?ai a /anoue oaaaeneiai
oeceea Aiano?aia) a yeaiaioa?iie y/aeea aiaoeoa e aeaieiie nie?aee AeIE.
Yoi aeaei iniiaaiea auaeaeiooue aeiioaco e caoai iino?ieoue oai?eth
aaeiaaiiiai neioaca ioeeaeiiauo eeneio, aaeeia, ioeeaii?ioaeaeia e
iieenaoa?eaeia ie iao?eoea aiaoeoa eae iniiaiii enoi/ieea
iai?aaie/aneiai oinoaoa.

Aeiioaca Einoaoeeiai e *a?iia?iaeeia o/eouaaao oaeaea oio
ooiaeaiaioaeueiue oaeo, /oi ana eeaoi/iua yeaiaiou e oeaeua i?aaieciu
yaeythony aeeaeeie?enoaeee/aneeie aiiainoaoe/aneeie no?oeoo?aie. Enoiaey
ec neacaiiiai, iiaeii aanoe ?a/ue i ?aaeueiuo iaoaieciao aicieeiiaaiey
aeecie, iniiauaaynue ia oaa?aeioaciuo yooaeoao a ieia?aeueiuo e aeeaeeeo
e?enoaeeao. O/anoea ieia?aeia a i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey aeecie aeaeaao
aai caeiiiia?iui, a a?aiy i?ioeanna aanueia e?aoeei (ca eiia/iia a?aiy,
ii ieeae ia ca iiiaea ieeeeiiu eee ieeeea?aeu eao). A eeaoeao, eaeeie iu
eo ciaai naaiaeiy, ana yeaiaiou nenoaiu oae oanii naycaiu ae?oa n
ae?oaii, naiii?aaieciaaiu, /oi ionoonoaea aeaaea iaeiiai ec ieo,
ia?ooaao ?aaioo anae nenoaiu.

Ia?ae/iua i?iaeiiou, ii-aeaeeiiio, aeieaeiu auee i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie
oi?ioi oii?yaei/aiiua ia?aciaaiey. Aicieeaao aii?in: a ia auee ee
i?aaeoanoaaiieee ia?ae/iuo i?ioieeaoie i?aaie/aneeie e?enoaeeaie? Aaaeue
e?enoaeeu – yoi ia?aciaaiey, niiniaiua e naiinai?ea (i naiinai?ea a
aeeauo i?aaieciao aiai?ee e aeaaeaiee Ieeieae Naiaiia), e?iia oiai, a
ieo eiaaony iaeioi?ay oa?aeoa?iay ia?eiaee/iinoue, ia?ooaaiay
aeaoaeoaie. Iineaaeiea (aeaoaeou) aeaeatho e?enoaeeu iioaioeeaeueii
auniei eioi?iaoeeiiiuie, iineieueeo iiaoo i?eaiaeeoue e ia?aciaaieth
iiiaeanoaa noaaeeueiuo aeueoa?iaoeaiuo eiioeao?aoeee, /oi yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aeey o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee. Enoaoe, aia?eeaineee
oecee O. Oeiea? eae-oi cayaee: «ss ii?aaeaeyth aeeciue eae iaeoth
caeiaee?iaaiioth eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay nio?aiyaony anoanoaaiiui
ioai?ii». I?aaeiieaaaaiue iaoaieci neioaca ia?ae/iuo i?iaeiioia, a e?iia
oiai, e eo eiiiiiaioia, oaeaea iauyniyao oai?ey Y. Einoaoeeiai.
?anniio?ei yoio iaoaieci.

Eae iu oaea ioia/aee ?aiaa, aic?ano Caiee (4,6 ie?ae. eao) ii/oe ia
ioee/aaony io aic?anoa aeeauo nenoai e ioeaieaaaony a 4,2-4,0 ie?ae.
eao. I?e yoii n/eoaaony, /oi yoea?eioe/aneea (o. a. eeaoee n yae?ii) e
i?iea?eioe/aneea (o. a. eeaoee aac yae?a) eeaoee eiatho aeeceee aic?ano.
A?aiy aicieeiiaaiey aeecie niaiaaeaao n i?ia?anneaiui iaoaii?oicii
aacaeueoiaie ei?u, oi?ie?iaaieai a?aieoiie iaiei/ee e ooiaeii ieioiie
ia?ae/iie aoiinoa?u. Iiaa?oiinoue Caiee oiaaea auea iaa?aoa aei
600-700°N, a ec iaae? Caiee oei aeoeaiia auaeaeaiea yeaiaioia
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie aaciaie oacu a aeaea naiaiaeiuo ?aaeeeaeia. A yoio
iiiaio ec inoaoi/iiai iaaiaoe/aneiai ?anieaaa oei oi?ie?iaaiea
iaaiaoeoia (aiaoeo, eaeueoeeo, nethaea, eaa?oe, iieaaie oiao e ae?.).
Aiaoeo iau/ii nie?enoaeeecoaony n yoeie ieia?aeaie. Aai ?aoaoea a yoio
ia?eiae aeinoaoi/ii iiaeaeaeia, a e?enoaeea i?ienoiaeeo aeeooociia
caiauaiea yeaiaioia ?aoaoee naiaiaeiuie ?aaeeeaeaie yeaiaioia aaciaie
oacu, /aio niinianoaotho aoiiiua ?aaeeonu iniiaiuo yeaiaioia ?aoaoee
aiaoeoa, i?aainoiaeyuea ?acia?u aoiiia aaciaie oacu a 3-5 ?ac. A
yaeaieyo aeeooociiai caiauaiey eeth/aaay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
oaiia?aoo?a, einie/aneei, yaea?iui e oeueo?aoeieaoiaui eceo/aieyi,
aeaenoaothuei ia e?enoaee naa?oo, e iieth iai?yaeaiee, nicaeaaaaiiio
aaciaie oaciaie, aeaenoaothuaio ia e?enoaee nieco.

Ana yoe oaeoi?u ineaaeytho e?enoaeee/aneoth ?aoaoeo e oneeeaatho
iea?aoeeth aa yeaiaioia e iaeaa/atho i?iieeiiaaiea aioo?ue e?enoaeea
iaeuo aoiiia aaciaie oacu. Neioac, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?ienoiaeee i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao ieiei 200°N a aacaiaeiie n?aaea. A neeo oiai, /oi a iaeiie
yeaiaioa?iie y/aeea aiaoeoa anoue ianeieueei eaiaeia i?iieeiiaaiey
aaciauo /anoeoe, iaeiia?aiaiii iiaei neioace?iaaoueny ianeieueei
i?aaie/aneeo iieaeoe e iaaeaeo ieie iiaee aicieeaoue acaeiiaeaenoaey.
Iaeuecy eneeth/aoue oiai, /oi aie?oa iaeiie y/aeee iiaee
neioace?iaaoueny n?aco ianeieueei, aieioue aei 6 ia?, oeaiae AeIE n
aaeeii, o. a. iia ?aaeeciauaaoueny aa?eaio iiyaeaiey a iaeiie
i?ioieeaoea ?aciiai /enea o?iiinii. A oiaea iaeiiiai?aaeaiiiai neioaca
(nieco-aaa?o), aicieeathuee i?aaiiieia?aeueiue eiiieaen aoaeouae
i?iaeioe/aneie nenoaiu iieo/aao a ianeaaenoai io ieia?aeueiiai e?enoaeea
ana aai anoanoaaiiua ia?aiao?u, ii?aaeaeythuea e ninoaaeythuea
aeeooociue i?ioeann a e?enoaeea, a eiaiii: aicaeaenoaea neiaeiaeoae e
iaeiia?aiaiiie nenoaiu eaaioia naaoa, yeaeo?iiia, i?ioiiia, yaea?iuo
eceo/aiee, ?I, oaiea e i?., o. a. iniiau aoaeouaai iaoaaieecia e
aiiainoaca a eeaoea. Oea, eae yoi iiaeii ia?acii ioiaoeoue, anoanoaaiiay
o?aie?iaea aoaeouae eeaoee.

Aiiainoac iicaieye ecaaaeaoue aunieie aeaoaeoeaiinoe a ?aoaoea, a cia/eo
e a aoaeouae i?iaeioe/aneie nenoaia, iinea aa ia?aoiaea ec
e?enoaeee/aneiai ninoiyiey a aeeaeeie?enoaeee/aneia. No?oeoo?iua
yeaiaiou aoaeoueo i?ioieeaoie iieiinoueth iiaoi?ytho iniaaiiinoe
e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee, aa aeaoaeou, eciii?oeci, iaee/ea aeeth/aiey
ae?oaeo ieia?aeia. Oae, i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi aacaeaoaeoiua iaeanoe
?aoaoee aiaoeoa niioaaonoaotho iaeioi?iaoeaiie /anoe AeIE (a iniiaiii
naoaeeoiie, aaeanoiie) — aio anoanoaaiiia iauyniaiea ecaanoiiai oaeoa;
aeaoaeoiay aea iaeanoue niioaaonoaoao eioi?iaoeaiie ciia AeIE. Ianoa
iiauoaiiie aeaoaeoeaiinoe e nie?enoaeeecaoeee a aiaoeoa (ni. auoa)
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiu aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iao?e/iiai iaoaiecia aoaeoueo
i?ioieeaoie, eioi?ia, a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo, ia ii?iaeaeaao aeaieiie
nie?aee AeIE, ii e ia cai?auaao oi?ie?iaaiea oeaiae ?IE (n/eoaaony, /oi
iie aicieeee ia?auie), ioeeaioeaeiuo o?aaiaioia oeia AOO, aaeeia, oae
eee eia/a naycaiiuo n EIE eee n eo o?aaiaioaie (aoaeoueo oa?iaioia).

I?aaeeiaeaiiue Y. Einoaoeeei iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaiiieia?aeueiuo
eiiieaenia aoaeoueo i?ioieeaoie iicaieyao ioaaoeoue ia iaeioi?ua
iai?inoua aii?inu, noiyuea a i?iaeaia aicieeiiaaiey aeecie. Iai?eia?,
naie ii naaa ioiaaeatho aii?inu:

ue I neioaca aeiiieeia?ia a aiaea.

ue I nicaeaiee oii?yaei/aiiie aeeaie nenoaia, aeaenoaothuae i?ioea
caeiiia oa?iiaeeiaieee, iniaaiii i?ioea aa aoi?iai ia/aea, — /anoue
yia?aee ioaeaaony aiaia ca n/ao niaiu oeiia naycae a ?aoaoea e caiaiu
?aoaoee ia aeeaeeie?enoaeee/aneoth.

ue I aicieeiiaaiee no?oeoo?iie aneiiao?ee (oe?aeueiinoe) aeiiieaeoe.

ue I aicieeiiaaiee iao?e/iiai iaoaiecia neioaca i?iaeiioia.

ue I aicieeiiaaiee oieaa?naeueiiai aaiaoe/aneiai eiaea (ec-ca neioaca ia
aaeeiie iao?eoea aiaoeoa), i?e ionoonoaee oieaa?naeueiinoe a no?iaiee
ae?oaeo no?oeoo? ec-ca nie?enoaeeecaoeee n ae?oaeie ieia?aeaie e eo
?acee/iie aeaoaeoeaiinoueth.

ue Ia iniaaiiinoyo no?oeoo?u AeIE yoea?eio (naoaeeoiinoue, oia?aiiay
iiaoi?yaiinoue, oieeaeueiinoue) ec-ca iniaaiiinoae ?aoaoee aiaoeoa, e ia
iicaieythuae aeeaui nenoaiai ecaaaeyoueny a oa/aiea ieeeea?aeia eao io
aaeeanoiie AeIE, a neeo iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeaea?aeaiey aiiainoaoe/aneiai
ninoiyiey aicieeoeo ia e?enoaeea aeeauo nenoai, e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea, ia
iaiaa aaaeiua aii?inu ia iniaaiiinoyo i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie.

Aeaeaeouae neeie aeaeueiaeoae yaiethoeee i?ioie eaoie, ii-aeaeeiiio,
auee, i?aaeaea anaai, oaeea eciaiythueany oaeoi?u aiaoiae n?aaeu Caiee,
eae ?I, oaiia?aoo?a e, a nayce n yoei, ea/anoai yia?aee (aa
neaaiau?aaeaiiay yio?iieeiinoue, ?ieue eioi?ie iu ioia/aee a aeaaa 3),
eiioeaio?aoeey eiiia e eenei?iaea a ii?neie aiaea, iaee/ea i?aaie/aneiai
iaoa?eaea, neiaeioe/aneea i?ioeannu e eaoano?iou ia Caiea.

Oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue aua iaeio nia?aiaiioth aeiioaco i i?ienoiaeaeaiee
aeecie, auneacaiioth ?onneei aaieiaii TH. A. Eieynieeiaui, iniiaaiioth
ia iniaie ?iee aiaeu. Iiiaea ?acaeaeytho iiaiea, /oi aiaea — aeaaiue
ieia?ae ie?icaeaiey, eiathuee oieeaeueii i?inoie ninoaa, ii caaaaei/ioth
no?oeoo?o, aei eiioea iiea ia iiciaiioth. Eniieueciaaiea aiaeu, oi/iaa,
aa no?oeoo?iuo naa?onaeaouo oao?aia?ia (iniauo ia?aciaaiee ec /aou?ao
iieaeoe aiaeu), iaoneiaeaii iaee/eai a ieo ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo ii?iaio
i?aauo e eaauo I-naycae (aiaei?iaeiuo naycae), o. a. iaoneiaeaii
oe?aeueiinoueth oao?aia?ia. Aua aeaaii I. Eth?e, E. Ianoa? e A.
Aa?iaaeneee iieaaaee, /oi oe?aeueiinoue aeeaiai aauanoaa anoue
neaaenoaea aeenneiao?ee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, a aeaiiii neo/aa — aiaeu.
Aeieacaii a iineaaeiaa a?aiy, /oi a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ?anoai?ao
e?aiiacaia e aeiiieeia?ia oao?aia?iay aiaea ia?acoao i?aaua e eaaua
nie?aeueiua oeaii/ee, a eioi?uo, aeaaiaea?y yeaeo?e/aneie aeeiieueiinoe
aoiaeyueo a eo ninoaa iieaeoe aiaeu, iiaeao auoue caienaia iaeay
eioi?iaoeey. Eniieuecoy oaeea oieeaeueiua naienoaa aiaeu, TH. Eieynieeia
iainiiauaaao naith aeiioaco aeiiiyca, a eioi?ie ia?aiia/aeueii
neioace?oaony eaaia?auathuay, o. a. oe?aeueiay, aieiieeneioa, a caoai
eaeao neioac Naoa?ia — iniiau ioeeaeiiauo eeneio, ia i?aauo nie?aeueiuo
oeaii/eao. Oaeie neio?iiiue neioac iieeiaioeaeia e iieeioeeaioeaeia
nii?iaiaeaeaeny aaia?aoeeae aiaeiuo aeeia?ia e iaoiieeii aae e
ia?aciaaieth neiaeiuo ioeeai?ioaeaeiuo eiiieaenia, n caienueth a eo
i?eieoeaiie ?IE aicieeathuaai iaeiicia/iiai aaiaoe/aneiai eiaea.

Iiieii yoeo aeiioac, iaiaoiaeeii oiiiyiooue oaeaea i aeiioaca aeaaeaieea
Y?eea Aaeeiiaa, eceiaeaiiie ei a eieaa «Oaiiiai aeecie» a 2001 aiaeo, a
eioi?ie ia/aeii aeecie i?eciaaony iiyaeaiea aaneenei?iaeiie iieaeoeu
aaeaieia. Ioia/aaony, /oi oa?iaioaoeaiue eaoaeec e ?aieeeaoeey
eiaee?othueo iieaeoe yaeythony iai?aiaiiuie naienoaaie aeeauo nenoai.
Iiyoiio eneaoue iaaei iiaeaee ecia/aeueiiai aicieeiiaaiey
aaoieaoaeeoe/aneeo e naii?aieeoee?othueo nenoai. Ia/aei aeiaaiaca oiaaea
neaaeoao naycuaaoue n aicieeiiaaieai yeaiaioa?iie noaoeeiia?iie
oeie/aneie y/aeee. Ia?aui oaaii a yoii iai?aaeaiee yaeyaony iiyaeaiea
iieaeoeu eee iieaeoey?iie nenoaiu, eioi?ay au iaania/eea o?ainoi?iaoeeth
yia?aee aiaoiae n?aaeu a oeie/aneoth yia?aeth. Aeaeaa iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau
n oeie/aneie ?aaeoeeae, aeinoaaeythuae yia?aeth, iiaee nii?yaaoueny
oeie/aneea ?aaeoeee, niiniaiua e nicaeaieth ieceiyio?iieeiiai i?iaeoeoa,
o. a. ?aaeoeee, eaeouea n oneiaeiaieai i?aaiecaoeee. Iieaeoeie ? 1 a
yoie aeiioaca i?eciaaony aaeaiiceio?eoinoao (AOO) e iieaeoeie ? 2
o?ainii?oiay ?IE t-PHK), eioi?ua, iaeiaei, aicieeatho a ?aciia a?aiy e a
?aciuo oneiaeyo (ianoao), /oi aeaeaao eo iauaaeeiaiea i?iaeaiaoe/iui.

Iaeuecy ia oeacaoue e ia eaeae, eceiaeaiiua aia?eeaineei oeceeii e
aeioeceeii O. Aeaeniiii a aai eieaa «I?ienoiaeaeaiea aeecie». A iae ii,
iniiauaaynue ia aiaeeca iaoe?iiai iaoa?eaea, i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi
i/a?aaeiinoue a aicieeiiaaiee aeiiieeia?iuo no?oeoo? iiaea auoue eiie,
/ai aa i?aaeeaaatho ae?oaea aaoi?u. Ii Aeaeniio, nia/aea aicieeea
i?eieoeaiay eeaoea, caoai oa?iaiou e oieueei iioii aaiu. Aeaenii
iieaaaao, /oi: 1) ia ia?auo yoaiao aeeaua i?aaieciu i?aaenoaaeyee niaie
iaoaaiee/aneea y/aeee aac iaoaiecia ?aieeeaoeee; 2) ia?iiiia
?aciiia?acea aeeauo i?aaieciia aicieeei ia iniiaa n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoiai anni?oeiaioa iieaeoe i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa; 3) «oeaio?aeueiay
aeiaia» nia?aiaiiie aeieiaee (AeIE — ?IE — aaeee) i eeth/aaii iieiaeaiee
ioeeaeiiauo eeneio e eo ia?ae/iii aicieeiiaaiee iieiinoueth
ianinoiyoaeueia.

Eae aeaeei, aeiioac e iiaiee i ia/aea i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie iiiai. Ii
iu aoaeai n/eoaoue, eae aeaiiinoue, /oi iaiaoiaeeiay iai eeaoea, eae
yeaiaioa?iay aaeeieoea aeecie, aicieeea. A i?ioeanna yaiethoeee iaiaia
aauanoa (iaoaaieecia) a eeaoea e au?aaioee ath yia?aee, iiaeii
auaeaeeoue 4 yoaia eee oacu. Ia?aue — oa?iaioaoeey, iiai/iui i?iaeoeoii
eioi?ie yaeyaony oaeaeeneue aac. Aoi?ie yoai — aaeniciiiiioinoaoiue
oeeee, a oiaea eioi?iai auaeaeyaony aiaei?iae e oaeaeeneue aac e eioi?ue
yaeyaony iaeiei ec ia?auo i?eia?ia iaoaaiee/aneiai ?anuaieaiey aiaeu a
oeceieiae/aneii i?ioeanna, aeathuai eeaoea iaiaoiaeeioth ae yia?aeth.
O?aoee yoai — oioioinoi?eee?iaaiea, o. a. iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
eniieueciaaiea nieia/iie yia?aee aeey au?aaioee oinoaoia, a oii /enea,
oaeeo, eae aaeaiiceio?eoinoao (AOO), iaeaaeathueo aunieie yia?aeae. Ia
yoii yoaia ?acaeoey iaeiieeaoi/iua i?aaieciu iao/eeenue au?aaaouaaoue
ieaiaio — oei?ioeee, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai ia?acoaony yia?aey naaoa. Yoi
i?eaaei e /aoaa?oiio, naiiio aaaeiiio e ooiaeaiaioaeueiiio yoaio, —
yoaio oioineioaca. Eeaoea ia/aea iiaeiuaoue nieia/iue naao aeey neioaca
aetheicu, auaeaeyy a ea/anoaa iiai/iiai i?iaeoeoa iieaeoey?iue
eenei?iae. Oaeei ia?acii, eenei?iae ia/ae iiiaaeaoue a aoiinoa?o.

Nouanoaoao, iaeiaei, iaeia iaiau/iay aeiioaca i iiyaeaiee eenei?iaea a
aoiinoa?a, auneacaiiay ?onneei aaioeceeii I. Ni?iooeiui. Ii iieaaaao,
/oi ia?aue eenei?iae a aoiinoa?a iiyaeeny e i?iaeieaeaao iiyaeyoueny a
iaoo yiioo ec-ca ?anieaaeaiey ieeneia, a iniiaiii ieeneia aeaeaca,
aeinoeaoeo, i?e iioneaiee aianoa n iaioeae, a?aieoeu yae?a Caiee.
Inaiaiaeeaoenue ec ieenea, eenei?iae eaeao aaa?o, ano?a/aao niiaa ia
ieeneaiiia aeaeaci, caoaaouaaaony ei, eaeao iiyoue aiec e a?aieoea
iaioee, ?anieaaeyaony, niiaa inaiaiaeaeaaony e oae aei oao ii?, iiea
iooue aaa?o e iiaa?oiinoe Caiee e aeaeaa, a aoiinoa?o, ia noaiiaeony
naiaiaeiui! Enoaoe, eae iieaaaao aaoi? aeiioacu, eiaaea ana i?ioeannu a
iaae?ao Caiee caeii/aony, i?eia?ii /a?ac 2 ie?ae. eao, aanue eenei?iae,
iinoaiaiii, eiia/ii, aueaeao ia?oaeo, e oiaaea aeaaeaiea a aoiinoa?a
aeinoeaiao cia/aiee 1-2 ouny/ aoiinoa?.

3. Eiioeaioeee ia/aea e yaiethoeee aeecie

Iineieueeo aeeciue iiyaeeanue iaaa?iyea, eiaaea iiyaeeanue ia?aay
eeaoea, oi ion/ao aeecie iaiaoiaeeii aanoe io eeaoee. AEeciue eeaoie
oi?ie?iaaea ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo e naieo eeaoie, oae ooaa?aeaeaao
iniiaiay aeiioaca a o/aiee i aeinoa?a A. E. Aa?iaaeneiai. Eeaoee,
ia?aiia/aeueii i?eieoeaiua e iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua ii aiciiaeiinoyi e
niiniaiinoyi, ana aea iaiiiai (oeoeooaoeeiiii, eae yoi iieiaeaii aeey
aicieeiiaaiey anaai iiaiai e iaiau/iiai) ii yoei ooieoeeyi, o. a.
niiniaiinoyi e aiciiaeiinoyi, ioee/aeenue.

A ia?aiauoioth yiioo aoiinoa?a Caiee ninoiyea ec aoeeaie/aneeo aacia,
io?aaeaiiuo iaoaiii e aiieaeii, ia auei oiaaea ie eenei?iaea, ie
oaeaeeneiai aaca — ie/aai eiiai, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
aeecie (iiae?iaiinoe ni. a eieaa aeaaeaieea Y. I. Aaeeiiaa. «Oaiiiai
aeecie», 2001). Aac ?enea ioeaeoueny, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oieueei
a ieaaia iiaea ?acaeoueny aeeciue, a eioi?ii iia i?aaenoaaeaia
iaen/eneeiui ?aciiia?aceai oi?i, ia/eiay n iiyaeaoeony, ii iaiueoae
ia?a, 4,2-4,0 ie?ae. eao iacaae e eii/ay naaiaeiyoieie, iaoiaeyueieny a
aaeeinoaa n i?ioeui.

Ieaai oiai a?aiaie i?aaenoaaeye niaie /oi-oi a?iaea i?aaie/aneiai
aoeueiia, a eioi?ii iiaei i?ienoiaeeoue ana oi, /oi i?eaaei a eiia/iii
eoiaa e ia?aciaaieth eeaoee. Ii aeeciue iaaaee inoaeanue naycaiiie n
ieaaiii. A i?aaieciao aieueoeinoaa ii?neeo aaniicaiii/iuo oee?eoee?oao
?anoai? eiiia, eioi?ue, ii nouanoao, yaeyaony ii?neie aiaeie. E?iaue
iicaiii/iuo ii eiiiiio ninoaao aeecea ii?neie aiaea, ?acaaaeaiiie a 3-4
?aca, /oi, ii i?aaeiieiaeaieth ?yaea o/aiuo, niioaaonoaoao ninoaao
ii?neie aiaeu aeaeaeiai i?ioeiai, oiai, eiaaea o iaoeo i?aaeeia
ia?aciaaeanue cae?uoay nenoaia e?iaiia?auaiey.

Ieaieoii, i?aaeaea anaai neia-caeaiua aiaei?inee (ia?aua iaeiieeaoi/iua
i?aaieciu), eioi?ua nouanoaotho e iiiuia, a aeiiaeaicieneoth y?o
iaiieiee aoiinoa?o eenei?iaeii (ii ia eneeth/aai, /oi eenei?iae iia
iinooiaoue ec iaae? Caiee, a niioaaonoaee n aeiioacie ?inneeneiai
aaioeceea I. Ni?iooeia, eae iu oeaaeai a neaaeothuai ioieoa) a
eiee/anoaa, aeinoaoi/iii aeey yaiethoeee iiiaieeaoi/iuo oaea ca 10 iei.
eao aei eaia?eeneiai ia?eiaea, o. a. 600-650 iei. eao iacaae. Neaeaou e
?aeiaeiu iaeue/aeoaai iaeiieeaoi/iiai ieaieoiia — ?aaeeiey?ee e
oi?aieieoa?u — noi?ie?iaaee a oio ia?eiae aeii Ie?iaiai ieaaia.

Neaaeothuei oaaii a yaiethoeee iiiaieeaoi/iuo i?aaieciia neaaeoao
n/eoaoue aicieeiiaaiea ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo. Yoi i?ienoiaeeei a
ianeieueei yoaiia. Ia ia?aii yoaia eeaoee i?inoi iauaaeeiyeenue a
eieiiee, a eioi?ie eaaeaeay eeaoea inoaaaeanue ioiineoaeueii
naiinoiyoaeueiie. A eieiiee, iai?eia?, a ii?ooaaeueneii ei?aaeeea,
aicieeea niaoeeaeecaoeey eeaoi/iuo i?aaieciia. Ii e?aeiae ia?a, a
ii?ooaaeueneii ei?aaeeea oaeeo ?aciiaeaeiinoae niaoeeaeueiuo i?aaieciia
/aou?a: ia?aue auiieiyao ooieoeee ieaaieea, aoi?ie uoiaeueoea — i?oaeey
eiaa, o?aoee — ieuaaa?eoaeueiiai o?aeoa, e /aoaa?oue ioaa/aao ca
ooieoeeth ?aciiiaeaiey.

Ii ia?a aeaeueiaeoae «niaoeeaeecaoeee» aeeaua i?aaieciu, aoiaeyuea a
ninoaa aieaa e?oiiiai i?aaiecia, oo?aoeee naith eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue. O
iaai noaea ia?aciauaaoueny iieay noa?a, eiathuay aeaa neiy: yioiaea?io
(aioo?aiiee neie) e yeoiaea?io (ia?oaeiue neie), e ?ioiaia ioaa?noea,
aaaeouaa a oeaio?aeueioth, ieuaaa?eoaeueioth, iieinoue. Oaeiaa
yeaiaioa?iay no?oeoo?a, yaeythuayny iniiaie no?iaiey oaea anao
eeoa/iiiieinoiuo, iai?eia?, iaaeoc.

No?oeoo?a aeeaioiuo niaa?oainoaiaaeanue, ia?aciauaaeny n?aaeiee neie —
iaciaea?ia, e noi?ie?iaaeanue iieinoue oaea (eae o /a?aae). Iicaeiaa ec
yeoiaea?iu ia?aciaaeenue ia?aiay nenoaia e ae?oaea i?aaiu. Nia/aea aea
i?iecioea aai ia?ano?ieea, a eiaiii, aiciee neie, caueuathuee iyaeea
oaea aeeaioiuo (eeoa/iiiieinoiuo), ii ia i?eaaaeoee e ia?aciaaieth
iaioaeiuo ei a aiaeao ieaaia oeaiae. Yoi i?iecioei iicaeiaa e i?e
o/anoee iaciaea?iu: eiaaea ia/aeanue iea?aoeey aeeauo nouanoa ec ieaaia,
oiaaea ?acaeeny aioo?aiiee neaeao (iiyaeeenue oi?aeiaua, iicaiii/iua).

Anth enoi?eth, yaiethoeeth i?aaieciaiiie aeecie, iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue a
o?ao ecia?aieyo. Ai-ia?auo, a aeeao?iiiii, eee a?aiaiiii, ecia?aiee.
Ai-aoi?uo, a neio?iiiii ecia?aiee, iieaaay, /oi ana eee ii/oe ana oi?iu
aeecie, eioi?ua eiaaea-eeai nouanoaiaaee, nouanoaotho e oaia?ue. E,
a-o?aoueeo, a iei?io?iiiii ecia?aiee, /oi iaoneiaeaii ?aeaieooeyoeeae
(iiaoi?aieai) i?aaeeiauo oi?i a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ?acaeoee yia?eiiia
aieueoeinoaa iuia aeeaoueo i?aaieciia.

A ia?aii ecia?aiee aeeciue i?aaenoaao ii aa?oeeaee, ai a?aiaiiie oeaea,
ai aoi?ii ecia?aiee aeeciue i?aaenoaao eae au ii ai?eciioaee, ia/eiay
iooue io i?inoaeoeo i?aaieciia e iaeaieaa neiaeiui, a aio o?aouea
ecia?aiea naeeiaao ana yoe yiioe aeecie aei ia?eiaea auiaoeaaiey ieiaea.

Aeieiae/aneea iaoee oi/ii onoaiiaeee, /oi a ia?aii, a aeeao?iiiii
ecia?aiee, a iaeaicieneoth y?o, a aeieaia?eeneee ia?eiae (yiioo) (ia
?aiaa 600 iei. eao iacaae) iiyaeeenue aoaee; a eaia?eeneee (500-600 iei.
eao iacaae) — o?eeiaeou, iieethnee e ia?aua ?aeiia?aciua; a i?aeiaee
(425-500 iei. eao iacaae) — aeaonoai?/aoua iieethnee, iaooeeiiaeu e
ia?aua iicaiii/iua, ia?aua ?uau; a neeo?eeneee ia?eiae (405-425 iei. eao
iacaae) — ei?aeeiaua ?eou; a aeaaii (345-405 iei. eao iacaae) —
iiiai/eneaiiua ?uau e caiiiaiaeiua, iiyaeaiea ianaeiiuo; a
eaiaiiioaieueiue ia?eiae (280-245 iei. eao iacaae) — aeaaioneea
ianaeiiua; a ia?ineee ia?eiae (230-280 iei. eao iacaae) auie?atho
o?eeiaeou, i?ioeaaoatho i?aniueathueany. A iacicieneoth y?o a o?eana
(181-230 iei. eao iacaae) — iiyaeythony ia?aua ieaeiieoathuea; a th? e
iae (63— 181 iei. eao iacaae) — a?aiy ?anoeaaoa e auie?aiey aeeiicaa?ia.
E, iaeiiaoe, a eaeiicieneoth y?o a o?aoe/iii ia?eiaea (1-63 iei. eao
iacaae) ieaeiieoathuea ?ani?ino?aieeenue ia nooa, e a ?aiiai
/aoaa?oe/iii ia?eiaea iiyaeeny /aeiaae (ieiei 5-1 iei. eao iacaae),
ia?aaeeaoee /aou?a eaaeieeiauo ia?eiaea a yoe aiaeu noaiiaeaiey e
aicioaeaiey.

Iiaeii ioiaoeoue aeaa auaeathueony iiiaioa a oeacaiiie yaiethoeee.
Ia?aue — i?ienoiaeaeaiea iicaiii/iuo io i?inouo neaey/eo (iaiiaeaeaeiuo)
oi?i, iiyaeaoeony iooai oeeueo?aoeee, e aoi?ie iiiaio — ia?aoiae io ?uau
e caiiiaiaeiiio. Oaea neaey/eo i?aaieciia, i?aeoe/anee ieuaaa?eoaeueiay
nenoaia, i?ee?aieyeenue iiaeeie e ii?neiio aeio, oiaaea eae ae?oaea
iiaeee iai?aaeyee ieaaathuea ieuaaua /anoeoeu a ?ioiaia ioaa?noea. A
oiaea yaiethoeee niaa?oainoaiaaeny eo aiia?ao oeeueo?aoeeiiiiai ieoaiey,
oae /oi, a eiioea eiioeia, ii i?aa?aoeeny a ?yae aeaaa?iuo uaeae,
ia?ae/iie ooieoeeae eioi?uo auei ia aeuoaiea, a ieoaiea. A eaeie-oi
iiiaio yaiethoeee iinea ii/eiaaiey e ia?aciaaiey ee/eiie, ia?aaeaeaaynue
a iieneao iiaeoiaeyuaai ianoa, ee/eiea n e?oiiie aieiaie n aeaa?aie e
ioneoeenoui oainoii, oneeaiiui i?iaeieueiie aeaeaia?aciie oi?aeie —
iioioi?aeie (i?iia?acii iicaiii/ieea), auno?i ia?aoiaeeea ai ac?ineoth
oi?io iaiei/ieea, eioi?ay ia anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaeanue neaey/ae
noaaeeae, a eiiaaea caiaiyeanue ia naiaiaeii ieaaathuoth.

Naycothuei caaiii iaaeaeo ?uaaie e caiiiaiaeiuie yaeyaony oeaeaeaio
(?iaenoaaiiee eenoaia?uo ?ua). O oeaeaeaioia ec ia?iuo ieaaieeia
?acaeeenue eiia/iinoe, oiaaea aea ia?aciaaeinue /oi-oi a?iaea eaaeeo, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai iie i?eniiniaeeenue aeey aeuoaiey e ia?aaeaeaeaiey ia
nooa, iiyoiio e niiaee ?acaeoueny caiiiaiaeiua.

Ai aoi?ii, «neio?iiiii» ecia?aiee yaiethoeee, iiaeii acyoue, iai?eia?,
neiaeioth, n ioaaoaeaieyie ieuaaoth oeaiue. Oiaaea iu oaeaeei, eae
iaeue/aeoea ?anoaiey, aeeaoiiiua aiaei?inee e anaaiciiaeiua aeaooeeiaua,
eioi?ua e ninoaaeytho oeoiieaieoii, ieaaatho a iiaa?oiinoiuo aiaeao, eae
iaeue/aeoea aeeaioiua — aaneiiiaea ?a/ee, e?eeue eee ee/eiee e?aaia —
iiaaeatho yoio oeoiieaieoii. A eo, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiaaeatho aieaa
e?oiiua ?uau, iai?eia?, neoia?ey eee naeueaeue, caeai/eaathuea naia
nouanoaiaaiea a aeaeoaeeao aua aieaa e?oiiuo ?ua, oaeeo eae ooiaoe eee
ia/-?uaa. Aiiaua, oieueei iaeia ?uaa ec 10 000 ia caeai/eaaao naith
aeeciue a ianoe ae?oaie. Iiaeii oaeaea, a neio?iiiii ecia?aiee,
?aniieiaeeoue ana aeeaua nouanoaa a caaeneiinoe io ianoa iaeoaiey e o.
ae.

A o?aoueai, iee?io?iiiii ecia?aiee, iaeaieaa aia/aoeythuei yaeyaony
?acaeoea ca?iaeuoa /aeiaaea. Ca?iaeuo i?ioiaeeo ana noaaeee iaeue/aeoaai
nouanoaa, iioiaeaai ia aieiaanoeea, oi?aeiaiai, o?yuaaiai aieiaeueeoey,
i?aaeaea /ai noaiao iicaiii/iui, e noaaeee i?aaiecia, aeuoauaai
aeaa?aie, i?aaeaea /ai iiyayony eaaeea. O eaaeaeie ec noaaeee yoiai
auno?iai ?acaeoey eiaaony niioaaonoaothuay i?ioeiio
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiay oi/ea (i?yii iiaeii neacaoue — ie?iaay oi/ea a
i?ino?ainoaa Ieieianeiai). Oae, iai?eia?, o ieiaea /aeiaaea na?aeoea
?acaeaaaony eae i?inoia ?anoe?aiea aeaaiiai e?iaaiiniiai ninoaea.
?anoe?aiiue o/anoie ?acaeaeyaony ia /aou?a /anoe, ?aniieiaeaiiua iaeia
ca ae?oaie. Caoai ninoae ia?ae?o/eaaaony iacaae e i?eia?aoaao
oa?iaeaeioth oi?io (oa? iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiay neiiao?e/iay oi?ia ec
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo), i?e/ai aeaa ioaeaea neeaaeuaathony (ooee
i?aaena?aeee) iaae aeaoiy ae?oaeie (aeaeoaei/eaie). Yoi e anoue
na?aeoea.

Oaeoth aea neiaeioth, ec o?ao ecia?aiee, iiaeaeue iiaeii iino?ieoue e
aeey anae aeinoa?u, aeeth/ay ieaaiu, aaea aeeciue ca?iaeeeanue,
i?aniiaiaeiua aiaeiaiu, aaea iia ?acaeeanue oae iiuii.

?acaa?ouaaiea aeecie. Aea?aeieci e iaiaea?aeieci. Ia?aay oai?ey
yaiethoeee auea noi?ioee?iaaia a ia/aea XIX aaea AEaiii Aaoenoii
Eaia?eii — auaeathueiny iaoo?aeenoii-naiio/eie, aaaaeoei oa?iei
«aeieiaey». Eaia?e ieacae neeueiia aeeyiea ia *a?eueca Aea?aeia. Ii yoi
aeeyiea oaea i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaiaaei, eiaaea Aea?aei iioaeeeiaae naith
oai?eth a 1859 a. a ooiaeaiaioaeueiie ?aaioa «I?ienoiaeaeaiea aeaeia
iooai anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a, eee Nio?aiaiea aeaaii?eyonoaoaiuo ii?iae a
ai?ueaa ca auaeeaaiea». Enoaoe, a ae?oaii aa?eaioa aeiiieiaiea e
ia?aiio, aeaaiiio iacaaieth ia?aaiaeeony oae: «Nio?aiaiea eca?aiiuo ?an
a ai?ueaa ca auaeeaaiea» (n eaouie ?ana ia?aaiaeeony eae ?iae, ii?iaea).
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iaeiia?aiaiii n yoie eieaie auea iioaeeeiaaia
oaeaea noaouey ae?oaiai aiaee/aieia Aeueo?aaea Oieeana «I no?aieaiee
?aciiaeaeiinoae aaneiia/ii oaeaeyoueny io ia?aiia/aeueiiai oeia», a
eioi?ie eceaaaeenue acaeyaeu, aaniethoii noiaeiua n acaeyaeaie Aea?aeia,
iaeiaei aac anyeeo i?aoaicee Oieeana ia i?ei?eoao, eioi?ue ii
aaciaiai?i/ii ioaeaaae naiaio aieaa eiaieoiio niioa/anoaaiieeo. Oai?ey
Aea?aeia iniiauaaeanue ia aeaoo eaeayo: neo/aeiua iooaoeee e
anoanoaaiiue ioai?. Oeaio?aeueiay iuneue aea?aeiecia caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi ana aeeaua i?aaieciu eiatho iauaa ia/aei, iauaa i?ienoiaeaeaiea.
?acee/ea iaaeaeo eeanne/aneie oai?eae yaiethoeee (aea?aeieci) e iiauie
oai?eyie (iaiaea?aeieci) caeeth/aaony a ?aciii iiaeoiaea e ?anniio?aieth
aeeiaieee yaiethoeee. Niaeanii ooaa?aeaeaieyi Aea?aeia, ianeaaenoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aaeathony iioiieai io eo ?iaeeoaeae ii 50% ii?iaio a
ia?aii iieieaiee; oaeei ia?acii, ai aoi?ii iieieaiee ianeaaeoaony
oieueei 25% oa?aeoa?iuo i?eciaeia e o. ae. A yoii ioiioaiee eeanne/aneay
oai?ey Aea?aeia eiaea yaiue ecuyi (iacuaaaiue «eioia? Aeaeaieeina», ii
eiaie aiaeeeneiai eiaeaia?a Aeaeaieeina, ia?aoeaoaai ia iaai aieiaiea
o/aiiai ie?a), ia niaeaniauaaynue n ?aaeueiie aeeciueth. I?iiiaaaeieeaie
aea?aeineiai o/aiey noaee Y?ino Aaeeaeue e Aa?aa?o Niaina?, iniaaiii
iineaaeiee cae?aiee a iai oa?iei yaiethoeey, oioy nai Aea?aei
i?aaeii/eoae yoi iiiyoea ia oiio?aaeyoue.

?aoaiea iineaaeiae i?iaeaiu i?eoei aianoa n ioe?uoeai Iaiaeaeai a 1866
aiaeo iaoaiecia ia?aaea/e ianeaaenoaaiiuo i?eciaeia (ii, eae ecaanoii,
?aaioa Iaiaeaey e aai caeiiu inoaaaeenue iacaia/aiiuie a iineaaeothuea
40 eao, aei eo ia?a ioe?uoey). Eiiaeiaoeey eaeae Aea?aeia i iinoaiaiiuo
yaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaieyo aeeauo i?aaieciia n aaiaoe/aneei iaoaieciii
Iaiaeaey e i?ienoiaeeo a oai?ee, iinyuae nae/an iacaaiea iaiaea?aeieci,
eee neioaoe/aneay oai?ey yaiethoeee. E o aea?aeiecia, e o iaiaea?aeiecia
anoue neaaia caaii a eo oai?aoe/aneeo iino?iaieyo — aeieaeainoaiaaiea
iinoaiaiiiai iai?a?uaiiai eciaiaiey aeeauo i?aaieciia.

Eae iieacuaatho enneaaeiaaiey eneiiaaiuo i?aaieciia, a enoi?ee aeecie
nouanoaiaaee ia?eiaeu aeeeoaeueiinoueth a nioie ouny/ eao e aieaa, ia
i?ioyaeaiee eioi?uo ia iaaethaeaeenue eciaiaiey i?aaieciia. Ia?eiae
ao?iiai eciaiaiey aeeauo i?aaieciia ia Caiea ia/aeny i?eia?ii 1 ieeeeii
eao iacaae. A nayce n yoei iiyaeeinue iiaia iai?aaeaiea a oai?ee —
nenoaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey yaiethoeee. A yoie oai?ee aiciiaeii niiioaiiia
ia?aciaaiea iiauo oi?i aeeauo no?oeoo?. Aeaeaein Eiaeie e Eeii Ia?aoeen
?acaeee oai?eth Aay — Caiee (AC), eioi?ay a iaueo /a?oao caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue ?acaeoea aeeauo i?aaieciia a io?uaa io
?acaeoey, eciai/eainoe ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Niaeanii AC — oai?ee, iao
ioaeaeueiuo aeeauo i?aaieciia, anoue a oeaeii aeiaaeueiay nenoaia,
eioi?ay aeeaao, ?acaeaaaony, yaiethoeeiie?oao.

Yaiethoeey /a?ac neiaeic. A iee?iaeieiaee n/eoaaony, /oi
ooiaeaiaioaeueiia aeaeaiea oi?i aeecie caeeth/aaony ia a aeaeaiee ia
aeeaioiua e ?anoeoaeueiua oi?iu, a aeaeaiea yoeo oi?i ii aeaeo eeaoie —
yaea?iua (yoea?eiou) e aacuyaea?iua (i?iea?eiou). Aaeoa?ee, i?inoaeoea
oi?iu aeecie, ia eiatho eeaoi/iiai yae?a e iiyoiio iacuaathony
i?iea?eioaie, oiaaea eae eeaoee, niaea?aeauea yae?a, iacuaathony
yoea?eioaie. Iaeiie ec eeth/aauo aeiioac nia?aiaiiie oai?ee yaiethoeee
yaeyaony aeiioaca Eeii Ia?aoeen i neiaeica. Neiaeic — yoi oaiaeaioeey
?acee/iuo i?aaieciia aeeoue a oaniii niae?oaeanoaa n ae?oaeie
i?aaieciaie e /anoi aeeoue aioo?e ae?oaeo i?aaieciia (eae, iai?eia?, yoi
aeaeatho aaeoa?ee). Niaeanii aeiioaca E. Ia?aoeen, ieoioiiae?ee a
eeaoeao auee a aeaaiea a?aiaia ioaeaeueii nouanoaothueie aaeoa?eyie,
aiaae?eaoeieny eiaaea-oi aiaioo?ue eeaoie ae?oaiai i?aaiecia.
I?aaeeiaeaiiue Ia?aoeen yaiethoeeiiiue iaoaieci iooai neiaeica, iiaeao
auoue, aue aieaa aaaeiui e i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui, /ai noaiaea?oiue iooue
yaiethoeee ii Aea?aeio, eioi?ue naaiaeiy ieeae iaeuecy n/eoaoue
aacoi?a/iui e aacaeueoa?iaoeaiui ae?oaei i?aaeeaaaaiui iaoaieciai.

4. Nenoaiiay ea?a?oey i?aaiecaoeee aeeauo i?aaieciia e eo niiauanoa

Ana aeeaua nouanoaa (eae aeeaioiua, oae e ?anoaiey) ninoiyo ec eeaoie.
Ec eeaoie no?iyony oeaie, ec oeaiae — ?acee/iua i?aaiu e eo nenoaiu.
Eeaoee aeeaioiuo e ?anoeoaeueiuo i?aaieciia eiatho i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaia
no?iaiea. Aaaeiaeoae eo /anoueth yaeyaony yae?i. Iii eiio?iee?oao anth
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue eeaoee: iaiai aauanoa, ?ino e ?aciiiaeaiea.
Oaeaeaiea yae?a ec eeaoee i?eaiaeeo e aa aeaaee.

ssae?i eeaoee ie?oaeaii iieoaeeaeeie noanoaioeeae — oeeoiieaciie.
Oeeoiieacia ii/oe anao ?anoaiee niaea?aeeo iaaieueoea aaeeiaua oaeueoea
— ieanoeaeu. A ieanoeaeao caeeth/ai oei?ioeee — aauanoai, eioi?ia
i?eaeaao ?anoaieyi caeaioth ie?aneo. Aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth oei?ioeeea,
?anoaiey niiniaiu inouanoaeyoue i?ioeann, iacuaaaiue oioineioacii. A
oiaea oioineioaca ?anoaiey, eniieuecoy yia?aeth nieia/iiai naaoa,
i?aa?auatho a i?aaie/aneia aauanoai a?iiaaeiia eiee/anoai oaea?iaea (ii
iiaen/aoai o/aiuo, ieiei 200 ieeeea?aeia oiii aaeaaiaeii).

Eaaeaeay eeaoea aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee ie?oaeaia ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiie.
Iaia?aia ea?aao /?acau/aeii aaaeioth ?ieue a ?aaoee?iaaiee niaea?aeeiiai
eeaoee: /a?ac iaa i?ioiaeyo ana ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa e ana iooiaeu
(i?iaeoeou nae?aoeee) eeaoee. ?anoeoaeueiua eeaoee, e?iia iaia?aiu,
niaaaeaiu aua ieioiie eeaoi/iie noaieie. Iia ai iiiaeo ianoao eiaao
iaeue/aeoaai ?acia?a ioaa?noey, /a?ac eioi?ua aauanoai iaeiie eeaoee
ia?aoiaeeo a ae?oaoth. Eeaoi/iay noaiea neoaeeo iii?ie ?anoeoaeueiiai
i?aaiecia.

Iniiaiua no?oeoo?iua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo aeeaioiuie e ?anoeoaeueiuie
eeaoeaie iaiiiai/eneaiiu. Ai-ia?auo, aeeaioiua eeaoee, a ioee/ea io
?anoeoaeueiuo (eneeth/ay iecoea ?anoaiey), niaea?aeao iaaieueoea
oaeueoea — oeaio?eiee, ?aniieiaeaiiua a oeeoiieacia. Ai-aoi?uo, eae oaea
aiai?eeinue, eeaoee ?anoaiee eiatho a naiae oeeoiieacia aaeeiaua
ia?aciaaiey — ieanoeaeu, eioi?uo iao o aeeaioiuo. E, a-o?aoueeo, eeaoee
?anoaiee iaeaaeatho oiiiyiooie ?aiaa eeaoi/iie noaieie, aeaaiaea?y
eioi?ie iie nio?aiytho naith oi?io. AEeaioiua eeaoee ?aniieaaatho eeoue
oiieie ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiie e iiyoiio niiniaiu aeaeaaoueny e iaiyoue
oi?io.

Ana aeeaua i?aaieciu, oi anoue ?anoaiey e aeeaioiua, oa?aeoa?ecothony, a
oie eee eiie noaiaie, ii?aaeaeaiiuie ?acia?aie e oi?iie, iaiaiii
aauanoa, iiaeaeaeiinoueth, ?acae?aaeeiinoueth, ?inoii, ?aciiiaeaieai e
i?eniiniaeyaiinoueth. Ia?a/eneaiiua auoa naienoaa ioee/atho aeeaia io
iaaeeauo iauaeoia. Ii?aaeaeeoue aea, eaeea nouanoaa ioiinyony e
?anoaieyi, a eaeea e aeeaioiui, nianai ia i?inoi, eae iiaeao iieacaoueny
ia ia?aue acaeyae. Eiia/ii, ciaeiiua aieueoeinoao ethaeae oaeea
i?aaenoaaeoaee aeeaioiiai ie?a, eae aeiiaoiea aeeaioiua, a
?anoeoaeueiiai — ?acee/iua aeaeu aea?aaueaa, eonoa?ieeia e o?aa ia
aucuaatho iniauo cao?oaeiaiee.

Iaeiaei a i?e?iaea nouanoaoao ?yae i?aaieciia, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony eae au
iin?aaee aeaoo oea?noa — ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo. Aeey i?eia?a iaciaai
i?inoaeoaa iaeiieeaoi/iia nouanoai yaaeaio caeaioth. Iia aeaeaaaony eae
aeeaioiia, a ieoaaony eae ?anoaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, yaaeaia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie eae au ia?aoiaeiia caaii iaaeaeo ?anoeoaeueiui e aeeaioiui ie?ii.

Eaeea aea naienoaa e ?acee/ey aeeauo i?aaieciia iicaieytho iai ioiineoue
iaeie e ?anoaieyi, ae?oaea e aeeaioiui? Iu oaea eo iacaaee i?e
oa?aeoa?enoeea aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee. Iiaoi?ei aua ?ac iaeaieaa aaaeiua.
Ai-ia?auo, ?acee/ey a niiniaa ieoaiey, ai-aoi?uo, ?acee/ey a no?oeoo?a
eeaoie e eo niiniaiinoe e ?inoo (o ?anoaiee, a ioee/ea io aeeaioiuo,
iaeioi?ua eeaoee nio?aiytho niiniaiinoue e aeoeaiiio ?inoo ia
i?ioyaeaiee anae aeecie ?anoeoaeueiiai i?aaiecia). E, a-o?aoueeo,
?acee/ey a niiniaiinoe e aeaeaeaieth: aieueoeinoai ?anoaiee i?ee?aieaii
e iaeiiio ianoo, cia/eoaeueiay aea /anoue aeeaioiuo aaaeao iiaeaeaeiue
ia?ac aeecie.

?aniooaoue neiaeioth naoue ?iaenoaa i?aaieciia, ii?aaeaeeoue noaiaiue eo
?iaenoaa — aio caaea/a, eioi?oth anoanoaieniuoaoaee no?aieeenue
?ac?aoeoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue. A ?acoeueoaoa iaonoaiiuo iieneia o/aiuo
a XVII aaea iiyaeeanue eeanneoeeaoeey, nenoaiaoeea, aeeauo nouanoa, ia
iioa?yaoay naiaai cia/aiey aei neo ii?. Aa i?aaeeiaeee aaeeeee oaaaeneee
o/aiue-nenoaiaoee Ea?e Eeiiae.

Eeiiae ?aoee aeaoue iacaaiey anai ?anoaieyi e aeeaioiui, eioi?ua auee
ecaanoiu a aai a?aiy. Ieii/aoaeueiia caaa?oaiea yoa ?aaioa iieo/eea a
aai ni/eiaiee «Nenoaia i?e?iaeu», iioaeeeiaaiiii a 1735 aiaeo.
Eeanneoeeaoeeae Eeiiay, i?aaeeiaeaiiuie ei iacaaieyie ?anoaiee e
aeeaioiuo, aei neo ii? iieuecothony aioaieee e ciieiae anaai ie?a. Naiie
iaeaiueeie nenoaiaoe/aneie aaeeieoeae o Eeiiay, a oaeaea ai anao
nenoaiao, eioi?ua nicaeaaaeenue oaea iinea iaai, noae aeae, naiie
e?oiiie — oei. Ai anae neiaeiinoe e iiae?iaiinoyo nenoaiaoeeo Eeiiay e
ae?oaeo iu caeanue ?anniao?eaaoue ia aoaeai, ia?aie/einy ieieioiii
naaaeaiee.

Aeae — niaieoiiinoue (iiioeyoeey) noiaeiuo iniaae, eiathueo iaeeiaeiaia
no?iaiea e ooieoeee. A i?e?iaea iniae iaeiiai aeaea ne?aueaathony
oieueei iaaeaeo niaie. Aeecei?iaenoaaiiua aeaeu a?oiie?othony a
neaaeothuoth, aieaa aunieoth nenoaiaoe/aneoth aaeeieoeo — ?iae.

Iao/iia (eaoeineia) iaeiaiiaaiea aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee ninoieo ec aeaoo
neia. Yoi iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue iooaieoeu i?e eeanneoeeaoeee. Aeaieiua
iacaaiey, ia?aia ec eioi?uo iaicia/aao ?iae, aoi?ia — aeae, iieo/eee ana
?anoaiey e aeeaioiua. Oae aeiiaoithth eioeo (neaineoth, ia?neaeneoth,
aaenneineoth e o. i.) Eeiiae iacaae Felis domestica. E yoiio aea ?iaeo
i?eiaaeeaaeao «oea?ue caa?ae» — eaa (Felis leo), oea? (Felis tigris),
eaiia?ae (Felis pardus).

Iiaeiaii oiio, eae aeaeu iauaaeeiythony a ?iaeu, aeeceea ?iaeu
ninoaaeytho naiaenoaa, naiaenoaa — ii?yaeee, eee io?yaeu, a iineaaeiea —
eeannu. ?iae eioae, ?iae niaae e /aeiaa/aneee — ana ioiinyony e eeanno
ieaeiieoathueo. Eeannu iauaaeeiythony a oeiu. E ieaeiieoathuea, e
caiiiaiaeiua, e ioeoeu, e ?uau — ana i?eiaaeeaaeao e oeio iicaiii/iuo;
eae neeueii iie ie ?aciyony iaaeaeo niaie, aeey anao ieo oa?aeoa?ai
iaeei iauee i?eciae — iicaiii/iee e einoiue neaeao.

Naaiaeiy o/aiui ecaanoii, /oi ia iaoae ieaiaoa eiaaony 31 ?iae aaeoa?ee;
150 ?iaeia (1400 aeaeia) neia-caeaiuo aiaei?ineae (iauaa /enei aeaeia
aiaei?ineae aeinoeaaao 40 ouny/); ieiei 200 ouny/ aeaeia a?eaia; ieiei
16 ouny/ aeaeia eeoaeieeia; ioia — nauoa 18 ouny/ aeaeia. Eiee/anoai
anao aeaeia ?anoaiee aeinoeaaao 500 ouny/. I?e/ai ia ana aua aeaeu
?anoaiee oaeaeinue ioe?uoue, e eoi ciaao, eaeea aua iaiaeeaeaiiinoe
aeaeoo enneaaeiaaoaeae.

Aua aieueoa ia Caiea aeeaioiuo. I?inoaeoeo iaeiieeaoi/iuo i?aaieciia
nae/an ecaanoii ieiei 15 ouny/ aeaeia; eeoa/iiiieinoiuo — io 5 aei 9
ouny/; /a?aae ieineeo — 6500 aeaeia; /a?aae e?oaeuo — io 5 aei 8 ouny/;
/a?aae eieue/aouo — aei 7600 aeaeia; ieaeiieoathueo — 12540 aeaeia;
ioeoe — 16 ouny/; i?aniueathueony e caiiiaiaeiuo — 9 ouny/; ?ua — 20
ouny/ aeaeia. A anaai aeaeia iicaiii/iuo — ieiei 70 ouny/; aeaeia anao
aeeaioiuo, ianaeythueo Caieth, — aieaa iieooi?a ieeeeiiia.

O/aiua iiea ia onoaiiaeee, e eaeiio aeaeo eee iiaeaeaeo aeeaioiuo iiaeii
ioianoe iaeioi?ua a?oiiu iaeoaoaeae iaoae ieaiaou. A naia a?aiy Eeiiae
caiaoee, /oi ana ia oae i?inoi oeeaaeuaaaony a aai nenoaio. Iaaiciiaeii
auei ia ia?aoeoue aieiaiey ia aea?eaeu e iiiane, aicieeoea, i/aaeaeii,
iaiiiai iicaea «nioai?aiey ie?a». E aa?othuee, ii i?eioeeieaeueiue e
/anoiue o/aiue, eaeei aue Eeiiae, auneacae e?aiieueiua, n oi/ee c?aiey
oea?eae, iunee i oii, /oi naia i?e?iaea ia?aiaoaea e oiiiaeeea
nouanoaothuea aeaeu. Oaea Eeiiae iiieiae, /oi aanue aeeaie ie? a naiai
nouanoaiaaiee i?ioiaeeo ianeieueei nooiaiae eciaiaiee. E oioy oaaaeneee
o/aiue ia n/eoae naay noi?iiieeii yaiethoeeiiiiai o/aiey (ai a?aiaia
Eeiiay yoi auea oai?ey yaiethoeee Eaia?ea), iicaea aai nenoaiaoeea,
iiiai/eneaiiuie ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie oaeoi?aie, iiiiaea *a?eueco Aea?aeio
nicaeaoue oai?eth yaiethoeee.

Iinoaiaiii noaiiaeeinue i/aaeaeiui, /oi anth aeeaoth i?e?iaeo iiaeii
auei au n?aaieoue n ea?a?oe/aneie «eanoieoeae» nouanoa. Ia ieaeieo aa
nooiaiyo — i?inoaeoea iaeiieeaoi/iua i?aaieciu, ia aa?oieo — aaneiia/ii
neiaeiua nouanoaa, ?anoaiey, aeeaioiua e, iaeiiaoe, /aeiaae.

Ii ia?a oiai, eae iu ciaeiieiny n aeeciueth iuia nouanoaothueo aeaeia,
noaiiaeony ynii, /oi eaaeaeue aeae caaeneo aua e io ae?oaeo aeeauo
nouanoa, e io oao oneiaee, a eioi?uo ii iaeoaao. Eoae, aeeciue ethaiai
aeaea caaeneo io iiiaeo neiaeiuo acaeiinaycae, aaia?aoe/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae ?aniieiaeaiey iaoa?eeia e o. ae.

5. Yeinenoaiu, yeieiaey e acaeiiioiioaiey aeeauo nouanoa

Caeiiiia?iinoe acaeiiioiioaiee aeeauo nouanoa n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie
eco/aao niaoeeaeueiay iaoea — yeieiaey. A ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai ycuea
neiai «yeieiaey» icia/aao; «eco/aiea aeiia». Eiiaaea «aeii», ianoi
iaeoaiey, auaaao naiui iaiaeeaeaiiui.

Ana i?aaieciu, nouanoaothuea ia Caiea, i?eniiniaeeenue e ii?aaeaeaiiiio
aoiinoa?iiio aeaaeaieth. Iaeiaei n iiiiuueth oa?ia-ciiaeia oaeaeinue
iaia?oaeeoue nii?u aaeoa?ee e ieaniaauo a?eaeia ia aunioa 33 eeeiiao?ia,
aaea aeaaeaiea cia/eoaeueii ieaea. Aaeoa?ee aeeaoo a ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
o?aiiauo ?oaeao, a na?iaiaei?iaeiie n?aaea, aeaaea a oaeii yaeiaeoii
aauanoaa, eae eiioeaio?e?iaaiiue ?anoai? oei?enoie noeaiu. Aaeoa?ee auee
iaia?oaeaiu e ia aeoaeia 4 ouny/ iao?ia — a iaooaiiniuo neiyo, e a
ai?y/eo enoi/ieeao, aiaaouo ai?iie eeneioie. AEeaua i?aaieciu
nouanoaotho e i?e aeaaioneeo aeaaeaieyo — ia aeoaeia aieaa 10
eeeiiao?ia, e a oieiaea aa/iuo eueaeia A?eoeee e Aioa?eoeee.

E a ciieiie, eacaeinue au, nianai aacaeeciaiiie Naoa?a, aaea aeaaeiinoue
aeinoeaaao anaai 0,5 i?ioeaioa, nouanoaoao 98 aeaeia aaeoa?ee, 28 aeaeia
a?eaia e 84 aeaea aiaei?ineae. AEeaua nouanoaa, iaeioi?ua, eiiaaea iiaoo
aeieaia a?aiy iaoiaeeony aac aiaeu. Iaeoathuee a Naaa?iie Ieaa?ee eiia?
ioeeaaeuaaao yeoea a iaeue/aeoea uaee neae, caiieiaiiua aiaeie. Eiaaea
iaeaiueeea eoaeeoeu aunuoatho, ee/eiee eiia?a i?einoaiaaeeaatho naia
?acaeoea. Ii noieo i?ieoe iiaiio aeiaeaeth, e iie, eae ie a /ai ia
auaaei, iaeeaatho aiiaue.

Ae?iaeaee e ianeieueei aeaeia aaeoa?ee niiniaiu nouanoaiaaoue aeaaea a
aaneenei?iaeiie n?aaea. Ee/eiee eiia?a oe?iiiiona aeeaoo e ?acaeaathony
a aiaea, niaea?aeauae a ouny/o ?ac iaiueoa eenei?iaea, /ai iau/iue
aicaeoo. A aiaea iaeioi?uo aiaeiaiia auaaao a 2 ouny/e ?ac iaiueoa
eenei?iaea, /ai a aicaeooa, ii e oai anoue aeeciue.

Ana aeeaua nouanoaa iaeaaeatho eieinnaeueiui aeioe/aneei iioaioeeaeii,
eia/a aiai?y, niiniaiu ?aciiiaeaoueny n oaeie nei?inoueth, /oi, anee au
eo ?aciiiaeaieth ie/oi ia i?aiyonoaiaaei, iie iaaiaeieee au niaie anth
aeinoa?o.

*oi aea i?ioeaiaeaenoaoao oaeiio ia?aianaeaieth? Ii/aio, ianiio?y ia
oaeeaeoaeueioth i?eniiniaeaiiinoue e iaaeaaii?eyoiui oneiaeyi, aeeaua
i?aaieciu ana-oaee aeaioo?

Aieiae, ian/anoiua neo/ae, noeoeeiua aaaenoaey, aieacie, oie/oiaeaiea
iaeieo aeaeia ae?oaeie — ana, aianoa acyoua, i?e/eiu oaeiai ?iaea
iacuaatho nii?ioeaeaieai n?aaeu. Eaaeaeue aeae aeieaeai aue au?aaioaoue
oaeea ea/anoaa, eioi?ua au iicaieyee aio i?aiaeieaaaoue yoi
nii?ioeaeaiea n?aaeu. Ia i?ioyaeaiee ieeeeiiia eee aeaaea ieeeea?aeia
eao aicieeea aaeaioaoeey — i?eniiniaeaiiinoue e ie?oaeathuei oneiaeyi,
eee oa ciaiaieoay «oeaeaniia?aciinoue», eioi?ay ii?aaeaao aiia?aaeaiea e
eaaeaony ii?ie naa?ouanoanoaaiiie.

Eaaeaeay ec aaeaioaoeee iiyaeeanue a ?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi n?aaea
iinoiyiii ionaeaaea iaaeaaii?eyoiua ianeaaenoaaiiua eciaiaiey,
iiyaeythueany o anao aac eneeth/aiey aeaeia ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo.
Aeaenoaea anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a ia i?ae?auaaony ie ia ieiooo — auaeeaatho
oieueei iaeaieaa i?eniiniaeaiiua.

Yeieiae eco/atho ?acee/iua oeiu i?eniiniaeyaiinoe, e oaea auyaeaiu
iaeioi?ua caeiiiia?iinoe, iiiiaathuea iiiyoue yoi /oaeaniia naienoai
anaai aeeaiai. Ecaanoiu o?e iniiaiuo oeia aaeaioaoeee: no?oeoo?iua
eciaiaiey -ie?anee, no?iaiey oaea ioaeaeueiuo i?aaiia e o. i.;
oeceieiae/aneea e iiaaaeai/aneea.

A?oiio i?aaieciia, ioiinyuothny e iaeiiio eee aeeceei aeaeai e
caieiathuoth ii?aaeaeaiioth iaeanoue, a yeieiaee iacuaatho iiioeyoeeae.
Iiioeyoeee aoiaeyo a ninoaa aeioeaiicia — a niaieoiiinoue ?anoeoaeueiuo
e aeeaioiuo i?aaieciia, ianaeythueo o/anoie n?aaeu iaeoaiey.

I?aaeaea /ai i?iaeieaeeoue ?anniio?aiea eaeeo-eeai eiie?aoiuo yeinenoai,
ii?aaeaeei eo iniiaiua yeaiaiou.

ue Aaeioe/aneay (iaaeeaay) n?aaea — aiaea, ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa, aacu,
i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu e aoion.

ue I?iaeooeaiou (aaoio?iou) — i?iecaiaeeoaee ia?ae/iie aeieiae/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee. E iei ioiinyo aeeaua nouanoaa, niiniaiua no?ieoue naay ec
iai?aaie/aneeo iaoa?eaeia (oaeaeeneiai aaca, aiaeu, ieia?aeueiuo
aauanoa) a i?ioeanna i?eia?aoaiiiai e oianeaaeiaaiiiai n ?aeeeoiauo
a?aiai oioineioaca.

ue Eiinoiaiou (iie aea aaoa?io?iou) — i?aaieciu, yaeythueany a ieuaaie
oeaie iio?aaeoaeyie i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa. Eiinoiaiou ia?aiai ii?yaeea
— ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiua aeeaioiua; eiinoiaiou aoi?iai, o?aoueaai e o. ae.
ii?yaeeia — oeuieee.

ue ?aaeooeaiou (io eao. aica?auathuee, ainnoaiaaeeaathuee), iie aea
aeano?oeoi?u, ?aceaaaoaee — i?aaieciu (nai?io?iou), ?aceaaathuea ia?oaia
i?aaie/aneia aauanoai e i?aa?auathuea aai a iai?aaie/aneea aauanoaa,
eioi?ua a ninoiyiee onaaeaaoue ae?oaea i?aaieciu — i?iaeooeaiou.
?aaeooeaiou — yoi aaeoa?ee, a?eau, i?i/ea iee?ii?aaieciu, a oaeaea
/a?ae, ee/eiee ianaeiiuo, ae?oaea iaeeea ii/aaiiua i?aaieciu, niiniaiua
i?aa?auaoue i?aaie/aneia aauanoai a ieia?aeueiua niaaeeiaiey.
Acaeiiaeaenoaea i?iaeooeaioia, eiinoiaioia e ?aaeooeaioia iaania/eaaao
aeioe/aneee e?oaiai?io. Iineaaeiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iai?a?uaiue
i?ioeann nicaeaiey e aeano?oeoeee i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa. Ana aeeaia
aauanoai aeinoa?u iaiiaeyaony a n?aaeiai ca 8 eao. A ieaaia oee?eoeyoeey
eaeao ai iiiai ?ac auno?aa, iai?eia?, ianna oeoiieaieoiia iaiiaeyaony
eaaeaeue aeaiue, niaia eenei?iaea a aoiinoa?a i?ienoiaeeo ca 2000 eao.

A i?e?iaea acaeiiioiioaiey ?acee/iuo aeaeia aeeaioiuo, ?anoaiee e?aeia
iiiaiia?aciu. Auaaao oae, /oi iaeie aeaeu iiiiaatho ae?oaei: iai?eia?,
ia iaioee?yo iiiaeo e?aaia iaeoatho ei?aeeu eee aeoeiee, iiiiaathuea
e?aaai ianee?iaaoueny. Ae?oaie i?eia?: i?inoaeoea aeaooeeiaua, aeeaouea
a eeoa/ieea oa?ieoia, auaeaeytho oa?iaio, aac eioi?iai oa?ieou ia iiaee
au ii?iaeueii ia?aaa?eaaoue ae?aaaneio e ?anuaieyoue aa aei naoa?ia.

Ii aeaeaei ia ana ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aeaeaie iiaeii iacaaoue
aeia?ininaaeneeie. Iie i?eia?aoatho aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeiue
oa?aeoa?, eiaaea, iai?eia?, ieaniaaua a?eau iiaeaaeytho ?ino aaeoa?ee,
oeuiee oie/oiaeaao aea?oao, a ia?aceo aoaeo oicyeia. Iaeiaei e iie ia
anaaaea a?aaeiu aeey aeaea a oeaeii: iiae aeeyieai anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a
a i?e?iaea onoaiaaeeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiia ?aaiiaanea.

A anee oaeia ?aaiiaanea ia?ooaaony, yoi i?eaiaeeo e iienoeia
ii?aceoaeueiui ?acoeueoaoai. ?aiueoa e iaeioi?ui aeaeai aeeaioiuo eee
?anoaiee auei i?eiyoi i?eiaiyoue oa?iei «a?aaeiue» eee «iieaciue». Oae,
iai?eia?, ni?iye ia iiea, aaea ?anoao ioaieoea, — «a?aaeiue», eioea,
oie/oiaeathuay iuoae, — «iieaciay» e o. i. Nae/an oaea ie o eiai ia
aucuaaao niiiaiey, /oi aeey ii?iaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey niiauanoa ioaeiu
?acee/iua eo caaiuey, iacaaeneii io oiai, a?aaeiu iie eee iieaciu aeey
/aeiaaea.

Aua iaeei iieacaoaeueiue i?eia?. Ia naaa?iii neeiia Aieueoiai Eaiueiia a
Eiei?aaei (NOA) oie/oiaeeee aieeia aeey oiai, /oiau oaaee/eoue
eiee/anoai ieaiae. Ieaie aani?aiyonoaaiii ?aciiiaeaeenue, e nei?i eo
noaaei aic?inei aei 100 ouny/ aieia. Ieue aeey oaeiai eiee/anoaa
aeeaioiuo ieacaeanue iaaeinoaoi/ii, e ieaie noaee aeaiooue io aieiaea. A
eiioea eiioeia, eo iiaieiauea oiaiueoeeinue a 10 ?ac. I?e auyniaiee
i?e/ei aeaaee aeeaioiuo ieacaeinue, /oi, eiaaea a yoii ?aeiia
nouanoaiaaee aieee, n?aaee ieaiae iiaeaea?aeeaaeinue onoie/eaia
?aaiiaanea, i?e eioi?ii eo /enei niioaaonoaiaaei caianai ieue.

Aieueoeinoai niiauanoa aani?a?uaii iaiyaony — e io naciia e naciio, e
eci aeiy a aeaiue, e aeaaea a eaaeaeoth ieiooo. Niiauanoai iiaeao
ninoiyoue a iniiaiii ec aeeaioiuo eee, iaiai?io, ec ?anoaiee. Eciaiaiey,
i?ienoiaeyuea n niiauanoaii ia ethaie noaaeee aai ?acaeoey, cao?aaeaatho
aieueoeinoai aoiaeyueo a iaai i?aaieciia. Iiyaeaiea iiauo ?anoaiee eee
aeeaioiuo nii?iaiaeaeaaony eciaiaieyie aiaoiae n?aaeu, eioi?ua, eae
i?aaeei, aeaaii?eyoiu aeey iiauo aeaeia e iaaeaaii?eyoiu aeey
noa?iaeeeia. Iinoaiaiii ia?ano?ieea a aeioeaiica caiaaeeyaony, e ii
aeinoeaaao ?aaiiaaney. Ii aeinoeaiooia ?aaiiaanea oiaea a?aiaiii.

«Aeaaea ei?aeeiaue ?eo — iaeei ec iaeaieaa noaaeeueiuo aeioeaiicia, — e
oio iiaeaa?aeai cia/eoaeueiui eciaiaieyi. I?e eaaeaeii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiii iiaeiyoee eee iiieaeaiee o?iaiy ii?y, i?e eaaeaeii
iaaeeaiiii ia?aiauaiee caiiie ei?u nai ei?aee, yaeythueeny iniiaaieai
aeaaioneiai aeioeaiica ?eoa, iiaeao iieiinoueth iiaeaiooue. Iiyoiio
oi/iaa aiai?eoue ia ia iauai ?aaiiaanee a i?e?iaea, a i aaeeeii
iiiaeanoaa ?aaiiaanee a ie?a aeeauo nouanoa», — ienae E. Oa?a a
«Iiioey?iie yeieiaee».

Ieiaeioai?iia enneaaeiaaiea yeieiae/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae o?aaoao
o/anoey o/aiuo ?acee/iuo niaoeeaeueiinoae. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iu ana
/aua neuoei ?acaiai? i iiauo iia?aie/iuo iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo iaeanoyo
ciaiee — aeioeceea, aeioeiee, oece/aneie oeiee e o. ae. Yoe iaoee
aicieeatho ia nouea ianeieueeeo aeenoeeieei: oeceee e aeieiaee,
iai?eia?, aeioeceea. Iaeiei ec oaeeo noueia anoanoaaiiuo iaoe yaeyaony
aeieiai-iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea. Eae ecaanoii, ie?oaeathuee ian
ie? iiaeaeaaony eiee/anoaaiiiio iienaieth. Ia?ao?ace?oy ecaanoiia
ec?a/aiea auaeathuaainy ?onneiai oeceieiaa e iuneeoaey Eaaia Ieoaeeiae/a
Na/aiiaa, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ana: io aeanea aeaeueieo caacae, ooia
ieaaineiai i?eaiy e iieaoa i/aeu aei ia?aiai e?eea ?aaaiea,
aaeioiiaaiiiai oaioea aaea?eiu e oai?/aneie ia/ou o/aiiai — iiaeii
iienaoue eiee/anoaaiii. Eiia/ii, io yoiai «iiaeii» aei ?aaeueiiai
«iienaoue iooue aeieaee e o?oaeiue, ii aiieia i?aiaeieeiue nia?aiaiiie
iao/iie e oaoie/aneie iuneueth.

A iaoe aeie aeieiae enneaaeotho nouanoaiaaiea aeeaiai ia ?acee/iuo
o?iaiyo — io iaaieueoeo o/anoeia, aaea iaeoatho ioaeaeueiua aeaeu
?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo, e aei aeinoa?u Caiee a oeaeii.

Aeinoa?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, i?aaeaea anaai, ieaieo aeecie,
iie?uaathuoth caiiie oa?. Iauay ianna aeeauo i?aaieciia, eee, eae
aiai?yo o/aiua, iauay aeiianna Caiee, auea i?eia?ii iiaen/eoaia A. E.
Aa?iaaeneei e aai oeieie: iia ninoaaeyao nauoa 300 ie?ae o nooiai
aauanoaa. Ii n?aaiaieth n iauae iannie Caiee yoi ia i/aiue iiiai, ii,
oai ia iaiaa, yoi ia?iiiay ianna aeeaiai aauanoaa.

Aeinoa?a — nouanoaaiiaeoay ninoaaiay /anoue iauae aeecie Caiee eae
ieaiaou, yia?aaoe/aneee ye?ai iaaeaeo Caieae e Einiinii eioi?ue
i?aa?auaao ii?aaeaeaiioth /anoue einie/aneie, a iniiaiii nieia/iie,
yia?aee, iinooiathuae ia Caieth, a oeaiiia aunieiiieaeoey?iia
i?aaie/aneia aauanoai. Iinooieaiea nieia/iie yia?aee — yia?aaoe/aneee
aoiae a aeinoa?o.

A a?iiaaeiie aeiianna i?ioaeatho i?ioeannu iaiaia aauanoa, iaeie
i?aaieciu ioie?atho, ae?oaea ia?iaeaeathony, iie ieoathony ae?oa
ae?oaii, i?iaeoeoaie ae?oa ae?oaa e o. i. I?ienoiaeeo ia?iiiue, aa/iue,
iinoiyiii ?aaioathuee aeieiae/aneee e?oaiai?io a aeinoa?a, oeaeue ?yae
aauanoa, oeaeue ?yae oi?i yia?aee iinoiyiii oee?eoee?otho a yoii
aieueoii e?oaiai?ioa aeinoa?u.

6. Iniiaiua eiioeaioeee yoieiaee

Iniiau yoieiaee, eee iaoee i iiaaaeaiee aeeaioiuo, auee caeiaeaiu a XIX
aaea. Iinea ia?auo yenia?eiaioia Ae. Niieaeeiaa ii eco/aieth iiaaaeaiey
aeeaioiuo, *. Oeoiai, ouaoaeueii iaaethaeay ca iiaaaeaieai aeeaioiuo
?aciuo aeaeia, oeacae, /oi iiiaea einoeieou, eae a?iaeaeaiiua ?aaeoeee
iiaaaeaiey, yaeythony ianoieueei eiinoaioiuie, /oi, iiaeiaii
ii?oieiae/aneei no?oeoo?ai (i?aaiai), iiaoo eiaoue oaeniiiie/aneia eee
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiia cia/aiea. Nia?aiaiiay oaeniiiiey (io a?a/. taxis —
?aniieiaeaiea, no?ie, ii?yaeie e iioia — caeii) a aeieiaee yoi ?acaeae
nenoaiaoeee, caieiathueeny i?eioeeiaie, iaoiaeaie e i?aaeeaie
eeanneoeeaoeee i?aaieciia. Oae, iai?eia?, ninouea aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeyo aieoae ai a?aiy ieouey, yaeythony iaeiei ec naiuo
oa?aeoa?iuo i?eciaeia naiaenoaa aieoaeiuo.

Nouanoaaiiui aeeaaeii a ?acaeoea yoieiaee yaeeenue enneaaeiaaiey I.
Oaei?ioa e O. E?aeaa. I. Oaei?io ?acaeaae o/aiea i cia/aiee a?iaeaeaiiuo
i?eciaeia iiaaaeaiey ioeoe (iniaaiii ooeiuo) aeey oaeniiiie/aneie
ioeaiee aeaea. *. E?aea iaeiei ec ia?auo oeacae, /oi iiaaaeaiea
neeaaeuaaaony ia oieueei ec ioaeaeueiuo, aucaaiiuo niioaaonoaothueie
?acae?aaeeoaeyie ?aaeoeee, a iai?aaeyaony aioo?aiieie iio?aaiinoyie
aeeaioiuo. Iie iiae?acaeaeeee einoeieou ia aea/aiey, o?aaothuea
oaeiaeaoai?aiey, e iieneiaia iiaaaeaiea, n aeeth/aieai iioi?iie
aeoeaiinoe e caaa?oathuaai aeaenoaey, eioi?ia inouanoaeyaony iinea oiai,
eae ?acae?aaeeoaeue iaeaeai. Niaa?oaiea yoiai aeaenoaey, ii iieiaeaieth
E?aeaa, i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth eee iieiiio i?ae?auaieth aea/aiey.

Enneaaeiaaiey e iieiaeaiey Oae?iioa e E?aeaa a aeaeueiaeoai auee
ooi/iaiu e ?acaeou aeaaiui ia?acii Iiaaeaaneeie eao?aaoaie aano?eeoeai
Eii?aaeii Ei?aioeai, iaioeai Ea?eii oii O?eoai e aiaee/aieiii Ieeieanii
Oeiaa?aaiii. Yoa oeiea ?acaeaaeanue a iieaieea n aia?eeaineie oeieie
aeoaaei?enoia, eioi?ua noa?aeenue iauynieoue ana iiaaaeaiea aeeaioiuo
i?eia?aoaiiuie ?aoeaenaie, io?eoeay iaee/ea a?iaeaeaiiuo oaeoi?ia. Eo
i?aaenoaaeaiea ieacaeinue iai?aaeeueiui, ii aeeeoaeueiay ai?ueaa oeie
iiiiaea eo i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ooi/ieoue e oaeoaeoue ciaiey i iiaaaeaiee
aeeaioiuo. I?e yoii o/aiua a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a enoiaeeee ec iieiaeaiey
aaeeeiai oeceieiaa Eaaia Iaaeiaa e aai oeieu i ?acaeaeaiee iiaaaeaiey ia
oneiaiua e aaconeiaiua ?aaeoeee.

Eiy Eii?aaea Ei?aioea (1903-1989 aa.), eae iaeiiai ec aeaeiaeoeo
iniiaaoaeae yoieiaee, oe?iei ecaanoii. I?aaeiao e caaea/e yoieiaee —
n?aaieoaeueiia eco/aiea iiaaaeaiey aeeaioiuo n oi/ee c?aiey aai
iauaaeieiae/aneiai cia/aiey, auyaeaiea ?iee iiaaaeaiey e
i?eniiniaeaiiinoe aeeaioiuo e oneiaeyi aiaoiae n?aaeu e a yaiethoeee
aeeaioiiai ie?a. Ii yoieiaeth oaeaea eioa?anoao yaiethoeey naiiai
iiaaaeaiey, aai aeaeieciaiaiea ia ?aciuo yoaiao yaiethoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna, ca?iaeaeaiea iiauo oi?i iiaaaeaiey. Aiai?y i naiie iaoea,
yoieiaee, iiaeii auaeaeeoue oo aa aeaaioth iniaaiiinoue, eioi?ay ninoieo
a oii, /oi iiiyoea «iiaaaeaiea» aoiaeeo a aanueia iaoe?ioth a?oiio
iiiyoee, iaoiaeyueo i?eiaiaiea ai iiiaeo, a ?yaea neo/aaa aanueia
ioaeaeueiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa iaeanoae ciaiey, a oaeaea i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e iauaeaiiie aeecie ethaeae.

A iaeaieaa iauai aeaea iiiyoea «iiaaaeaiea» ii?aaeaeyaony eae «nenoaia
aioo?aiia acaeiinaycaiiuo aeaenoaee, inouanoaeyaiuo eaeei-eeai neiaeiui
(iaeaaeathuei iaeioi?ie i?aaiecaoeeae) iauaeoii; yoa nenoaia
iiae/eiyaony ii?aaeaeaiiie eiaeea e iai?aaeaia ia ?aaeecaoeeth oie eee
eiie ooieoeee, i?enouae aeaiiiio iauaeoo e o?aaothuae aai
acaeiiaeaenoaey n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie». Oeaeue iiciaiey iiaaaeaiey,
oaeei ia?acii, ninoieo a ?ane?uoee iooae e caeiiiia?iinoae aai
oi?ie?iaaiey e ?aaeecaoeee. Niaea?aeaiea iiiyoey iiaaaeaiey, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, ii?aaeaeyaony niaoeeoeeie noauaeoa iiaaaeaiey, a n ae?oaie —
io?aaeaao a naiai ?acaeoee aeaeaeaiea iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna,
iai?aaeaiiiai ia iinoeaeaiea aai (iiaaaeaiey) nouiinoe.

A ea/anoaa noauaeoa iiaaaeaiey a aeieiaee (yoieiaee) aunooiaao, i?aaeaea
anaai, eiaeeaeae (i?aaieci), eioi?ue a oi aea a?aiy yaeyaony iauaeoii
yoieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey.

?ani?ino?aiaiea a nia?aiaiiie aeieiaee iiioeyoeeiienoneiai noeey
iuoeaiey, ia?aoiae io enneaaeiaaiey iiaaaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo iniaae e
enneaaeiaaieth iiaaaeai/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae, neeaaeuaathueony a
?acee/iuo ii ?acia?ai e noaiaie neiaeiinoe a?oiiao iniaae, aeaeatho
i?aaiia?iui auaeaeaiea iiioeyoeeiiiiai e aeioeaiioe/aneiai o?iaiae
?aaeecaoeee iiaaaeaiey. Auoiae yoieiae/aneee enneaaeiaaiee ia
iaaeuiaeeaeaeoaeueiua o?iaie i?aaiecaoeee (iaaei?aaieciaiiua o?iaie)
aeeaiai aeaao iniiaaiey a ea/anoaa noauaeoa iiaaaeaiey ?anniao?eaaoue ia
oieueei eiaeeaeae, ii e iiioeyoeeth eae iniiaiie niinia nouanoaiaaiey
aeaea.

Neiaeiue iiiaio?iaiaaue oa?aeoa? oi?ie?iaaiey e ?aaoeyoeee iiaaaeaiey
iaoneaaeeaaao e iiiaio?iaiaaue oa?aeoa? aai iiciaiey, aeeth/athuee
niioaaonoaaiii aeioeie/aneee, oece/aneee e ineoioeceieiae/aneee,
yeieiae/aneee e, aiciiaeii, ae?oaea aniaeou enneaaeiaaiey iiaaaeaiey,
oaeaea aeeth/aao a naay iioiaaiaoe/aneee e yaiethoeeiiiue aniaeou.

Eco/aiea eciai/eainoe, ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e ianeaaenoaaiiiai
inouanoaeaiey naienoa iiaaaeaiey, yaeyaony aaaeiui aii?inii a i?iaeaia
enneaaeiaaiey aeeaioiuo e, a /anoiinoe, eo aunoae ia?aiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Naienoaa iiaaaeaiey iiaoo auoue ?acaeou ia o?e iniiaiua
eaoaai?ee:

ue Niaoeeoe/aneea naienoaa iiaaaeaiey, eae, iai?eia?, ceiaiinoue,
ioaeeainoue niaae, e?un e iuoae. A iniiaa yoeo niaoeeoe/aneeo naienoa
iiaaaeaiey eaaeao, i/aaeaeii, neiaeiua aaconeiaiua ?aoeaenu iiaaaeaiey
eee Einoeieou.

ue Iauea naienoaa ia?aiie nenoaiu, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu
eae noaiaiue iauae aicaoaeaeaiiinoe ia?aiie nenoaiu, i?iyaeythueany a
?acee/iie iioi?iie aeoeaiinoe aeeaioiiai.

ue ?acee/iay iao/aaiinoue aeeaioiuo (nthaea aeieaeiu auoue ioianaiu
?aaiou ii ianeaaeiaaieth oeiia aunoae ia?aiie aeayoaeueiinoe).

Aaaeiie caaea/ae i?e yoii yaeyaony auyaeaiea yeaiaioa?iuo aaeeieoe
iiaaaeaiey. Naeaeaiiay a yoieiaee iiiuoea auaeaeeoue oaeea aaeeieoeu
auea i?iaeeeoiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?iaiaeeiiai enneaaeiaaiey.

ue A iaaeianeie oeiea iniiaiui iauaeoii, aaeeieoeae enneaaeiaaiey
yaeythony ?aoeaenu. Eco/aiea aunoae ia?aiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?iaaaeaiiia
i?e iiiiue iaaeianeiai iaoiaea, onoaiiaeei iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe
aeayoaeueiinoe aunoeo ioaeaeia ia?aiie nenoaiu. Iniiaiie aeoeaio a
enneaaeiaaieyo E. Iaaeiaa naeaeai ia ia eco/aiea caeiiiia?iinoae
iaoaiecia ?aoeaeoi?iie aeayoaeueiinoe, eaaeauae a iniiaa iiaaaeaiey.
Iiaaaeaiea aeeaioiuo ia iiaeao auoue ioiaeaeanoaeaii n ?aoeaeoi?iie
aeayoaeueiinoueth aunoeo ioaeaeia ia?aiie nenoaiu.

ue Eco/aiea ianeaaeiaaiey e ianeaaenoaaiiiai inouanoaeaiey ?acee/iuo
aeoia iiaaaeaiey ii naiaio eiia/iiio au?aaeaieth iieacuaaao, /oi aeou
iiaaaeaiey iiaoo iaoneaaeeaaoueny ?acee/iuie i?e/eiaie. A iaeieo neo/ayo
ii?aaeaeaiiue aeo iiaaaeaiey oi?ie?oaony ia iniiaa ianeaaenoaaiiuo
naienoa; a ae?oaeo neo/ayo ii iiaeao oi?ie?iaaoueny a ?acoeueoaoa
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiuoa aeeaioiiai. Yoi oieueei a e?aeieo neo/ayo. A
aieueoeinoaa aea neo/aaa oi?ie?iaaiea ioaeaeueiuo aeoia iiaaaeaiey
i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa oaniiai ia?aieaoaiey a?iaeaeaiiuo e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii i?eia?aoaiiuo eiiiiiaioia, ia aeathueo aiciiaeiinoe
ioianoe eo ie e a?oiia oneiaiuo, ie e a?oiia aaconeiaiuo ?aoeaenia.

ue Aeou iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua iiaoo oi?ie?iaaoueny i?e ?acee/iii ni/aoaiee
oneiaiuo e aaconeiaiuo ?aoeaenia, eiathueo a oi aea a?aiy noiaeiia
aiaoiaa au?aaeaiey, aeieaeiu auoue iaicia/aiu eaeei-oi eiui oa?ieiii,
/ai «oneiaiue» eee «aaconeiaiue» ?aoeaenu. Iaciaai eo oieoa?iuie
?aaeoeeyie iiaaaeaiey. Iiae iineaaeieie iiieiathony aaeeiua, oeaeinoiua
aeou iiaaaeaiey, eioaa?e?iaaiiua oneiaiua e aaconeiaiua ?aoeaenu.
Oieoa?iua ?aaeoeee iiaaaeaiey ?anniao?eaathony eae yeaiaioa?iua
aaeeieoeu iiaaaeaiey.

ue Oieoa?iua ?aaeoeee, iauaaeeiyynue, eiino?oe?otho aieaa neiaeiua yoaiu
eioaa?aoeee iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue iaicia/aiu eae aeieiae/aneea
oi?iu iiaaaeaiey. Iiae iineaaeieie iu iiieiaai iiaaaeaiea, eioi?ia,
aoaeo/e iino?iaii ec ioaeaeueiuo oieoa?iuo ?aaeoeee, naycaii n
iaania/aieai iniiaiuo aeeciaiiuo ioi?aaeaiee i?aaiecia.

Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio auyaeythony neaaeothuea, iaeaieaa iauea
aeieiae/aneea oi?iu iiaaaeaiey aeeaioiuo:

ue ieuaaay;

ue iai?iieoaeueiay;

ue iieiaay;

ue oi?ia iiaaaeaiey, naycaiiay n caaioie i iioiinoaa;

ue oi?ia iiaaaeaiey iioiinoaa ii ioiioaieth e naiei ?iaeeoaeyi.

Aeaiiua oi?iu iiaaaeaiey yaeythony iaeaieaa iaueie, i?enoueie ii/oe anai
iicaiii/iui aeeaioiui.

ue Aeieiae/aneea oi?iu iiaaaeaiey, eiino?oe?oynue eae ?acoeueoao
eioaa?aoeee ioaeaeueiuo oieoa?iuo ?aaeoeee, ia yaeythony i?inoie noiiie
iineaaeieo. Oieoa?iua ?aaeoeee iiaaaeaiey i?iyaeythony a caaeneiinoe io
oie oi?iu ii aaaeaiey, eioi?ay aeiieie?oao a aeaiiue iiiaio a iiaaaeaiee
aeeaioiiai.

7. Yia?aaoe/aneea e yio?iieeiua i?ioeannu (yia?aaoeea) aeecie

Nouanoaoao aeaa iiaiey ioiineoaeueii i?eiaieiinoe aoi?iai ia/aea
oa?iiaeeiaieee (?anniao?eaaeinue a aeaaa 3) e aeeaui nenoaiai. Iaeie
o/aiua oaa?aiu a i?aaiia?iinoe i?eiaieiinoe, ae?oaea — iao. Ia?aua
ooaa?aeaeatho yoi, ia niiiaaaynue a oii, /oi aiiaua oece/aneea caeiiu
aeinoaoi/iu aeey iienaiey aeeauo nenoai, iiyoiio, a /anoiinoe, e aoi?ia
ia/aei aiieia i?eiaieii e aeeaui nenoaiai. Oae, iai?eia?, o?aioeocneee
aeieia, ia oecee, caiaoei, AE. Iiii ioia/aao, /oi «aeeciue ia neaaeoao
ec caeiiia oeceee, ii niaianoeia n ieie». Aoi?ua ioaa?aatho
i?eiaieiinoue aoi?iai ia/aea e aeeaui nenoaiai, iineieueeo iieaaatho,
/oi yoi caeii, ?aaoee?othuee oaieiaua i?ioeannu, a a aeeaii i?aaiecia
enoi/ieeii ?aaiou yaeyaony ia oaieiaay yia?aey.

Aa?iyoii, aeey auyniaiey enoeiu iaiaoiaeeii aieaa oe?ieia, /ai
oa?iiaeeiaie/aneia eee noaoenoe/aneia, ii?aaeaeaiea yio?iiee. Iiyoiio-oi
iu ?anniao?eaaai yoio aii?in caeanue, a ?acaeaea aeieiae/aneeo
eiioeaioeee.

Yio?iiey e yaiethoeey. Aa?iyoii, ca?iaeaeaiea i?iaeaiu acaeiinayce
iaaeaeo yio?iieae e yaiethoeeae i?iecioei a 1854 a., eiaaea
Aaeueiaieueoe e Aieueoeiai ia?auie ia?aoeee aieiaiea ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiua
iai?aaeaiiinoe caeiia aic?anoaiey yio?iiee e caeiiia oai?ee yaiethoeee.
Caeii aic?anoaiey yio?iiee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oaaee/aiee aanii?yaeea e
«oaieiaie nia?oe» Anaeaiiie, oiaaea eae oai?ey yaiethoeee aeeauo nenoai
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?ioeannao ia?aoiaea io i?inouo nenoai e aieaa
neiaeiui nenoaiai, o. a. oeacuaatho iooue aic?anoaiey ii?yaeea. Iinea
yoiai aicieeei iiiai ?aciuo iai?aaeaiee a iaoea, naycuaathueo yio?iieth,
oaeoe/anee aoi?ia ia/aei, e yaiethoeeth. ?anniio?ei eo, ii aiciiaeiinoe,
iineaaeiaaoaeueii.

Ia?aia iai?aaeaiea: iae?eoe/aneia aini?eyoea aoi?iai ia/aea. Aeaiiia
iai?aaeaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi caeii aic?anoaiey yio?iiee n aai
i?aaeneacaieai oaieiaie nia?oe Anaeaiiie, a /anoiinoe, ia eiaao niunea
niaeaniauaaoue n iaaethaeaaiie yaiethoeeae ie?a a noi?iio oneiaeiaiey.

Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea: oeoeooaoeeiiiay aeiioaca. A 1886 a. Aieueoeiai
i?aaeneacuaae oaieiaoth nia?oue Anaeaiiie, iaeiaei a 1898 aiaeo ii
auaeaeaaao ciaiaieooth oeoeooaoeeiiioth aeiioaco: ie?oaeathuay ian
iae?ineiie/aneay iaeanoue yaeyaony ia?aaiiaaniie oeoeooaoeeae ai
Anaeaiiie, a oeaeii iaoiaeyuaeny a ?aaiiaaniii ninoiyiee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoa aeiioaca Aieueoeiaia ia yaeyaony iiioey?iie a neeo
naiae aioeyaiethoeeiiiinoe.

O?aouea iai?aaeaiea: aoi?ia ia/aei aeaenoaoao ia aacaea. Nooue yoiai
iai?aaeaiey caeeth/aaony a oacena iai?eiaieiinoe aoi?iai ia/aea e aeeaui
nenoaiai, oioy yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa iani?aaaaeeeainoe
aoi?iai ia/aea ii ioiioaieth e aeeaui nenoaiai ia nouanoaoao. Ii
o?aeoiaea aoi?iai ia/aea, eae oece/aneiai caeiia, aa?iyoii a yoii neo/aa
ia nianai i?aaeeueia, yaeyaony eneonnoaaiiie. I?e?iaea ia ciaao aeaeaiey
ia?aiaiiuo ia «oece/aneea» e «no?oeoo?iua», yoi aeaeaiea i?iecaiaeeo
/aeiaae, eco/athuee i?e?iaeo. Anee i aoi?ii ia/aea aiai?eoue a oe?ieii
niunea, eiaaea yio?iiey eiaao e oece/aneoth e no?oeoo?ioth
ninoaaeythuea, oi oiaaea, aa?iyoii, caeii aic?anoaiey «oaeie «yio?iiee
?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia aeeaua nenoaiu.

*aoaa?oia iai?aaeaiea: eiioeaioeey O?aaeeiaa?a (enoaoe, oiai naiiai
O?aaeeiaa?a, iaeiiai ec iniiaaoaeae eaaioiaie iaoaieee, iooea iniiaiiai
o?aaiaiey a iae). Yoi iauai?eiyoay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiioeaioeey, ii
eiathuay ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe. A iniiaa eiioeaioeee O?aaeeiaa?a
eaaeao aeaa eaeae.

Ia?aay eaeay caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeeaay nenoaia yaeyaony noaoai
ia?aaiiaaniie. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, yoa eaeay au?aaeaao i?eioeei
onoie/eaiai ia?aaiiaaney aeeauo nenoai.

Aoi?ay eaeay, ?acaeaay ia?aoth, caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeeaay nenoaia
nio?aiyao ia?aaiiaaniinoue ca n/ao aiaoiae n?aaeu, /a?iay a iae
iaiaoiaeeioth oii?yaei/aiiinoue, o. a. iaayio?iieth (io?eoeaoaeueioth
yio?iieth). O?aaeeiaa? oi?ioee?oao yoo eaeath oae: i?aaieci inoaaony
aeeaui «oieueei iooai, iinoiyiiiai ecaea/aiey ec aai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
io?eoeaoaeueiie yio?iiee. Io?eoeaoaeueiay yio?iiey — aio oi, /ai
i?aaieci ieoaaony».

E?aaoaieueiui eaiiai eiioeaioeee yaeyaony iiieiaiea yio?iiee eae ia?u
aanii?yaeea. Ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe eiioeaioeee eae ?ac naycaiu n yoei
iieiaeaieai. Niaeanii O?aaeeiaa?o, aeeaua nenoaiu iaeaaeatho naienoaii
/a?iaoue ii?yaeie ec ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Iaoa ieaiaoa iieo/aao
aunieiea/anoaaiioth yia?aeth io Nieioea (ea/anoai yia?aee ii?aaeaeyaony
iaeui iioieii yio?iiee ca n/ao aunieie oaiia?aoo?u iiaa?oiinoe Nieioea),
ia?a?aaaouaaao aa, /oi, eiia/ii, nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?inoii yio?iiee a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, e aua?anuaaao a einie/aneia i?ino?ainoai aianoa n
ia?aaioaiiie yio?iieae. Eiaiii yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iaania/eaaao
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue ia Caiea. Iinoiyinoai iaayio?iieeiiai ?aoeeiia
Caiee a iaic?eiii eioa?aaea a?aiaie, ii-aeaeeiiio, e eaaeeo a iniiaa
ioe?uoiai Aa?iaaeneei caeiia nio?aiaiey aeiiannu ia Caiea. Oaeei
ia?acii, ia o?iaia iaueo i?aaenoaaeaiee i?iaeaia nouanoaiaaiey aeecie ia
Caiea iiiyoia. Iaeiaei aii?inu iieaeoey?iie naiii?aaiecaoeee, i?eioeeiu
ioai?a e yaiethoeee ii-i?aaeiaio o?aaotho iauyniaiey ia oece/aneii eee
oeceei-oeie/aneii o?iaia. ?acaeoea niauoee a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey XX
aaea iieacaee ia?aie/aiiinoue oi?iuaiiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey yio?iiee eae
ia?u aanii?yaeea.

Neia?aaoeea eae ia?aay iiaeeoeeaoeey eiioeaioeee O?aaeeiaa?a. Oa?iei
«neia?aaoeea» i?aaeeiaeai Aa?iaiii Oaeaiii aeey iaicia/aiey iiaeoiaea, a
eioi?ii i?ioeannu naiii?aaiecaoeee eco/athony n ?aciiia?aciuo iiceoeee,
a oii /enea, e n iiceoeee oai?ee aeenneiaoeaiuo no?oeoo?, ?ac?aaioaiiie
Eeueae I?eaiaeeiui. Yoio iiaeoiae ?acaeaaaony a oeceea, oeiee, aeieiaee
e a ae?oaeo aeenoeeieeiao. Neia?aaoeea aaiaeeo iiiyoea aeenneiaoeaiie
no?oeoo?u eae ia?aaiiaaniie no?oeoo?u, aicieeathuae ca n/ao ioe?uoinoe
nenoaiu e iaycaiiie, oaeei ia?acii, naiei nouanoaiaaieai aeeoioiiee
nenoaiu e n?aaeu: oiaiueoaiea yio?iiee a nenoaia (oii?yaei/aiea)
iuneeony caeanue i?ienoiaeyuei ca n/ao ?inoa yio?iiee (aanii?yaeea) a
n?aaea. Iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea neia?aaoeee ninoaaeyao aiaeec e ?aoaiea
iaeeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee, iienuaathueo nenoaiu. Anoue iaeioi?ua iauea /a?ou
?aoaiee, aoaeue yoi aaoieaoaeeoe/aneay oeie/aneay ?aaeoeey
Aaeioniaa-AEaaioeineiai (ni. iineaaeiee ioieo a ae. 8) eee aeieiae/aneay
nenoaia, eee ia/oi eiia. Neia?aaoeea aianea a eiioeaioeeth O?aaeeiaa?a
iii?aaeo: aeeoioiiey oeia «nenoaia — n?aaea» naienoaaiia ia oieueei
aeeaui nenoaiai, ii i?iyaeyaony e a iaaeeaie i?e?iaea — a
aeae?iaeeiaieea (y/aeee Aa?ia?a), oeceea eaca?ia, oeiee. Yoe iaoiaeee
neia?aaoeee ia ?ac?ooatho eiioeaioeeth O?aaeeiaa?a, ii ana aea e ia
aeatho ioaaoa ia iniiaiie aii?in — ioeoaea aa?aony ii?yaeie a oao
nenoaiao, eioi?ua neoaeao «n?aaeie» aeey ioe?uouo nenoai n
ia?acothueieny a ieo aeenneiaoeaiuie no?oeoo?aie?

Neia?aaoeea e anoanoaaiiue ioai? eae aoi?ay iiaeeoeeaoeey eiioeaioeee
O?aaeeiaa?a. Naaiaeiy ?ieue anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a a yaiethoeee iaeuecy
n/eoaoue aei eiioea yniie. Aa?iyoii, anoanoaaiiue ioai? yaeyaony iaeiei
ec iaoaieciia yaiethoeee, aeeyao eaeei-oi ia?acii ia nei?inoue
yaiethoeee. Caeanue ian eioa?anoao /anoiue aii?in: ii?aaeaeyao ee
anoanoaaiiue ioai? iauoth iai?aaeaiiinoue yaiethoeee a noi?iio
oneiaeiaiey?

Ioaao ia yoio aii?in a ianoiyuaa a?aiy io?eoeaoaeueiue. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
a aeeaii ie?a iaaethaeathony anaaiciiaeiua neo/ae: i?ia?anneaiay
yaiethoeey a noi?iio oneiaeiaiey (a?iii?oic, ii aea a?iaaiac eee
ii?oioeceieiae/aneee i?ia?ann), eee, iai?ioea, noaaeeecaoeey o?iaiy
neiaeiinoe (eaeeiaaeaioaoeey). E ai anao yoeo neo/ayo anoanoaaiiue ioai?
ioaaonoaaiai ca yoe /anoiua oi?iu yaiethoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, nai ii naaa
anoanoaaiiue ioai?, oioy e yaeyaony aaaeiui (ii ia aei eiioea yniui)
oaeoi?ii yaiethoeee, iaeiaei ia ioaaonoaaiai iieiinoueth ca iauaa
iai?aaeaiey yaiethoeee.

O?aouey iiaeeoeeaoeey eiioeaioeee O?aaeeiaa?a: aeeoioiiey «nenoaia —
n?aaea» onei?yao ?ino yio?iiee. Aeeoioiiey «nenoaia — n?aaea» nieiaao
ana i?ioeai?a/ey yaiethoeee, a noi?iio oneiaeiaiey, ni aoi?ui ia/aeii. E
i?eia?o, «anee ?anniao?eaaoue Nieia/ioth nenoaio eae eciee?iaaiioth, oi
yio?iiey aa iai?a?uaii oaaee/eaaaony ca n/ao eceo/aiey Nieioea. Ia oiia
yoiai a?aiaeeiciiai i?ioeanna oiaiueoaiea yio?iiee ai anao aeeauo
i?aaieciao ie/oiaeii iaei», — oae ooaa?aeaeaao ecaanoiue ?inneeneee
aeioecee I. Aieueeaiooaei.

Iiaeaaaeai eoia ianoaeaeaiey eiioeaioeee O?aaeeiaa?a. Yoa eiioeaioeey
ieacaeanue ieiaeioai?iie, niinianoaiaaea ?acaeoeth neia?aaoeee. Ii,
ioaao ia aeaaiue aii?in — ioeoaea aa?aony ii?yaeie, eioi?ue caoai
iio?aaeyaony aeenneiaoeaiuie no?oeoo?aie, — inoaaony. Aeeoioiiey
«nenoaia — n?aaea» ia iiaeao auoue aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii ii?yaeea.

Iyoia iai?aaeaiea: ?ino yio?iiee iiaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny ?inoii
neiaeiinoe aeaaea a eciee?iaaiiuo nenoaiao. Aeaiiia iai?aaeaiea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaeeoeeaoeeth ia?aiai iai?aaeaiey, a eioi?ii
yaiethoeey iiieiaaony eae ?acaeoea a noi?iio aic?anoaiey yio?iiee. ?ino
neiaeiinoe aiiaua ia i?ioeai?a/eo ?inoo yio?iiee. Iauyniaiea yoiai
ooaa?aeaeaiey iniiaaii ia ?aciuo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo iiiyoey yio?iiee.

Ii?yaeie ec oaina e oain ec ii?yaeea: aeaa aaoae ia ae?aaa iiciaiey. A
oeacaiiie i?iaeaia iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e iieiaeaiey, iiaouea
i?aaenoaaeoue eioa?an.

Iieiaeaiea ia?aia: ?acaeoay no?oeoo?a eiaao aieueooth aa?iyoiinoue, /ai
oain. Yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea iie?aaony ia o?aaeeoeeiiiua einiieiae/aneea
oai?ee aicieeiiaaiey Nieioea e caacae (aieaa oii?yaei/aiiua no?oeoo?u)
ec ?annayiiuo iaeaeia aaca e iuee (nenoaiu n aieueoei aanii?yaeeii) iiae
aeaenoaeai nee a?aaeoaoeee. Caeanue ?aaeecoaony eaeay, niaeanii eioi?ie
ii?yaeie aicieeaao ec oaina. A einiieiae/aneeo ianooaaao yoa eaeay ia
aucuaaea niiiaiey ia oieueei ai a?aiaia Iuethoiia, ii aua ?aiaa a
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee. Ia?yaeo n eaeaae «ii?yaeie ec oaina» nouanoaiaaei, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, a oeceea, oa/aiea «oain ec ii?yaeea», eioi?ia
iainiiaaii a aeaea oi?ioee?iaee caeiia aic?anoaiey yio?iiee. Oaeei
ia?acii, a enoi?ee /aeiaa/aneie iunee ecia/aeueii ai?thony aeaa eeiee,
eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ioiaeaeanoaeaiu n eaeayie «ii?yaeie ec oaina» e
«oain ec ii?yaeea». Iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae: aieaa aa?iyoiay no?oeoo?a
(eiathuay aieueooth yio?iieth) iiaeao auoue eae aieaa ?acaeoie
(neiaeiie), oae e iaiaa ?acaeoie, a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiie neooaoeee.
Yoe aeaa eeiee iinoaiaiii neeaathony.

Iieiaeaiea aoi?ia: oi, /oi ?acaeoay no?oeoo?a eiaao aieueooth
aa?iyoiinoue, /ai oain, ii?aaeaeyaony aeaenoaeai acaeiiaeaenoaey.

O?aouea iieiaeaiea: ?ani?ino?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i aieueoae
aa?iyoiinoe ?aaiiia?iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey («oaina») naycaiu n ia
i?aaiia?iui ?ani?ino?aiaieai aeiioacu i ?aaiiaa?iyoiinoe iee?ininoiyiey
ca i?aaeaeu iiaeaee eaeaaeueiiai aaca.

Iiaeaiaey eoia e?aoeiio ianoaeaeaieth ?acaeoey eeiee /aeiaa/aneie iunee
«ii?yaeie ec oaina» e «oain ec ii?yaeea» i?eoiaeei e auaiaeo: n ?inoii
yio?iiee iiaeao eiaoue ianoi eae ia?aciaaiea no?oeoo?, oae e eo
?ac?ooaiea. Ii yoi iiaeao icia/aoue oieueei iaeii: yio?iiey ia yaeyaony
ia?ie aanii?yaeea — neiaeiinoe.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Ai?ioia A. A. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. — I., 2003. —
412 n.

2. Noaiei A. N., Ai?ioia A. A., ?icia I. A. Oeeinioey iaoee e oaoieee. —
I., 1995. — 384 n.

3. E?theia ?. A. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey (eiiniaeo
eaeoeee). — I., 2005. — 176 n.

4. Aaeeiia Y. I. Oaiiiai aeecie: iaaeaeo ?aaiiaaneai e iaeeiaeiinoueth.
I?ienoiaeaeaiea e i?eioeeiu yaiethoeee. — I., 2001. — 256 n.

5. Eiycaaa A. I., Eo?aethiia N. I. Caeiiu yaiethoeee e naiii?aaiecaoeee
neiaeiuo nenoai. — I., 1994.

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