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Классификация водорослей

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N/eoaaony, /oi aiaei?inee – i?eieoeaiua i?aaieciu, o.e. iao o ieo
neiaeiuo i?aaiia e oeaiae, ionoonoaotho ninoaeu. Ii ii oeceieiae/aneei
i?ioeannai, ii oiio, eae iie ?anooo, ?aciiiaeathony, ieoathony, iie
i/aiue noiaee n ?anoaieyie. Aiaei?inee aeaeyo ia yeieiae/aneea a?oiiu.
Iai?eia?, ieaieoiiiua aiaei?inee, aeeaouea a oieua aiaeu. Iaenoiiiua –
naeyueany ia iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu e ia?aaeaeaathueany oai. Aaioiniua –
i?aaieciu, aeeaouea ia aeia e ia i?aaeiaoao (a oii /enea e ia aeeauo
i?aaieciao). Iacaiiua aiaei?inee. Aiaei?inee, iaeoathuea a ii/aa. Oaeaea
aeeoaee ai?y/eo enoi/ieeia, niaaia e eueaeia. Aiaei?inee, aeeaouea a
nie?iie aiaea e a i?aniie. A oaeaea aiaei?inee, iaeoathuea a ecaanoeiaie
n?aaea. Eiiaaea aiaei?inee ecae?atho i/aiue iaiau/iua (n oi/ee c?aiey
/aeiaaea) ianoa. A o?iieeao iie iiaoo iinaeeoueny a /aeiii eenoa,
aucuaay aieaciue /aeiiai eonoa iiae iacaaieai «?aeaa/eia». A n?aaeieo
oe?ioao iie aeeaoo ia ei?a aea?aaueaa. Auaeyaeeo yoi, eae cae?iue iae?o
ia naaa?iie noi?iia aea?aaueaa. Cae?iua aiaei?inee anooiatho ai
acaeiiauaiaeiia ninouanoaiaaiea n a?eaaie, a ?acoeueoaoa iiyaeyaony
iniaue naiinoiyoaeueiue i?aaieci iiae iacaaieai eeoaeiee. Iaeioi?ua
cae?iua aiaei?inee eca?aee naaa aeey aeiia iaioee?ue /a?aiaoe. Iiiaea
aiaei?inee aeeaoo ia iiaa?oiinoe e aioo?e naieo aieaa e?oiiuo
nia?aoueaa. E?aniua e cae?iua aiaei?inee iaeaeaiu a aieinyiuo oieeeeoeao
o?iie/aneeo aeeaioiuo eaieaoeaa. Ia iaioee iie naiei aieiaieai ?a/eia e
?ua, eeoa/iiiieinoiuo e ieineeo /a?aae.

Cae?iua aiaei?inee – yoi i?aaieciu cae?iiai oeaaoa, ii no?iaieth e oi?ia
iie naiua ?aciua. Iiieii iaeiieeaoi/iuo cae?iuo aiaei?ineae nouanoaotho
iiiaieeaoi/iua, eieiieaeueiua. Yoe oi?iu aeecie auaatho iiaeaeaeiua e
iaiiaeaeaeiua. Iaiiaeaeaeiua eee naiaiaeii ieaaatho, eee i?ee?aieythony
e /aio-eeai. O iiaeaeaeiuo aea anoue iniaua aeaooeee. N iiiiuueth ieo
yoe aiaei?inee iiaoo ia?aiauaoueny a i?ino?ainoaa. ?aciiiaeaoueny
cae?iua aiaei?inee iiaoo ?aciuie iooyie, iai?eia?, aaaaoaoeaii.
Iaeioi?ua aeaeu iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaiytho iieiaia ?aciiiaeaiea n
aaniieui. Ae?oaea aea iieuecothony oieueei eaeei-oi iaeiei aeaeii
?aciiiaeaiey.

Cae?iua aiaei?inee aiaeyony eae a i?aniuo aiaei?iao, oae e a nie?iuo
ii?yo. Eaoii, eiaaea oaiei, iiaeii /anoi aeaeaoue, eae «oeaao?o» aiaea a
eoaeao eee a i?oaeo. Yoi ?aciiiaeaaony aiaei?ineue – iaeiieeaoi/iay
oeaieaeiiiiaaea. Ia naiie iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu, aaea iiiai naaoa, ethaeo
aeeoue oei?aeea, oaeaea iia iiaeao iaethaiaaoue noaieu aea?aaueaa,
?acianoeaoenue a eaiaeueeao aeiaeaey e ia?aciaaa cae?iue iae?o ia ei?a.
Oei?aeea auaeaeyao i/aiue iiiai eenei?iaea.

Aieueaien – au? iaeia ?aciiaeaeiinoue cae?iuo aiaei?ineae – aeea?o
oeaeuie eieiieyie a aiaei?iao. Aiaoia yoe eieiiee iaiiieiatho ?ei/iua
oa?eee, ana eeaoee a ieo ?aaioatho i/aiue neaaeaiii e niaaeeiaiu ae?oa n
ae?oaii iinoeeaie oeeoiieaciu.

Aeaeueoa a aeoaeia ?aniieaaathony iiiaieeaoi/iua cae?iua aiaei?inee. Yoi
ieo/aoue oeio?een. Naieie aieineiaeaeiuie ia?aciaaieyie (?ecieaeaie),
eniieuecoaiuie, eae ei?ie o iau/iuo ?anoaiee, oeio?een i?ee?aieyaony
iiae aiaeie e ei?yaai eee eaiiyi.

Iiiaieeaoi/iay cae?iay aiaei?ineue nie?iae?a iaiiieiaao eiiie aaou. Yoa
aiaei?ineue eiaao aieueoia yae?i n yae?uoeii. ?aciiiaeaaony iia aeaoiy
niiniaaie: eae iieiaui, oae e aaniieui. Iieiaia ?aciiiaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo
inaiueth.

Nouanoaotho au? oa?iaeaeiua e?ioa/iua aiaei?inee i?ioieieeon,
iaiiieiathuea naaoei-cae?ioth neecue.

Neoiiiaua aiaei?inee ethayo nieia/iua ianoa, auaeyaeyo, eae
o?iii-cae?iua ?acaaoae?iiua ieoe.

Aaoayueany iaaeii-cae?iua eee na?ua eonou ?acia?ii a 2-3 ni,
i?ee?aie?iiua e eenoueyi a aiaea eee ei?yaai, yoi eeaaeioi?a.

A ii?yo e ieaaiao o naiie iiaa?oiinoe, aaea aiaea oi?ioi i?ia?aoa e
inaauaia, aeea?o e ?aciiiaeaaony ieaieoii. Ii caeeth/aaony ec
iaeiieeaoi/iuo aiaei?ineae naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo aeaeia, a oii /enea anoue
oai e cae?iua aiaei?inee. Ieaieoii yaeyaony ieuae aeey ?aeiia?aciuo e
eeoia.

Ia?aua aeeaua i?aaieciu iiyaeeenue aieaa 3 ieeeea?aeia eao oiio iacaae a
aiaeiie n?aaea, e aeieiae a ia/aei ?anoeoaeueiie nenoaiu iinoaaeee
aiaei?inee – iaeii- e iiiaieeaoi/iua iecoea ?anoaiey, aeaaoea 400
ieeeeiiia eao iacaae ia/aei ia?aciaaieth ia a?aieoea iaaeaeo aiaeie e
nooae ia?aui aunoei iacaiiui ?anoaieyi. A aeaa?eoi aiaei?inee e eo nii?u
iiiaaeatho aianoa n ei?iii, ?anoaieyie e ?uaaie, e anee iaeaeoo a i?i
aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey, oi auno?i ?aciiiaeathony, iie?uaay no?eea, a?oio,
a oaeaea aunoea ?anoaiey, ia?ae?uaay ei aeinooi e ieoaoaeueiui aauanoaai
e ia?aeay eo ia aeaaeue.

Iniaaiii iianiu, n oi/ee c?aiey ?acaeoey aiaei?ineae, ia?aua iaaeaee
iinea ono?ienoaa aeaa?eoia. A yoi a?aiy iaiai aauanoa a aunoeo ?anoaieyo
au? neaa e ?aoaaony aii?in, eoi aicuei?o aa?o, caian?iiua a aeaa?eoi
aiaei?inee eee aunoea ?anoaiey, ioieiathuea o aiaei?ineae ieoaoaeueiua
aauanoaa. Iiyoiio e iaoeaeaniia?acia iaiaaeeaiiay iinaaeea ?ua, aaaeue
?anoaiey au? ia ia/aee eioaineaii ieoaoueny, a aaeoa?ee ia i?enooieee e
naiae iieaciie ?aaioa ii ia?a?aaioea iooiaeia. A yoio ia?eiae
cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeo oainu ?inoa aiaei?ineae aonoay iinaaeea ?anoaiee,
e i?aaeaea anaai oaeeo, eioi?ua auno?i ?anooo, iai?eia?, aea?ioeea,
ia?enoieenoiee, eaaiiaa e ae?oaea aiaeiua ?anoaiey n oaeeei?iiui
noaaeai. Iicaea eo iiaeii caiaieoue aieaa iaaeeaiii ?anooueie aeaeaie.

?anoaieyi a aeaa?eoia aiaei?inee iiaoo i?eianoe iiiai neiaeiinoae.
Enoaoe, yoi iaeia ec i?e/ei, ii eioi?ie iiiaea aeaa?eoienou ia
aeiioneatho neeueiiai inaauaiey aeaa?eoia, n/eoay, /oi yoei niiniaii
iiaeii inoaiiaeoue ?ac?anoaiea aiaei?ineae. Ii yoi niioaaonoaoao
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eeoue a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo, oae eae, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, nouanoaoao iaiaei aiaei?ineae, ?acaeaathueony eiaiii i?e
iaaeinoaoea inaauaiey.

Ii iiaiaeo i?iaeaiu aiaei?ineae nouanoaotho naiua ?aciua iiaiey, ii
aaeeiua ia?u ii ai?ueaa n ieie ia iiaoo auoue au?aaioaiu: aiaei?inee
oiatho i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e ethaiio ninoaao aiaeu e nouanoaotho oieueei
i?e ii?aaeae?iiuo iieacaoaeyo. Oae /oi aeey ai?ueau n ieie iiieii
eiooeoeee ioaeii aua iaiiiai aacaiey; e oiio aea a i?ioeanna ai?ueau
iaeuecy caauaaoue i naii/oanoaee ?anoaiee e ?ua. O?aaiaaiey ?aciuo oeiia
aiaei?ineae e naaoo, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, oiaea aanueia ?aciiia?aciu.
Ii iaeii niaa?oaiii ynii: aeieiae/aneeie iaoiaeaie, oi anoue i?e iiiiue
?ua e oeeoie, aaeaa ee oaeanony oie/oiaeeoue aiaei?inee ia aeieaee n?ie.
A naiii aeaaii?eyoiii neo/aa oaeanony nie?aoeoue oaea ninoiyaoaany
aiaei?ineaaia iaoanoaea. E iioiio ia neaaeoao caauaaoue i i?aaeeaaaaiuo
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie oi?aiaeae i?aia?aoao aeey oie/oiaeaiey aiaei?ineae.
Ii eniieuecoy eo, iaaei o/eouaaoue e oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi i?e
oie/oiaeaiee iecoeo ?anoaiee ia eneeth/aaony e iaianaiea a?aaea aunoei,
oi anoue iaoei aeaa?eoiiui ?anoaieyi. Neeueiiio caiaaeeaieth ?inoa
aiaei?ineae eee i?aaeioa?auaieth eo iiyaeaiey oaeaea niinianoaoao
aeiaaaea oaeaeeneiou a aeaa?eoiioth aiaeo.

Eoae ae?aooea iiaeaaae?i eoia anaio auoaneacaiiiio, eaeea aea iaoiaeu
ai?ueau n aiaei?ineyie iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu:

1. Caia/aii, /oi aiaei?inee ia ethayo eiaaea eo o?aaiaeao. Iiyoiio
ioaeii ?aaoey?ii, eo/oa ianeieueei ?ac a aeaiue, oaeaeyoue eo ec
aeaa?eoia iaeueoeaie eee iaiaouaaoue ia oa?ioiaaooth aea?aayiioth
iaei/eo. I?aaaea, yoio iaoiae iai?eaiaeai aeey iaeioi?uo aeaeia
aiaei?ineae, eioi?ua e?aiei i?ee?aieythony e eaiiyi, eenoueyi e ae?oaei
i?aaeiaoai.

2. Ia?ae?uoue aeinooi ieoaoaeueiui aauanoaai, aeey /aai iieiinoueth
caoaiieoue aeaa?eoi, ioeeth/eoue ay?aoeeth e oeeueo?aoeeth e ia
i?iaiaeeoue niaio aiaeu iiea aiaei?inee iieiinoueth ia en/acioo (oeaiiua
aeaeu ?anoaiee ia yoi a?aiy eo/oa oaeaeeoue ec aeaa?eoia).

3. Noeioee?iaaoue ?ino aunoeo ?anoaiee, eioi?ua iiaeaayo ?acaeoea
aiaei?ineae, aeey /aai oaaee/eoue eiee/anoai auno?i ?anooueo ?anoaiee,
oiaiueoeoue ?uaiia ianaeaiea, iiauneoue inaau?iiinoue, naeaeaoue aai
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 8 – 10 /ania, aaeaaeiaaii i?iaiaeeoue i/enoeo
a?oioa e niaio 1/10 iau?ia aiaeu.

4. Iiiaea aeaeu aiaei?ineae iiaeii oie/oiaeeoue noeueoaoii iaaee. Ec
oeie/anee /enoiai eee /enoiai aeey aiaeeca noeueoaoa iaaee aioiayo
?anoai?, niaea?aeauee 1 a iaaee a 1 eeo?a aiaeu. Oaeaeea ec aeaa?eoia
?ua, aai aiinyo a aiaeo ec ?an/?oa 1 – 10 ie ia 1 eeo? aiaeu, ia/eiay ni
neaaie eiioeaio?aoeee, e, anee iia ia aea?o ?acoeueoaoa, oi aeico
oaaee/eaatho. Iinea aeaaee aiaei?ineae aiaeo a aeaa?eoia iieiinoueth
niaiytho ia iaiaa 3 ?ac e eeoue caoai ioneatho ?ua.

5. A i?iaeaaea eiathony i?aia?aou aeey ai?ueau n aiaei?ineyie. Eo
iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaiyoue no?iai ?oeiaiaenoaoynue eino?oeoeeae.

6. ?yae aeaeia ?ua iiaaeatho iaeioi?ua aeaeu aiaei?ineae, iniaaiii
iieiaeoth ii?ineue. Yoi, iai?eia?, aioeeno?on, ae?eiioaeeon (a iieiaeii
aic?anoa), aoiie, eaaai, eaaaio?ioaon, ia/aiinaoe, ioioeeieeon,
iaoeeeey, noo?eciia, oa?eiaaeea e oaeinoiia

Aiaei?inee iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa eiaeeeaoi?ia ninoiyiey
aiaeiaia. Iie yaeythony aeieiaeeeaoi?aie. Iie yaeythony ia/aeueiui
caaiii a o?ioe/aneie oeaie yeinenoaiu aiaeiaia.

Yoi iaoe?iay e iaiaeii?iaeiay a?oiia i?eieoeaiuo, iaiiieiathueo ?anoaiey
i?aaieciia. Ca iaiiiaeie eneeth/aieyie, iie niaea?aeao caeaiue ieaiaio
oei?ioeee, eioi?ue iaiaoiaeei aeey ieoaiey iooai oioineioaca, o.a.
neioaca aetheicu ec aeeieneaea oaea?iaea e aiaeu. I/aiue ?aaeei
ano?a/athony aanoeaaoiua aiaei?inee, ii ai iiiaeo neo/ayo caeaiue
oei?ioeee ianee?oaony o ieo ieaiaioaie ae?oaiai oeaaoa. Oaeoe/anee
n?aaee ouny/ aeaeia, aoiaeyueo a yoo a?oiio, iiaeii iaeoe oi?iu,
ie?aoaiiua a ethaie ec oiiia nieia/iiai niaeo?a. Oioy aiaei?inee eiiaaea
ioiinyo e iaeaieaa i?eieoeaiui i?aaieciai, yoi iiaiea iiaeii i?eiyoue
eeoue n nouanoaaiiuie iaiai?eaie. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, o iiiaeo ec ieo
ionoonoaotho neiaeiua oeaie e i?aaiu, n?aaieiua n oi?ioi ecaanoiuie o
naiaiiuo ?anoaiee, iaii?ioieeiaeaeiuo e aeaaea o ioia e ia/aii/ieeia,
iaeiaei ana i?ioeannu, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?inoa, ieoaiey e ?aciiiaeaiey
eo eeaoie, aanueia, anee ia iieiinoueth, noiaeiu n i?ienoiaeyueie a
?anoaieyo. Oaeei ia?acii, oeceieiae/anee aiaei?inee aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiu.

Aiaei?inee – naiua iiiai/eneaiiua, naiua aaaeiua aeey ieaiaou e oe?a
anaai ?ani?ino?aiaiiua oioineioace?othuea i?aaieciu. Eo iiiai iianthaeo
– a i?aniuo aiaeao, ia nooa e a ii?yo, /aai iaeuecy neacaoue, iai?eia?,
i ia/aii/ieeao, ioao, iaii?ioieeiaeaeiuo eee naiaiiuo ?anoaieyo.
Iaaii?oaeaiiui aeacii aiaei?inee /anoi iiaeii iaaethaeaoue a aeaea
iaeeeo eee e?oiiuo iyoai caeaiie eee eia/a ie?aoaiiie iaiu (“oeiu”) ia
iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu. Ia ii/aa eee ae?aaaniuo noaieao iie iau/ii auaeyaeyo
eae caeaiay eee neia-caeaiay neecue. A ii?a neiaaeua e?oiiuo aiaei?ineae
(iae?ioeoia) iaiiieiatho e?aniua, ao?ua e aeaeoua aeanoyuea eenouey
?acee/iie oi?iu.

Ii?oieiaey e aiaoiiey

?acia?u aiaei?ineae oe?iei aa?uee?otho – io iee?ineiie/aneeo oi?i
aeeaiao?ii eee aeeeiie a ouny/iua aeiee naioeiao?a aei ii?neeo aeaaioia
aeeeiie aieaa 60 i. Iiiaea aiaei?inee – iaeiieeaoi/iua eee ninoiyo ec
ianeieueeeo eeaoie, ia?acothueo ?uoeua aa?aaaou. Iaeioi?ua
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie no?iai i?aaieciaaiiua eieiiee eeaoie, ii anoue e
ianoiyuea iiiaieeaoi/iua i?aaieciu. Eeaoee iiaoo niaaeeiyoueny oi?oeaie,
ia?acoy oeaii/ee e ieoe – eae aaoaenoua, oae e iaaaoaenoua. Any
no?oeoo?a a oeaeii eiiaaea auaeyaeeo eae iaeaiueeee aeene, o?oaea,
aoeaaa e aeaaea aea?aai, a eiiaaea iaiiieiaao eaioo, caacaeo, eiaei/eo,
oa?, eeno eee io/ie aiein. Iiaa?oiinoue eeaoie iiaeao auoue aeaaeeie,
eee aea iie?uoie neiaeiui oci?ii ec oeiia, nini/eia, yiie e a?aaiae.

O aieueoeinoaa aiaei?ineae eeaoee ii iauaio no?iaieth noiaeiu n caeaiuie
eeaoeaie ?anoaiee, iai?eia? eoeo?ocu eee oiiaoa. AEanoeay eeaoi/iay
noaiea, ninoiyuay a iniiaiii ec oeaeetheicu e iaeoeiiauo aauanoa,
ie?oaeaao i?ioiieano, a eioi?ii ?acee/atho yae?i e oeeoiieacio n
aeeth/aiiuie a iaa iniauie i?aaiieaeaie – ieanoeaeaie. Naiua aaaeiua ec
ieo – oei?iieanou, niaea?aeauea oei?ioeee. A eeaoea oaeaea eiathony
caiieiaiiua aeeaeeinoueth iieinoe – aaeoiee, eioi?ua niaea?aeao
?anoai?aiiua ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa, ieia?aeueiua niee e aacu. Iaeiaei
oaeay no?oeoo?a eeaoee naienoaaiia ia anai aiaei?ineyi. O aeeaoiiiauo
iaeiei eo aaaeiaeoeo ninoaaeythueo eeaoi/iie noaiee yaeyaony e?aiiacai,
nicaeathuee eae au noaeeyiiue iaioee?ue. Caeaiue oeaao oei?iieanoia
/anoi ianee?oaony ae?oaeie aauanoaaie, iau/ii – ieaiaioaie. O
iaaieueoiai /enea aiaei?ineae aeanoeie eeaoi/iie noaiee iao nianai.

Eieiiioeey

Iiiaea aiaeiua aaaaoaoeaiua eeaoee e eieiiee aiaei?ineae, a oaeaea
iaeioi?ua oeiu eo ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuo eeaoie aeaeaeoony aeiaieueii auno?i.
Iie niaaaeaiu iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie ae/aaeaeiuie i?eaeaoeaie –
aeaooeeaie, aeaiea eioi?uo i?ioaeeeaaao eo neaicue oieuo aiaeu.
Iaeioi?ua eeoaiiua eeaoi/iie noaiee aiaei?inee niiniaiu auoyaeaaoue
aia?aae /anoe naiaai oaea, iiaeoyaeaaoue e iei inoaeueiua e ca n/ao
yoiai “iiecoe” ii oaa?aeui iiaa?oiinoyi. Oaeia aeaeaeaiea iacuaaaony
aiaaieaeiui, iineieueeo i?eia?ii oae aea ia?aiauathony anai ecaanoiua
aiaau. I?yiieeiaeiay eee ceacaaiia?aciay eieiiioeey aeeaoiiiauo –
iaeaaeaoaeae oaa?aeie eeaoi/iie noaiee, – aa?iyoii, iaoneiaeaia oieaie
aiaeu, nicaeaaaaiuie ?acee/iuie no?oe/aouie aeaeaeaieyie eo oeeoiieaciu.
Neieueaeaiea, iiecaiea, aieiiia?aciia ia?aiauaiea aieaa eee iaiaa
aeanoei i?ee?aieaiiuo e noano?aoo aiaei?ineae iau/ii nii?iaiaeaeaaony
ia?aciaaieai e ?acaeeaeaieai neece.

?aciiiaeaiea

Ii/oe ana iaeiieeaoi/iua aiaei?inee niiniaiu ?aciiiaeaoueny i?inoui
aeaeaieai. Eeaoea aeaeeony iaaeaia, iaa aei/a?iea eeaoee – oiaea, e yoio
i?ioeann a i?eioeeia iiaeao eaeoe aei aaneiia/iinoe. Iineieueeo eeaoea
iiaeaaao oieueei a ?acoeueoaoa “ian/anoiiai neo/ay”, iiaeii aiai?eoue i
naiaai ?iaea aannia?oee. Iniaue neo/ae – eeaoi/iia aeaeaiea o
aeeaoiiiauo. Eo iaioee?ue ninoieo ec aeaoo iieiaeiie (noai?ie),
aoiaeyueo ae?oa a ae?oaa, eae aeaa /anoe iueueieoeu. Eaaeaeay aei/a?iyy
eeaoea iieo/aao iaeio ?iaeeoaeueneoth noai?eo, a aoi?oth aeino?aeaaao
naia. A ?acoeueoaoa o aeeaoiiae iaeia noai?ea iiaeao auoue iiaie, a
aoi?ay – iieo/aiiie a ianeaaenoai io aeaeaeiai i?aaeea. I?ioiieano
iaeioi?uo aaaaoaoeaiuo eeaoie niiniaai ?acaeaeyoueny n ia?aciaaieai
iiaeaeaeiuo eee iaiiaeaeaeiuo nii?. Ec ieo iinea aeeeoaeueiiai eee
ei?ioeiai ia?eiaea iieiy ?acaeaaaony c?aeay aiaei?ineue. Yoi iaeia ec
oi?i aaniieiai ?aciiiaeaiey. I?e iieiaii ?aciiiaeaiee o aiaei?ineae
oi?ie?othony ioaeneea e aeaineea iieiaua eeaoee (aaiaou). Ioaeneay
aaiaoa neeaaaony n aeaineie, o.a. i?ienoiaeeo iieiaeioai?aiea, e
ia?acoaony ceaioa. Iineaaeiyy, iau/ii iinea ia?eiaea iieiy, aeeyuaainy a
caaeneiinoe io aeaea aiaei?ineae io ianeieueeeo iaaeaeue aei ianeieueeeo
eao, ia/eiaao ?anoe e aeaao a eiia/iii eoiaa ac?ineoth iniaue. Aaiaou
neeueii aa?uee?otho ii ?acia?ai, oi?ia e iiaeaeaeiinoe. O iaeioi?uo
aiaei?ineae ioaeneay e aeaineay aaiaou no?oeoo?ii noiaeiu, a o ae?oaeo
/aoei ?acee/athony, o.a. i?aaenoaaeytho niaie nia?iee e yeoeaeeaoee.
Oaeei ia?acii, iieiaia ?aciiiaeaiea aiaei?ineae eiaao iiiaeanoai oi?i e
o?iaiae neiaeiinoe.

?ani?ino?aiaiea e yeieiaey

Aiaeiua aiaei?inee

Ia ieaiaoa o?oaeii iaeoe ianoi, aaea ia auei au aiaei?ineae. Iau/ii eo
n/eoatho aiaeiuie i?aaieciaie, e, aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiaeaaeythuaa
aieueoeinoai aiaei?ineae iaeoaao a eoaeao e i?oaeao, ?aeao e ica?ao,
ii?yo e ieaaiao, i?e/ai a ii?aaeaeaiiua naciiu iie iiaoo noaiiaeoueny
oai i/aiue iaeeueiuie. Aiaei?inee i?ee?aieythony e neaeai, eaiiyi,
eoneai ae?aaaneiu, e aiaeiui ?anoaieyie eee aea naiaiaeii ieaaatho,
ninoaaeyy /anoue ieaieoiia. A?aiaiaie yoa eo acaanue, aeeth/athuay
ieeeea?aeu iee?ineiie/aneeo oi?i, aeinoeaaao eiinenoaioeee ai?ioiaiai
noia, caiieiyy niaie iaoe?iua i?ino?ainoaa ica? e ii?ae. Oaeia yaeaiea
iacuaatho “aiaei?ineaaui oeaaoaieai” aiaeu. Aeoaeia, ia eioi?ie iiaeii
ano?aoeoue aiaei?inee, caaeneo io i?ic?a/iinoe aiaeu, o.a. aa
niiniaiinoe i?iioneaoue iaiaoiaeeiue aeey oioineioaca naao. Aieueoeinoai
aiaei?ineae nin?aaeioi/aii a iiaa?oiinoiii neia oieueiie ianeieueei
aeaoeeiao?ia, iaeiaei iaeioi?ua caeaiua e e?aniua aiaei?inee
ano?a/athony e ia cia/eoaeueii aieueoae aeoaeia. Ioaeaeueiua aeaeu
niiniaiu ?anoe a ieaaia ia aeoaeia 60-90 i. Iaeioi?ua aiaei?inee, aeaaea
aia?cioa a eaae, iiaoo nio?aiyoue a ninoiyiee aiaaeica
aeecianiiniaiinoue ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo ianyoeaa.

Ii/aaiiua aiaei?inee

Ianiio?y ia naia iacaaiea, aiaei?inee ano?a/athony ia oieueei a aiaea.
Iai?eia?, eo i/aiue iiiai a ii/aa. A 1 a oi?ioi oiaaiaeaiiie ii/au
iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue ie. 1 iei. eo ioaeaeueiuo yecaiiey?ia. Oa, /oi
nin?aaeioi/aiu ia iiaa?oiinoe ii/au e iaiin?aaenoaaiii iiae iae,
ieoathony iooai oioineioaca. I?i/ea aeeaoo a oaiiioa, aanoeaaoiu e
iiaeiuatho ?anoai?aiioth ieuo ec ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, o.a. yaeythony
nai?ioeoaie. Iniiaiay a?oiia ii/aaiiuo aiaei?ineae – aeeaoiiiaua, oioy
ianoaie a yoie n?aaea iaeoaiey iaeeueiu oaeaea caeaiua, aeaeoi-caeaiua e
cieioenoua aiaei?inee.

Niaaeiua aiaei?inee a aieueoeo eiee/anoaao /anoi ano?a/athony ai eueaeao
e niaaao a?eoe/aneie e aioa?eoe/aneie ionouiue, a oaeaea aeueieeneeo
aunieiai?ee. A oieiaeiuo iiey?iuo ii?yo iie ?anooo noieue aea oi?ioi,
eae e a ai?y/eo enoi/ieeao. Oae iacuaaaiue “e?aniue niaa” – ?acoeueoao
i?enoonoaey a iai iee?ineiie/aneeo aiaei?ineae. Niaaeiua aiaei?inee
auaatho ie?aoaiu a e?aniue, caeaiue, aeaeoue e ao?ue oeaao.

Ae?oaea oeiu aiaei?ineae

Aiaei?inee aeeaoo e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo ianoiiaeoaieyo, eiiaaea aanueia
iaiau/iuo. Iie ano?a/athony, iai?eia?, ia iiaa?oiinoe eee aioo?e aiaeiuo
e iacaiiuo ?anoaiee. Iinaeyynue a oeaiyo iiiaeo o?iie/aneeo e
noao?iie/aneeo aeaeia, iie ?anooo caeanue ianoieueei aeoeaii, /oi iiaoo
iia?aaeaeaoue eo eenouey: o /aeiiai eonoa oaeay aieaciue iacuaaaony
“?aeaa/eiie”. A oia?aiiii eeeiaoa aiaei?inee /anoi iie?uaatho caeaiui
iaeaoii ei?o aea?aaueaa, iau/ii n caoaiaiiie noi?iiu. Iaeioi?ua caeaiua
aiaei?inee ia?acotho neiaeioe/aneea annioeeaoeee n ii?aaeaeaiiuie
a?eaaie; oaeea annioeeaoeee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iniaua, aiieia
naiinoiyoaeueiua i?aaieciu, iacuaaaiua eeoaeieeaie. ?yae iaeeeo oi?i
?anoao ia iiaa?oiinoe e aioo?e aieaa e?oiiuo aiaei?ineae, a iaeei ?iae
caeaiuo aiaei?ineae – oieueei ia iaioee?a /a?aiao. Caeaiua e e?aniua
aiaei?inee ano?a/athony a aieinyiuo oieeeeoeao o?aoiaeuo eaieaoeaa,
ianaeythueo aeiaeaeaaua o?iie/aneea eana Oeaio?aeueiie e THaeiie
Aia?eee. ?anooo aiaei?inee e ia oaea ?ua e ?aeiia?aciuo. Aiciiaeii,
iaeioi?ua ieineea /a?ae e eeoa/iiiieinoiua iiaoo aiiaua ia caaeaouaaoue
ieuo, iineieueeo iieo/atho aa io caeaiuo aiaei?ineae, iaeoathueo a eo
oaea.

Eeieoe?othuea yeieiae/aneea oaeoi?u

Oioy aiaei?inee ano?a/athony i?aeoe/anee aacaea, aeey aeecie eaaeaeiio
eo aeaeo iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeaiiia ni/aoaiea inaauaiiinoe, aeaaeiinoe e
oaiia?aoo?u, iaee/ea iaiaoiaeeiuo aacia e ieia?aeueiuo nieae. Aeey
oioineioaca ioaeiu naao, aiaea e aeeieneae oaea?iaea. Iaeioi?ua
aiaei?inee ia?aiinyo cia/eoaeueiua ia?eiaeu ii/oe iieiiai aunuoaiey,
iaeiaei aeey ?inoa ei ana ?aaii o?aaoaony aiaea, neoaeauay aaeeinoaaiiie
n?aaeie iaeoaiey aeey iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa oi?i. Niaea?aeaiea
eenei?iaea e NI2 a aiaeiaiao neeueii aa?uee?oao, iaeiaei aiaei?ineyi eo
iau/ii aiieia oaaoaao. Aieueoea eiee/anoaa aiaei?ineae a iaeeeo
aiaeiaiao eiiaaea ca ii/ue ?anoiaeotho noieueei eenei?iaea, /oi
aucuaatho ianniaue caii? ?uau: ae noaiiaeony ia/ai aeuoaoue. Aeey ?inoa
aiaei?ineae iaiaoiaeeiu ?anoai?aiiua a aiaea niaaeeiaiey acioa e iiiaeo
ae?oaeo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia. Eiioeaio?aoeey yoeo ieia?aeueiuo nieae a
oieua aiaeu ai?acaei ieaea, /ai ai iiiaeo ii/aao, ii oeaeiio ?yaeo
aeaeia aa, eae i?aaeei, aeinoaoi/ii aeey ianniaiai ?acaeoey. Eiiaaea
?ino aiaei?ineae ?acei ia?aie/eaaaony ec-ca iaaeinoaoea
iaeiiai-aaeeinoaaiiiai yeaiaioa: aeeaoiiiaua, iai?eia?, ?aaeee a aiaea,
niaea?aeauae iaei neeeeaoia.

Aeaeaeenue iiiuoee ?acaeaeeoue aiaei?inee ia yeieiae/aneea a?oiiu:
aiaeiua, ii/aaiiua, niaaeiua eee iaei?iaua oi?iu, yieaeiiou e o.ae.
Iaeioi?ua aiaei?inee ?anooo e ?aciiiaeathony oieueei a no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy aiaea, o.a. iiaoo n/eoaoueny iaeiieaoieeaie; ae?oaea
– iiiaieaoieee, o eioi?uo eeoue ?aciiiaeaiea i?eo?i/aii e ii?aaeaeaiiiio
a?aiaie. ?yae iaeiieeaoi/iuo e eieiieaeueiuo oi?i caaa?oaao
aaaaoaoeaioth e ?ai?iaeoeoeaioth oacu naiaai aeeciaiiiai oeeeea anaai ca
ianeieueei aeiae. Ana yoe oaiiiaiu, aaconeiaii, naycaiu ia oieueei n
ianeaaenoaaiiinoueth i?aaieciia, ii e n ?acee/iuie oaeoi?aie
ie?oaeathuae eo n?aaeu, iaeiaei auyniaiea oi/iuo acaeiinaycae aioo?e
iaia/athueony yeieiae/aneeo a?oii aiaei?ineae – aeaei aoaeouaai.

Aiaei?inee a i?ioeii

Aiieia aa?iyoii, /oi iaeioi?ua oi?iu aiaei?ineae nouanoaiaaee oaea a
ae?aaiaeoea aaieiae/aneea yiioe. Iiiaea ec ieo, noaey ii nia?aiaiiui
aeaeai, ia iiaee ec-ca iniaaiiinoae naiaai no?iaiey (ionoonoaey oaa?aeuo
/anoae) inoaaeoue ieaiaiaeinoae, iiyoiio neacaoue, eaeeie oi/ii iie
auee, iaaiciiaeii. Eneiiaaiua oi?iu iniiaiuo iuiaoieo a?oii aiaei?ineae,
e?iia aeeaoiiiauo e ianeieueeeo ae?oaeo, ecaanoiu n iaeaiciy (570-245
iei. eao iacaae). Iaeaieaa iaeeueiuie a oo yiioo, aa?iyoii, auee
caeaiua, ao?ua, e?aniua e oa?iaua aiaei?inee, iaeoaaoea a ii?yo e
ieaaiao. Einaaiiia naeaeaoaeuenoai ?aiiaai iiyaeaiey ia iaoae ieaiaoa
aiaei?ineae – iao/ii aeieacaiiia nouanoaiaaiea a iaeaicia iiiaeanoaa
ii?neeo aeeaioiuo, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee ieoaoueny i?aaieeie. Ia?ae/iui
aa enoi/ieeii aeey ieo nei?aa anaai neoaeeee oioineioace?othuea
aiaei?inee, iio?aaeythuea oieueei ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa.

Eneiiaaiua aeeaoiiiaua aiaei?inee (aeeaoiiae) a aeaea iniaie ai?iie
ii?iaeu – o.i. aeeaoiieoa – iaia?oaeaiu ai iiiaeo ?aaeiiao. Aeeaoiieo
auaaao eae ii?neiai, oae e i?aniiaiaeiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. A Eaeeoi?iee,
iai?eia?, iaoiaeeony aai caeaaeue ieiuaaeueth i?eia?ii 30 ei2 e
iiuiinoueth ii/oe 400 i. Iia ninoieo ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii ec iaioee?ae
aeeaoiiae. A 1 ni3 aeeaoiieoa eo ian/eouaaaony aei 650 ouny/.

Yaiethoeey aiaei?ineae

Iiiaea a?oiiu aiaei?ineae, iioiaea, iaei eciaieeenue ni a?aiaie naiaai
aicieeiiaaiey. Ai?i/ai, ii?aaeaeaiiua eo aeaeu, iaeiaaea aanueia
iaeeueiua, nae/an auia?ee. E?oiiuo eieaaaiee a aeaeiaii ?aciiia?acee e
iauae /eneaiiinoe aiaei?ineae ia i?ioyaeaiee enoi?ee Caiee, ianeieueei
ecaanoii, ia auei. Aiaeiua ianoiiaeoaiey ca iiiaea ieeeeiiu eao
iaiyeenue neaai, e nia?aiaiiua oi?iu aiaei?ineae nouanoaotho,
aaconeiaii, oaea i/aiue aeieai. Iaeiaa?iyoii, /oi eaeay-eeai e?oiiay
a?oiia aiaei?ineae iiyaeeanue iicaea iaeaiciy eee ?aiiaai iaciciy (240
iei. eao iacaae).

Yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou

I?e/eiyaiue a?aae

Iaeioi?ua aiaei?inee iaiinyo yeiiiie/aneee oua?a eee ii e?aeiae ia?a
aeinoaaeytho aieueoea iai?eyoiinoe. Iie caa?yciytho enoi/ieee aiaeu,
/anoi i?eaeaaay ae iai?eyoiue aeon e caiao. Iaeioi?ua ianniai
?aciiiaeeaoeany aeaeu aiieia iiaeii eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue ii
niaoeeoe/aneiio aeey ieo “a?iiaoo”. E n/anoueth, oaia?ue nouanoaotho
o.i. aeueaeoeeaeu – aauanoaa, yooaeoeaii oaeaathuea aiaei?inee e i?e
yoii ia oooaeoathuea ea/anoaa ieoueaaie aiaeu. Aeey ai?ueau n
aiaei?ineyie a ?uaiaiaeiuo i?oaeao eniieuecotho e oaeea ia?u, eae
iiauoaiea “i?ioi/iinoe” nenoaiu, aa caoaiaiea e acio/eaaiea. ?aee,
iai?eia?, iiaeaea?aeeaatho iooiinoue aiaeu, aeinoaoi/ioth aeey oiai,
/oiau neeueii caiaaeeeoue ?ino aiaei?ineae. Iaeioi?ua aiaei?inee,
iniaaiii a ia?eiaeu naiaai “oeaaoaiey”, ii?oyo ianoa, ioaaaeaiiua aeey
eoiaiey. Iiiaea ii?neea iae?ioeou ai a?aiy ooi?iia io?uaathony io
noano?aoa e aua?anuaathony aieiaie e aao?ii ia ieyae, aoeaaeueii
caaaeeaay aai naiae aiethuae iannie. A eo ieioiuo neiieaieyo iiaoo
caioouaaoueny iaeueee ?ua. Ianeieueei aeaeia aiaei?ineae, iiiaaeay a
i?aaieci aeeaioiuo, aucuaatho io?aaeaiey, eiiaaea nia?oaeueiua. Ae?oaea
ieacuaathony nouei aaaenoaeai a oaieeoeao eee iia?aaeaeatho eenouey
?anoaiee.

Iieaciinoue aiaei?ineae

O aiaei?ineae iiiaeanoai iieaciuo naienoa.

Ieua aeey aiaeiuo aeeaioiuo. Aiaei?inee iiaeii n/eoaoue ia?ae/iui
enoi/ieeii ieue aeey anao aiaeiuo aeeaioiuo. Aeaaiaea?y i?enoonoaeth
oei?ioeeea iie neioace?otho ec iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa i?aaie/aneea. ?uau
e ae?oaea aiaeiua aeeaioiua iio?aaeytho yoo i?aaieeo iaiin?aaenoaaiii
(iiaaeay aiaei?inee) eee einaaiii (iiaaeay ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo), iiyoiio
aiaei?inee iiaeii n/eoaoue ia?aui caaiii ii/oe anao ieuaauo oeaiae a
aiaeiaiao.

Ieua aeey /aeiaaea. Ai iiiaeo no?aiao, iniaaiii ia Ainoiea, ethaee
eniieuecotho a ieuo ianeieueei aeaeia e?oiiuo aiaei?ineae. Ieoaoaeueiay
oeaiiinoue eo iaaaeeea, iaeiaei niaea?aeaiea aeoaieiia e ieia?aeueiuo
aauanoa a oaeie “caeaie” iiaeao auoue aeiaieueii aunieei.

Enoi/iee aaa?a. Ec iaeioi?uo ii?neeo aiaei?ineae iieo/atho aaa? –
nooaeaienoia aauanoai, eniieuecoaiia aeey i?eaioiaeaiey aeaea,
ii?iaeaiiai, e?aia aeey a?eouey, naeaoia, yioeuenee, neaaeoaeueiuo
n?aaenoa, a oaeaea aeey au?aueaaiey iee?ii?aaieciia a eaai?aoi?eyo.

Aeeaoiieo. Aeeaoiieo i?eiaiyaony a ninoaaa aa?aceaiuo ii?ioeia e
oeeueo?ia, a oaeaea neoaeeo oaieiecieyoeeiiiui iaoa?eaeii, caiaiythuei
anaano.

Oaeia?aiea. Aiaei?inee – oeaiiia oaeia?aiea, e ii?neea iae?ioeou n
aeaaieo a?aiai eniieuecothony aeey iiaeei?iee ?anoaiee. Ii/aaiiua
aiaei?inee iiaoo ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyoue ieiaei?iaeea o/anoea, a ?acaeoea
ia aieuo eaiiyo eeoaeieeia n/eoaaony ia?aie noaaeeae
ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.

Aiaei?ineaaua eoeueoo?u. Aeieiae oaea aeaaii au?aueaatho aiaei?inee a
eaai?aoi?eyo. Nia/aea eo au?aueaaee a iaeaiueeeo i?ic?a/iuo /aoeao n
i?oaeiaie aiaeie ia nieia/iii naaoo, a a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?eiaiytho
aeey yoiai iniaua eoeueoo?aeueiua n?aaeu n ii?aaeaeaiiui eiee/anoaii
ieia?aeueiuo nieae e niaoeeaeueiuo ?inoiauo aauanoa, a oaeaea
?aaoee?oaiua enoi/ieee eneonnoaaiiiai naaoa. Iaia?oaeaii, /oi aeey
iioeiaeueiiai ?acaeoey iaeioi?uo aiaei?ineae iaiaoiaeeiu aanueia
niaoeeoe/aneea oneiaey. Eco/aiea oaeeo eaai?aoi?iuo eoeueoo?
iaiaueiiaaiii ?anoe?eei iaoe ciaiey i ?inoa, ieoaiee e ?aciiiaeaiee yoeo
i?aaieciia, a oaeaea ia eo oeie/aneii ninoaaa. Nae/an a ?aciuo no?aiao
oaea iino?iaiu iiuoiua onoaiiaee, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie naiaai ?iaea
ia?iiiua aeaa?eoiu. Ia ieo a no?iai eiio?iee?oaiuo oneiaeyo n
eniieueciaaieai neiaeiie aiia?aoo?u i?iaiaeyony yenia?eiaiou aeey
auyniaiey ia?niaeoea eniieueciaaiey aiaei?ineaauo eoeueoo?. A
?acoeueoaoa aeieacaii, /oi i?iaeoeoeey nooiai aauanoaa aiaei?ineae ia
aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee iiaeao auoue ai?acaei auoa, /ai o iuiaoieo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?anoaiee. Iaeioi?ua ec eniieueciaaiiuo aeaeia,
iai?eia? iaeiieeaoi/iay caeaiay aiaei?ineue oei?aeea (Chlorella), aeatho
“o?iaeae”, niaea?aeauee aei 50% i?eaiaeiiai a ieuo aaeea. Ia eneeth/aii,
/oi aoaeouea iieieaiey ethaeae, iniaaiii a aonoiianaeaiiuo no?aiao,
noaioo eniieueciaaoue eneonnoaaiii au?auaiiua aiaei?inee.

Eeanneoeeaoeey aiaei?ineae

A i?ioeii aiaei?inee n/eoaeenue i?eieoeaiuie ?anoaieyie (aac
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo i?iaiaeyueo, eee ninoaeenouo, oeaiae); eo auaeaeyee
a iiaeioaeae aiaei?ineae (Algae), eioi?ue aianoa n iiaeioaeaeii a?eaia
(Fungi) ninoaaeye ioaeae oaeeiiiuo (neiaaoeiauo), eee iecoeo ?anoaiee
(Thallophyta), – iaeei ec /aou?ao ioaeaeia oea?noaa ?anoaiee (iaeioi?ua
aaoi?u aianoi oa?ieia “ioaeae” iieuecothony ciieiae/aneei oa?ieiii
“oei”). Aeaeaa aiaei?inee ?acaeaeyee ii oeaaoo – ia caeaiua, e?aniua,
ao?ua e ae?. Oeaao – aeinoaoi/ii i?i/iay, ii ia aaeeinoaaiiay iniiaa
aeey iauae eeanneoeeaoeee yoeo i?aaieciia. Aieaa nouanoaaiiu aeey
auaeaeaiey ?acee/iuo a?oii aiaei?ineae oeiu oi?ie?iaaiey eo eieiiee,
niiniau ?aciiiaeaiey, iniaaiiinoe oei?iieanoia, eeaoi/iie noaiee,
caianiuo aauanoa e o.i. Noa?ua nenoaiu iau/ii i?eciaaaee ieiei aeanyoe
oaeeo a?oii, n/eoaaoeony eeannaie. Iaeia ec nia?aiaiiuo nenoai ioiineo e
“aiaei?ineyi” (yoio oa?iei oo?aoee eeanneoeeaoeeiiiia cia/aiea) ainaiue
oeiia (ioaeaeia) oea?noaa i?ioenoia (Protista); ai?i/ai, oaeie iiaeoiae
i?eciaaony ia anaie o/aiuie.

Caeaiua aiaei?inee ioaeae (oei) Chlorophyta oea?noaa i?ioenoia

Iau/ii iie oeaaoa caeaiie o?aau (oioy ie?anea iiaeao aa?uee?iaaoue io
aeaaeii-aeaeoie aei ii/oe /a?iie), a oioineioaoe/aneea ieaiaiou o ieo
oaeea aea, eae o iau/iuo ?anoaiee.

Aieueoeinoai – iee?ineiie/aneea i?aniiaiaeiua oi?iu. Iiiaea aeaeu ?anooo
ia ii/aa, ia?acoy ia aa aeaaeiie iiaa?oiinoe iaiiieiathuea aieeie
iaeaou. Auaatho iaeii- e iiiaieeaoi/iuie, ia?acotho ieoe, oa?iaeaeiua
eieiiee, eenoiaeaeiua no?oeoo?u e o.ae.

Eeaoee iiaeaeaeiua (n aeaoiy aeaooeeaie) eee iaiiaeaeaeiua. Iieiaia
?aciiiaeaiea – ?aciuo o?iaiae neiaeiinoe a caaeneiinoe io aeaea. Aeaeia
iienaii ianeieueei ouny/. Eeaoee niaea?aeao yae?i e ianeieueei /aoei
ioi?ieaiiuo oei?iieanoia.

Iaeei ec oi?ioi ecaanoiuo ?iaeia – ieaa?ieiee (Pleurococcus),
iaeiieeaoi/iay aiaei?ineue, ia?acothuay caeaiua iaeaou, /anoi
iaaethaeaaiua ia ei?a aea?aaueaa.

Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai ?iae Spirogyra – ieo/aoua aiaei?inee, ia?acothuea
aeeeiiua aieieia oeiu a ?o/ueyo e oieiaeiuo ?a/eao. Aaniie iie ieaaatho
a aeaea eeieeo aeaeoiaaoi-caeaiuo neiieaiee ia iiaa?oiinoe i?oaeia.

Cladophora ?anoao a aeaea iyaeeo, neeueii aaoayueony “eonoeeia”,
i?ee?aieythueony e eaiiyi o aa?aaia ?ae.

Basiocladia ia?acoao caeaiue iaeao ia nieia i?aniiaiaeiuo /a?aiao.

Ninoiyuay ec iiiaeo eeaoie aiaeyiay naoi/ea (Hydrodictyon), iaeoathuay a
noiy/eo aiaeao, ii no?iaieth aeaenoaeoaeueii iaiiieiaao “aainueeo”.

Aeanieaeeaaua – iaeiieeaoi/iua caeaiua aiaei?inee, i?aaeii/eoathuea
iyaeoth aieioioth aiaeo; eo eeaoee ioee/athony i?e/oaeeeaie oi?iie e
e?aneai i?iaiaioe?iaaiiie iiaa?oiinoueth.

O iaeioi?uo aeaeia eeaoee niaaeeiaiu a ieo/aoua eieiiee. O
naiaiaeiiieaaathuae eieiieaeueiie aiaei?inee Scenedesmus na?iiaeaeiua
eee i?iaeieaiaaoua eeaoee iauaaeeiaiu a ei?ioeea oeaii/ee. Yoio ?iae
iau/ai a aeaa?eoiao, aaea aai ianniaia ?aciiiaeaiea i?eaiaeeo e
iiyaeaieth a aiaea caeaiiai “ooiaia”.

Naiay e?oiiay caeaiay aiaei?ineue – ii?neie naeao (Ulva), iae?ioeo
eenoiaeaeiie oi?iu.

E?aniua aiaei?inee (aaa?yiee) ninoaaeytho ioaeae (oei) Rhodophyta
oea?noaa i?ioenoia

Aieueoeinoai ec ieo – ii?neea eenoiaeaeiua, eonoenoua eee ei?eiaua
iae?ioeou, iaeoathuea ieaea eeiee ioeeaa. Oeaao eo i?aeiouanoaaiii
e?aniue ec-ca i?enoonoaey ieaiaioa oeeiy?eo?eia, ii iiaeao auoue
io?io?iui eee neiaaaoui. Iaeioi?ua aaa?yiee ano?a/athony a i?aniie
aiaea, aeaaiui ia?acii a ?o/ueyo e i?ic?a/iuo auno?uo ?a/eao.
Batrachospermum – nooaeaienoay ia iuoiue neeueii aaoaenoay aiaei?ineue,
ninoiyuay ec ao?iaaouo eee e?aniiaaouo iioiaeeo ia aoneiu eeaoie.
Lemanea – uaoeiaeaeiay oi?ia, /anoi ?anoouay a auno?i oaeoueo ?a/eao e
aiaeiiaaeao, aaea aa oaeeiiu i?ee?aieythony e eaiiyi. Audouinella –
ieo/aoay aiaei?ineue, ano?a/athuayny a iaeeeo ?a/eao. E?eaiaeneee iio
(Chondrus cripus) – iau/iue ii?neie iae?ioeo. Aaa?yiee ia ia?acotho
iiaeaeaeiuo eeaoie. Eo iieiaie i?ioeann i/aiue neiaeai, e iaeei
aeeciaiiue oeeee aeeth/aao ianeieueei oac.

Ao?ua aiaei?inee ninoaaeytho ioaeae (oei) Phaeophyta oea?noaa i?ioenoia

Ii/oe ana iie – iaeoaoaee ii?y. Eeoue iaiiiaea aeaeu iee?ineiie/aneea, a
n?aaee iae?ioeoia ano?a/athony naiua e?oiiua aiaei?inee a ie?a. E
iineaaeiae a?oiia ioiinyony eaieia?ee, iae?ioeenoenu, ooeonu, na?aannoiu
e eanniiee (“ii?neea iaeueiu”), iaeaieaa iaeeueiua ii iiaa?aaeueyi
oieiaeiuo ii?ae. Ana ao?ua aiaei?inee iiiaieeaoi/iua. Oeaao eo
aa?uee?oao io caeaiiaaoi-aeaeoiai aei oaiii-ei?e/iaaiai e iaoneiaeai
ieaiaioii ooeienaioeiii. Iieiaia ?aciiiaeaiea naycaii n ia?aciaaieai
iiaeaeaeiuo aaiao n aeaoiy aieiauie aeaooeeaie. Yecaiiey?u, ia?acothuea
aaiaou, /anoi niaa?oaiii ia iioiaee ia i?aaieciu oiai aea aeaea,
?aciiiaeathueany oieueei nii?aie.

Aeeaoiiiaua aiaei?inee (aeeaoiiae)

Iauaaeeiytho a eeann Bacillariophyceae, eioi?ue a eniieuecoaiie caeanue
eeanneoeeaoeee aoiaeeo aianoa n cieioenouie e aeaeoi-caeaiuie
aiaei?ineyie a ioaeae (oei) Chrysophyta oea?noaa i?ioenoia. Aeeaoiiae –
aanueia iaoe?iay a?oiia iaeiieeaoi/iuo ii?neeo e i?aniiaiaeiuo aeaeia.
Ie?anea eo io aeaeoie aei ao?ie ec-ca i?enoonoaey ieaiaioa ooeienaioeia.
I?ioiieano aeeaoiiae caueuai ei?ia/aoie e?aiiacaiiie (noaeeyiiie)
iaiei/eie – iaioee?ai ninoiyuei ec aeaoo noai?ie. Oaa?aeay iiaa?oiinoue
noai?ie /anoi iie?uoa oa?aeoa?iui aeey aeaea neiaeiui oci?ii ec oo?eoia,
aoai?eia, yiie e a?aaiae. Yoe iaioee?e – iaeie ec naiuo e?aneauo
iee?ineiie/aneeo iauaeoia, a /aoeinoue ?acee/aiey eo oci?a eniieuecoaony
eiiaaea aeey i?iaa?ee ?ac?aoathuae neeu iee?ineiia. Iau/ii noai?ee
i?iiecaiu ii?aie eee eiatho uaeue, iacuaaaioth oaii. A eeaoea iaoiaeeony
yae?i. Iiieii aeaeaiey eeaoie iaaeaia ecaanoii e iieiaia ?aciiiaeaiea.
Iiiaea aeeaoiiae – naiaiaeiiieaaathuea oi?iu, ii iaeioi?ua i?ee?aieaiu e
iiaeaiaeiui iauaeoai neecenouie iiaeeaie. Eiiaaea eeaoee iauaaeeiythony
a ieoe, oeaii/ee eee eieiiee. ?acee/atho aeaa oeia aeeaoiiae: ia?enoua n
oaeeeiaiiuie aeaonoi?iiia-neiiao?e/iuie eeaoeaie (iie iaeaieaa iaeeueiu
a i?aniuo aiaeao) e oeaio?e/aneea, eeaoee eioi?uo, anee niio?aoue ni
noai?ee, auaeyaeyo ie?oaeuie eee iiiaioaieueiuie (eo aieueoa anaai a
ii?yo).

Eae oaea oiiieiaeinue, iaioee?e yoeo aiaei?ineae nio?aiythony iinea
nia?oe eeaoie e inaaeatho ia aeii aiaeiaiia. N oa/aieai a?aiaie iiuiua
eo neiieaiey oieioiythony a ii?enooth ai?ioth ii?iaeo – aeeaoiieo.

AEaooeeiaua

Yoe i?aaieciu a nayce n eo niiniaiinoueth e “aeeaioiiio” ieoaieth e
?yaeii ae?oaeo aaaeiuo i?eciaeia nae/an ia?aaeei ioiinyo e iiaeoea?noao
i?inoaeoeo (Protozoa) oea?noaa i?ioenoia, iaeiaei eo iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue e a ea/anoaa ia aoiaeyuaai a Protozoa ioaeaea (oeia)
Euglenophyta oiai aea oea?noaa. Ana aeaooeeiaua iaeiieeaoi/iua e
iiaeaeaeiua. Eeaoee – caeaiua, e?aniua eee aanoeaaoiua. Iaeioi?ua aeaeu
niiniaiu e oioineioaco, oiaaea eae ae?oaea (nai?ioeou) iiaeiuatho
?anoai?aiioth i?aaieeo eee aeaaea caaeaouaatho oaa?aeua aa /anoeoeu.
Iieiaia ?aciiiaeaiea ecaanoii eeoue o iaeioi?uo aeaeia. Iau/iue
iaeoaoaeue i?oaeia – Euglena, caeaiiai oeaaoa aiaei?ineue n e?aniui
“aeaceii”. Iia ieaaaao n iiiiuueth aaeeinoaaiiiai aeaooeea, niiniaia eae
e oioineioaco, oae e e ieoaieth aioiaie i?aaieeie. A eiioea eaoa Euglena
sanguinea iiaeao ie?aoeaaoue i?oaeiaoth aiaeo a e?aniue oeaao.

Aeeiioeaaaeeaou

Yoe iaeiieeaoi/iua aeaooeeiaua i?aaieciu oiaea /anoi i?e/eneytho e
i?inoaeoei, ii eo iiaeii auaeaeyoue e a naiinoiyoaeueiue ioaeae (oei)
Pyrrophyta oea?noaa i?ioenoia. Iie a iniiaiii aeaeoi-ao?ua, ii auaatho e
aanoeaaoiuie. Eeaoee eo iau/ii iiaeaeaeiu; eeaoi/iay noaiea o iaeioi?uo
aeaeia ionoonoaoao, a eiiaaea auaaao aanueia i?e/oaeeeaie oi?iu. Iieiaia
?aciiiaeaiea ecaanoii eeoue o iaiiiaeo aeaeia. Ii?neie ?iae Gonyaulax –
iaeia ec i?e/ei “e?aniuo i?eeeaia”: o iiaa?aaeee ii auaaao ianoieueei
iaeeai, /oi aiaea i?eia?aoaao ianaienoaaiiue ae oeaao. Yoa aiaei?ineue
auaeaeyao oiene/iua aauanoaa, eiiaaea i?eaiaeyuea e aeaaee ?uau e
iieethneia. Iaeioi?ua aeeiioeaaaeeaou aucuaatho oinoi?anoeaioeeth aiaeu
a o?iie/aneeo ii?yo.

Cieioenoua aiaei?inee

Iie aoiaeyo ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie a ioaeae (oei) Chrysophyta oea?noaa
i?ioenoia. Oeaao eo aeaeoi-ao?ue, a eeaoee auaatho iiaeaeaeiuie
(aeaooeeiauie) eee iaiiaeaeaeiuie. ?aciiiaeaiea aaniieia n ia?aciaaieai
i?iieoaiiuo e?aiiacaiii oeeno.

AEaeoi-caeaiua aiaei?inee

Nae/an eo i?eiyoi iauaaeeiyoue n cieioenouie a ioaeae (oei) Chrysophyta,
ii iiaeii n/eoaoue eo e naiinoiyoaeueiui ioaeaeii (oeiii) Xanthophyta
oea?noaa i?ioenoia. Ii oi?ia iie noiaeiu n caeaiuie aiaei?ineyie, ii
ioee/athony i?aiaeaaeaieai niaoeeoe/aneeo aeaeouo ieaiaioia. Eo
eeaoi/iua noaiee eiiaaea ninoiyo ec aeaoo aoiaeyueo iaeia a ae?oaoth
iieiaeiie, i?e/ai o ieo/aouo aeaeia yoe noai?ee a i?iaeieueiii na/aiee
I-ia?aciua. Iieiaia ?aciiiaeaiea ecaanoii eeoue o iaiiiaeo oi?i.

Oa?iaua (eo/eoeu)

Yoi – iiiaieeaoi/iua aiaei?inee, ninoaaeythuea ioaeae (oei) Charophyta
oea?noaa i?ioenoia. Ie?anea eo aa?uee?oao io na?iaaoi-caeaiie aei na?ie.
Eeaoi/iua noaiee /anoi eie?onoe?iaaiu ea?aiiaoii eaeueoeey, iiyoiio
ioia?oea inoaoee oa?iauo o/anoaotho a ia?aciaaiee ioeiaeaiee ia?aaey. O
yoeo aiaei?ineae anoue oeeeeiae?e/aneay, iaiiieiathuay noaaaeue aeaaiay
inue, io eioi?ie iooiaeaie iooiaeyo aieiaua io?inoee, iioiaeea ia
eenouey ?anoaiee. ?anooo oa?iaua aa?oeeaeueii ia iaeeiaiaeuea, aeinoeaay
a aunioo 2,5-10 ni. ?aciiiaeaiea iieiaia. Oa?iaua a?yae ee aeecee e
eaeie-eeai ec ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa a?oii, oioy iaeioi?ua aioaieee
n/eoatho, /oi iie i?iecioee io caeaiuo aiaei?ineae.

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