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Классификация паразитов и их хозяев

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AAEI?ONNEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE IAAeEOeEINEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

?AOA?AO

IA OAIO:

«EEANNEOEEAOeEss IA?ACEOIA E EO OICssAA»

IEINE, 2009

AEeaua i?aaieciu acaeiiaeaenoaotho eae n oaeoi?aie iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu –
aaeioe/aneeie (oaiia?aoo?a, naao, aeaaeiinoue e ae?.), oae e n aeeauie
nouanoaaie – aeioe/aneeie oaeoi?aie.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea i?aaieciia iaaeaeo niaie e n ie?oaeathuae eo aiaoiae
n?aaeie eco/aao iaoea yeieiaey. Oa?iei “yeieiaey” i?aaeeiaeai a 1869 a.
iaiaoeeei ciieiaii Y. Aaeeaeai (a?a/. oikos – aeii, aeeeeua; logos –
o/aiea, iaoea).

Iaeii?iaeiua a aaia?aoe/aneii ioiioaiee o/anoee nooe eee aiaeiaia
canaeyaiua aeeauie i?aaieciaie, iacuaathony aeioiiaie. Enoi?e/anee
neiaeeaoaany niiauanoai i?aaieciia aeaiiiai aeioiia (iee?ii?aaieciu,
?anoaiey, aeeaioiua) iacuaaaony aeioeaiicii. A eiiieaena aeioii e
aeioeaiic ninoaaeytho aeiaaioeaiic – yoi niiauanoaa aeeauo i?aaieciia a
ii?aaeaeaiiie n?aaea iaeoaiey. Iie naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie iaiaiii aauanoa
e yia?aee. Anee a ninoaa aeiaaioeaiica aoiaeyo e iiioeyoeee /aeiaaea, oi
oaeay yeieiae/aneay no?oeoo?a iacuaaaony aio?iiiaeiaaioeaiicii.

Eaoaai?ee acaeiiioiioaiee (aeioe/aneea nayce) aeeauo i?aaieciia a
i?e?iaea ?acee/iu. Eo iniiao ninoaaeytho oae iacuaaaiua o?ioe/aneea
nayce, eee oeaie ieoaiey. Ethaay oeaiue ieoaiey aeeth/aao o?e caaia: 1)
i?iaeooeaiou i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa (aaoio?ioiua i?aaieciu); 2)
eiinoiaiou – iio?aaeoaee i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa (aaoa?io?ioiua
i?aaieciu); 3) aeano?oeoi?u – ?ac?ooeoaee i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa (a
iniiaiii, aaeoa?ee). Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea oi?iu aeioe/aneeo naycae.

Eiieo?aioeey – acaeiiioiioaiey i?aaieciia iaeiiai eee ?aciuo aeaeia,
aeey eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeiu iaeeiaeiaua eee noiaeiua oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey.
Iai?eia?, ?aciua aeaeu oeuieeia e aea?oaa: eena, niaa, a?ucoiu.

Oeuie/anoai – acaeiiioiioaiey i?aaieciia ?aciuo aeaeia (oeuiee e
aea?oaa), eiaaea iaeei oaeaaao ae?oaiai e eniieuecoao aai aeey
iaeiie?aoiiai ieoaiey (iai?eia?, aiee e cayoe, eioea e iuoue).

Aioeaeic – acaeiiioiioaiey i?aaieciia ?aciuo aeaeia, eiaaea i?iaeoeou
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iaeieo iiaeaaeytho aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue eee
aucuaatho aeaaeue i?aaieciia ae?oaeo aeaeia (iai?eia?, aioeaeioeee,
oeoiioeeaeu e iee?iau).

Neiaeic – ethaay oi?ia niaeeoaeuenoaa i?aaieciia ?aciuo aeaeia. Oa?iei
“neiaeic” (a?a/. sim – ?yaeii, bios – aeeciue, aeeaie) aaaaeai a
aeieiaeth a 1879 a. de Barry.

?acee/atho neaaeothuea aeaeu neiaeica:

a) neiieeey (eaa?oe?aionoai) – niaeeoaeuenoai ianoa, i?e eioi?ii iaeei
ia?oia? eniieuecoao ae?oaiai a ea/anoaa aeeeeua, ia i?eiiny aio ie
iieuecu, ie a?aaea (iai?eia?, ?uaa ai?/ae ioeeaaeuaaao ee?eiee a
iaioeeioth iieinoue iieethneia, ?aeiia?aciua – ii?neea aeaeoaee
iinaeythony ia ?aeiaeia iieethneia);

a) ioooaeeci (eao. mutuus – acaeiiauaiaeiue) – acaeiiauaiaeiia e
acaeiicaaeneiia niaeeoaeuenoai i?aaieciia ?aciuo aeaeia (iai?eia?,
aeoeiey e ?ae-iooaeueiee, eeoaeiee – niaeeoaeuenoai a?eaa e aiaei?inee,
eeoa/iay iaei/ea a eeoa/ieea /aeiaaea);

a) eiiiainaeeci (o?. commensal – nio?aiaciee, iaoeaaiee) – aeae
neiaeica, i?e eioi?ii iaeei i?aaieci eniieuecoao ae?oaie eae aeeeeua e
ieoaaony inoaoeaie ieue, eee i?iaeoeoaie auaeaeaiey ae?oaiai, ia
i?e/eiyy aio a?aaea (iai?eia?, iaiaoiaaiiua aaeoa?ee oienoiai eeoa/ieea
/aeiaaea, ?uaee a eeoa/ieea ii?neiai iao?oea); acaeiiioiioaiey oicyeia e
eiiiainaea iau/ii eiatho iaeo?aeueiue oa?aeoa?;

a) ia?aceoeci (eao. para – ieiei, sitos – ieoaiea) – aioaaiienoe/aneee
neiaeic, i?e eioi?ii i?aaieci iaeiiai aeaea, iinaeyynue ia eee a oaea
i?aaiecia ae?oaiai aeaea, eniieuecoao aai a ea/anoaa n?aaeu iaeoaiey e
enoi/ieea ieoaiey, i?e/eiyy iineaaeiaio a?aae.

Ia?aceoeci – oieaa?naeueiia yaeaiea i?e?iaeu. Ia?aceou ninoaaeytho 6-7%
io iauaai /enea aeaeia aeeaioiiai e ?anoeoaeueiiai ie?a. Iaeioi?ua
eeannu aeeaioiiai ie?a i?aaenoaaeaiu oieueei ia?aceoe/aneeie oi?iaie
(iai?eia?, Nii?iaeee e Eaioi/iua /a?ae). Ia niaea?aeao ia?aceoia oeiu
aoaie e eaeieiaeeo.

Ia?aceoeci – yaeaiea yeieiae/aneia e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeio ec
?aciiaeaeiinoae iaaeaeaeiauo ioiioaiee. Ia?aceoeci a i?e?iaea ia?acei
ioa?aie/ai io ae?oaeo oi?i neiaeica. Ii oanii i?eiueaao e eiiiainaeecio
e ioooaeecio (iaiaoiaaiiua eeoa/iua aiaau). Iaeioi?uo oeuieeia n/eoatho
yeoiia?aceoaie, a ?yae yiaeiia?aceoia iacuaatho “iee?ioeuieeaie”.
Iai?eia?, ieyaea ii ioiioaieth e iaeeei oieiaeiie?iaiui i?aaieciai
yaeyaony oeuieeii, a ii ioiioaieth e e?oiiui ieaeiieoathuei e /aeiaaeo
iia yaeyaony a?aiaiiui yeoiia?aceoii. Ia a?aie ia?aceoecia iaoiaeeony e
aioo?aiiee neiaeic. Iai?eia?, neiaeiiou eeoa/ieea oeae auaeaeytho
oa?iaiou, eioi?ua ?anuaieytho naoa?a, iinooiathuea n nieaie ?anoaiee.

Iniiaaoaeue ia?aceoieiaee iaiaoeeee ciieia P.Leucart (1879) aeaaiui
e?eoa?eai n/eoae niiniaiinoue ia?aceoa ieoaoueny ca n/ao oicyeia,
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy nio?aiyy aio aeeciue. E e?eoa?eyi ia?aceoecia ii
ioiinee i?ino?ainoaaiiua nayce ia?aceoa n oicyeiii – eniieueciaaiea aai
a ea/anoaa aeeeuey, a oaeaea noaiaiue a?aaea ia?aceoa aeey i?aaiecia
oicyeia.

Aeaaeaiee A.I.Iaaeianeee n/eoae ia?aceoaie i?aaieciu, eioi?ua aeeaoo ca
n/ao iniaae ae?oaiai aeaea, aoaeo/e aeieiae/anee eee yeieiae/anee oanii
naycaiiuie n ieie a naiai aeeciaiiii oeeeea ia aieueoai eee iaiueoai aai
i?ioyaeaiee. Ia?aceou ieoathony nieaie oaea, e?iaueth, oeaiyie eee
ia?aaa?aiiie ieuae naieo oicyaa, i?e/ai oaeie ia?aceoe/aneee ia?ac
aeecie yaeyaony niaoeeoe/aneei aeaeiaui i?eciaeii. E?iia oiai, ia?aceou
iinoiyiii eee a?aiaiii eniieuecotho i?aaieci oicyeia eae oa??eoi?eth
naiaai iaeoaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, e?eoa?eyie ia?aceoecia yaeythony:

1) i?ino?ainoaaiiua ioiioaiey n oicyeiii (eiioaeo ia?aceoa e oicyeia);

2) ieoaiea ca n/ao oicyeia;

3) iaoiaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia oicyeia.

Eeanneoeeaoeey ia?aceoia

Ii oa?aeoa?o nayce n oicyeiii auaeaeytho enoeiiuo, eiaeiuo ia?aceoia e
naa?oia?aceoia.

Enoeiiua ia?aceou – yoi i?aaieciu, aeey eioi?uo ia?aceoe/aneee ia?ac
aeecie yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiie oi?iie nouanoaiaaiey e aeaeiniaoeeoe/iui
(iai?eia?, aaeueieiou eeoa/ieea, aoe, aeioe). Iie iiaoo auoue
iaeeaaoiuie e oaeoeueoaoeaiuie, iinoiyiiuie e a?aiaiiuie.

Eiaeiua ia?aceou (inaaaeiia?aceou) – yoi iau/ii naiaiaeiiaeeaouea
i?aaieciu, eioi?ua i?e neo/aeiii iiiaaeaiee a i?aaieci ae?oaiai aeaea
niiniaiu iaeioi?ia a?aiy nouanoaiaaoue a iai e i?e/eiyoue yoiio
i?aaiecio a?aae (iai?eia?, ee/eiee eiiiaoiie iooe a eeoa/ieea /aeiaaea).

Naa?oia?aceou (aeia?ia?aceou) – yoi ia?aceou, aeeaouea o ia?aceoia
(iai?eia?, aaeoa?ee o i?inoaeoeo e ianaeiiuo-ia?aceoia).

Ii aeeeoaeueiinoe nayce n oicyeiii ia?aceou iiae?acaeaeythony ia:

1) iinoiyiiuo, eioi?ua aanue naie aeeciaiiue oeeee i?iaiaeyo a i?aaiecia
oicyeia, eniieuecoy aai eae enoi/iee ieoaiey e ianoi iaeoaiey (iai?eia?,
anea?eaea, oeaiie, aoe);

2) a?aiaiiuo, eioi?ua naycaiu n oicyeiii e ieoathony ca aai n/ao ia
ii?aaeaeaiiie noaaeee ?acaeoey (iai?eia?, ee/eii/iue ia?aceoeci o
aieue-oa?oiaie iooe, eiaaeiaeueiue – o aeio e eiia?ia).

Ii eieaeecaoeee o oicyeia ia?aceou iiae?acaeaeythony ia:

1) yeoiia?aceoia, eioi?ua iaeoatho ia iie?iaao oaea oicyeia (iai?eia?,
aoe, aeioe, eeaue);

2) yiaeiia?aceoia, eioi?ua eieaeeciaaiu aioo?e i?aaiecia oicyeia:

a) aioo?eiieinoiua – eieaeeciaaiu a iieinoyo, niaaeeiythueony n aiaoiae
n?aaeie (iai?eia?, a eeoa/ieea – anea?eaea, aeaniaeaa);

a) oeaiaaua eieaeeciaaiu a oeaiyo e cae?uouo iieinoyo; (iai?eia?,
ia/aii/iue ninaeueuee, oeenoeoea?ee eaioi/iuo /a?aae);

a) aioo?eeeaoi/iua – eieaeeciaaiu a eeaoeao; (iai?eia?, iaey?eeiua
ieaciiaeee, oieniieacia).

Eeanneoeeaoeey oicyaa ia?aceoia

Oicyei ia?aceoa – yoi i?aaieci, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao ia?aceoa aeeeueai e
ieuae.

A caaeneiinoe io noaaeee ?acaeoey ia?aceoa oicyaaa auaatho:

1) aeaoeieoeaiua (iniiaiua, ieii/aoaeueiua) – a eo i?aaiecia iaeoaao
iieiaic?aeay oi?ia ia?aceoa e i?ioiaeeo aai iieiaia ?aciiiaeaiea
(iai?eia?, /aeiaae – aeey aii?oaeaiiiai oeaiiy, iaey?eeiue eiia? – aeey
aicaoaeeoaeae iaey?ee);

2) i?iiaaeooi/iua – a eo i?aaiecia iaeoaao ee/eii/iay noaaeey ia?aceoa
eee i?ioiaeeo aai aaniieia ?aciiiaeaiea (iai?eia?, naeiuey – aeey
aii?oaeaiiiai oeaiiy, /aeiaae – aeey aicaoaeeoaeae iaey?ee);

3) aeiiieieoaeueiua, eee aoi?ua i?iiaaeooi/iua oicyaaa (iai?eia?, ?uau
aeey eioa/ueaai ninaeueueea);

4) ?aca?aoa?iua – a eo i?aaiecia eaeao iaeiieaiea eiaaceiiiuo noaaeee
ia?aceoa aac aai ?acaeoey (iai?eia?, oeuiua ?uau aeey eaioaoea oe?ieiai,
aeeeea a?ucoiu aeey eaeoiaiee).

A caaeneiinoe io oneiaee aeey ?acaeoey ia?aceoa auaeaeytho neaaeothuea
a?oiiu oicyaa:

1) iaeeaaoiua (anoanoaaiiua) oicyaaa iaania/eaatho iioeiaeueiua oneiaey
aeey ?acaeoey ia?aceoa (iaeeo/ooth auaeeaaaiinoue, auno?ue ?ino,
iaeaieueooth ieiaeiaeoinoue), oae eae eiathony aeioeaiioe/aneea nayce e
aeioeie/aneea oneiaey; (iai?eia?, /aeiaae aeey anea?eaeu /aeiaaea e
eaioaoea oe?ieiai);

2) oaeoeueoaoeaiua oicyaaa oa?aeoa?ecothony iaee/eai aeioeaiioe/aneeo
naycae, ii ionoonoaeai iioeiaeueiuo aeioeie/aneeo oneiaee, iiyoiio a eo
i?aaiecia nie?auaaony n?ie aeecie ia?aceoa eee ii ia i?ioiaeeo iieiue
oeeee ?acaeoey (iai?eia?, eioea aeey eaioaoea oe?ieiai eee /aeiaae aeey
naeiie anea?eaeu);

3) iioaioeeaeueiua oicyaaa iaania/eaatho aeioeie/aneea oneiaey aeey
?acaeoey ia?aceoa, ii ionoonoaotho aeioeaiioe/aneea nayce, o.a. iooe
ca?aaeaiey (iai?eia?, o?aaiyaeiua aeeaioiua aeey o?eoeiaeeu).

Aic?ano e i?ienoiaeaeaiea ia?aceoecia

Aic?ano ia?aceoecia oai?aoe/anee n/eoatho n iiiaioa iiyaeaiey eeaoee,
iineieueeo a oaea aiaa iaeoatho iee?ii?aaieciu. Eneiiaaiua inoaoee
ia?aceoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae iieo/aiu, ia/eiay n iaeaiciy – yoi
ioia/aoee ii?neeo eeeee (eaeieiaeea) n aaeiia?aciuie ?ac?anoaieyie,
eioi?ua aucuaatho ia?aceoe/aneea /a?ae.

Yeieiae/aneay ia?aceoieiaey

Ia?aceoeci – yaeaiea yeieiae/aneia. Acaeiiioiioaiey ia?aceoa, oicyeia e
eo n?aaeu iaeoaiey eco/aao yeieiae/aneay ia?aceoieiaey, iniiau eioi?ie
auee caeiaeaiu a 30-a aiaeu ?aaioaie A.A. Aeiaaey, A.I. Aaeeaieoaaa e
A.I.Iaaeianeiai.

Ethaie aeeaie i?aaieci i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeioe/aneee eiiieaen
?aciiia?aciuo aeieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe. Aeey iaicia/aiey anae niaieoiiinoe
ia?aceoia i?aaiecia iaeiiai oicyeia A.I.Iaaeianeee i?aaeeiaeee oa?iei
“ia-?aceoioeaiic”.

Acaeiiioiioaiey ia?aceoia a i?aaiecia oicyeia iiaoo auoue neaaeothueie:

neia?aeci: ni/aoaiea aaeueieioia n i?inoaeoeie, aaeoa?eyie e ae?onaie
(eyiaeeic + anea?eaeic, oanoeeieac; aaeuieioicu + noaoeeieieeiaay
eioaeoeey);

aioaaiieci: a oaeeo ioiioaieyo iaoiaeeony aieueoeinoai aaeueieioia
(oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe iaeiiai aeaea aucuaaao oiaiueoaiea /eneaiiinoe
ae?oaiai);

aioeaeic: aeaa eee aieaa aeaea ia iiaoo iaeoaoue a iaeiie n?aaea ec-ca
auaeaeyaiuo i?iaeoeoia iaoaaieecia (anea?eaeic e iaey?ey o /aeiaaea,
oiea?a e eaioi/iua /a?ae o eo?).

I?e ia?aoiaea e ia?aceoecio oi?iuathony ioiioaiey i?aaiecia n aiaoiae
n?aaeie. Oicyei – naycothuaa caaii iaaeaeo ia?aceoii e aiaoiae n?aaeie –
nai i?aa?auaaony a n?aaeo iaeoaiey ia?aceoa (A.I.Iaaeianeee, 1934,
“I?aaieci eae n?aaea iaeoaiey”). Yoi – n?aaea iaeoaiey ia?aiai ii?yaeea
aeey ia?aceoa. Ia yiaeiia?aceoia aiaoiyy n?aaea (n?aaea iaeoaiey aoi?iai
ii?yaeea) aeeyao /a?ac i?aaieci oicyeia.

I?e aioaaiienoe/aneii neiaeica aiciiaeiu o?e e?aeieo oeia
acaeiiioiioaiee (N.N.Ooeueiai,1984):

1) i?aaieci oicyeia oaeaaao ia?aceoa,

2) ia?aceo aucuaaao aeaaeue oicyeia

3) iaaeaeo oicyeiii e ia?aceoii onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaiiaanea
(naaeaine?iaaiiinoue).

Acaeiiaeaenoaea ia?aceoa e oicyeia e au?aaioea onoie/eainoe nenoaiu
iiaoo i?ienoiaeeoue ia aeaoo o?iaiyo:

1) i?aaieciaiiue – oi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu “ia?aceo-oicyei”;

2) iiioeyoeeiiiue – oi?ie?iaaiea “ia?aceoa?iie nenoaiu”.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea nenoaiu “ia?aceo-oicyei”

Nenoaia “ia?aceo-oicyei” aeeth/aao iaeio iniaue oicyeia e a?oiio iniaae
ia?aceoa.

Aeey oi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu ia?aceo-oicyei iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaiea
neaaeothueo oneiaee:

a) ia?aceo e oicyei aeieaeiu anooieoue a eiioaeo ae?oa n ae?oaii;

a) oicyei aeieaeai iaania/eoue ia?aceoo iioeiaeueiua oneiaey aeey aai
?acaeoey;

a) ia?aceo aeieaeai i?ioeainoiyoue ?aaeoeeyi ni noi?iiu i?aaiecia
oicyeia.

Niiniau i?iieeiiaaiey ia?aceoa a i?aaieci oicyeia iiaoo auoue ?acee/iu.

1) Aeeiaioa?iue (/a?ac ?io n ieuae) – yeoea aaeueieioia, oeenou
i?inoaeoeo i?e ianiaethaeaiee i?aaee ee/iie aeaeaiu e aeaeaiu i?iaeoeoia
ieoaiey (iaiue, o?oeou); ee/eiee aaeueieioia (o?eoeiaeea) e aaaaoaoeaiua
oi?iu i?inoaeoeo (oieniieacia) i?e iaaeinoaoi/iie eoeeia?iie ia?aaioea
iyniuo i?iaeoeoia.

2) Aicaeooii-eaiaeueiue (/a?ac neecenoua iaiei/ee aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae) –
ae?onu (a?eii) e aaeoa?ee (aeeooa?ey, /oia) e iaeioi?ua i?inoaeoea
(oieniieacia).

3) Eiioaeoii-auoiaie (iaiin?aaenoaaiiua eiioaeou n aieueiui /aeiaaeii
eee aeeaioiui, /a?ac aaeuea e i?aaeiaou aeiiaoiaai iaeoiaea) – yeoea
eiioaeoiuo aaeueieioia (ino?eoea, ea?eeeiaue oeaiaiue) e iiiaea
/eaienoiiiaea (aoe, /anioi/iue coaeaiue).

4) O?ainienneaiue – i?e o/anoee ia?aiin/eea – /eaienoiiiaiai:

a) eiieoeyoeey – /a?ac oiaioie i?e ninaiee e?iae (iaey?eeiua ieaciiaeee,
o?eiaiiniiu);

a) eiioaieiaoeey – i?e ?an/anao e aoe?aiee a eiaeo yene?aiaioia eee
aaiieeiou ia?aiin/eea (aoeaua oeou, /oia).

5) O?ainieaoeaioa?iue (/a?ac ieaoeaioo) – oieniieacia, iaey?eeiua
ieaciiaeee.

6) Ia?eooaiiue (/a?ac eiaeo) – aeoeaiia i?iieeiiaaiea ee/eiie ia?aceoa
/a?ac iaiia?aaeaeaiioth eiaeo (aieeeinoiieaeu, oenoiniiu).

7) Iieiaie (i?e iieiauo eiioaeoao) – ae?on NIEAea, o?eoiiiiaaea.

8) O?ainooceiiiue (i?e ia?aeeaaiee e?iae) – ae?on NIEAea, iaey?eeiua
ieaciiaeee, o?eiaiiniiu.

9) Eniieueciaaiea ianoa?eeueiuo eino?oiaioia – oi?eoeu, eino?oiaioa?ee a
aeooa?neie e oe?o?ae/aneie eeeieea (ae?on NIEAea, o?eoiiiiaaeu).

Naiaia?acea nenoaiu “ia?aceo-oicyei” au?aaeaaony a aa aeaienoaaiiinoe
(aeoaeecia). N iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi aioaaiieci eiiiiiaioia nenoaiu, oae
eae ia?aceoeci anoue aioaaiienoe/aneee neiaeic. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a
i?ioeanna yaiethoeee a nenoaia iaaethaeaaony noaaeeecaoeey ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo ia?aceoii e oicyeiii, /oi i?eaiaeeo e naeaaeeaaieth
aioaaiienoe/aneeo ioiioaiee e au?aaioea ?aaiiaaniie nenoaiu.
Anoanoaaiiue ioai? aeaenoaoao ia nenoaio “ia?aceo-oicyei” eae ia
oeaeinoioth aaeeieoeo, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iia noaiiaeony aieaa
onoie/eaie e niinianoaoao nio?aiaieth aeaea e oicyeia, e ia?aceoa. Iooe
yaiethoeee ia?aceoa e oicyeia eaeoo ia?aeeaeueii (eiyaiethoeey), ii
iai?aaeaiey eo ?acee/iu. Yaiethoeey ia?aceoa eaeao ii iooe oneiaeiaiey
iaoaieciia aaeaioaoeee e oicyeio, yaiethoeey oicyeia – ii iooe
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoaieciia caueou io ia?aceoa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a
nenoaia “ia?aceo-oicyei” iaaethaeaaony e eiaaeaioaoeey (acaeiiay
aaeaioaoeey): o ia?aceoa yoi ii?oieiae/aneea e aeieiae/aneea
aaeaioaoeee, o oicyeia – ioaaoiua ?aaeoeee eeaoie, oeaiae e anaai
i?aaiecia a oeaeii.

Nenoaiu “ia?aceo-oicyei” ?acee/athony ii noaiaie acaeiiie aaeaioaoeee:

a) aunieiaaeaioe?iaaiiua (i?ioeai?a/ey a nenoaia i?aeoe/anee ia
i?iyaeythony);

a) iaaeinoaoi/ii aaeaioe?iaaiiua, oaeoeueoaoeaiua (caueoiua ?aaeoeee
i?aaiecia oicyeia iiaeaaeytho aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue, ?ai?iaeoeoeaioth
niiniaiinoue, nieaeatho i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie ia?aceoia e
iiauoatho eo ae?oeaioiinoue);

a) iaaaeaioe?iaaiiua, o?aiceoiua (ia?aceou ia caaa?oatho oeeee ?acaeoey
a i?aaiecia oicyeia, ii iaeaaeatho iaeaieueoae ae?oeaioiinoueth).

“?acoeueoaou” acaeiiioiioaiee a nenoaia “ia?aceo-oicyei” iiaoo auoue
?acee/iuie. Anee aeinoaoi/ii neeueiu caueoiua iaoaieciu i?aaiecia
oicyeia, iaaethaeaaony aeaaeue ia?aceoa. Anee ia?aceo iaeaaeaao aunieie
iaoi-aaiiinoueth. a caueoiua iaoaieciu oicyeia iaaeinoaoi/iu,
?acaeaaaony caaieaaaiea, eioi?ia iiaeao i?eaanoe e aeaaee oicyeia (/anoi
aianoa n oicyeiii iiaeaaao e ia?aceo). Anee ioiioaiey ia?aceoa e oicyeia
ioiineoaeueii naaeaine?iaaiu, iaaethaeaaony ia?aceoiiineoaeuenoai
(iaee/ea a i?aaiecia aicaoaeeoaey aac au?aaeaiiuo eeeie/aneeo i?eciaeia
caaieaaaiey).

N iaaeeoeeineie oi/ee c?aiey i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an oaeay oa?aeoa?enoeea
ia?aceoa eae iaoiaaiiinoue (niiniaiinoue aucuaaoue caaieaaaiea).
Iaoiaaiiinoue ia?aceoa – iiiyoea ioiineoaeueiia. Iia caaeneo io oeaeiai
?yaea oaeoi?ia: io aaiioeia oicyeia, aai aic?anoa (e ca?aaeaieth
iaeaieaa /oanoaeoaeueiu iieiaeua i?aaieciu), io ieuaaiai ?aaeeia
(iaiieiioeaiiay aeeaoa ineaaeyao i?aaieci oicyeia e niinianoaoao
oaaee/aieth /enea ia?aceoia e eiee/anoaa ioeeaaeuaaaiuo eie yeoe,
nie?auaieth n?ieia eo ?acaeoey; iiauoaiea naoa?a a e?iae /aeiaaea
i?eaiaeeo e aieaa /anoui e aieaa oyaeaeui i?enooiai iaey?ee), io iaee/ey
o oicyeia ae?oaeo ia?aceoia e caaieaaaiee. Iaoiaaiiinoue ia?aceoa
caaeneo oaeaea io aai aaiioeia – eiathony aanueia iaoiaaiiua e
neaaiiaoiaaiiua ooaiiu ia?aceoia (iai?eia?, aaeoa?ee). Ae?oeaioiinoue
ia?aceoa – yoi noaiaiue i?iyaeaiey iaoiaaiiinoe.

Aioaaiieci acaeiiioiioaiee a yaiethoeeiiii ae?aaieo nenoaiao i?aeoe/anee
ionoonoaoao e i?iyaeyaony oieueei ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo noaaeeyo. ?acei
au?aaeaiiay iaoiaaiiinoue i?iyaeyaony a neo/ayo, anee nenoaia
“ia?aceo-oicyei” ioiineoaeueii iieiaeay, anee eiatho ianoi neo/ae
eca?auaiiie eieaeecaoeee (Esherichia coli, iaeoathuay a eeoa/ieea, i?e
iiiaaeaiee a eaaeea aucuaaao iiaaiiieth), anee a i?aaieci /aeiaaea
iiiaaeatho iaeioi?ua naiaiaeiiaeeaouea i?aaenoaaeoaee (ii/aaiiua aiaau,
io/iie eeau).

Aoi?ay oa?aeoa?enoeea – niaoeeoe/iinoue ia?aceoa. Niaoeeoe/iinoue -yoi
i?iyaeaiea enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny noaiaie aaeaioaoeee ia?aceoa e
oicyeio.

Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea oi?iu i?iyaeaiey niaoeeoe/iinoe:

1) ainoa/ueiay (oicyeiiay): iiiiainoaeueiua ia?aceou eiatho oicyeia
iaeiiai aeaea (anea?eaea /aeiaaea), iieeainoaeueiua – ?acee/iua aeaeu
oicyaa (eaeoiaiee, o?eoeiaeeu);

2) oiie/aneay: ii?aaeaeaiiay eieaeecaoeey o oicyeia (aieiaiay e ieaoyiay
aoe, /anioi/iue eeau, aaeueieiou eeoa/ieea);

3) aic?anoiay (ino?eoeu e ea?eeeiaue oeaiaiue /aua ii?aaeatho aeaoae);

4) naciiiay (aniuoee aiaaiie aeecaioa?ee naycaiu n aanaiia-eaoiei
ia?eiaeii, o?eoeiaeeaca – n inaiia-ceiiei).

Ia anaaaea ia?aceo yaeyaony aicaoaeeoaeai aieacie. Ionoonoaea i?iyaeaiey
iaoiaaiiinoe o ia?aceoa ecaanoii iiae iacaaieai iineoaeuenoaa (iai?eia?,
oeenoiiineoaeuenoai aeey aeecaioa?eeiie aiaau).

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Iao?ianeee A.A. Ia?aceoieiaey, Ii.: Naaoa/, 2007a. 354n.

2. Anea?ei A.*. Iniiau ia?aceoieiaee Ii.: AAIO, 2008a. 140n.

3. Naeyaea A.A. Iauay ia?aceoieiaey Ii.: Ciaiea, 2007a. 250n.

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