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Клонирование эмбрионов амфибий

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Eeiie?iaaiea yia?eiiia aioeaee

(*aeiaae ?3, 1998)

Oa?iei “eeii” i?ienoiaeeo io a?a/aneiai neiaa “klon”, /oi icia/aao –
aaoi/ea, iiaaa, /a?aiie, e eiaao ioiioaiea i?aaeaea anaai e
aaaaoaoeaiiio ?aciiiaeaieth. Eeiie?iaaiea ?anoaiee /a?aieaie, ii/eaie
eee eeoaiyie a naeueneii oicyenoaa, a /anoiinoe a naaeiaiaenoaa,
ecaanoii oaea aieaa 4-o oun. eao. Ia/eiay n 70-o aiaeia iaoaai noieaoey
aeey eeiie?iaaiey ?anoaiee noaee oe?iei eniieueciaaoue iaaieueoea a?oiiu
e aeaaea ioaeaeueiua niiaoe/aneea (iaiieiaua) eeaoee.

Aeaei a oii, /oi o ?anoaiee (a ioee/ea io aeeaioiuo) ii ia?a eo ?inoa a
oiaea eeaoi/iie niaoeeaeecaoeee – aeeooa?aioee?iaee – eeaoee ia oa?ytho
oae iacuaaaiuo oioeiioaioiuo naienoa, o.a. ia oa?ytho naiae niiniaiinoe
?aaeeciauaaoue anth aaiaoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth, caeiaeaiioth a yae?a.
Iiyoiio i?aeoe/anee ethaay ?anoeoaeueiay eeaoea, nio?aieaoay a i?ioeanna
aeeooa?aioee?iaee naia yae?i, iiaeao aeaoue ia/aei iiaiio i?aaiecio. Yoa
iniaaiiinoue ?anoeoaeueiuo eeaoie eaaeeo a iniiaa iiiaeo iaoiaeia
aaiaoeee e naeaeoeee.

I?e aaaaoaoeaiii ?aciiiaeaiee e i?e eeiie?iaaiee aaiu ia
?ani?aaeaeythony ii iioiieai, eae a neo/aa iieiaiai ?aciiiaeaiey, a
nio?aiythony a iieiii ninoaaa a oa/aiea iiiaeo iieieaiee. Ana i?aaieciu,
aoiaeyuea a ninoaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeiia, eiatho iaeeiaeiaue iaai? aaiia
e oaiioeie/anee ia ?acee/athony iaaeaeo niaie.

Eeaoee aeeaioiuo, aeeooa?aioee?oynue, eeoathony oioeiioaioiinoe, e a
yoii – iaeii ec nouanoaaiiuo eo ioee/ee io eeaoie ?anoaiee. Eae aoaeao
iieacaii ieaea, eiaiii caeanue – aeaaiia i?aiyonoaea aeey eeiie?iaaiey
ac?ineuo iicaiii/iuo aeeaioiuo.

Ia?aua iiuou ia aioeaeyo

Aiciiaeiinoue eeiie?iaaiey yia?eiiia iicaiii/iuo aia?aua auea iieacaia a
ia/aea 50-o aiaeia a iiuoao ia aioeaeyo. Aia?eeaineea enneaaeiaaoaee
A?eaan e Eeia ?ac?aaioaee iee?ioe?o?ae/aneee iaoiae ia?anaaeee yaea?
yia?eiiaeueiuo eeaoie n iiiiuueth oiieie noaeeyiiie ieiaoee a eeoaiiua
yae?a (yioeeae?iaaiiua) yeoeaeeaoee [1]. Iie onoaiiaeee, /oi anee a?aoue
yae?a ec eeaoie ca?iaeuoa ia ?aiiae noaaeee aai ?acaeoey – aeanooea, oi
i?eia?ii a 80% neo/aaa ca?iaeuo aeaaiiieo/ii ?acaeaaaony aeaeueoa e
i?aa?auaaony a ii?iaeueiiai aieiaanoeea. Anee aea ?acaeoea ca?iaeuoa,
aeiii?a yae?a, i?iaeaeioeinue ia neaaeothuoth noaaeeth – aano?oeo, oi
eeoue iaiaa /ai a 20% neo/aaa iia?e?iaaiiua yeoeaeeaoee ?acaeaaeenue
ii?iaeueii. Yoe ?acoeueoaou iicaea auee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu e a ae?oaeo
?aaioao.

Aieueoie aeeaae a yoo iaeanoue aian aiaeeeneee aeieia Aa?aeii. Ii ia?aui
a iiuoao n thaeiiao?eeaineeie aeaaaie Xenopus laevis (1962) a ea/anoaa
aeiii?a yaea? eniieueciaae ia ca?iaeuoaaua eeaoee, a oaea aiieia
niaoeeaeece?iaaaoeany eeaoee yieoaeey eeoa/ieea ieaaathuaai aieiaanoeea
[2]. ssae?a yeoeaeeaoie ?aoeeieaioia ii ia oaeaeye oe?o?ae/aneei iooai,
a ?ac?ooae oeueo?aoeieaoiauie eo/aie. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
?aeiino?oe?iaaiiua yeoeaeeaoee ia ?acaeaaeenue, ii i?eia?ii aeanyoay
/anoue eo ieo ia?aciauaaea yia?eiiu. 6,5% ec yoeo yia?eiiia aeinoeaaee
noaaeee aeanooeu, 2,5% – noaaeee aieiaanoeea e oieueei 1% ?acaeeny a
iieiaic?aeuo iniaae (?en. 1). Iaeiaei iiyaeaiea ianeieueeeo ac?ineuo
iniaae a oaeeo oneiaeyo iiaei auoue naycaii n oai, /oi n?aaee eeaoie
yieoaeey eeoa/ieea ?acaeaathuaainy aieiaanoeea aeiaieueii aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy i?enoonoaotho ia?ae/iua iieiaua eeaoee, yae?a eioi?uo iiaee auoue
eniieueciaaiu aeey ia?anaaeee. A iineaaeothueo ?aaioao eae nai aaoi?,
oae e iiiaea ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee ia niiaee iiaeoaa?aeeoue aeaiiua
yoeo ia?auo iiuoia.

Iicaea Aa?aeii iiaeeoeoee?iaae yenia?eiaio [3]. Iineieueeo aieueoeinoai
?aeiino?oe?iaaiiuo yeoeaeeaoie (n yae?ii eeaoee eeoa/iiai yieoaeey)
iiaeaatho aei caaa?oaiey noaaeee aano?oeu, ii iii?iaiaae ecaea/ue ec ieo
yae?a ia noaaeee aeanooeu e niiaa ia?anaaeeoue eo a iiaua
yioeeae?iaaiiua yeoeaeeaoee (oaeay i?ioeaaeo?a iacuaaaony “na?eeiie
ia?anaaeeie” a ioee/ea io “ia?ae/iie ia?anaaeee”). *enei ca?iaeuoae n
ii?iaeueiui ?acaeoeai iinea yoiai oaaee/eaaeinue, e iie ?acaeaaeenue aei
aieaa iicaeieo noaaeee ii n?aaiaieth n ca?iaeuoaie, iieo/aiiuie a
?acoeueoaoa ia?ae/iie ia?anaaeee yaea?.

Caoai Aa?aeii aianoa n Eanee (1970) noaee eoeueoeae?iaaoue in vitro (aia
i?aaiecia a ieoaoaeueiie n?aaea) eeaoee ii/ee, eaaeiai e eiaee ac?ineuo
aeeaioiuo e eniieueciaaoue oaea yoe eeaoee a ea/anoaa aeiii?ia yaea?
[4]. I?eia?ii 25% ia?ae/ii ?aeiino?oe?iaaiiuo yeoeaeeaoie ?acaeaaeenue
aei noaaeee aeanooeu. I?e na?eeiuo ia?anaaeeao iie ?acaeaaeenue aei
noaaeee ieaaathuaai aieiaanoeea. Oaeei ia?acii auei iieacaii, /oi eeaoee
o?ao ?aciuo oeaiae ac?ineiai iicaiii/iiai (X. laevis) niaea?aeao yae?a,
eioi?ua iiaoo iaania/eoue ?acaeoea ii e?aeiae ia?a aei noaaeee
aieiaanoeea.

A naith i/a?aaeue AeeAa?a?aeeii e Oioia? eniieueciaaee aeey
o?ainieaioaoeee yae?a iaaeneyueony e iieiinoueth aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo
eeaoie e?iae – y?eo?ioeeoia eyaooee Rana pipiens [5]. Iinea na?eeiie
ia?anaaeee oaeeo yaea? 10% ?aeiino?oe?iaaiiuo yeoeaeeaoie aeinoeaaee
noaaeee ieaaathuaai aieiaanoeea. Iaeiaei aeaaea n iiiiuueth iiiaie?aoiuo
na?eeiuo ia?anaaeie (aieaa 100 eeaoi/iuo oeeeeia) ?aeiino?oe?iaaiiua
yeoeaeeaoee aeaeueoa noaaeee aieiaanoeea ia ?acaeaaeenue.

Oaeei ia?acii, ai iiiaeo ?aaioao iieacaii, /oi a neo/aa aioeaee
aeiii?aie yaea? iiaoo auoue eeoue ca?iaeuoe ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo ?acaeoey.
Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u iacuaatho iiaeiaiua yenia?eiaiou eeiie?iaaieai aioeaee,
oioy i?aaeeueiaa iacuaaoue eo eeiie?iaaieai yia?eiiia aioeaee, oae eae a
yoii neo/aa iu ?aciiiaeaai aaniieui iooai ia ac?ineuo aeeaioiuo, a
ca?iaeuoae.

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