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Концепции и принципы химического естествознания

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?a??o

«E??i?e e ???? ?????i ??????ey»

1. Y?eth?y ??ae, ??????a ????? y???? e ????y ????ay y?eth?y

I?ioeann ia?aciaaiey oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia ai Anaeaiiie ia?ac?uaii naycai
n yaiethoeeae Anaeaiiie. Iu oaea iiciaeiieeenue n i?ioeannaie,
i?ienoiaeyueie aaeece «Aieueoiai ac?uaa», ciaai iaeioi?ua aeaoaee
i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeeaoeo a «ia?ae/iii aoeueiia» yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe.
Ia?aua aoiiu oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia, iaoiaeyueany a ia/aea oaaeeoeu Ae. E.
Iaiaeaeaaaa (aiaei?iae, aeaeoa?ee, aaeee), ia/aee ia?aciauaaoueny ai
Anaeaiiie aua aei aicieeiiaaiey caacae ia?aiai iieieaiey. Eiaiii a
caacaeao, eo iaae?ao, ?acia?aouo niiaa (iinea Big Bang oaiia?aoo?a
Anaeaiiie ia/aea no?aieoaeueii iaaeaoue) aei ieeeea?aeia a?aaeonia, e
auee i?iecaaaeaiu yae?a oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia, neaaeothueo ca aaeeai.
O/eouaay cia/aiea caacae eae enoi/ieeia, aaia?aoi?ia oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia, ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua yoaiu caacaeiie yaiethoeee. Aac
iiieiaiey iaoaieciia caacaeiia?aciaaiey e yaiethoeee caacae iaaiciiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey oyaeaeuo yeaiaioia, aac eioi?uo, a
eiia/iii n/aoa, ia aicieeea au aeeciue. Aac caacae ai Anaeaiiie oae au
aa/ii e nouanoaiaaea aiaei?iaei-aaeeaaay ieacia, a eioi?ie i?aaiecaoeey
aeecie, i/aaeaeii, iaaiciiaeia (ia nia?aiaiiii o?iaia iiieiaiey yoiai
yaeaiey).

?aiaa iu ioiaoeee o?e iaaethaeaoaeueiuo oaeoa eee oanoa nia?aiaiiie
einiieiaee, i?inoe?athueony ia nioie ia?nae, oaia?ue oeaaeai /aoaa?oue —
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue eaaeeo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia a einiina. Iaiaoiaeeii
iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ia?aciaaiea eaaeeo yeaiaioia a ia?aua o?e ieioou e
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue eo a nia?aiaiiie Anaeaiiie aia?aua auea ?ann/eoaia a
1946 a. iaaeaeoia?iaeiie o?ieoeae auaeathueony o/aiuo: aia?eeaioeai
Aeueoa?ii, iaioeai Aainii Aaoa e ?onneei Aai?aeai Aaiiaui. N oao ii?
oeceee, caieiathueany aoiiiie e yaea?iie oeceeie, iaiaeiie?aoii
?ann/eouaaee ia?aciaaiea eaaeeo yeaiaioia a ?aiiae Anaeaiiie e
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue eo naaiaeiy. Iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi noaiaea?oiay
iiaeaeue ioeeaineioaca oi?ioi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iaaethaeaieyie.

Yaiethoeey caacae. Iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey e yaiethoeee iniiaiuo iauaeoia
Anaeaiiie — caacae, eco/ai iaeaieaa xoponio. Caeanue o/aiui iiiiaea
aiciiaeiinoue iaaethaeaoue ia?iiiia eiee/anoai caacae ia naiuo ?aciuo
noaaeeyo ?acaeoey — io ?iaeaeaiey aei nia?oe, — a oii /enea iiiaeanoai
oae iacuaaaiuo «caacaeiuo annioeeaoeee» — a?oii caacae, ?iaeeaoeony
ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii. Iiiiaea e n?aaieoaeueiay «i?inoioa» no?iaiey
caacaeu, eioi?ia aeiaieueii oniaoii iiaeaeaaony oai?aoe/aneiio iienaieth
e eiiiuethoa?iiio iiaeaee?iaaieth.

Caacaeu ia?acothony ec aaciauo iaeaeia, eioi?ua, i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, ?aniaaeathony ia ioaeaeueiua «naonoee», eioi?ua
aeaeueoa naeeiathony iiae aeaenoaeai nianoaaiiiai oyaioaiey. Naeaoeth
aaca iiae aeaenoaeai nianoaaiiiai oyaioaiey i?aiyonoaoao iiauoathuaany
aeaaeaiea. I?e aaeeaaaoe/aneii naeaoee aeieaeia iiauoaoueny e
oaiia?aoo?a — a aeaea oaiea auaeaeyaony a?aaeoaoeeiiiay yia?aey nayce.
Iiea iaeaei ?ac?aaeaiiia, ana oaiei eaaei ooiaeeo n eceo/aieai, ii a
ieioiii yae?a naouaiey auiin oaiea cao?oaeiai, e iii auno?i
?acia?aaaaony. Niioaaonoaothuaa iiauoaiea aeaaeaiey oi?iiceo naeaoea
yae?a, e iii i?iaeieaeaao i?ienoiaeeoue oieueei ca n/ao i?iaeieaeathuaai
iaaeaoue ia ?iaeaeathuothny caacaeo aaca. N ?inoii iannu ?anoao
aeaaeaiea e oaiia?aoo?a a oeaio?a, iiea iaeiiaoe iineaaeiyy ia
aeinoeaaao aaee/eiu 10 ieeeeiiia Eaeueaeiia. A yoio iiiaio a oeaio?a
caacaeu ia/eiathony yaea?iua ?aaeoeee, i?aa?auathuea aiaei?iae a aaeee,
eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaatho noaoeeiia?iia ninoiyiea aiiaue ia?aciaaaoaeny
caacaeu ieeeeiiu, ieeeea?aeu eee aeanyoee ieeeea?aeia eao, a caaeneiinoe
io iannu caacaeu.

Caacaea i?aa?auaaony a ia?iiiue oa?iiyaea?iue ?aaeoi?, a eioi?ii
onoie/eai e noaaeeueii i?ioaeaao, a iauai, oa aea ?aaeoeey, eioi?oth
/aeiaae iiea iao/eeny inouanoaeyoue oieueei a iaoi?aaeyaiii aa?eaioa — a
aiaei?iaeiie aiiaa. Auaeaeyaiia i?e ?aaeoeee oaiei noaaeeece?oao
caacaeo, iiaeaea?aeeaay aioo?aiiaa aeaaeaiea e i?aiyonoaoy aa
aeaeueiaeoaio naeaoeth. Iaaieueoia neo/aeiia oneeaiea ?aaeoeee neaaea
«?acaeoaaao» caacaeo, e niioaaonoaothuaa oiaiueoaiea ieioiinoe i?eaiaeeo
niiaa e ineaaeaieth ?aaeoeee e noaaeeecaoeee i?ioeanna. Caacaea «ai?eo»
n ii/oe iaeciaiiie y?einoueth.

Oaiia?aoo?a e iiuiinoue eceo/aiey caacaeu caaeneo io aa iannu, i?e/ai
caaeneo iaeeiaeii. A?oai aiai?y, i?e oaaee/aiee iannu caacaeu a 10 ?ac
iiuiinoue aa eceo/aiey oaaee/eaaaony a 100 ?ac. Iiyoiio aieaa ianneaiua,
aieaa ai?y/ea caacaeu ?anoiaeotho naie caianu oiieeaa ai?acaei auno?aa,
/ai iaiaa ianneaiua, e aeeaoo ioiineoaeueii iaaeieai. Ieaeiee i?aaeae
iannu caacaeu, i?e eioi?ii aua aiciiaeii aeinoeaeaiea a oeaio?a
oaiia?aoo?, aeinoaoi/iuo aeey ia/aea oa?iiyaea?iuo ?aaeoeee, ninoaaeyao
i?eia?ii 0,06 nieia/iie. Aa?oiee i?aaeae — ieiei 70 nieia/iuo iann.
Niioaaonoaaiii, naiua neaaua caacaeu naaoyo a ianeieueei nio ?ac neaaaa
Nieioea e iiaoo oae naaoeoue nioith ieeeea?aeia eao, ai?acaei aieueoa
a?aiaie nouanoaiaaiey iaoae Anaeaiiie. Ianneaiua ai?y/ea caacaeu iiaoo
naaoeoue a ieeeeii ?ac neeueiaa Nieioea e aeeaoo eeoue ianeieueei
ieeeeiiia eao. A?aiy noaaeeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey Nieioea i?eia?ii 10
ieeeea?aeia eao, e ec yoiai n?iea iii i?iaeeei iiea iieiaeio.

Noaaeeueiinoue caacaeu ia?ooaaony, eiaaea auai?aao cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
aiaei?iaea a aa iaae?ao. Ia?acoaony eeoaiiia aiaei?iaea aaeeaaia yae?i,
a ai?aiea aiaei?iaea i?iaeieaeaaony a oiieii neia ia aai iiaa?oiinoe.
I?e yoii yae?i naeeiaaony, a oeaio?a aai aeaaeaiea e oaiia?aoo?a
iiauoaaony, a oi aea a?aiy aa?oiea neie caacaeu, ?aniieiaeaiiua auoa
neiy ai?aiey aiaei?iaea, iaiai?io, ?anoe?ythony. Aeeaiao? caacaeu
?anoao, a n?aaeiyy ieioiinoue iaaeaao. Aeaaiaea?y ?inoo ieiuaaee
eceo/athuae iiaa?oiinoe, iaaeeaiii ?anoao oaeaea aa iieiay naaoeiinoue,
oioy oaiia?aoo?a iiaa?oiinoe caacaeu iaaeaao. Caacaea i?aa?auaaony a
e?aniiai aeaaioa. A eaeie-oi iiiaio a?aiaie oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeaiea
aioo?e aaeeaaiai yae?a ieacuaathony aeinoaoi/iuie aeey ia/aea
neaaeothueo ?aaeoeee neioaca aieaa oyaeaeuo yeaiaioia — oaea?iaea e
eenei?iaea ec aaeey, a ia neaaeothuai yoaia e aua aieaa oyaeaeuo. A
iaae?ao caacaeu iiaoo ia?aciaaoueny ec aiaei?iaea e aaeey iiiaea
yeaiaiou Ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaiu, ii oieueei aieioue aei yeaiaioia a?oiiu
aeaeaca, iaeaaeathuaai iaeaieueoae yia?aeae nayce, i?eoiaeyuaeny ia
iaeio /anoeoeo. Aieaa oyaeaeua yeaiaiou ia?acothony a ae?oaeo aieaa
?aaeeeo i?ioeannao, a eiaiii i?e ac?uaao naa?oiiauo caacae e /anoe/ii
iiauo, e iiyoiio a i?e?iaea eo iaei.

Ioiaoei eioa?aniia, ia?aaeienaeueiia, ia ia?aue acaeyae,
ianoiyoaeuenoai. Iiea aaeece oeaio?a caacaeu eaeao ai?aiea aiaei?iaea,
oaiia?aoo?a oai ia iiaeao iiaeiyoueny aei ii?iaa aaeeaaie ?aaeoeee. Aeey
yoiai iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ai?aiea i?ae?aoeeinue, e yae?i caacaeu ia/aei
inouaaoue! Inouaathuaa yae?i caacaeu naeeiaaony, i?e yoii iiauoaaony
iai?yaeaiiinoue iiey oyaioaiey e auaeaeyaony a?aaeoaoeeiiiay yia?aey,
eioi?ay iaa?aaaao aauanoai. I?e iiauoaiiie iai?yaeaiiinoe iiey
iaiaoiaeeia aieaa aunieay oaiia?aoo?a, /oiau aeaaeaiea iiaei
i?ioeainoiyoue naeaoeth, e a?aaeoaoeeiiiie yia?aee ieacuaaaony
aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau iaania/eoue yoo oaiia?aoo?o. Aiaeiae/iue ia?aaeien iu
eiaai i?e nieaeaiee einie/aneiai aiia?aoa: /oiau ia?aaanoe aai ia aieaa
ieceoth i?aeoo, aai iaaei i?eoi?iiceoue, ii i?e yoii ii ieacuaaaony
aeeaea e Caiea, aaea neea oyaeanoe aieueoa, e nei?inoue aai aic?anoao.
Inouaaiea oaaee/eaaao oaiia?aoo?o, a oi?iiaeaiea oaaee/eaaao nei?inoue!
Oaeeie eaaeoueieny ia?aaeienaie iieia i?e?iaea, e aeaeaei ia anaaaea
iiaeii aeiaa?youeny «cae?aaiio niuneo».

Iinea ia/aea ai?aiey aaeey ?anoiaeiaaiea yia?aee eaeao i/aiue auno?uie
oaiiaie, oae eae yia?aaoe/aneee auoiae anao ?aaeoeee n oyaeaeuie
yeaiaioaie iaiiiai ieaea, /ai i?e ?aaeoeee ai?aiey aiaei?iaea e, e?iia
oiai, iauay naaoeiinoue caacaeu ia yoeo yoaiao cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaao.
Anee aiaei?iae ai?eo ieeeea?aeu eao, oi aaeee ieeeeiiu, a ana inoaeueiua
yeaiaiou — ia aieaa ouny/ eao. Eiaaea a iaae?ao caacaeu ana yaea?iua
?aaeoeee caoooatho, ie/oi oaea ia iiaeao i?aiyonoaiaaoue aa
a?aaeoaoeeiiiiio naeaoeth, e iii i?ienoiaeeo eaoano?ioe/anee auno?i (eae
aiai?yo, eieeaine?oao). Aa?oiea neie iaaeatho e oeaio?o n onei?aieai
naiaiaeiiai iaaeaiey (aaee/eia aai ia iiiaea ii?yaeee i?aainoiaeeo
caiiia onei?aiea iaaeaiey ec-ca ianiiinoaaeiie ?aciinoe iann), auaeaeyy
ia?iiioth a?aaeoaoeeiiioth yia?aeth. Aauanoai naeeiaaony. *anoue aai,
ia?aoiaey a iiaia ninoiyiea aunieie ieioiinoe, ia?acoao caacaeo-inoaoie,
a /anoue (iau/ii aieueoay) aua?anuaaaony a i?ino?ainoai a aeaea
io?aaeaiiie oaea?iie aieiu n ia?iiiie nei?inoueth. I?ienoiaeeo ac?ua
naa?oiiaie caacaeu. (Iiieii a?aaeoaoeeiiiie yia?aee a eeiaoe/aneoth
yia?aeth oaea?iie aieiu aiineo naie aeeaae e oa?iiyaea?iia aeiai?aiea
/anoe inoaaoaainy ai aiaoieo neiyo caacaeu aiaei?iaea, eiaaea iaaeathuee
aac naeeiaaony aaeece caacaeiiai yae?a -i?ienoiaeeo ac?ua a?aiaeeiciie
«aiaei?iaeiie aiiau»).

Ia eaeie noaaeee yaiethoeee caacaeu inoaiiaeony naeaoea e /oi aoaeao
i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie inoaoie naa?oiiaie, ana yoe aa?eaiou caaenyo io aa
iannu. Anee yoa ianna iaiaa 1,4 nieia/iie, yoi aoaeao aaeue ea?eee,
caacaea n ieioiinoueth 109 ea/i3, iaaeeaiii inouaathuay aac aioo?aiieo
enoi/ieeia yia?aee. Io aeaeueiaeoaai naeaoey aa oaea?aeeaaao aeaaeaiea
au?iaeaeaiiiai yeaeo?iiiiai aaca. I?e aieueoae ianna (i?eia?ii aei 2,5
nieia/iie) ia?acoaony iaeo?iiiay caacaea (eo nouanoaiaaiea i?aaeneacaii
aaeeeei niaaoneei oeceeii, iiaaeaaneei eao?aaoii Eueaii Eaiaeao) n
ieioiinoueth i?eia?ii ?aaiie ieioiinoe aoiiiiai yae?a. Iaeo?iiiua
caacaeu auee ioe?uou eae oae iacuaaaiua ioeuena?u. I?e aua aieueoae
enoiaeiie ianna caacaeu ia?acoaony /a?iay aeu?a — aacoaea?aeii
naeeiathueeny iauaeo, eioi?ue ia iiaeao iieeiooue ie iaeei iauaeo,
aeaaea naao. Eiaiii i?e ac?uaao naa?oiiauo i?ienoiaeeo ia?aciaaiea
yeaiaioia oyaeaeaa aeaeaca, aeey eioi?uo ioaeiu /?acau/aeii ieioiua
iioiee /anoeoe aunieie yia?aee, /oiau auee aeinoaoi/ii aa?iyoiu
iiiai/anoe/iua noieeiiaaiey. Ana iaoa?eaeueiia a yoii ie?a yaeyaony
iioiieaie naa?oiiauo, a oii /enea e ethaee, iineieueeo aoiiu, ec eioi?uo
iu ninoiei, aicieeee eiaaea-oi i?e ac?uaao naa?oiiauo.

Oaeei ia?acii, caacaeu yaeythony ia oieueei iiuiui enoi/ieeii yia?aee
aunieiai ea/anoaa, ?annayiea eioi?ie niinianoaoao aicieeiiaaieth
neiaeiaeoeo no?oeoo?, aeeth/athueo e aeeciue, ii e ?aaeoi?aie, a eioi?uo
i?iecaiaeeony any oaaeeoea Iaiaeaeaaaa — iaiaoiaeeiue iaoa?eae aeey yoeo
no?oeoo?. Ac?ua caeai/eaathuae naith aeeciue caacaeu aua?anuaaao a
i?ino?ainoai ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ?aciiia?aciuo yeaiaioia oyaeaeaa
aiaei?iaea e aaeey, eioi?ua niaoeaathony n aaeaeoe/aneei aacii. Ca a?aiy
aeecie Anaeaiiie caeii/eee naith aeeciue i/aiue iiiaea caacaeu. Ana
caacaeu oeia Nieioea e aieaa ianneaiua, aicieeoea ec ia?ae/iiai aaca,
oaea i?ioee naie aeeciaiiue iooue. Oae /oi nae/an Nieioea e aio
iiaeiaiua caacaeu — yoi caacaeu aoi?iai iieieaiey (a iiaeao auoue, e
o?aoueaai), nouanoaaiii iaiaauaiiua oyaeaeuie yeaiaioaie. Aac oaeiai
iaiaauaiey a?yae ee ieiei ieo iiaee au aicieeiooue ieaiaou caiiiai oeia
e aeeciue.

I?eaaaeai eioi?iaoeeth i ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe iaeioi?uo oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia ai Anaeaiiie:

A??I?????? ????? ???A??I?????? ????? ???A???

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A?o

E???ae

I?i

10000 000

1400000

0,003

3000

910

6800

2800I??e

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Aeth??e

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A??

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AE??i17

290

19

3

0,8

42

17

80

Eae aeaeei ec yoie oaaeeoeu, i?aeiouanoaaiiuie oeie/aneeie yeaiaioaie e
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeythony aiaei?iae e aaeee (ii/oe 75% e 25%
eaaeaeue). Ioiineoaeueii iaeiai niaea?aeaiey oyaeaeuo yeaiaioia,
ai?i/ai, ieacaeinue aeinoaoi/iui aeey ia?aciaaiey aeecie (ii e?aeiae
ia?a, ia iaeiii ec ino?iaeia Anaeaiiie aaeece «?yaeiaie» caacaeu,
Nieioea — aeaeoiai ea?eeea). Iiieii oaea oeacaiiiai iaie ?aiaa, iaaei
iiiieoue, /oi a ioe?uoii einie/aneii i?ino?ainoaa i?enoonoaotho
einie/aneea eo/e, ii nooe yaeythueany iioieaie yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, yeaeo?iiia e i?ioiiia ?aciuo yia?aee. A iaeioi?uo
iaeanoyo iaaecaacaeiiai i?ino?ainoaa eiathony eieaeueiua iaeanoe
iiauoaiiie eiioeaio?aoeee iaaecaacaeiiai aauanoaa, iieo/eaoea iacaaiea
iaaecaacaeiuo iaeaeia. A ioee/ea io ieaciaiiiai ninoaaa caacaeu,
aauanoai iaaecaacaeiuo iaeaeia oaea niaea?aeeo (ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iiiai/eneaiiua ano?iiiie/aneea iaaethaeaiey) iieaeoeu
e iieaeoey?iua eiiu. Iai?eia?, iaia?oaeaiu iaaecaacaeiua iaeaea ec
iieaeoey?iiai aiaei?iaea I2, i/aiue /anoi i?enoonoaotho a niaeo?ao
iiaeiuaiey oaeea niaaeeiaiey, eae eii aeae?ieneea II, iieaeoeu NI,
iieaeoeu aiaeu e ae?. Nae/an /enei iaia?oaeaiiuo a iaaecaacaeiuo iaeaeao
oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee ninoaaeyao nauoa noa. Iiae aeaenoaeai aiaoiaai
iaeo/aiey e aac iaai a iaeaeao i?ienoiaeyo ?aciiia?aciua oeie/aneea
?aaeoeee, ca/anooth oaeea, eioi?ua iaaiciiaeii inouanoaeoue ia Caiea ii
i?e/eia iniauo oneiaee a iaaecaacaeiie n?aaea. Aa?iyoii, i?eia?ii 5
ieeeea?aeia eao iacaae, eiaaea ia?aciaaeanue iaoa nieia/iay nenoaia,
ia?ae/iui iaoa?eaeii i?e ia?aciaaiee ieaiao auee oaeea aea i?inoaeoea
iieaeoeu, eioi?ua nae/an iu iaaethaeaai a ae?oaeo iaaecaacaeiuo iaeaeao.
Ae?oaeie neiaaie, i?ioeann oeie/aneie yaiethoeee, ia/aaoeeny a
iaaecaacaeiii iaeaea, caoai i?iaeieaeeeny oaea ia ieaiaoao. Oioy nae/an
a iaeioi?uo iaaecaacaeiuo iaeaeao iaia?oaeaiu aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiua
i?aaie/aneea iieaeoeu, aa?iyoii, oeie/aneay yaiethoeey i?eaaea e
iiyaeaieth «aeeaiai» aauanoaa (o. a. eeaoie n iaoaieciaie
naiii?aaiecaoeee e ianeaaenoaaiiinoe) oaea oieueei ia ieaiaoao. I/aiue
o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue i?aaiecaoeeth aeecie a iauaia iaaecaacaeiuo
iaeaeia.

Ieaiaoiay oeie/aneay yaiethoeey.

?anniio?ei i?ioeann oeie/aneie yaiethoeee ia Caiea. Ia?ae/iay aoiinoapa
Caiee niaea?aeaea a iniiaiii i?inoaeoea niaaeeiaiey aiaei?iaea I2, H2I,
NH3,CH4. E?iia yoiai, aoiinoa?a auea aiaaoa eia?oiuie aacaie, i?aaeaea
anaai aaeeai e iaiiii. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeeea aeaai?iaeiuo aacia ia
Caiea ie/oiaeii iaei, /oi icia/aao, /oi iie a naia a?aiy aeenniie?iaaee
a iaaeieaiaoiia i?ino?ainoai. Iaoa nia?aiaiiay aoiinoa?a eiaao aoi?e/iia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Ia?aia a?aiy oeie/aneee ninoaa aoiinoa?u iaei ioee/aeny
io ia?ae/iie. Iinea ia?aciaaiey aeae?inoa?u ec aoiinoa?u i?aeoe/anee
en/ac aiieae NH3, ?anoai?eaoeeny a aiaea, aoiia?iue e iieaeoey?iue
aiaei?iae oeaoo/eeny a iaaeieaiaoiia i?ino?ainoai, aoiinoa?a auea
ianuuaia i?aeiouanoaaiii acioii N. Ianuuaiea aoiinoa?u eenei?iaeii
i?ienoiaeeei iinoaiaiii, nia/aea aeaaiaea?y aeennioeeaoeee iieaeoe aiaeu
oeueo?aoeieaoiaui eceo/aieai Nieioea, caoai, e aeaaiui ia?acii,
aeaaiaea?y oioineioaco ?anoaiee.

Ia eneeth/aii, /oi iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa auei
i?eianaii ia Caieth i?e iaaeaiee iaoai?eoia e, aiciiaeii, aeaaea eiiao.
Iai?eia?, a eiiaoao i?enoonoaotho oaeea niaaeeiaiey, eae N, NH3, CH4 e
ae?. Ecaanoii, /oi aic?ano caiiie ei?u i?eia?ii ?aaai 4,5 ie?ae. eao.
Eiathony oaeaea aaieiae/aneea e aaioeie/aneea aeaiiua, oeacuaathuea ia
oi, /oi oaea 3,5 ie?ae. eao iacaae caiiay aoiinoa?a auea aiaaoa
eenei?iaeii. Oaeei ia?acii, ia?ae/iay aoiinoa?a Caiee nouanoaiaaea ia
aieaa 1 ie?ae. eao, a aeeciue aicieeea, aa?iyoii, aeaaea ?aiueoa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeiieai cia/eoaeueiue yenia?eiaioaeueiue iaoa?eae,
eeethno?e?othuee, eaeei ia?acii oaeea i?inoua aauanoaa, eae aiaea,
iaoai, aiieae, ieenue oaea?iaea, aiiiieeiua e oinoaoiua niaaeeiaiey
i?aa?auathony a aunieii?aaieciaaiiua no?oeoo?u, yaeythueany
no?ieoaeueiuie ee?ie/eeaie eeaoee. Aia?eeaineea o/aiua Eaeueaei, Ieeea?
e TH?e i?iaaee ?yae iiuoia, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo auei iieacaei, eae a
ia?ae/iie aoiinoa?a iiaee aicieeiooue aieiieeneiou. O/aiua nicaeaee
nianue aacia — iaoaia NI4, iieaeoey?iiai aiaei?iaea I2, aiieaea NH3 e
ia?ia aiaeu I2O, iiaeaee?othuoth ninoaa ia?ae/iie aoiinoa?u Caiee. *a?ac
aoo nianue i?iioneaee yeaeo?e/aneea ?ac?yaeu, a ?acoeueoaoa a enoiaeiie
niane aacia auee iaia?oaeaiu aeeoeei, aeaiei e ae?oaea aieiieeneiou.
Aa?iyoii, nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia oeie/aneea ?aaeoeee a ia?ae/iie
aoiinoa?a Caiee ieacuaaei Nieioea naiei oeueo?aoeieaoiaui eceo/aieai,
eioi?ia ia caaea?aeeaaeinue a aoiinoa?a a nayce n ionoonoaeai iciia.

Iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea ia oeie/aneoth yaiethoeeth ieacaee ia oieueei
yeaeo?e/aneea ?ac?yaeu e oeueo?aoeieaoiaia eceo/aiea Nieioea, ii e
aoeeaie/aneia oaiei, oaea?iua aieiu, ?aaeeiaeoeaiue ?aniaae eaeey E
(aeiey yia?aee ?aniaaea eaeey i?eia?ii 3 ie?ae. eao iacaae ia Caiea auea
aoi?ie, iinea yia?aee oeueo?aoeieaoiaiai eceo/aiey Nieioea). Iai?eia?,
aacu, auaeaeythueany ec ia?ae/iuo aoeeaiia (O2, NI, N2, I2O, I2, S, H2S,
NI4, SI2), i?e aicaeaenoaee ?acee/iuo aeaeia yia?aee ?aaae?otho n
ia?aciaaieai ?aciiia?aciuo iaeuo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, oeia:
oeeaienoue aiaei?iae HCN, io?aaueeiay eeneioa HCO2H, oenoniay eeneioa
H3CO2H, aeeoeei H2NCH2CO2H e o. ae. A aeaeueiaeoai, iiyoue aea i?e
aicaeaenoaee ?acee/iuo aeaeia yia?aee, iaeua i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey
?aaae?otho n ia?aciaaieai aieaa neiaeiuo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee:
aieiieeneiou

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ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff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Oaeei ia?acii, ia Caiea auee oneiaey aeey ia?aciaaiey neiaeiuo
i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey nicaeaiey eeaoee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aua iao aaeeiie eiae/anee iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ea?oeiu,
eae ec ia?ae/iie «noia?eaiee iaoa?ee» iiae iacaaieai Anaeaiiay iinea
Aieueoiai Ac?uaa aicieeea aeeciue. Ii oaea iiiaea yeaiaiou yoie ea?oeiu
o/aiua i?aaenoaaeytho e n/eoatho, /oi oae ana e i?ienoiaeeei ia naiii
aeaea. Iaeiei ec yeaiaioia yoie aaeeiie ea?oeiu yaiethoeee yaeyaony
oeie/aneay yaiethoeey. Iiaeaeoe, oeie/aneay yaiethoeey – yoi iaeei ec
a?aoiaioe?iaaiiuo yeaiaioia aaeeiie ea?oeiu yaiethoeee oioy au iioiio,
/oi aeiioneaao yenia?eiaioaeueiia iiaeaee?iaaiea oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia
(/aai, iai?eia?, iaeuecy naeaeaoue a ioiioaiee oneiaee, aiaeiae/iuo oai,
/oi auee aaeece «aieueoiai ac?uaa»). Oeie/aneay yaiethoeey
i?ineaaeeaaaony aieioue aei yeaiaioa?iuo ee?ie/eeia aeeaie iaoa?ee:
aieiieeneio, ioeeaeiiauo eeneio.

2. Aeiiao/iue yoai oeiee — ?aianeaiiay oeiey e aeoeiey aioe/iinoe e
n?aaeiaaaeiauey

A i?aaeuaeouai ioieoa auei ?anneacaii i oii, eae i?ienoiaeeea
anoanoaaiiay oeie/aneay yaiethoeey a iaae?ao caacae, einie/aneii
i?ino?ainoaa e ia iaoae ieaiaoa, oaia?ue iaaei ?anniio?aoue, eae
i?ienoiaeeea yaiethoeey acaeyaeia ethaeae ia iiciaiea nouiinoe
oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia e i?aa?auaiey aauanoaa. Oae aea, eae e a iiciaiee
oece/aneiai ono?ienoaa ie?a, neaaeoao ?acee/aoue aeaa yoaia yoie
yaiethoeee — ia?aue aeiiao/iue, eaeouee ec aeaaieo a?aiai, e aoi?ie —
iao/iue, aicieeoee a Iiaia a?aiy, eae e any nia?aiaiiay iaoea.

Ia?aue aeiiao/iue yoai oeiee ecaanoai iiae iacaaieai aeoeiey, i?eoaaeoee
e iai (e caiaaeiiaa?iiaeoeai) io a?aaia, a e iei io a?aeia (yeeeiia
aioe/iuo a?aiai), a e a?aeai io aaeioyi, a ?acoeueoaoa i?aia?aciaaiey
aaeiaoneiai neiaa «oaie» a «aeueoeiey», n iineaaeothuae o?aine?eioeeae a
aa?iiaeneeo ycueao a neiai «aeoeiey».

Oaeei ia?acii, niaa?oaiii i?ic?a/ii auaeaeythony o?e iniiaiuo ia?eiaea a
?acaeoee aeoeiee: aaeiaonei-a?a/aneee, a?aaneee e caiaaeii-aa?iiaeneee.

Aeoeiey (io iicaeiaeao. alchymia, alchimia, /a?ac a?aa, aeueeeiey,
aiciiaeii, io a?a/. chymeia, chemeia — eneonnoai auieaaee iaoaeeia, eee
chyma — aeeaeeinoue, eeouea, eee io Oaiey (a?a/. Chemia) — iaeii ec
iacaaiee Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa, io ae?aaiaaaeiaoneiai oai, oaia — /a?iue,
aoeaaeueii — /a?iay no?aia, no?aia /a?iie caiee), ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie,
oaeiuie, ieeoeueoiuie iaoeaie (ano?ieiaeae e eaaaaeie) yaeaiea
eoeueoo?u, niioonoaothuaa ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa 1,5 ouny/ eao ?acee/iui
yiioai (yeeeieci, aa?iiaeneia n?aaeiaaaeiauea, Aic?iaeaeaiea). Aeoeiey
naycuaaaony n iiiuoeaie iieo/eoue niaa?oaiiua iaoaeeu (cieioi, na?aa?i)
ec iaoaeeia ianiaa?oaiiuo, o. a. n eaeaae o?ainiooaoeee (i?aa?auaiey)
iaoaeeia n iiiiuueth aeiioaoe/aneiai aauanoaa — «oeeinioneiai eaiiy» eee
yeeene?a. Oeaeue aeoeiee, a ia?eiae II-XI aa., ia ooeeeoa?iay, a
aeiaaeueiay, iai?aaeaiiay ia iino?iaiea iniaie Anaeaiiie, au?aaeaiiay a
niaoeeoe/aneeo ia?acao — iiiyoeyo, oaeeo eae «oeeinioneee eaiaiue»,
oeaeeoaeueiua iaiaoeae, aeeaaano — oieaa?naeueiue ?anoai?eoaeue,
aiioieoe — eneonnoaaiiue /aeiaae. Iia inouanoaeyao oai naiui aaeeiaiea
iee?i- e iae?ieiniina, niioiiny aeooiaiia e i?e?iaeiia, anaeaineia e
/aeiaa/aneia ia iooe e ciaieth. A ia?eiae n?aaeiaaaeiauey e iicaeiaa, ai
acaeiiaeaenoaee n oiic?eoaeueiui i?e?iaeiciaieai e oeie/aneei ?aianeii,
aeoeiey iinoaiaiii o?ainoi?ie?oaony a iao/ioth oeieth.

A aioe/iia a?aiy aeaeathony ia?aua iiiuoee iauynieoue i?ienoiaeaeaiea
naienoa aauanoa. Iaeia ec iaeaieaa cia/eiuo iiiuoie — aoiienoe/aneay
iaoo?oeeinioey Aeaiie?eoa, aaiaeeaoay aoiiu, ?acee/athueany ii aaee/eia,
oi?ia, iieiaeaieth, a ionthaea e iiuiia ?aciiia?acea aauanoa. Iai?ioea,
Yiieaeiee e A?enoioaeue enoiaeeee ec aioeaoiienoe/aneie eiioeaioeee e
iauyniyee ana aeaeeiia ?aciiia?acea oae iin?aaenoaii ni/aoaiey a ieo
?acee/iuo yeaiaioia: noeoee eee ia?aiyeaiaioia; naienoa, oaeeo eae oaiea
e oieiaea, aeaaeiinoe e nooinoe e i?. Iaeiaei oniaoa yoi ia i?eianei,
oae eae iaoo?oeeinioey e ?aianeaiiay oeiey nouanoaiaaee ?acaeaeueii.

Ianeieueei iicaeiaa, oaea a Ae?aaiai Aaeioa (III-IV aaea aei i. y.),
auee ecaanoiu niiniau i?iecaiaenoaa iaoaeeia e nieaaia naie ecaanoiuo e
oiio a?aiaie iaoaeeia: cieioa, na?aa?a, iaaee, aeaeaca, naeioea, ieiaa e
?oooe. Iaeaieueoae oeaiiinoueth iaeaaeaei, eiia/ii, cieioi, iieo/aiea
eioi?iai ec ae?oaeo iaoaeeia noaei iaeiie ec aeaaiuo oeaeae aeoeiee,
ia?yaeo n iieneaie «iaaenoa?ey», nicaeaiey «yeeene?a aeecie», aeaaaaoaai
aannia?oea, e oieaa?naeueiiai ?anoai?eoaey. Oaeoe/anee iieaaaeinue, /oi
ana yoe ooieoeee iiaeao auiieieoue i?inoi iaeee eaiaiue — yeeene?,
iieo/eaoee o aa?iiaeoeaa iacaaiea «oeeinioneee eaiaiue».

O a?aaia aea yoi i?aaeii?aaeaeeei aeaa iooe ?acaeoey aeoeiee: iienee
o?ainiooaoeee cieioa e iienea yeeene?a aeecie. Ia eaaeaeii ec yoeo
iai?aaeaiee auee aeinoeaioou aieueoea oniaoe a iiciaiee oeie/aneeo
i?aa?auaiee.

I?iieeiiaaiea aeoeiee a Aa?iio noaei aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y E?anoiaui
iioiaeai (1096-1270 aa.) ia Aeeaeiee Ainoie (a Ne?eth, Iaeanoeio,
Naaa?ioth Ao?eeo), i?aaieciaaiiui caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeie oaiaeaeaie e
eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth iiae ciaiaiai ai?ueau i?ioea «iaaa?iuo»
(ionoeueiai), inaiaiaeaeaiey a?iaa Ainiiaeiy e Nayoie caiee (Iaeanoeiu).
Aa?iiaeneay aeoeiey iaoiaeeeanue a yoio ia/aeueiue ia?eiae iiae
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii ano?ieiaee, a nayce n /ai i?eia?aea oa?aeoa? oaeiie
iaoee, ai?i/ai, oaeie aea iia auea e o aaeioyi. A eiia/iii eoiaa
?acaeoea aeoeiee au?aceeinue a ioe?uoee eee oniaa?oainoaiaaiee (a
i?ioeanna iienea /oaeiaeaenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa) niiniaia iieo/aiey
i?aeoe/aneeo oeaiiuo i?iaeoeoia (ieia?aeueiie e ?anoeoaeueiie e?anee,
noaeea, yiaee, iaoaeee/aneeo nieaaia, eeneiou, uaei/e, niee), a oaeaea a
?ac?aaioea iaeioi?uo i?eaiia eaai?aoi?iie oaoieee.

3. Aeaaiay caaea/a oeiee e iniiaiua yoaiu aa ?acaeoey

Ana ioia/aiiia auoa e a aeaaa 2 iiaeaioiaeei niioaaonoaothuea oneiaey
aeey enneaaeiaaiey oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, eo i?eiaiaiea a iaaeeoeeia, a
i?aeoe/aneie iaoea e i?aaeii?aaeaeeei aicieeiiaaiea iao/iie oeiee. N
yoiai iiiaioa, i?eia?ii n 60-o aiaeia XVII noieaoey, oeiey
ii?aaeaeeeanue a naiae aeaaiie caaea/a, ii?iaeeea e ia?aaeeea e
ianoiyuaio a?aiaie, e ia/aeo XXI noieaoey, /aou?a eiioeaiooaeueiua
nenoaiu.

Iao aaeeeee oeiee Aeieo?ee Eaaiiae/ Iaiaeaeaaa (1834-1907), iacuaae
oeieth «iaoeie i oeie/aneeo yeaiaioao e eo niaaeeiaieyo»; ae?oaea
ii?aaeaeytho aa eae «iaoeo i aauanoaao e eo i?aa?auaieyo» eeai eae
«iaoeo, eco/athuoth i?ioeannu ea/anoaaiiiai i?aa?auaiey aauanoa», e o.
ae. Ii-aeaeeiiio, ana yoe ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaeeueiua, oae /oi iiaeii
niaeaneoueny e n oaeei, iaeaieaa iieiui: «oeiey — iaoea, eco/athuay
naienoaa e i?aa?auaiey aauanoa, nii?iaiaeaeathueany eciaiaieai eo
ninoaaa e no?iaiey».

Oeiey, a oi/iaa oeieee, anaaaea noaaeee naiae aeaaiie i?aeoe/aneie
oeaeueth iieo/aoue ec i?e?iaeiuo aauanoa ii aiciiaeiinoe ana
iaiaoiaeeiua iaoaeeu e ea?aieeo, ecaanoue e oeaiaio, noaeei e aaoii,
e?aneoaee e eaea?noaa, ac?ua/aoua aauanoaa e ai?th/a-niaci/iua
iaoa?eaeu, eao/oe e ieanoiannu, oeie/aneea aieieia e iaoa?eaeu aeey
yeaeo?iieee n caaeaiiuie naienoaaie. Yoi ii?aaeaeyao aeaaioth caaea/o
oeiee — caaea/o iieo/aiey aauanoa n iaiaoiaeeiuie naienoaaie. Yoa
caaea/a e iao/iay e i?iecaiaenoaaiiay, /oi ii?aaeaeyao iniiaioth, iiaeii
neacaoue, aeaoaaeeioth iniiaioth i?iaeaio oeiee: 1. Iieo/aiea aauanoa n
caaeaiiuie naienoaaie eae i?iecaiaenoaaiiay, i?aeoe/aneay caaea/a; 2.
Auyaeaiea niiniaia oi?aaeaiey naienoaaie aauanoa eae caaea/a
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay.

?aoaiea yoeo i?iaeai inouanoaeyeinue a /aou?a iniiaiuo yoaia, ii?iaeea
niioaaonoaothuea /aou?a eiioeaiooaeueiua nenoaiu a ?acaeoee oeiee n XVII
aaea ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Ia?aay eiioeaiooaeueiay nenoaia ia/aeanue n o?oaeia ?iaa?oa Aieey
(1627-1691 aa.) eco/aieai oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia e a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie
caaa?oeeanue nicaeaieai Ia?eiaee/aneie oaaeeoeu yeaiaioia Ae. E.
Iaiaeaeaaaa a 1869 a. Yoa nenoaia aeaea yeaiaioiue ninoaa aauanoaa.

Aoi?ay eiioeaiooaeueiay nenoaia iiciaiey oeie/aneeo naienoa aauanoaa
iicaieeea onoaiiaeoue eo no?oeoo?o e ii?aaeaeeea ?acaeoea no?oeoo?iie
oeiee i?eia?ii n eiioea XVIII noieaoey.

O?aouey eiioeaiooaeueiay nenoaia — aeaoeua na?aaeeiu XX noieaoey,
onoaiiaeea iniaaiiinoe i?ioaeaiey oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee, iicaieeea
nicaeaoue iniiau e?oiiiianooaaiuo oeie/aneeo oaoiieiaee.

*aoaa?oay eiioeaiooaeueiay nenoaia ?acaeaaaony iineaaeiea 25-30 eao,
naycaia n aeoaieei e ananoi?iiiei eco/aieai i?e?iaeu ?aaaaioia, ?iee
eaoaeecaoi?ia a oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeeyo. Yoa nenoaia iieo/eea iacaaiea
yaiethoeeiiiay oeiey e a naieo i?inoaeoeo i?iyaeaieyo aeaao iai i?eia?u
naiii?aaiecaoeee e naii?acaeoey, i?aaeii?aaeaeeaoea ia/aei
i?aaeaeieiae/aneie yaiethoeee eae iniiau ca?iaeaeaiey aeecie.

4. Eiioeaioeee oeiee ia yeaiaioao e ia?eiaee/aneee caeii Iaiaeaeaaaa
oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia

I?aaenoaaeaiea i oeie/aneeo yeaiaioao aicieeaao i?e iiiuoeao onoaiiaeoue
ninoaa aauanoaa. I?inoaeoae i?ioeaaeo?ie aeey yoiai yaeyaony oeie/aneia
?aceiaeaiea eee oeie/aneee aiaeec, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai iieo/athony
aauanoaa, ia iiaeaa?aathueany aeaeueiaeoaio ?aceiaeaieth. Yoe aauanoaa e
anoue oeie/aneea yeaiaiou, ia?aiia/aeueii iacuaaaoeany «i?inouie
oaeaie», a ioee/ea io «neiaeiuo oae», ninoiyueo ec ianeieueeeo i?inouo
oae. ?aoathuaa cia/aiea a oeiee yeaiaioia nua?aei ioe?uoea eenei?iaea, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai auea ii?iaa?aiooa auoiaaaoay aei oiai aeiioaca i
oeiaenoiia — iaeioi?ii «iaaaniiii oaea». Iinoaiaiii oeieeai noaee
ecaanoiu, ia?yaeo n oaea ecaanoiuie aeoeieeai naie iaoaeeaie, oaeaea
aiaei?iae, acio, na?a, oinoi?, oaea?iae, a Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaao e 1869 a.
auee ecaanoiu oaea 62 yeaiaioa. A yoe aea aiaeu ia?aeeaeueii ?aoaeanue
ae?oaay, ia iaiaa aaaeiay i?iaeaia, i?iaeaia oeie/aneiai niaaeeiaiey.
Ia?aui ia/ae ?aoaoue aa iaiaoeeee oeiee Ea?aiee ?eooa?, ioe?uaoee a
?acoeueoaoa caeiiu noaoeiiao?ee e aaaaeoee iiiyoey yeaeaaeaioia e
yeaeaaeaioiiai aana. Caia/aoaeueiue o?aioeocneee oeiee AE. I?ono ia?aui
a 1801-1808 aa. onoaiiaee caeii iinoiyinoaa ninoaaa aauanoaa, niaeanii
eioi?iio ethaia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia oeie/aneia niaaeeiaiea iaeaaeaao
no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiui, iaeciaiiui ninoaaii e oai naiui ioee/aaony io
nianae. Oi/iay aai nia?aiaiiay oi?ioee?iaea oaeiaa: anyeia /enoia
aauanoai iacaaeneii io aai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e niiniaa iieo/aiey eiaao
iaeei e oio aea ninoaa. Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaae yoio caeii I?onoa e
onoaiiaee a 1803 a. ae?oaie, ia iaiaa aaaeiue caeii, caeii e?aoiuo
ioiioaiee, aiaeeeneee oeiee e oecee, oaeoe/aneee nicaeaoaeue oeie/aneiai
aoiiecia Aeae. Aeaeueoii. (Ii aea ia?aui iienae aeaoaeo c?aiey, eioi?ui
no?aaeae nai e eioi?ue iieo/ee iicaea iacaaiea aeaeueoiieci). Caeii
e?aoiuo ioiioaiee Aeaeueoiia aeaneo: anee ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai
iaeiiai yeaiaioa anooiaao a niaaeeiaiea n ae?oaei yeaiaioii a
ianeieueeeo aaniauo ioiioaieyo, oi eiee/anoaa ia?aiai e aoi?iai
yeaiaioia ioiinyony iaaeaeo niaie eae oeaeua /enea. Iinea o?oaeia
Aa?oeaeeona, Aae-Ethnnaea e Eeaeoa yoio caeii noae iaeiei ec naiuo
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo caeiiia oeiee. Aeaeueoii aaae a oeieth oaeia, eae
ieacaeinue, iniiaiiieaaathuaa iiiyoea eae aoiiiue aan, eioi?ia nua?aei
ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ?aoathuoth ?ieue. Oae, iai?eia?, aai ?ieue a iieneao
nenoaiii ia?acothuaai e nenoaiii oii?yaei/eaathuaai oaeoi?ia a i?iaeaia
yeaiaioia, i?aaei?eieiaaiuo a oa/aiea noieaoey ni a?aiaie ioe?uoey
eenei?iaea aiaee/aieiii Aeae. I?enoee, oaaaeii E. Oaaea e o?aioeocii A.
E. Eaaoacuea, ieacaeanue ?aoathuae e oaeaeanue aaeeeiio ?onneiio oeieeo
Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaao.

A ea/anoaa nenoaiiiai oaeoi?a ii onoaiiaee eiaiii aoiiiue aan, eioi?ue
oii?yaei/eaaao oeie/aneea yeaiaiou a ia?eiaee/aneee caeii. Enneaaeiaaiea
yoiai ia?eiaee/aneiai caeiia, eee ia?eiaee/aneie oaaeeoeu yeaiaioia,
/a?ac 70 eao iinea Iaiaeaeaaaa oaea a eaaioiaie iaoaieea, iieacaei, /oi
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua naienoaa e iieiaeaiea eaaeaeiai ec yeaiaioia a
oaaeeoea ii?aaeaeythony, ia naiii aeaea, ia aoiiiui aanii, a
yeaeo?e/aneei ca?yaeii aoiiiiai yae?a. E?iia oiai, ieacaeinue, /oi
aoiiia iaeiiai e oiai aea yeaiaioa, iai?eia?, oei?a, iiaeao auoue aeaa,
?acee/athueony ii aoiiiiio aano, ii eiathueo iaeei e oio aea yaea?iue
ca?yae. Oaeea ?acee/athueany ii ianna yeaiaiou noaee iacuaaoue
ecioiiaie. Anaai aea ?aciuo yeaiaioia e ia/aeo XXI noieaoey ecaanoii
118. ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue aea yeaiaioia ?acee/ia. Oae, onoaiiaeaii, /oi a
ninoaaa caiiie ei?u, ii?neie aiaeu e aoiinoa?u niaea?aeeony
i?eaeeceoaeueii 49,5% — eenei?iaea, 25,3% — e?aiiey, 7,5% — aethieiey,
5,1% — aeaeaca, 3,4% — eaeueoeey, 2,6% — iao?ey, 2,4% – eaeey, 1,9% —
iaaiey, 0,9% — aiaei?iaea, inoaeueiuo aea yeaiaioia iaiaa 1%. A yoii
iineaaeiai i?ioeaioa ne?uoa e aeiey oaea?iaea, iniiau aeecie ia Caiea.

Ec yeaiaioia, oeacaiiuo auoa, /aeiaa/anoai iniai eioaineaii eniieuecoao
iaoaeeu e ea?aieee, ecaioaaeeaaaiua ia iniiaa e?aiiey. I?aaeiieaaaaony,
/oi a iaaeaeaeii aoaeouai iniiaiuie iaoa?eaeaie noaioo ea?aieee, a
oaeaea yeaiaioii?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, eniieuecothuea a naiai neioaca
?aaeei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua, a iioiio aei?iaea oaeea yeaiaiou, eae
oee?eiiee, oeoai, ai?, aa?iaiee, o?ii, iieeaaeai, aieueo?ai e ?yae
?aaeeicaiaeueiuo yeaiaioia.

5. Eiioeaioeee no?oeoo?u oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee (no?oeoo?iie oeiee)

Eiioeaioeee no?oeoo?iie oeiee iniiauaathony ia eiioeaioeee aoiienoeee,
aic?iaeaeaiiie aiaee/aieiii Aeae. Aeaeueoiiii, ia o/aiee oaaaea Eaina
Aa?oeaeeona, iicaeiaa iiae?iaii ?ac?aaioaiiuo e ooi/iaiiuo iaiaoeeei
oeieeii O. Eaeoea e iaoei auaeathueiny niioa/anoaaiieeii A. I.
Aooea?iaui. Aa?oeaeeona eioa?aniaae aii?in ia oii?yaei/aiiinoe eee
i?iecaiea a iauaaeeiaiee aoiiia a iieaeoeao, ia iooyo ?aoaiey eioi?iai
ii ?ac?aaioae iiaoth oai?eth no?iaiey oeie/aneiai aauanoaa, a oaeaea
i?iecaae oaeia oi/iia ecia?aiea aoiiiuo aania yeaiaioia, /oi iie
i?aeoe/anee niaiaaeatho n nia?aiaiiuie aeaiiuie. Neiaieeea oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia, oi?ioeu niaaeeiaiee e oeie/aneeo o?aaiaiee oaeaea
i?aaeeiaeaiu Aa?oeaeeonii a 1814 a. A ea/anoaa neiaiea yeaiaioa ii
i?aaeeiaeee i?eieiaoue ia?aoth aoeao aai eaoeineiai eee a?a/aneiai
iacaaiey. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea yeaiaiou ia/eiathony n iaeieo e oao aea
aoea, e iei aeiaaaeyaony aoi?ay aoeaa iacaaiey. Aa?oeaeeon i?aaeeiaeee
ana aauanoaa ?acaeaeeoue ia i?aaie/aneea e iai?aaie/aneea.

Ii aeaaiia, /oi iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue, oae yoi oi, /oi Aa?oeaeeon auaeaeioe
aeiioaco, niaeanii eioi?ie ana aoiiu oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia iaeaaeatho
?acee/iie yeaeo?a io?eoeaoaeueiinoueth e, iauaaeeiyynue iaaeaeo niaie a
iieaeoeu, ia eiiiaine?otho iieiinoueth naie ca?yaeu, inoaaaynue yeaeo?a
ca?yaeaiiuie. Oae auee caeiaeaiu iniiaaiey iiiyoey «no?oeoo?a» e
«yeaeo?ioeiey».

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oai?ey Aa?oeaeeona iieo/eea a ?aaioao iaiaoeeiai
oeieea O. Eaeoea. Ii noi?ie?iaae iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee aaeaioiinoe,
iainiiaae iaee/ea aeey oaea?iaea /aou?ao aaeeieoe n?iaenoaa, a aeey
acioa, eenei?iaea e aiaei?iaea niioaaonoaaiii o?ao, aeaoo e iaeiie.
Aiineaaenoaee, /a?ac ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee, a eaaioiaie iaoaieea ana
yoi iieo/eei iauyniaiea. *enei aaeeieoe n?iaenoaa, i?enouaa aoiio oiai
eee eiiai yeaiaioa, iieo/eei iacaaiea «aaeaioiinoue». Iauaaeeiaiea
aoiiia a iieaeoeo i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa caiueaiey naiaiaeiuo
aaeeieoe n?iaenoaa (aaeaioiinoe). Oae ia?acothony i?inoaeoea iieaeoeu
a?iaea iieaeoe aiaei?iaea, aiaeu, e oae aea ia?acothony i/aiue aaaeiua a
i?aaieea oaea?iae oaea?iaeiua oeaie. Eiiaeie?oy aoiiu ?aciuo yeaiaioia,
iiaeii nicaeaoue no?oeoo?u (no?oeoo?iua oi?ioeu) ethaiai oeie/aneiai
niaaeeiaiey. Ii ia eaaeaeay ec oi?ioe, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue caienaia,
inouanoaeyaony a i?e?iaea.

Caneoaie oai?ee aaeaioiinoe Eaeoea noaei i?aaenoaaeaiea ia aoiiiie
no?oeoo?a nia/aea oaeaaiaei?iaeia, a caoai e aeey ae?oaeo i?aaie/aneeo
niaaeeiaiee. Ianeieueei iicaeiaa, a 1874 a., aeaoneee oeiee ss. A.
Aaio-Aioo auaeaeioe niaeia i?aaeiieiaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio /aou?a
nayce aoiia oaea?iaea iai?aaeaiu e aa?oeiai oao?ayae?a, a oeaio?a
eioi?iai iaoiaeeony yoio aoii. Oae a oeiee aicieeee e noaee oe?aieyoueny
i?ino?ainoaaiiua iiaeaee iieaeoe, iinea /aai ia/aeinue ao?iia ?acaeoea
no?oeoo?iie oeiee.

?onneee oeiee A. I. Aooea?ia iieacae, /oi iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, iiieii
iaoiaeeee ninoaaeaiey oi?ioe ii Eaeoea, aua oae iacuaaaioth oeie/aneoth
aeoeaiinoue ?aaaaioia. Eaeae Aooea?iaa aeanoyua iiaeoaa?aeeeenue
eaaioiaie iaoaieeie, oae /oi, niaeanii nia?aiaiiui aicc?aieyi, no?oeoo?a
iieaeoe — yoi i?ino?ainoaaiiay e yia?aaoe/aneay oii?yaei/aiiinoue
nenoaiu, ninoiyuae ec aoiiiuo yaea? e yeaeo?iiia. Aeaaiia, /aio
niinianoaiaaee o/aiey Eaeoea e Aooea?iaa, oae yoi neioaco nia/aea
i?inoaeoeo, a caoai e aieaa neiaeiuo oaeaaiaei?iaeia. Ii, aianoa n oai,
no?oeoo?iay oeiey ia niiaea ?aoeoue i?iaeaiu iieo/aiey yoeeaia, aaiciea,
aoeaoeeaia, aeaoeieea (iaiaoiaeeiiai i?e i?iecaiaenoaa eao/oea) e
ae?oaeo oaeaaiaei?iaeia n oeaii/eie ec /aou?ao aoiiia oaea?iaea. ?aoaiea
yoie i?iaeaiu o?aaiaaei iaooaoeie/aneia i?iecaiaenoai, e iii ieacaeinue
aiciiaeiui a o?aoueae ec oeacaiiuo iaie eiioeaiooaeueiuo oeie/aneeo
nenoai, iin?aaenoaii oeie/aneie eeiaoeee e oa?iiaeeiaieee. Ae?oaeie
e?oiiuie iaaeinoaoeaie i?aaie/aneiai neioaca yaeythony ieceea auoiaeu
i?iaeoeoia, aieueoea iiai/iua iooiaeu, ii iniaaiii eniieueciaaiea
aei?iainoiyuaai nu?uey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa — ca?ia,
aee?ia, iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia.

6. Eiioeaioeee e caeiiu oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia (?aaeoeee)

O?aouey eiioeaiooaeueiay nenoaia a oeiee aicieeea ia nouea oeiee, oeceee
e ioe?uaaao iooe e iiieiaieth aeieiae/aneeo nenoai. Oeie/aneee i?ioeann
a yoie eiioeaioeee — yoi iino io iauaeoia oeceee e iauaeoai aeieiaee,
oae eae aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?ineaaeeoue iooue io
i?inouo iee?iiauaeoia, oaeeo eae yeaeo?ii, i?ioii, aoii, iieaeoea e
iieeia?, a eiia/iii eoiaa e aeiiieeia?o, e eeaoea, a eioi?ie
niaa?oathony iaiuneeiua oeie/aneea ?aaeoeee.

Oa/aiea iiiaeo oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee aanueia neiaeii, a eiiaaea iii?inoo
o?oaeiioi?aaeyaii: iaeie ec ieo ii/aio-oi iaaiciiaeiu, ae?oaea
iaaiciiaeii eee neiaeii inoaiiaeoue (ai?aiea, ac?ua), o?aouee aaoayony e
o. i. Iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey oeie/aneeie ?aaeoeeyie iiae?acaeaeythony ia
oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea e eeiaoe/aneea, i?e eioi?uo aeaaainoaothuoth ?ieue
ea?atho oa eee eiua eaoaeecaoi?u.

Eaaeaeay oeie/aneay ?aaeoeey ia?aoeia. Ia?aoeiinoue neoaeeo iniiaaieai
?aaiiaaney iaaeaeo i?yiie e ia?aoeiie ?aaeoeeyie. A caaeneiinoe io
i?e?iaeu ?aaaaioia e oneiaee i?ioeanna, ?aaiiaanea iiaeao niauaoueny a
i?yioth eeai a ia?aoioth noi?iio eciaiaieai oaiia?aoo?u, aeaaeaiey e
eiioeaio?aoeee ?aaaaioia. Iiaeia?aoue, iaeiaei, oneiaey inouanoaeaiey
oao eee eiuo, ia ia?aue acaeyae i?inouo, ?aaeoeee, eiiaaea ia
oaeaaaeinue a oa/aiea noa e aieaa eao. Oaeie ?aaeoeeae ieacaeanue
?aaeoeey neioaca aiieaea ec iieaeoey?iuo acioa e aiaei?iaea, aia?aua
oniaoii inouanoaeaiiay a 1913 a., iinea ioe?uoee ss. Aaio-Aiooii e A. Ea
Oaoaeuea i?eioeeia, iieo/eaoaai eo eiaia. Niaeanii yoiio i?eioeeio
ethaia eciaiaiea iaeiiai ec oneiaee ?aaiiaaney aucuaaao niauaiea nenoaiu
a oaeii iai?aaeaiee, eioi?ia oiaiueoaao ia?aiia/aeueiia eciaiaiea.
Ieacaeinue, /oi aiieae iiaeao neioace?iaaoueny a i?enoonoaee
iaoaeeii?aaie/aneiai eaoaeecaoi?a (ia?aiia/aeueii niaoeeaeueii
ia?aaioaiiiai aeaeaca) i?e aunieii aeaaeaiee e ii?iaeueiie oaiia?aoo?a.

Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneia aicaeaenoaea ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia iai?aaeaiiinoue
?aaeoeee, a aio ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey nei?inoueth oeie/aneie ?aaeoeeae
auiieiyao oeie/aneay eeiaoeea, onei?yy eee caiaaeeyy ?aaeoeee n
iiiiuueth eaoaeecaoi?ia e eiaeaeoi?ia, niioaaonoaaiii. Oeie/aneee
eaoaeec aue ioe?uo a 1812 a. ?onneei oeieeii Eiinoaioeiii Ee?oaioii (ia
iooaoue n iaiaoeeei oeceeii Aonoaaii Ee?oaioii, onoaiiaeaoei caeiiu aeey
yeaeo?e/aneie oeaie, ia?aiioe?uaaoaeai niaeo?ineiiee aianoa n ?.
Aoicaiii e o. ae.). N?aaee eaoaeecaoi?ia iniaay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
oa?iaioai, naiaia?aciui aeeaui eaoaeecaoi?ai, nua?aaoei eeth/aaoth ?ieue
a aicieeiiaaiee aeecie.

7. Eiioeaioeee e i?eioeeiu yaiethoeeiiiie oeiee e naiii?aaiecaoeee
yaiethoeeiiiuo oeie/aneeo nenoai

Nenoaia e eiioeaioeee yaiethoeeiiiie oeiee noaee oi?ie?iaaoueny a
60-70-a aiaeu XX aaea e a naiae iniiaa ioaa/atho aeaaiae ia/oa oeieeia
inaieoue e ia?aiyoue iiuo eaai?aoi?ee aeeaiai i?aaiecia, iiiyoue, eae ec
iai?aaie/aneie (einiie) iaoa?ee aicieeaao i?aaie/aneay, a caoai e aeeaia
aauanoai — aeeciue. Caeanue iiyoue iiaeii oiiiyiooue E. Aa?oeaeeona, a
aeiiieieoaeueii iaioea TH. Eeaeoa, o?aioeoca I. Aa?oei.

Iao auaeathueeny oeieei-oecee, Iiaaeaaneee eao?aao ii oeiee Ieeieae
Ieeieaaae/ Naiaiia i?aaenoaaeye oeie/aneea i?ioeannu a oeaiyo ?anoaiee e
aeeaioiuo eae oeie/aneia i?iecaiaenoai aeeaie i?e?iaeu, eae
i?iecaiaenoai iaeeo «iieaeoey?iuo iaoei» niaa?oaiii eneeth/eoaeueiie
oi/iinoe, auno?iou e iaiau/aeiiai niaa?oainoaa. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony
ioe?uoui iaaeaaii neioacii aieueoeo aaeeiauo iieaeoe ni no?iaei
/a?aaeiaaieai aieiieeneio. Eeaoee eiatho a naiai ninoaaa
noaiee?ineie/aneea «nai?iua caaiaeeee» — ?eainiiu, niaea?aeauea
?eaiioeeaeiiaua eeneiou (?IE), eae nai?iua «iaoeiu». Eaaeaeue aeae
ei?ioeeo iieaeoe o?ainii?oiuo ?IE caoaaouaaao iaeei ii?aaeaeaiiue aeae
aieiieeneio, ianao eo a ?eainiio e noaaeo eaaeaeoth aieiieeneioo ia naia
ianoi niaeanii eioi?iaoeee, niaea?aeauaeny a iieaeoeao ?IE. Ooo aea e
aieiieeneioai iiaeoiaeyo eaoaeecaoi?u-oa?iaiou e inouanoaeytho «noeaeo»
aieiieeneio a iaeio iieaeoeo aaeea ni no?iaei /a?aaeiaaieai. Yoi
ianoiyuee i?e?iaeiue caaiae, no?iyuee iieaeoeo ii ieaio, au?aaioaiiiio
i?aaieciaie a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee. Aio yoe ieaiu aeeauo i?aaieciia e
i?aaeiieaaaaony eniieueciaaoue a iiaie yaiethoeeiiiie oeiee.

A ia/eiaeinue yoi iai?aaeaiea a o?oaeao aaeeeiai o?aioeocneiai aeieiaa
Eoe Ianoa?a i?e enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeanna a?iaeaiey, inouanoaeyaiiai
aeayoaeueiinoueth iiei/iieeneuo aaeoa?ee. Ec naieo iaaethaeaiee Ianoa?
naeaeae auaiae ia iniaii o?iaia iaoa?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee oa?iaioia,
/oi a eiia/iii eoiaa i?eaaei e nicaeaieth oaeie iaoee, eae
oa?iaioieiaey, e oniaoai yaiethoeeiiiiai eaoaeeca e iieaeoey?iie
aeieiaee. Oae auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi ninoaa e no?oeoo?a aeiiieeia?ia
eiatho aaeeiue iaai? aeey anao aeeauo i?aaieciia e /oi iaeie e oa aea
oece/aneea e oeie/aneea caeiiu oi?aaeytho eae aaeiaaiiuie i?ioeannaie,
oae e i?ioeannaie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. E?iia oiai, auea aeieacaia
oieeaeueiay niaoeeoe/iinoue aeeaiai, i?iyaeythuayny ia oieueei ia aunoeo
o?iaiyo i?aaiecaoeee eeaoee, ii e a iiaaaeaiee o?aaiaioia aeeauo
i?aaieciia ia iieaeoey?iii o?iaia, ia eioi?ii oaeaea aeaenoaotho
caeiiiia?iinoe ae?oaeo o?iaiae.

Niaoeeoeea iieaeoey?iiai o?iaiy aeeauo e iaaeeauo nenoai — a
nouanoaaiiii ?acee/ee i?eioeeiia aeaenoaey oa?iaioia e eaoaeecaoi?ia, a
?acee/ee iaoaieciia ia?aciaaiey iieeia?ia e aeiiieeia?ia. No?oeoo?a
oeacaiiuo iieeia?ia ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei aaiaoe/aneei eiaeii (naaiaeiy
oi/ii ecaanoiui iaoea), e, iaeiiaoe, a oaeii ii?aceoaeueiii oaeoa, /oi
iiiaea oeie/aneea ?aaeoeee ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
iiaoo i?ienoiaeeoue a eeaoea aac iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eiioaeoa iaaeaeo
?aaae?othueie iieaeoeaie. Oaeei ia?acii, a aeeauo i?aaieciao iiaoo
i?ienoiaeeoue e i?ienoiaeyo oaeea oeie/aneea i?aa?auaiey, eioi?ua,
eacaeinue au, iaaiciiaeii auei ano?aoeoue a iaaeeaie i?e?iaea. Ii
iinoaiaiii iie noaee aeinooiiu oeieeai, eiaaea oaeaeinue inaieoue
eaoaeeoe/aneee iiuo i?e?iaeu, aeeaie eeaoee.

Oaeo oiai, /oi oa?iaioiue eaoaeec ea?ae ?aoathuoth, ooiaeaiaioaeueioth
?ieue a i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea io oeie/aneeo nenoai e nenoaiai
aeieiae/aneei, o. a. ia i?aae aeieiae/aneie noaaeee yaiethoeee, a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iiiaeie aeaiiuie. Eneeth/eoaeueii
aaaeioth ?ieue nua?aea ?aaeoeey ii naiii?aaiecaoeee oeie/aneeo nenoai,
i?iaaaeaiiay auaeathueiny niaaoneei aeioeieeii Ai?enii Iaaeiae/ai
Aaeioniaui, caoai ouaoaeueii eco/aiiay A. I. AEaaioeineei, aioaaeoay a
a?naiae nia?aiaiiie yaiethoeeiiiie oeiee iiae iacaaieai ?aaeoeee
Aaeioniaa -AEaaioeineiai. Yoa ?aaeoeey nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?aciaaieai
niaoeeoe/aneeo i?ino?ainoaaiiuo e a?aiaiiuo no?oeoo? (iai?eia?,
ia?eiaee/aneia /a?aaeiaaiea oeaaoa aeeaeeinoe) ca n/ao iinooieaiey iiauo
e oaeaeaiey eniieueciaaiiuo oeie/aneeo ?aaaaioia. Aio a yoeo ?aaeoeeyo
naiii?aaiecaoeee eae ?ac ?aoathuay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo eiaiii
eaoaeeoe/aneei i?ioeannai.

Iiiyoea «naiii?aaiecaoeee» (aieaa iiae?iaii ni. a ae. 12) icia/aao
oii?yaei/aiiinoue nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo aeeiaie/aneeo, ea/anoaaiii
eciaiythueony nenoai. ?ieue eaoaeeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia a ieo oneeeaaaony
ii ia?a oneiaeiaiey ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u oeie/aneeo nenoai. Io?aaeii, /oi
ii?aaeaeythuaa cia/aiea a enneaaeiaaiee yoiai ieaia nua?aee ?aaiou
ioa/anoaaiiuo o/aiuo E. A. Aa?aceia, A. A. Aaeaiaeeia e iniaaiii A. I.
?oaeaiei, nicaeaaoaai a 1964-1969 aa. aaeeioth oai?eth oeie/aneie
yaiethoeee e aeiaaiaca. Yoa oai?ey ?aoaao a eiiieaena aii?inu i
aeaeaeoueo neeao e iaoaieciao yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, o. a. i caeiiao
oeie/aneie yaiethoeee, ioai?a yeaiaioia e no?oeoo? e eo i?e/eiiie
iaoneiaeaiiinoe, o?iaia oeie/aneie i?aaiecaoeee e ea?a?oee oeie/aneeo
nenoai eae neaaenoaey yaiethoeee. Nouiinoue oai?ee ?oaeaiei ninoieo a
ooaa?aeaeaiee e iainiiaaiee i?eioeeia oiai, /oi oeie/aneay yaiethoeey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naii?acaeoea ioe?uouo eaoaeeoe/aneeo nenoai, e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, yaiethoeeiie?othuei aauanoaii yaeythony eaoaeecaoi?u. A
oiaea ?aaeoeee i?ienoiaeeo anoanoaaiiue ioai? oao eaoaeeoe/aneeo
oeaio?ia, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho iaeaieueoae aeoeaiinoueth.

Aeaenaiae? I?ieiiueaae/ ?oaeaiei noi?ioee?iaae iniiaiie caeii oeie/aneie
yaiethoeee, niaeanii eioi?iio n iaeaieueoae nei?inoueth e aa?iyoiinoueth
ia?acothony oa iooe yaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee eaoaeecaoi?a, ia eioi?uo
i?ienoiaeeo iaeneiaeueiia oaaee/aiea aai aaniethoiie aeoeaiinoe.

Neaaeoao oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi yaiethoeeiiiue i?ioeann i?aaeiieaaaao
iniaue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue ioai? eeoue oao oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia e
niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua yaeythony iniiaiui no?ieoaeueiui iaoa?eaeii aeey
ia?aciaaiey aeieiae/aneeo nenoai. A nayce n yoei aeinoaoi/ii oiiiyiooue,
/oi aieaa /ai ec noa oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia eeoue oanoue — oaea?iae,
aiaei?iae, eenei?iae, acio, oinoi? e na?a — iauay aaniaay aeiey eioi?uo
a i?aaieciao ninoaaeyao 97,4%, iieo/eaoeo iacaaiea i?aaii- eee aeiaaiia,
neoaeao iniiaie aeey iino?iaiey aeeauo nenoai.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Ai?ioia A.A. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. — I., 2003. —
412 n.

2. Noaiei A.N., Ai?ioia A.A., ?icia I.A. Oeeinioey iaoee e oaoieee. —
I., 1995. — 384 n.

3. E?theia ?. A. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey (eiiniaeo
eaeoeee). — I., 2005. — 176 n.

4. Aaeeiia Y.I. Oaiiiai aeecie: iaaeaeo ?aaiiaaneai e iaeeiaeiinoueth.
I?ienoiaeaeaiea e i?eioeeiu yaiethoeee. — I., 2001. — 256 n.

5. Eiycaaa A.I., Eo?aethiia N.I. Caeiiu yaiethoeee e naiii?aaiecaoeee
neiaeiuo nenoai. — I., 1994.

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